INDIAN CONSTITUTION

Short Questions
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Why the Framers of Indian Constitution chose Federalism ?
The framers of Indian Constitution turned to federalism as a solution to a number of problems they faced in their attempt to frame a constitution of independent India. They wanted to preserve both the unity and diversity that animated the length and breadth of India. For the resolution of the constitutional problem of a multi- racial, multi - lingual and multi - communal Constitution ? ble of Indian country like India je ctive What is Pream b odie d the ob with a vast area and C onstit ut ion em stituent of the ted by the Con The P re amb le ru. It was adop huge population, fedity of e Pandit Neh ance of the util resolution of th 47. The import eralism was of abiding the Supreme nuary 22nd 19 ral decisions of Assembly on Ja nature and in case of inted out in seve ourt held s been po the Supreme C the Preamble ha Bharathi ca se, a conflict in future bee was esavananda . The Preambl Court. In the K the Constitution tween unity and diverserted is a part of act 1976 and in that Preamble nd amendment sity preserved under the it. It declares Constitution 42 ‘Integrity’ into amended by the constitution, the former ‘Secular ’ and MOCRATIC ialist’, ECULAR, D E the wor ds ‘Soc should prevail over the OCIALIST, S REIGN , S India a SOVE the other. In other words, it India on which REPUBLIC. thor ity outside au was their intention to cre: There is no  Sovereign ate an indestructible undependent. ety through ay pattern of Soci country is anyw t of Socialistic ion. Achievemen  Socialist : zen in eds. What is the role of against the citi democratic ne t discriminate no The state shall states in alteration of .  Secular : ha ve the sis of religion ba the people only their areas, boundaany way on the lers elected by c : The ru ries or names ?  Democrati ent. directly n the governm are directly or in authority to ru With regard to a Bill under ies of the State ditery. All the authorit d term, not here  Republic : Article 3 of Indian Constiople for a fixe pe elected by the tution, there are two conditions : First condition states

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that no Bill shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on there now? the recommendation of chedules are icles & S an the president. Secondly, How many Art of today in Indi 12 schedules as ary where the proposal conarticles and to force on Janu There are 444 when it came in tained in the Bill affects the was 395 and 8 Constitution. It area, boundaries or name 26, 1950. of any of the states, the Bill has to be referred by Level Committee on Indian Diaspora under the President Legislature of the state for exthe chairmanship of LM Singhvi which pressing its views. The President specifies the recommended in its report to grant overseas period within which the State Legislature must Indian citizenship to the people of Indian express its views but he may extend the time origin. Based on the recommendations of the so specified. If the state legislature does not committee the Government of India made respond within the period specified the secprovisions for dual citizenship to the people ond condition laid down in the provision is of Indian origin by amending the part II of fulfilled. Also it is not necessary to make fresh the Indian Constitution, since the Constitution reference to the State Legislature every time of India does not allow holding Indian an amendment of the proposal contained in Citizenship and Citizenship of Foreign Country the Bill is proposed and accepted in accordsimultaneously. ance with the rules of procedure of parlia? Which are the Articles added by 42nd ment so long as the amendment is germane to the subject - matter of the original proposal Amendment ? or is not a direct negation thereof. Articles added by 42nd Amendment are Article 39 A : Equal justice and free legal aid What is PIO Card ? to the poor. The Government of India launched a comprehensive scheme for the persons of Indian origin called the PIO Card scheme. Under this scheme, persons of Indian Origin upto the fourth generation, settled throughout the world are eligible to have this card. The scheme came into effect on September 2007. The card holder can visit India without any visa for life long. The card is to be valid for 15 years. The persons of Indian origin from Pakistan and Bangladesh are not entitled for the card. PIO card holders will have similar benefits as NRIs in economic, financial and educational matters. But they are not allowed to have political rights. Article 43 A : Participation of workers in Management of industries Article 48 A : Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife. Article 39 : Creation of opportunities for development of children.

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Why indirect election of President was supported by the Framers of Indian Constitution ?
Indirect election of President was supported by the Framers of Indian Constitution on the following grounds. (a) Direct election by an electorate of some one billion of people would mean a tremendous loss of time, energy and money.

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What is Singhvi Committee recommendation ?
The Government of India had appointed a High

Important Amendments
? What is the significance of 42nd Amendment ?
 Amend. 42 (1976) Brought about drastic changes in the Indian Constitution. Because of its wide sweep and drastic nature, it came to be called a Mini Constitution. Its main provisions are 1) the words ‘secular’ and ‘socialist’ were added to the Preamble. 2) the primacy of Directive Principles over Fundamental Rights was ensured 3) restrictions were placed on the exercise of judicial review by the High Courts. It was laid down that the Supreme Court alone would be entitled to examine the constitutional validity of union laws.  Amend. 44 (1978) The Right of Property, a fundamental right was taken away and it is only a legal right now.  Amend. 56 (1987) Accorded the status of statehood to Goa. Provided a 40 member Legislative Assembly to Goa.  Amend. 61 (1988) Reduced the voting age from 21 to 18 years for the Lok Sabha as well as Assembly elections.  Amend. 71 (1992) Provides that the Konkani, Manipuri, and Nepali shall be included in the Eighth Schedule, thus raising the number of languages from 15 to 18.  Amend. 73 (1992) Lead to the formation of Panchayati Raj.  Amend. 74 (1992) Led to the formation of Nagar Palikas.  Amend. 84 (2000) Relates to the creation of new states of Jharkhand, Chattisgarh and Uttaranchal.  Amend. 86 (2002): Education - A fundamental right.  Amend 92 : included 4 languages in the 8th Schedule; They are Bodo, Dogri, Maithili, Santhali

(b) Under the system of responsible Government introduced by the constitution, real power would vest in the ministry so it would be anomalous to elect the President directly by the people without giving him real powers.

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What effect the 44th Amendment had on the President ?
After 44th Amendment, except in certain marginal cases referred to buy the Supreme Court, the President shall have no power to act in his discretion. He must act according to the advice given to him by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Ministers. If he refuses to act according to their advice he will be liable to impeachment for violation of the Constitution. This is subject to the new power of President to send the advance

received from the Council of Ministers in a particular case, back to them, for their reconsiderations ; and if the Council of Ministers adheres to their previous advice, the President shall have no option but to act in accordance with such advice. The power to return for reconsideration can be exercised only once, on the same matter.

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How is the disputes relating to the election of President or Vice President dealt with ?
The disputes relating to the election of a President or Vice - President is death with in Article 71 as follows (i) Such disputes shall be decided by the Supreme Court whose jurisdiction shall be exclusive and final.

other matters relating to the The first category includes (a) freedom of election of President or Vice . .President speech in each House of Parliament (b) may be regulated by the law made by Immunity from proceedings in any courts in Parliament. privileges in India the specified and paper. who m NRI’s in 16 na ated that all PIO al citian Govt. by the people. Monarchy : The form of government by a king. 1950. They ca and inted to public n. Gynarchy : Government by a woman or a set of women. Bangladesh. Democracy : A government of the people. be raised on the ? mendm )/ Citizenship (A dian Origin (PIO h the passage of Wit to Person of In p s. and be rd for 6 the right to vote (so far PIO ca ey can not have India However th n also travel to citizen of India.(ii) No such dispute can ground of any vacancy in the Electoral College which elected the President or Vice President. and the recognised but In the second categories fall all those privileges unenumerated. (iii) If the election of a President or the Vice . However t dual citizenshi of their countrie decided to gran ect to the laws igrated tions. Oligarchy : The form of government in which the supreme power lies in the hands of a privileged few. Autocracy : Absolute government in the hands of a single individual. respect of anything said or vote given by a member in Parliament or any committee there What types of Parliamentary privileges of . Definition for the Systems of Government Anarchy : A state of utter disorder or chaos created by the absence of a government.President is declared void by the Supreme Court. votes or proceeding of either House. Plutocracy : The term of government run by the wealthy people. enumerated. st l be granted du in 2005 the Indi y 26. They . Bureaucracy : The form of government by officials. itizenship ? hat is Dual C India W ent) Act 2003. offices. subj / NRI’s. for the people. and (c) immunity from liability in respect are available in India ? of the publication by or under the authority of There are two categories of parliamentary either House of Parliament. Prava t and share th from Indians mee andhiji’s return PIO /NRI’s and embrance of G January in rem ebrated on 9th (iv) Barring the decision of 1915. elected or appo s from Pakista tiHowever person ot have dual ci ay notify cann without a Visa. South Africa in such disputes. zenship. Dual C months). vt. Democracy : A nation in which the supreme power vests with the representatives elected by popular vote. wil tely or after Januar in India indefini from India on a person to live s nefits of a itizenship allow can avail all be zenship. m rm where try that the go ion is a platfo any other coun Divas celebrat It is celsi Bharatiya eir aspiration. Theocracy : A political system run by the priests according to the jewels of an organised religion. of any report. acts done by him prior to the date of such decisions of the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated.

1946 The Constituent Assembly held its first meeting. 9. 26. 1962 First emergency declared. 2002 In the field of free and compulsory primary education for children Right to Education for Children has been made a Fundamental Right. up to 2010. 1953 The first linguistic state of Andra Pradesh was created. 1959 Panchayat Raj was introduced in Rajasthan. e which were enjoyed by the House of commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and its members and committees. 1978 Through the 44 th amendment Right to Property has been deleted from the list of Fundamental Rights. 11. hours. 1992 Formation of present day Panchyati Raj.Significant years in Indian Constitution 1935 The Government of India Act 1935 prescribed a federation for India. 1949 Constituent Assembly approved the Constitution. 2000 The creation of new states of Jharkhand. 26. 1991 Created the National Capital Territory of Delhi. 1999 Extended the reservation of Scheduled Castes. 1946 The elections to the Constituent Assembly under the Cabinet Mission Plan. at the commencement of the constitution of India and would continue to be in force unless they are modified and defined by Parliament by law. 1950 The Constitution of India came into force. Jan. Adjournment : Adjournment does not put an end to the existence of a session of parliament but it merely postpones the further transaction of business for a specified time. 1946 Dr. Nov. Dec. 1989 Reduced the voting age from 21 to 18 years for the Lok Sabha as well as Assembly elections. days or weeks. 1952 The first general election (1951-1952) to the Lok Sabha was held. 1963 The first no confidence motion was moved in the Lok Sabha after independence. Chattisgarh and Uttaranchal. 1975 Emergency due to internal disturbances 1976 The Fundamental Duties of Indian citizens were incorporated in the Constitution. ? How can the sitting of a house be terminated ? The sitting of a house may be terminated by (1) Dissolution (2) Prorogation and adjournment. Scheduled Tribes and Anglo Indians in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for 10 more years ie. Dissolution : Dissolution takes place when the President exercises his power under article 85 (2). Prorogation merely terminates session. Rajendra Prasad was elected president of the Constituent Assembly. . Dec. It can be dissolved on the expirity of its term of five years of the terms as extended during a Proclamation of Emergency.

salaries and constitutional body. Sabha do not take oath before assuming their When did Election Commission become respective offices. From 1950 to October 1989.? What is the difference between the pardoning power of the Governor and e Constitution for Writs in th the President ? Definition e body) us (To have th produce the ? ? ? The President can authority to Habeas Corp to the detaining ther the der by a court pardon death sentence ay examine whe It is an or it. known as stay Kashmir. Both the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of Lok . It It is issued by Andra Pradesh. It of any public of al legislature ? pation office or usur op) At present Legislative forbid or to st or a tribunal rohibition (to P a lower court Council exist in six states perior court to is popularly a su s jurisdiction. Jammu and order. came into existence in March 1950 through a resolution of the Union Cabinet. proper consider following the elections in 2007. t warrant or au he is ranto (by wha office to which Quo War ting in a public public How many states in rson from ac mption of any It forbids a pe ent illegal assu India have a bicamery. is used to prev fice by anybod not entitled. Both of them take oath as a multi . Later on setting up of various commissions for October 1. it does not mention Commissioners were appointed. for the appointed additional Election Commissioners.member authority ? members of the Lok Sabha along with other The Election Commission was established in members. Andhra inferior court or Certiorari ( to e Court to some ority for Pradesh abolished its upper e Suprem r superior auth It is issued by th or to some othe house in 1984 but again set matter to it to transfer the up a new legislative council ation. detained lawfu cannot. amendment was made in the concerned Act Thus Planning Commission is not a of 1991 providing equal powers. Maharashtra and tribunal be certified) Uttar Pradesh. 1993 two more Election different purposes. the House. It was set up Who administers oath to the Speaker as an advisory body for the planned socioand Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha ? economic development of the country. The President person has been can pardon sentences unal or e command wer court or trib Mandamus (W rior court to a lo ty. The Planning Commission allowances etc. But these two Planning Commission ? posts of additional commissioners were Though constitution makes provision for the abolished on January 1. so that it m before while the Governor arrested person lly. Bihar. before assuming membership of the 1950. an act outside it perform forbidding it to Karnataka. 1990. Government of India appointed two extra ? What is the constitutional status of Election Commissioners to it. inflicted by the court om a supe lls within its du It is an order fr an act which fa martial while the y to perform public authorit thority) Governor cannot. An anywhere about the Planning Commission.

has to seek the confidence of the house.  Call-Attention Motion: A member of Parliament with prior permission of the Speaker. “Motion of Papers” exists.  Privilege Motion: A motion moved by a member if he feels that a member has committed a breach of privilege of the house or only one or more of its members by withholding the facts of a case or by giving a distorted version of facts. The questions which are asked in this hour needs a ten-day prior permission from the speaker.  Censure Motion : Moved by the opposition against the Govt.Instead of this motion in Rajya Sabha. there is no mention of zero hour in the rules of the Parliament.  Unstarred Questions: Answer to such questions are not given orally but in a written form.  Substitute Motion: Motions moved in substitution of original motions. It starts at 12 noon which is the zero hour of the day. Any question can be asked in this hour without prior permission. .  Vote on Account: As there is usually a gap between the presentation of the budget and its approval.  Zero Hour: The time immediately after the question hour.  Substantiative motion: It is a self contained independent proposal submitted for the approval of the house. the vote on account enables the government to approve some amount from the Consolidated Fund of India to meet the expenses in the intervening period. or any individual minister. is debated upon. Every question to be decided by the house must therefore be proposed by a member as a motion. but it is one of the procedural means available to the members and the ministers to raise a discretion in the house on the matters of general public interest.  Motions: A proposal brought before the house for eliciting decisions or expressing the opinion of the house. motion of thanks on the President’s address. calls the attention of a minister to any matter of urgent public importance .  Resolution: It is a substantiative motion.  Cut Motions: A motion that seeks reduction in the amount of a demand presented by the government is known as a cut motion.  Starred Questions: Those questions which are to be answered orally on the floor of the house. The motion. a vote of confidence is sought by the government and if it fails to get the required majority of votes. it has to resign.  Adjournment Motion: This is moved by a member at the end of the question hour to draw the attention of the executive for the purpose of discussing a definite matter of urgent public importance. If the motion is passed in the Lok Sabha.  Short Notice Questions: This can be asked on matters of urgent public importance and with a notice shorter than the ten-days prescribed for an ordinary question. Therefore no supple-mentary questions can be asked. At the conclusion of such a debate. For example. The name ‘zero hour’ is given by the press. the Govt. Answer to such questions may be followed by supplementary questions by the members.  No Confidence Motion: A motion moved by a member to express lack of confidence in the government for any reason.Definition for Parliamentary Terms  Question hour: The first hour of every sitting in both houses is devoted to asking and answering of questions. if allowed.

.... or a Bill affecting the principles governing the allocation of central funds to States or a Bill which has the effect.....state trade transactions....... Vice President is not disWhite Paper .? If the Vice..... (a) Money Bills (b) Creation of new states or the alteration in the boundaries of states.. of changing the term agriculture income for the purpose of Union Government. Is Indian Parliament a Sovereign Body? The Indian Parliament is not a Sovereign body because it is subject to the provisions of the Constitution.. (c) a proposal to expend money out of Consolidated Fund of India (d) a Bill that seeks to affect inter .......... the Indian Parliament derives its authority and power from the constitution itself..... President is also the Ex. (e) a Bill which affects the interests of States with respect to taxation.......... nce . Portugal an Orange Book . .. Officio ... d China .. the Vice ......Chairman of the ....... ..... When the question of the validity of such law arises before the courts. ................. That means if a law made by parliament goes against the provisions of the Constitution.. the laws made by Parliament are also subject to the power of judicial review of the Supreme Court.... In such legislation...... his responsibilis not important ity as the Chairman of the where as its substance should be considered...... ........... . ......... Second. .... there is nothing like an acting Vice .. the President before it is introduced in Parliament ? ? A Bill related to the following matters........ India ......President is to act as the President when the latter is not able to dists Defined charge his responsibilicial Documen Off ity... There are two limitations on the sovereignity of parliament.. a Legislature may enact a law which is apparently within its authority and scope but in substance it violates it constitutional jurisdiction........ income tax or a Bill seeking to impose surcharge on incomes for certain purposes of it can be declared null and void by the court....... First......................... Netherlands However the Vice particular issue.. they What are the matters with respect to apply the doctrine of colourable legislation and which a Bill needs a prior consent of declare the law as invalid.. .. Blue Book is .President e B o ok ? aining to a ? What is Blu does not have any funcdocument pert British official the tion in this respect... who will act as the Vice President during such periods ? ? What is meant by the Doctrine of colourable Legislation ? Sometimes. legislation......President.. If the .. the outlet form of law ? As per the provisions of the Constitution....... requires the prior consent of the President before it is introduced in Parliament................ The main function of the Vice .... Yellow Book .... Council of states.. charging..... Council of states the Deputy Chairman shall Such legislation or law is called colourable act as the Chairman of the Council of States...... Parliament can enact law with respect to only those matters which are enumerated either in the Union list or the Concurrent list... Fra White Book ... In other words.President is unable to discharge his responsibilities for a time being.........

s of Union Terr over nors of Sta  G There are four types of Commissioner Governors and Vetoes  Lieutenant ission. the Administers of all the Union Territories 4. (2) to consider and approve the Five Year Plans inorder to ensure an all India and balanced perspective in the plans. abolition. a. alteration or regulation of any tax. He receives the remuneration as the Governor determines. He is an official corresponding to the AttorneyGeneral of India. ordinary majority. Pocket Veto : By simply withholding a are also given the membership of the National Bill during the last few days of the session Development Council. not with standing any Commission. The National Development Council was set overriding the executive veto. He is appointed by the Government of the State A person qualified to be judge of a High Court is appointed . (b) the regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the Government of India. The bill cannot become  Chief Elect r tribal areas. (3) to suggest measure and ways for effectively achieving the targets of plans. (a) Imposition. 3. Since 1967. Accordingly. cial officers fo  Spe 2. tes. Finance Comm ommission. up in 1952.  Members of 1. law. Veto Power are there ? itories. Absolute Veto : ublic Service C e Election of the Union P Members r members of th Refusal of assent to any  er and othe ion Commission bill. Advocate General. He have the right to speak and to take part in the proceedings of the legislature of the State but has no right to vote. remission. ? What is a Money Bill ? The Money Bill has been defined in Article 110 of the Constitution. ? Who is Advocate -General ? Each state shall have an Advocate General. (1) to monitor the functioning of national plans from time to time. council are e intments mad portant Appo im What are the ent ? by the Presid other ministers. It is not a Constitutional body. a Bill shall be termed as a Money Bill only if it contains the following matters or any one of the following matters exclusively. Suspensive Veto : A veto is suspensive The National Development Council is headed when the executive veto can be by the Prime Minister and the Chief Ministers overridden by the Legislative by an of all the states are its members. (c) the custody of the Consolidated Fund of India or the Contingency Fund of India. Qualified Veto : A veto is qualified when it can be overridden by a higher majority What are the functions of National of the Legislature and the Bill can be Development Council ? enacted as law with such majority vote.  Attorney G -General of Indi uding the ller and Auditor h Courts incl  Comptro Court and H ig the Supreme ? How many types of  Judges of Chief Justice. the Executive can The main functions of National Development prevent the Bill to become law.? his advice Minister and on  The Prime eneral of India. castes and othe r the scheduled vote of Parliament. of the Legislature.

It also examines whether the public undertakings are being run efficiently and managed in accordance with sound business principles and prudent commercial practices. 15 members including speaker as its ex-officio chairman.  Public Accounts Committee: It scrutinises the Appropriation Accounts of the Government of India and the Report of the Comptroller and Auditor-General. The committee reports on what improvements in organisation. The working of the standing committees go on continuously. Examines the cases of breach of privileges. (e) Declaring of any expenditure to be charged on the Consolidated Fund of India or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure. The important standing committees are the Public Accounts Committee. In the Rajya Sabha 11 members including the chairman as its ex-officio chairman. (Lok Sabha) in 2000. the ad hoc committees are appointed only when the need arises. Estimates Committee etc. Created in L.  Rules Committee: In Lok Sabha.  Business Advisory Committee: In the Lok Sabha. (f) Receipt or issue of money from the Consolidated Fund of India and audit of the accounts of the Union or the States. the payment of money into or the withdrawal of money from any such fund. if any. 15 members including speaker as its chairman. It ensures that public money is spent in accordance with Parliament's decision and calls attention to cases of waste. The Estimates Committee: The Speaker appoints the chairman. 15 members in Lok Sabha. The committee examines the reports and accounts of certain specified public undertakings and reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General. It enforces the code of conduct of members of Parliament. loss or nugatory expenditure. (g) Any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in the subclauses (a) to (f) A Money Bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha. It examines whether the money is well laid out within the limits of the policy upheld in the estimates and suggests the form in which the estimates shall be presented to Parliament. The Committee submits its report to the Lok Sabha.  Ad Hoc Committees: The usual ad hoc committees are select / joint committees on Bills. Other ad hoc committees are constituted from time to time. The Speaker duly certifies the Bill as Money Bill. either by the two houses on a motion adopted in that behalf or by the Speaker / Chairman to inquire into and report on specific subjects. Examines the conduct of business and recommends necessary amendments. In Rajya Sabha 16 members including the chairman as its ex-officio chairman.S.  Committee on Public Undertakings: The chairman of the committee is appointed by the Speaker from among the Lok Sabha members elected to the committee. efficiency or administrative reforms consistent with the policy underlying the estimates may be effected. It can only . Ethics Committee: Created in R. (d) the appropriation of money out of the Consolidated Fund of India. the Committee on Public Undertakings. appointed to consider and report on particular Bills. 10 members in Rajya Sabha.  Committee on privileges:Semi judicial function. extravagance. The Rajya Sabha does not have much power over the Money Bill.Important Parliamentary Committees Defined Parliamentary Committees are of two types: Standing Committee and Ad Hoc Committee.S ( Rajya Sabha ) in 1997.

It is the President who summons the joint sitting and it is presided over by the Speaker of Lok Sabha.  It the Houses have finally disagreed as to the amendments to be made in the Bill. A dead lock over bills comes into being in the following situations. After the Money Bill is passed pending on his table for any period of by the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. 1 d to the man along with tions. Such 47 meeting of tion. has no right to withhold it.President act as President during the period between the completion of the five year term of President and the election of the new President ? According to Article 61 (1) the election to the office of the President must be completed before the expiry of the five year term of the incumbent President. the incumbent President shall continue in office till his successor assumes charge of the office. It is an extraordinary device to resolve a dead mittee Drafting Com lock between the two houses over the passage of Bill. 19 es wer e pr esen In the rious committe Union tives the State legislature is refor forming va tal Rights. the men pr oposal ust ittee on Funda mittee. with his message or direcAugust 14. the Vice . ember 4. ? Does the Vice . presented to the President who unlike in the In short a Bill reserved by the Governor for case of other Bills. A Draft ft ing C ommit ifications or without modifica9 47 . The President may keep the Bill fourteen days. the assent of the President will not become an Act in any condition without the assent of ? When is Joint Sitting held ? the President.  If more than six months have lapsed from the date of receipt of the bill by the other house without the bill being passed by it. ? What are the provisions for constituting Legislative Assemblies in Union Territories ? The provisions for constituting Legislative Assembly in Union Territory can be made in the Constitution as and when need arises. The President is however e and submitte ar as the Chair te Ambedk by the commit n was prepared not bound to grant his assent Constitutio . Therefore.  If the bill is rejected by the other House.President shall not get the opportunity to act as the President. By . 1947 to a Bill returned back to him ssembly on Nov A after reconsideration by the State Legisdelay the Bill for lature.2) If the President return such a Bill to the State Assembly. At present the provisions of the Constitution provide for a 30 member Legislative Assembly for the Union Territory of Pondicherry. On Aug include Comm quired to send back the Bill withom committees Constitution C r. inte d. wit h D ittee and Union in 6 months after making modte e w as appo Powers Comm rs. it is time. a Legislature for the reconsiderae Constituent th ted. th e D ra x other membe si 29. ? What are the powers of the President with respect to the Bills passed by state Legislature and reserved by the Governor for the assent of the President ? Following are the main provisions with respect to the Bills reserved by the Governor for the assent of the President. This device is applicable to ordinary bills and finance bills only. However if the elections to the office of President have not been held before completion of such term. 1) The may either grant his assent or declare that he withholds his assent.

cons ti tu forests (3) wei is tr at ion of ju Courts. The President is elected by indirect in course of time. State list ) on e has exclusive State Assemblies. then the fo ed for the pres in the same item An analysis of the various had been reserv e law evail. (5 except Supreme slate all courts and States legi features of a organisation of st. usages and conventions and form part ? The President & his Functions of the Constitution. it contains procedures for features: its own change which is generally quite different Firstly. written. ordinary laws. then that received his shows that the constitution has the following distinct Fifthly. H Constitution? In the case of co • rmer ’s decision ident and . ) admin Court and High What are the distinct and b ir ds . the Constitution is not entirely statement of its objectives. Concurren e state can mak nion.? the 69th Constitutional Amendment. a 70 member Legislative Assembly was Relations Centre-State ides for the three fold distribuprovided for Delhi Article 246 prov (National Capital Schedule 7 and d the states. customs. the Constitution may be created by a The President of India is the head of the Union special body set up for the purpose or evolved Executive. the Constitution not only lays down the is generally available in the form of a written rights of the citizens. (1) educatio The 42nd Amen st fr om state li als ncurrent li the election to the office on of wild anim subjects to co ng (4) protecti ti on and ghts & measuri of the President. if both Union owncurrent li will prevail. The electoral college structure of the main organs of government. st ic e. . it refers to a collection of those basic from the procedure for the enactment of laws which are more sacrosanct than the ordinary laws. Amendment. Residuary t Act in 1976 tr n (2) dmen the right to participate in st. 3. ever. the elected members of the various authorities and the relations between Legislative Assemblies of the States and the the citizens and various organs of the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies government. n the union an Territory). but also specifies the document. Union Lis liament has ex ects) over Par are limited and are not ginally 66 subj which the Union 61 subjects (ori equivalent to those of : Comprises slation. Though a major part of the constitution Finally. powers of legi 2. in accordance with the system of proportional representation Fourthly. the Constitution generally contains a Secondly. By the lly 47 subjects which the stat subjects (origina t list : It has 52 70th Constitutional e laws. shall consist of elected members of both houses the distribution of sovereign power between of Parliament. certain laws are also based on limitations on the authority of the government.L bjects (origina su of legislation. if the stat state law will pr definitions of a Constitution assent. these e Union and th vested in the U which th rt. Sixthly. Thirdly. election by an electoral college. Legislative Assemblies t : Includes 99 clusive power 1. the Constitution determines the of single transferable vote. But the powers betwee tion of ) over powers of these ists lly 97 subjects Schedule 7 . 248) : It is llowing Powers (A Assemblies were given ansferred the fo 4.

So far. it must come to an end and the normal constitutional machinery must be restored in the state. There is no maximum period prescribed for its operation. . Every resolution of Parliament approving its proclamation or its continuance can be passed only by a simple majority. the Parliament can delegate the power to make laws for the state to the President or to any other authority specified by him. Its effect is that the Centre gets concurrent powers of administration and legislation in the state. i) ii) National Emergency was proclaimed for the first time in 1962 due to external aggression from China. 6. It can be proclaimed when the government of a state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution due to reasons which may not have any connection with war. 7. Under this. 4.What are the features of National Emergency (Article 352) 1. the state executive and legislature continue to function and exercise the powers assigned to them under the Constitution. 2. that is it cannot delegate the same to any other body or authority. It affects fundamental rights of the citizens. There is no such provision. It has no effect on Fundamental Rights of the citizens. ? What are the features of President’s Rule (Article 356) ? 1. the Parliament can make laws on the subjects enumerated in the State List only by itself. It can be continued indefinitely with the approval of Parliament for every six months. external aggression or armed rebellion. the relationship of the Centre with all the states undergoes a modification. 2. iii) Third National Emergency was proclaimed in 1975 on the ground of internal disturbance. that is three years. 3. Every resolution of Parliament approving its proclamation or its continuance must be passed by a special majority. Thereafter. 5. Under this. There is a maximum period prescribed for its operation. 7. 4. Second National Emergency was proclaimed in 1971 due to war with Pakistan. 5. external aggression or armed rebellion. Under this. 8. he executive and legislative powers of the state are assumed by the Centre. Under this. Such laws are known as President’s Acts. It can be revoked by the President only on his own. The President administers the state through the governor and the Parliament makes laws for the state. During its operation. the relationship of only the state under emergency with the Centre undergoes a modification. the state executive is dismissed and the state legislature is either suspended or dissolved. 6. Lok Sabha can pass a resolution for its revocation. 8. It can be proclaimed only when the security of India or a part of it threatened by war. During its operation. the practice has been for the President to make laws for the state in consultation with the members of Parliament from that state. In brief. 3.

rebe n of India pr ession or armed The Constitutio . is emergency. Nationa by the Pre fundamenta l ncy is declared Territories. Right to address the Parliament. any di claim th with. Must have completed 35 years of age.  An emerge riod of six mon hinery in states  Chief Election of a pe the expiration itutional mac Commissioner and other failure of const ipt of a report e to dent on rece Emergency du ion that if the Presi members of the Election ied that a situat le 356 (1) states Artic rwise. This type of cial Emergenc • Right to declare Finan war and peace.  Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts including the Chief Justice. is satisf Commission.  The following appointments are made by the President. The tenure of the President is five years. • Must not hold any office of profit. effect to. or to give iled to comply • The President of Sta te has fa (Article 365). India who is the Supreme n by the Union give 360) e gency (Article ncia l crisis in th Commander of the armed Financial Emer if there is a fina ea es that dent can declar stitution provid forces has the following The Con y. ths. Qualification for a presidential candidate are : • • • Must be a citizen of India. The President shall be removed only through impeachment. been declared.Indian members to the Lok Sabha.  Any procla Members of the Union th houses of th on  oved by bo ases to operate unless it is appr ss revoked. • Legislative powers which include nomination of 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and 2 Anglo. ncial crisis (Art  Lieutenant Governors ising due to fina 2  ar nder Article 35 and Commissioners of Union l Emergency U sident. external aggr of civil war  arising out tes nery in the Sta (Article 352). applicable only for the violation of the Constitution. ri President mation by the e Parliament.  • of the Union Territories of Delhi and Pondicherry. he ca has arisen in w of the Constit me when any the pr ovisions h scheduled castes and other may do the sa accordance wit rections The President tribal areas. ce Public Service Commission. icle 360).  Comptroller and AuditorGeneral of India. s of Emergencie various types ree types of Emergencies: Define the llion ovides for th Attorney General of India. the Presi rt of the countr r ha s never powers: try or in any pa mergency so fa E coun y. e emer genc  Members of Finance e Indian Con  D ur ing th r one month in Part III of th ghts conferred is valid only fo Commission. n suspend the  The Emerge y the State ca stitution. In case of a dispute related to the Presidential election. Must be qualified to be a member of the Lok Sabha. unle ncy provision. titutional machi ns of failure of Co  arising out (Article 356). only the Supreme Court of India has jurisdiction . The President takes the oath of office before the Chief Justice of India but his letter of resignation should be addressed to the VicePresident of India.  Governors of States.  The Prime Minister and on his advice other ministers. or othe of a S e State cannot be from Governor vernment of th n pr o Special officers for the hich the go ution. carried in tate.

power of federal judiciary. ? How can the Constitution be amended? Three methods of amendment of different provision of constitution are prescribed in the Article 368 of the constitution. The British practice influenced the law. First method of amendment is by a simple majority. Certain other provisions to be amended requires a majority of not less than two third of the members present and voting in each house. The Constitution of India may be said to be a ‘borrowed’ Constitution as its framers have gathered the best features liberally from various sources. ? What is Anti-Defection Law ? Anti Defection Law was passed in 1985 as the 52nd Constitutional Amendment with the aim to political defections in India. aspirations and objectives of the social and political order to which the people of India are committed. secular and democratic republic.  Highest an both civil and rt of Appeal in  Highest Cou ects of the signifcant asp most What are the rt ? Supreme Cou stitution. Anti-defection law is added as the 10th schedule of Indian Constitution. A member of Parliament or state legislature belonging to a political party shall be disqualified if he voluntarily gives up the membership of his party or vote against the party directive or abstain from voting.• over it. expression. it must be ratified by the legislatives of the one-half of the states. signifying political freedom and secularism. the F genera l law of  Guardian of terpreter of the d Final In criminal cases. Equality is sought to be ensured on political.making procedure. Under Article 72 President have power to grant pardons. The single most important source is the Government of India Act of 1935: the federal scheme. e Con Guardian of th le. ? What are the major commitments of the Constitution of India as incorporated in its Preamble? The Preamble of the Constitution of India embodies the ideals. beliefs and faith. office of the Governor. rule . In some other cases besides two third members of both the house present and voting. And to ensure ? “Indian Constitution is drawn from different sources. Individual’s self expression would be allowed freedom but within the limits of the overall objective of national unity and progress. emergency powers were drawn from this Act. Thus. the Preamble emphasises the need for securing liberty. would be of thought. The decision of the speaker in anti-defection law is now open to judicial review. With regard to vacancy a new President should be elected within six months. social and economic justice. economic and political justice. all religions will be respected and the State of India would be a welfare state committed to the ideals of socio-economic justice to be obtained in a democratic way by the rule of law. The liberty. The speaker considers the question of disqualification under anti-defection law. the head of the nation will be elected. social and economic level thus besides adult franchise there would be equality of status and opportunity. Interpreter and hts of the peop  Final undamental Rig the country. Commitment is made to political. The Preamble rests the sovereignty in the people of India which is a socialist. social. • Under Article 123 President have power to promulgate ordinances during recess of Parliament.” Establish the point. equality and fraternity for the Indian people.

If any tax is imposed without of law. judg ? Identify the nature and cials holding pu salaries of offi methods of Parliamentary ected of India. Parliament also Tenth Sched e Sta te Legisla Members of th ment) has control over the revenue Par liament and (Rural Develop Panchayat Raj and expenditure of the nth Schedule: nning). ). the pivot of parliamentary The U. provisions concerning the suspension of Constitution hedules of the s Sc ories. The Territory. ber of seats in officials and ju State ion of the num Indian Parliament is ament) per ule: Allocat r house of Parli Fourth Sched States . legislative authority. the acce Eighth Sc hedul form of question on admini and and tenure (l e: Article 31BNinth Schedul stration raised during the dia) emb er s of Sikkim with In ovis ions for M of question hour in the houses of ec ti on pr ule : A nt i. and Scheduled ns as geous conditio Scheduled Are eas in e to disadvanta Thus it is assumed that the on du ion of tribal ar special protecti the administrat working of the Union Provisions for e: Sixth Schedul Government is effectively ta te. The Weimer constitutionally granted to different authorities Constitution of Germany was the source of is to be exercised. However. the aggrieved person can basically giving the mode of Parliamentary obtain his relief from the courts of India. .S. Fund of India unless the expenditure is authorised by an Appropriation Act. money can be issued out of the Consolidated removal of Supreme and High Court judges. la Eleve ality (Urban P edule: Municip Government. and placing residuary the manner in which certain specific powers powers with the Centre. while the idea of a Concurrent List was taken from the Australian Constitution. and S government). In fact.Def tures Parliament. Constitution inspired in independence control is the Consolidated Fund of India. in practice this l) lists of re Concurrent (dua ages. nomination of members of Rajya Resolu tion of the Parliament are meant as Sabha by the President. judicial. of course. control is exercised only in the ion Official Langu ss e: The reforms. O aths control over the Executive in le : For ms of Thir d Schedu Indian Polity. method of president without parliamentary sanction. and Compt Sec ond Sched blic office. el eneral of offices for and Auditor-G O aths.Lists the e: States an evel Officials. Parliament also specifies with a strong Centre. The Policy elections. Assam. besides. controlled by the Parliament. single citizenship.the uppe vested with the power to control of Sabha (Council l of over the Executive. Union (centr al ule: The Seventh Sched sponsibilities. ion and contro or Union the administr at g Executive is collectively Provisions for d tribes needin : an Fifth Schedule Tribes (areas responsible to the Lok Sabha. The Executive. funda-mental rights. No of judiciary. Fir st Schedul ents for High-L roller ule: Emolum es. From the Canadian supreme guidelines for the functioning of the Constitution was taken the idea of a federation executive Government. e Rajya th dges. Twelfth Sch cannot impose any tax without legislative sanction. for expenditure. The Irish Constitution was the source for the Executive cannot spend the public revenue Directive Principles. Define variou d Union Territ fundamental rights during emergency. As Govern ment.

culture etc. The Rajya Sabha is an indirectly elected body of 250 members under Article 80 of the Constitution. can legislate and control the executive. The Parliament can claim a privilege if (i) the Constitution grants it specifically or (ii) it has been created by a law of the Parliament (iii) it was enjoyed by the lower house on January 26. basic financial function of the parliament relates to the imposition of taxes and expenditure from consolidated funds of India. It has exclusive power to transfer state legislative powers to the Centre. More specifically the Parliament enjoys freedom of speech. It can revise bills. ? Explain the relevance of Rajya Sabha in the federal set up of the Indian Parliamentary System. in manners of public appointment and employment. The Parliament can amend the Constitution but cannot alter its basic structure. immunity from court proceeding. In the long-drawn debate of the democratic decentralisation. ii. The present Constitutional amendment went for major power delegation to the Gram Panchayat. As India opted for the planned development of the country. According to the Constitution of India. It can impose emergency in case the Lok Sabha stands dissolved. Right to maintain religious and charitable institutions and manage religious affairs without state interference. our Parliament enacted a very important Constitutional amendment. culture and language numerically the majority. can offer expert opinion on many issues as it consists of more experienced men. The Gram Sabha was given full autonomy in the ? Discuss the power privileges and immunities of the Indian Parliament. It has many legislative and watch dog functions to perform. 1950. Besides these. This amendment is concerned with the last tier of the three-tier PRI system. It provides for additional debating forum and can reduce the legislative time problems faced by the Lok Sabha.) The safeguards are: i. iv. A minority language may be recognised as one of the official language in a State. This amendment was concer ned with the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs). cultural and educational safeguards are incorporated in the Constitution to protect all minority groups (religious. The Parliament has internal autonomy to regulate its proceedings and act independ ently in internal matters. In the year 1994. the concept of Minorities incorporates the groups of people differing from the other in religion. Religious and linguistic minorities may establish and administer their own institutions and avail of state grants without discrimination. a major part had been concerned with the financial resources of the Gram Panchayat. control passing of hasty legislation and interpose reasonable delay on arbitrary functioning of the Lok Sabha. linguistic and cultural minorities. ? Highlight the significance of the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution of India. Religious. the state does not discriminate on the basis of religion.? Explain the concept of Minorities in the Indian Constitution and mention the safeguards provided there in for their protection. cultural and linguistic. The Parliament can punish a person for contempt. freedom from arrest in civil cases within 40 days before and after the session of the Parliament and immunity from liability in respect of Parliamentary papers. a proper role for the Panchayati Raj Institutions was prepared. Special officer for linguistic minorities to report on their status. The other important factor was the suitable role of the Gram Panchayat in planning process of the area. Thus there are religious. iii. The .

The most important fact concerning the Gram Panchayat had been concerning the financial powers.an independent judiciary. but where the public interest demands it. The foundation of a democracy. organisation and powers of the Supreme Court. jurisdiction. It now consists of a Chief Justice and 30 other judges. all lie in that great institution . The independence of the Judges of the Supreme Court has been secured by the Constitution in a number of ways. be binding on all courts within the territory of India. An advocate on a State High Court of ten years standing also qualifies for the post. integrated judicial system for the Union as well as the States for the administration of both Union and State laws. the Court will not shrink from exercising it and imposing punishment even by way of imprisonment in cases where a mere fine may not suffice. on this organ. the condition for its growth. to a large extent. The judges hold office until they attain the age of 65 years. substantial questions of law of general importance pending before State High courts may be taken over by the Supreme ? Supreme Court of India Union Parliament has been vested with the power to make laws regulating the consti tution. The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial body of the land. or (c) should have been a High Court Judge for at least five years. in the opinion of the President. In order to be qualified for appointment as a judge of the Supreme Court. Every judge of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President. the Supreme Court has been constituted as a court of record and has the power to punish for contempt. fixed at eight (including the Chief Justice). the Supreme Court can revise the decisions of the High Courts. a person must be (a) a citizen of India and (b) either a distinguished jurist. ? Salient features of Indian Judiciary One of the greatest legacies of British rule is the Judiciary and the legal set-up in India. The sanctity of any Constitution rests. There is a single. (b) appellate and (c) advisory Besides. The judiciary is perhaps the most vital limb of the Government. No minimum age has been prescribed for the appointment as a judge of the Supreme Court of India nor any fixed period of office. The law declared by the Supreme Court shall. An independent judiciary is the very heart of a republic. in many respects. The eleventh Finance Commission has been asked by the President to devise the methods through which the Gram Panchayats could raise their fund as well as the devolution of revenue resources to them. The Supreme Court has been conferred powers to direct the transfer of any civil/criminal case from one State High Court to another. with the Supreme Court at the apex and High Courts at the State level. the source of its perennial vitality. the 73rd Constitutional Amendment is a milestone in the adminis-trative development of the country. One-third of the elected seats in the Gram Panchayat were reserved for the women. As per political scientists. Our Supreme Court possesses larger powers than its American counterpart. the Gram Panchayat passes for their local development. The strength of the judges of the Supreme Court was initially . ? Jurisdiction of the Supreme court The Supreme Court of India enjoys three types of jurisdiction: (a) original. As the final appellate court. The Constitution of India provides for an independent judiciary for the country. and the hope for its welfare. Likewise. This is an extraordinary power which must be used sparingly.matters of planning as well as some extent of financial self-reliance. The other important part of the Amendment is concerned with the constitutionality of the Plan.

the Indian Constitution overthrow the supremacy of the Constitution is yet a federal Constitution of its own kind. The apex court Constitution by ental Duties in the duty of model. of the Constitution. Some of India is a diverse society with fundamental . constitutional issues. national st and integrity of The jurisdiction of the vereignty. unity e so 3. to defend sought to be severely common brothe the spirit of 5. 7. to preserve Constitution effected in the natural envi t and improve quiry. It shall be touching upon varied portunities for ed ovide op or guardian to pr x and 14 years. by towar judicial review. and made itself supreme in its stead. our composite Amendment of the rich heritage of the ronment. as a result (c) It effectively obviated the possibility of of opposition of the Congress Party in the Rajya judicial review of any Act for amendment Sabha. 6. ruggle for free India. by repealing them for judicial review of ordinary laws. to abide by . (through the 43rd Amendment Act of 1977). (d) It virtually unsettled the original balance ? Relation between the Union and the between the various organs of the State. The d public property of individual an 9. base power of judicial F unda menta l Amendment A ties the 42nd clude eleven du review. whereby Parliament sought to centralising tendencies. rhood amongst 4. It is called as ‘the r and spirit of in scientific tempe 8. to promote curtailed by the 42nd culture. people of India. has of the citizens of India. ensured that the basic every citizen are: structure of the ational Flag The ten duties d respect the N Constit ution an Constitution is in any the 1. to strive to compreh-ensive legislation parent ity. Fundam through its power of which it shall be former USSR ds the State. 1976. n the age of si ard betwee or w The drastic impact of the 42nd Amendment Act briefly the far-reaching changes introduced by Mrs. way vitated. States This amendment had in fact effected a mini Despite the unitary characte-ristics and revolution. The Supreme Court enjoys tal Duties ? numerous other the Fundamen A of the What are ed as pa rt IV powers including the s is incorpor at d on the D ut ie ct. (b) It devalued the Funda-mental Rights vis-aSome provisions of the 42nd Amendment. ational Anthem spired our and the N ideas which in llow the noble and fo 42nd Amendment 2. vis the Directive Principles. to develop Mini Constitution’.? Court and disposed of. still stick (despite the Janata Governments bid to scrap them too). to cherish dom. India who is a collective activ containing 59 clauses and every citizen of ild the duty of ucation to his ch 11. was: Gandhi through this amendment were reversed (a) It narrowed down and fettered the scope by the Janata Government. to safeguard amending Act is a piece of e in all spheres wards excellenc 10. to protec 1976. to protect th Supreme Court was all the the country. however.

To ensure the integrity and independence of the commission the Constitution debars its chairman and members from further employment after retirement. the Election Commission consists of a Chief Election Commissioner and two Deputy Commissi-oners. ? Public Service Commission For the recruitment to the civil services and other posts under the Government. respites or remission of punish-ments. which has now been published. Further.500 page report. It also laid down wholesome guidelines for the application of Article 356 which was not to be exercised for the purpose of securing good government. The welfare activities of the States involving huge expenditure.  The Governor can promulgate ordinances during the period. Vice-President. Two or more states may agree among themselves to have a common Public Service Commission. Article 315 provides that there shall be a Public Service Commission for the Union as well as separate Public Service Commissions for each State. Parliament and State Legislatures. when the State Legislature is not meeting. agree to serve the needs of two or more states. But he has no power to pardon death sentence. the Union Public Service Commission. . The report. that the Union Government by virtue of its dominant position in the economic sphere. if requested by the Governor of a State may. set up in June 1983 to study the Centre-State relations. while demanding for a radical revision of the lopsided financial relations that subsist between the Centre and the States.  The Governor has the power to grant pardon. The main functions of the Election Commission are: (1) Prepare electoral rolls for the election to parliament and state legislatures. and they have to constantly look to the Centre for financial assistance from time to time. with the approval of the President. in the light of the experience of 50 long years of our sovereign existence as a modern state. the Constitution provides for an independent body known as the Public Service Commission. The autonomy of the States having been thus eroded. The chairman and members of . ? Powers of the Governor The powers of the Governor are:  He/She appoints the Chief Minister and the council of Ministers. At present. reprieves.  The Governor nominates one member of the Anglo-Indian community to the Legislative Assembly of his State. They have been pressing for greater autonomy. ? Election Commission Indian Constitution provide for an independent body called Election Commission in Article 324 for the conduct of fair and unpartial elections. coupled with recurring natural calamities. direct and controls elections of President. The unity of India is firmly based on geography and deeply rooted in history. has left the States high and dry. Criticism has become inevitable. the Advocate-General and the members of the State Public Service Commi-ssion. some of them (especially those ruled by opposition parties) have been fighting hard to alter the picture. (2) Supervise. either under the Government of India or any State Government. comprehensively and categ-orically recommends a strong Centre for the proper functioning of the State.the Commission are appointed by the President. (3) Lays down general rules for election and ? Sarkaria Commission The Sarkaria Commission. Generally they hold office for a term of six years or till the age of retirement. do call for an urgent revision of the financial provisions of the Constitution. in recent years.underlining unity. has submitted its 1.

Manipuri & Nepali. . It consists of a chairman and four other members to be appointed by the President. With the passing of the 92nd Constitutional Amendment Act four new languages (Maithili. Punjabi. (4) Accord recognition to political parties and allot symbols etc. Hindi. Gujarathi. ? Finance Commission The President constitutes a Finance Commission every five years.M. CAT was set up in November 1985 to provide speedy and inexpensive justice to Central Government employees in respect to their service matters. Khusro. 1994 was observed as the international Year of the Family by U. Internati onal Day of the Family is observed on May 15. The 11th Finance Commission was set up in 1997 under the chairm-anship of A. Urdu. These courts are set up in cities with a population of more than 10 lakh. ? Lok Adalats (LAs) Lok Adalats are supplementary forums for conciliatory settlement of disputes.issues notification of dates and schedules of election. It has the jurisdiction. Manipuri and Nepali were added to the 8th schedule by the 71st amendment. Sindhi. ? What is Contingency Fund ? Parliament has established a contingency fund of India. The other 18 languages are Assamese. They aim to promote conciliation and secure speedy settlement of disputes relating to marriage and family affairs. Bodo and Santhali) were included in the group of officially recognised languages. It submitted its report. Article 280 of the Constitution provides for the appointment of the Finance Commission. The Finance Commission makes recom-mendation to the President regarding the distribution of money between the Union and States and the net proceeds of taxes.  Legal services Day is observed on November 9. ? Eighth Schedule of the Constitution List of 22 regional languages are recognised by the Constitution in this schedule. Ranga-rajan. All categories of cases except criminal cases can be settled through LAs. Bengali. There does not lie any appeal to any court against an award passed by LAs. The 13th Commission was setup in 2007 under the chairman ship of Vijay Kelker. English is not included in the list. Sanskrit. It is placed at the disposal of the President to enable advances to be made by him to meet the unforeseen expenditure. The 12th Finance Commission was appointed by the Govern-ment in 2002 under the chairmanship of C. Kashmiri. powers and authority of a court in specified matters. ? Family Courts Family Courts were set up in the country under the Family Court Act passed in 1984. Kannada. Marathi. Telugu. Konkani. into which sums are deposited from time to time. Similar funds at the disposal of the State Governors are created in the State. Oriya. Malayalam. ? CAT CAT is the Central Admin-istrative Tribunal.N. Subtle family disputes are settled in an atmosphere of friendliness and consideration. The tribunals are empowered to resolve disputes and complaints relating to recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to public services and posts in connection with affairs of the union Government. Konkani. They have acquired a statutory base and the awards passed by the LAs are deemed to be the decrees of the civil court and are binding on all parties to the dispute. The aim of the court is to strengthen family ties and bind people not to break them apart wherever possible. Dogri. Tamil.

Members in favour of leave being granted to debate the motion are to indicate their support. ? helps other Ministers in their parliamentary work in the Houses. If the Speaker is convinced that the motion is in order. Can a nominated member become a Minister? Yes. Indicate the provisions of Indian Constitution relating to secularism? The Provisions are: 1.? High Court The High Court is the zenith of judiciary in the State.” A motion of this kind must express want of confidence in the council of ministers. on the grounds of proved misbehaviour or incapacity and his salary and conditions of service shall be statutory which makes the office of CAG independent. The rules of parliamentary procedure accordingly provide for moving a motion to ascertain this confidence. According to the Constitution. criticise and ventilate public grievances whereas the executive is to govern. A notice of such a motion must be given before the commencement of the sitting on the day it is desired to be raised. The Chief Justice is appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice of the concerned High Court.M. advise. Right to Equality (Art. and an individual minister. Differentiate between Lok Sabha Secretary and Parliamentary Secretary? The Parliamentary Secretary is a Minister who ? ? Can a sitting Member of Parliament or States Legislative Assembly contest an election for the office of President? Yes. What constitutional provisions make the office of the CAG independent ? Under Art. He may or may not have independent charge of a Ministry. is a Cabinet Minister. They retire at the age of 62. as the Constitution only provides for collective responsibility. Jurisdiction of a High Court can be extended to more than one State. The motion is generally known as “no-confidence motion. 148 of the Constitution the CAG can be removed only upon an address from both Houses of Parliament. ? Discuss about the constitutional provision of the ‘no-confidence motion’. the motion has to be taken up within ten days of the leave being granted. ? ? ? ? ? . But as soon as he is elected as President he would have to relinquish his seat in the Assembly. once the confidence is withdrawn the Government is bound to resign. the Supreme Court has ruled that for all purposes the Deputy P. Is the post of Deputy Prime Minister Constitutional ? No. Once admitted. the Council of Ministers stays in office only as long as it enjoys the confidence of the Lok Sabha. The Speaker grants leave if not less than fifty members support the motion. he can. the motion is read in the House. albeit on behalf of the Parliament. The Constitution places no bar on the appointment of such member as a Minister in the Government. The time for discussion is usually decided after consulting the Business Advisory Committee. Constitution sanctions no such post. 14-18). Also. What is the distinction between the Parliament and the Executive? Parliament is to legislate. Explain the status of Ministers known as “Minister of State” ? A Minister of State is below the rank of a Cabinet Minister. 2. where as the Lok Sabha Secretary is an officer in the Lok Sabha who helps the Speaker in the conduct of business of the House. Preamble. The salaries are from the charged expenditure of the consolidated fund of the state.

ed by the Gov embers nominat (e) 1/6 m with the cases involving moral and ethical behaviour of the members of Lok Sabha and makes recommendation to the House for appropriate action. ? Is there any provision to impeach the Governor of a state ? Under Art. (v) If it endangers the position of High Courts. There are certain spheres where the Rajya Sabha alone has the authority. 44) ncil? egislative Cou mposition of L ? Co consists of: ? How is the Vice-President of India elected ? Under Article 66 (1) of the Constitution. ? ? ? . the VicePresident of India is elected by members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both the Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. 67 (b)] (ii) initiating the creation of new All-India Services [Art. distribution and sale of water or electricity.3.Cultural and Educational Rights (Art. Uniform Civil Code (Art. Right to freedom of religion (Art. 312(1)] (iii) authorising the Parliament to make temporary Union Legislation with respect to matters in the State List [Art. It deals (iii) If it is in direct opposition to the OPSP. elected by Loc duates. (vii) Imposition of taxes on storage. What are they? The Rajya Sabha alone has the authority on following matters: (i) initiating the process of removal of VicePresident [Art. bers elected by (d) 1/12 mem ernor. 156 (1) of the constitution. 249 (1)]. a VicePresident may be removed from his office by a resolution of the Council of States passed by a majority of all the then Members of the Council and agreed to by the House of the People. The legislative Legislative Ass hers elected by (a) 1/3 mem al Bodies. If it is against the larger interest of the country. So. (i) (ii) If the Bill is unconstitutional. 25-28) 4. (vi) If Bill deals with compulsory acquisition of private property. ? When can a Governor Reserve Bills for the President? The Governor can reserve a Bill for Presidential assent under following circumstances. council embly. Why are Consultative Committees constituted ? The main purpose of these committees is to provide a forum for informal discussion between the Government and Members of Parliament on policies and programme 3 of the Government and the manner of their implementation. ) 1/3 members (b University Gra bers elected by (c ) 1/12 mem Teachers. the Governor holds office during the pleasure of the President. there is no provision to impeach the Governor of a State. 29-30) 5. (iv) If the Bill is of grave national importance. ? How is the Vice-President of India removed from the office ? Under Article 67 (b) of the Constitution. What is Ethics Committee of Lok Sabha? The Ethics Committee of Lok Sabha is the committee whose members are drawn form among the members of the Lok Sabha.

341 and Art. 102 of the constitution the grounds for disqualification of M. (iii) Judiciary (iv) The lists in the 7th Schedule (v) Representation of States in Parliament ? (vi) Provisions of Art 361 How are the SC or ST notified ? The Constitution under Art. When is the device of Joint Sitting of both the Houses of Parliament not available? The device of joint sitting of both the Houses of Parliament is not available if the deadlock between the two Houses is over a Money Bill [Art. Why to have second chamber ? (i) Upper House exists to prevent hasty legislation that may be passed by the Lower House. (ii) Indian States are not represented in the Rajya Sabha on the principle of equality of States like in any Federation but on the basis of population. What provisions need to be ratified by States? The following provisions of the constitution need ratification by States before amendment (i) Relating to elections oft le President (ii) Executive power of the Union and States ? ? ? ? ? .e.? What are the power of Legislature with respect to Judiciary? The Parliament may by law: (i) Extend the jurisdiction of a High Court or exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court from any Union Territory. (ii) To provide representation to people whose expertise can be used for administration of the State who do not wish to go through the normal process of election.Ps are: (i) Holding an Office of Profit (ii) Unsound mind (iii) Un-discharged ir solvent (iv) Acquisition of foreign citizenship and (v) Defection from the Parent Party. Delhi and Puducherry. As per Art. and (iii) Constitute a High Court for a Union Territory or declare any court in any such territory to be High Court for all or any of the purposes of the Constitution. 368]. Rajya Sabha has representation from two Union Territories also i.Ps. ? Non-Federal features of Parliament ? How is the want of Parliamentary confidence in the Government may be expressed by the House ? The want of Parliamentary confidence is expressed: (i) By passing a substantive motion of no confidence in the Council of Ministers (Rule 198) (ii) By defeating the Government on major issue of policy (iii) By passing an adjournment motion (Rule 56) (iv) By refusing to vote supplies or defeating the Government or a financial measure. 342 provides that the President in consultation with the State Governor concerned modifies the SC/ ST list in respect of each State. (ii) Establish a common High Court for 2 or more States or two or more States and a Union Territory. 108 (1)] or a Constitution Amendment Bill [Art. Grounds for disqualification of M. How is a Legislative Council created or abolished? Under Art. of Indian Constitution are: (i) Though called Council of State. 169 of the constitution the Legislative Council of a Slate is created or abolished to Parliament by law on the basis of a resolution passed by the Legislative Assembly of the State for the said purpose. The non-federal features.

Dec.) Reasons for freezing the strength of Lok Sabha and State Legislature till 2026? Presently.Aug. to bring parity in representation the strength of legislature was freezed by 91st Constitution Amendment Act. While. So. Maithili and Bodo in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution. 16 for the words ‘in matters of promotion of any class’ with the words “in matters of promotion with consequential seniority to any class. 32 and Art. ? ? Distinguish between Annual Financial Statement and Annual Financial Bill Under Art. region wise. 112 of the Consitution. 16 (4) B ? It was inserted by 81st Constitution amendment Act 2000 which seeks to end the 50% ceiling on reservation for SC/ST and OBC in backlog vacancies. ? ? ? Why is Art. 32 considered as the cornerstone of the Constitution ? Art. viz. . (a) Budget session (Feb. . ? ? ? What is the 85th constitution amendment Act ? This act substituted in clause 4-A of Art. 31 B? To protect agrarian reform measures. which increased the number of languages 13 twenty two. 226 is related to the enforcement of any right and the petition is made to High Court. It provided that acts and regulations included in the 9th Schedule shall not be void on grounds of inconsistency with or violation of any of the Fundamental Rights. the growth of population in India is uneven. 32 ensures that neither the legislature nor the executive can browbeat anyone. Art. Santhali. Which Constitutional amendment recently added four new languages in the 8th schedule of the constitution? Name the languages. Art. 226? Article 32 is related only to the enforcement of Fundamental Right and the petition is made ? ? . 31 B was inserted in the Constitution. What are the provisions of Art. What do Rule 184 and 193 in Parliamentary Procedure signify? Rule 184 and 193 signify the right of Private Members to initiate long and short discussions respectively on matters of urgent public importance in the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Art. Difference between Art.May) (b) Monsoon session (July . whereas Annual financial Bill contains all the taxation proposals of the Government for the ensuring year.? How many sessions does the Indian Parliament normally have in a year ? Normally three.) (c) Winter session (Nov. to the Supreme Court. The Constitution 92nd Amendment Act' 2003 added four new languages Dogri. What is the importance of the 94th Amendment of the Constitution? Article 164(1) was amended by the 94th Constitution Amendment Act which freed Bihar from having a Minister of tribal Affairs and included Clihattisgarh and Jharkhand with Madhya Pradesh and Orissa mandating to have a Minister of Tribal Affairs.” What is the importance of the 84th Amendment of the Constitution? The 84th Amendment of the Constitution is for delimitation of the territorial constituencies for both the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies on the basis of 1991 census to remove the imbalance caused due to uneven growth of population in different constituencies. Annual Financial Statement is a statement of financial year’s estimated receipts and expenditures of the Government. ? What is in Art. 32 provides institutional framework for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights.

Indian Citizenship is lost What is the enquiry under Art 311 (i) By Renunciation dispensed with ? (ii) By Termination (a) When the person has been convicted on a criminal charge (iii) By Deprivation (b) When the appropriate authority records ? Who are eligible to cast ballot by Post? in writing for it. (v) By Incorporation of territory Art 299 : Contracts ? How is citizenship lost? Art 312 : All India Services. 21 of the Constitution? ission. 1955 enforces upon every What is the purpose of Art. Art 21 is the anguage comm e: ctions of the L mission ar ? Fun foundation stone of all e Language Com al purposes. A ed in Supreme ge to be us (c ) The langua legislation taking away ge of the Courts. official la ngua life and personal liberty r regarding the een the matte unication betw (d) Any other must meet the uage of comm lang Union and the requirements of Art. ? How is citizenship obtained ? What are the provisions regarding services There are five modes by which Indian in Constitution ? citizenship can be obtained are: Art 98 : Secretariat of Parliament (i) By Birth Art 146 : Offices and servants of the (ii) By Descent Supreme Court (iii) By Registration Art 148 : Persons serving the Indian Audit (iv) By Naturalisation and Accounts Department Art 187 : Secretariat of State Legislature. (a) Promot lish for official (part-III) of the High g the use of Eng Court and the (b) Restrictin Constitution. not expedient to hold such an enquiry. 350 A inserted by the Constitution 7th (Amendment) Act. Functions of th the Fundamental Rights Hindi for offici ing the use of purposes. (i) Civil Servant on election duty. Art.? ? ? ? State the amplitude of Art. (c) When the person or the Government as the case may be is satisfied that in the (ii) Defense Personnel posted in forward interest of the security of the State it is areas. provision is in the interest of public health and safety of the lives of children. Union and (1) (a) that is right to freedom and expression ? What is the special facility provided to the So. 24 of the Constitution of in the mother tongue at the primary stage of India is to prohibit employment of children education to children belonging to linguistic below 14 years of age in hazardous jobs. 24 of the state and every local authority within the state Constitution of India? to provide adequate facilities for instruction The purpose of Art. This minority groups. (iii) Indian citizens of Indian Diplomatic . unfair or unreasonable. 19 the States. the procedure Linguistic Minorities under Art 350 A? prescribed for such deprivation must not be arbitrary.

? Veto Veto is a right given to some members of a body through which these members can override or obstruct a majority decision of that body. It has the same force and effect as laws made by Parliament. What is the status of the Right to Property in Indian Constitution? Though right to Property was a Fundamental Right. (v) Any other person authorised by Election Commission of India. ? ? Line Item Veto It is a power that authorized Head of State to veto individual items of legislative measure. ? ? ? Cabinet The inner circle of the Council of Ministers which includes Ministers with Cabinet rank and the Prime Minister which discusses all the policies of the Government before introducing them in the Legislature. ? ? Casting Vote The Chairman or Speaker or person acting as such. What is the content of the 10th Schedule of the Constitution ? The 10th schedule of the Constitution [Art. of the Constitution through 44th constitution Amendment Act 1978. ? ? Government Government includes any mechanism through which ordered rule is maintained. this has not yet been proclaimed. 102 (2) and 191 (2)] contains the Anti-Defection law that was introduced through the 52nd Constitution Amendment Act 1985 and further amended by Constitution 91st Amendment Act' 2003. cannot vote in the first instance but can exercise a casting vote in the case of an equality of votes on any issue in the House. What are the functions of the Human Rights Commission of India? The Human Rights Commission of India formed under the Protection of Human Rights Act 1993. it was converted into a legal right under Part XII (chapter IV) Art-300 A. 312) whereas Central Services are non-constitutional. So far. How many times has this been proclaimed so far? Under Article 360 of the Constitution Financial Emergency is a proclamation by the President of India that a situation has arisen whereby the financial stability or credit of India or any part of the territory thereof is threatened. 123 of the Constitution. Thus. the President is empowered to promulgate ordinances when both Houses of Parliament are not in session and he is satisfied that a situation has arisen that requires immediate action. . Define Financial Emergency. DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERM ? State The state is a political association that established sovereign jurisdiction within defined-territorial borders and exercises authority through a set of permanent institutions. All India Service officers serve both the Centre and the Stares (where as) Central Service officers serve only the Union. is a Statutory body which inquires into complaints of violation of Human Rights and negligence in prevention of such violation by a public servant and takes steps to promote Human Rights.Missions and their family memebers. the core functions of government are to make law interpret law (adjudication). ? Ordinance Under Art. instead of having to veto the entire Bill. (iv) Persons detained under preventive detention law. Distinguish between Central Services and All India Services All India Services are Constitutional (Art.

? Privileges Privileges are certain rights belonging to each House of Parliament collectively and some others belonging to the members individually without which it would be impossible for either House to maintain it's independence of action or the dignity of it's position ? Substantive Motion A substantive motion is a self contained . The Lower House is called as popular House as its Members are elected directly by the people. ? Deadlock When the Houses of Parliament finally disagree over the passage of a Bill where they enjoy equal legislative jurisdiction it is called a deadlock between the Houses of Parliament. ? Half an Hour Discussion It arises out of the questions a ready answered. ? Speaker Pro-tem As soon as the new Lok Sabha is constituted. the Upper House and the Lower House. It lasts till the next Council of Ministers is formed. In moments of crisis. ? Special Majority A majority of the total members nip and a majority of not less than two-third of the members of the House present and voting in both the Houses of Parliament. ? Joint Sitting Under Article 108 of the constitution when there is a deadlock between the Houses. ? Recess The period between the prorogation of Parliament and it's re-assembly in a new session is termed as recess.? Caretaker Government It is the Government in the interregnum which comes into existence as soon as the Council of Ministers resigns or looses confidence or the Prime Minister dies. the President summons the members of both the Houses to sit together and vote on the disputed Bill. Wednesday and Friday. ? Leader of Opposition The Leader of the largest opposition party having at least 1/10th of he strength of the Lok Sabha enjoys the rank of a Cabinet Minister and is called 'Leader of Opposition'.30 pm on any day allotted by the Chairman. he is expected to cooperate with the Government. the President appoints a Speaker Pro-tem who is usually the senior most Member (in terms of number of years served in the Lok Sabha) of the House. ? Bi-cameral Legislature It means a legislature consisting of two Houses. He administers the oath to the newly elected Lok Sabha Members and presides over the election of a new Speaker. ? Quorum Minimum required number of members to be present to validly transact the business of the House is called Quorum. It can be held in Lok Sabha during the last half an hour on Monday. ? Lame Duck Session The last session of the old Parliament after election of a new Parliament. The speaker of Lok Sabha Presides over this sitting. The members of old Parliament who could not get elected to the new are called lame duck members of new Parliament. In Rajya Sabha it is held generally from 5 pm to 5. Joint Sitting is summoned only for Ordinary Bills. ? Chief Whip An Official appointed by a political party from amongst its members in the legislature to regulate and monitor the behaviour of its members in the legislature. It is a Constitutional necessity under Article 74. It is one tenth of total number of members of the House including Speaker.

their responsibilities and powers are derived from. ? . It is drafted in such a way as to be capable of expressing the decision of the House. ? Devolution of Power It is the transfer power from central government to subordinate regional institutions Devolved bodies ha/e no share in sovereignty. Federalism requires the existence of two distinct level of government. It is also applied to accelerate passage of Bills. ? Whip Directive issued by a particular functionary of a Political Party to it's legislatures to vote in favour or against a particular issue on the floor of the House. and are conferred by the centre. it becomes an Act and assumes legally binding character. ? Subsidiary Motion They are related to other motions. ? Calling Attention It is a notice by which a member with the permission of the Speaker calls the attention of a Minister on any matter of public importance and the Minister may make a brief statement or ask for time to make a statement at a later hour or date. ? Federalism It usually refers to legal and political structures that distribute power territorially within a state. On enactment. ? . It is an Indian innovation. resulting in miscarriage of justice. Thus. power and functions amongst the institutions of government and so constitutes higher law. treaties or conventions to which Government is a party. They by themselves have no meaning and are not capable of stating the decision of the House without reference to the original motion or proceedings of the House. Violation of Whip by a legislature invites disciplinary action under Anti-defection Law. It implies that. it is not conducive to a healthy democracy. Bill Bill is a draft legislative document. Under this. "the amount of the demand be reduced to 1" rupee is called Policy Cut. ? Policy Cut Cut Motion which says that. It has come in vogue with the emergence of coalition politics. ? Confidence Motion The rules of Parliamentary procedure in India does not provide for a Confidence Motion. ? Government Resolution Resolutions moved by Ministers generally seeking approval of the House on international agreements. Every question to be decided by the House must therefore be proposed by a Member as a Motion. the Government itself brings a Motion seeking the confidence of the Lok Sabha. ? Perjury It is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a Court of Law or in any of various sworn statements in writing it is considered a serious offence as it can be used to usurp the power of courts. neither of which is legally or politically subordinate to if other. ? Written Constitution A single authoritative document that allocates duties. Closure Closure is a procedure in Parliament adopted to wing a debate to an abrupt end and to seek a vote on the issue being debated. ? Motion A Motion is basically a proposal brought before the House for eliciting decision or expressing the opinion of the House. the mover disapproves the policy underlying the demand.independent proposal submitted for the approval of the House.

? Court of Record Being a court of record implies that its records can be used as evidence and cannot be questioned for their authenticity in any court. ? Contingency Fund of India [Art. It is provided by the Constitution itself to be incurred by the executive. It does not involve any additional expenditure. Money Bill and Finance Bill is called an Ordinary Bill. ? Judicial Review The power of the Court to hold unconstitutional any legislative enactment or executive order that it deems to be inconsistent with the basic law of the land. ? Token Grant It is granted when funds to meet the proposed . ? Coalition A coalition is a grouping of diverse political parties brought together either through the perception of a common threat or the recognition that their goals cannot be achieved by working separately. ? Public Accounts of India [Art. No money can be appropriated out of this fund without a Parliamentary Law.? Ordinary Bill Any Bill other than Constitution Amendment Bill. ? Prerogative Writs Prerogative writs are one of the English . 266] All public money other than the Consolidated or Contingency Fund of India received on behalf of the Government of India is credited to the Public Accounts of India. ? Budget Under Article 112 of the constitution at the beginning of every financial year. the President shall in respect of the financial year. This is called Annual Financial Statement or Budget. But under Art. But those transactions passed or completed are considered valid. ? Repeal To annul or setaside one legislative act by another legislative act is called Repeal. When an act is repealed it is considered as if it has never existed. ? Guillotine Due to paucity of time if the Lok Sabha adopts me demands for Grant of various Ministries without any discussion on them then it is called application of "Guillotine". The fund is placed at the disposal of the Finance Secretary on behalf of the President. Art. a similar principle is laid down under which a person cannot be punished for the same offence more than once. ? Judicial Activism The assertive role played by the judiciary to force the other organs of the State to discharge their Constitutional duties towards the public. cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament a statement of the estimated receipts and expenditure of the Government of India for that year. 267] It is a statutory fund to meet the unforeseen expenditures.expenditure on a new service can be made available by reappropriation. Both the Houses enjoy equal legislative jurisdiction over it. 112 (3) contains expenditure which are declared as Charged Expenditure. It can be introduced in either House of Parliament. 20 (2) of the Indian constitution. ? Charged Expenditure Those expenditure that are drawn from the Consolidated Fund of India without the approval of Government. ? Repugnancy An inconsistency or incompatibility between 2 or more provisions of the same written instrument is called Repugnancy. ? Double Jeopardy The expression is used in American Law but not in Indian Constitution. ? Consolidated Fund of India (Art. 266] It is a Constitutional Fund to which all receipts credited and all payments debited.

he is pivot of the state governance system. ? Delimitation Delimitation means redrawing the boundary of Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly constituencies on the basis of last published census. equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the international covenants and are enforceable by Courts in India. In is an essential feature of a written constitution.term election which are held .term election to fill up one or few constituencies which have become vacant due to resignation. It sets out the main objectives which the legislature is intended to achieve. spiritual and physical stature. liberty. Government or a person in power without giving remuneration for the same. As the chief coordinator of the state secretariat and other administrative departments and as head of civil service. prevent parochialism and promote mutual interest between these states. ? ? Buffer State A small State lying between potential hostile larger States reducing the likelihood of open hostilities and lessening the risk of war. ? Iron Curtain A term coined by Churchill. the objective of Zonal Council is to deal with inter. ? Fundamental Rights Those rights of an individual which are most indispensable assets for the attainment by an individual of his fullest intellectual. It is applied to such countries which do not give other countries any information concerning their affairs.state disputes." ? Zonal Councils Created under States Reorganisation Act 1956. the court orders the person to whom its addressed to perform some public or quasi-public legal duty which he has refused to perform and the performance of which can not be enforced by any other adequate legal remedy. ? By -Election By .common laws which refer to the extra ordinary writs granted by the Sovereign as fountain of justice on the ground of inadequacies of ordinary legal remedies. to another Political Party. Human Rights As per the Protection of Human Rights Act 1993. ? Floor Crossing The practice of floor crossing refers to the defection of a Member of Parliament from the Party he was elected. death or otherwise before the completion of the full term of the representative. ? Chief Secretary The Chief Secretary is the administrative head of the state administration. It thus constitutes a way of making election to some significant position of power indirect rather than direct. Under this. in such a way that all the constituency have more or less equal electoral strength. ""Human Rights" means the rights relating to life. ? Begar Under Article 23 (1) of the Constitution 'Begar' means "labour or service extracted by the ? Snap Poll Refers to mid . ? Electoral College It is a group of people who have been specially appointed/ nominated/elected in order that they should hold an election for a political office. ? Preamble The Preamble in general is a very comprehensive expression of the philosophy on which the whole Constitutional structure of a country is based. ? Mandamus Means a command".Election is a mid .

Bandh is organised to protest against the policies and programmes of the government. when no Political Party or combination of Parties is in a position to form a majority Government. government offices. ? Interim Government Formed during the transition phase of the history of a country. There are specific rules of International Law which regulate the imposition of Embargo. in which a political party or pressure group gives call for the closure of shops. The present financial year was first adopted in India in 1860.within a short notice as a result of sudden and surprising dissolution of a legislature. ? Bandh This is pressure technique to highlight some issues. The Embargo is imposed during war against the ships of enemy country. ? Budget year The Budget year refers to the financial year which in India Commences on 1 April and ends on 31 March of the following year. ? Gerrymandering Unethical political practise by a ruling party to demarcate the electoral constituencies in a manner which ensures election of more candidates of the ruling party. ? Brain Drain Brain Drain is a situation in which qualified and trained human resources such as technicians and scientists migrate to other countries in search of better opportunities and careers. the country which has invested heavy resources suffers and its development is undermined. it is a full-fledged Government and it has power to take any political decision in the larger interest of the Country. ? Coup d’etat Violent or illegal change or overthrowing of government by a group of people is called coup d’etat. the Parliament of such a nature is Hung Parliament. Thus. The curfew is imposed for a fixed time or indefinite period and the same is announced to the affected people. ? Hung Parliament After General Election. ? Privilege Motion This Motion is moved by a Member if in his opinion any Minister or any of the Members commits a Breach of Privilege of the House by withholding any fact or by giving a distorted version of facts. ? Embargo It refers to imposing restrictions on the movements of ships of other countries by a country in her territorial seas and harbours. The success of coup depends on as to what extent government authority has been captured by the group or people. . ? Curfew Curfew is an extraordinary step taken by the government to impose restrictions on the movements of people in order to restore law and order in a place. ? Referendum Referendum gives the final authority to the people to accept or reject the proposed law or Constitutional Amendment of the legislature. ? Hot Line It means exclusive line of communication established between two countries in order to facilitate direct communication without any obstacle between leaders of these countries. ? Minority Government Government which does lot enjoy the confidence of the Lok Sabha on it’s own but thrives on the support extended by other political parties from outside the Government. schools and other activities for a certain period.

The undue delay in official transactions and procedures defeats the very purpose of government policies and programmes. colour. the territorial waters of a country extend upto 12 Nautical Miles from its land boundary. ? Manifesto It refers to a document of political parties. a country can exercise all sovereign rights in the territorial waters up to 12 Nautical miles. red tapism refers to undue delay in the movement of files or official business due to bureaucratic hurdles at various levels. The difference between Plebiscite and Referendum is that the former is organised to know people’s view in order to decide very important political and constitutional questions. Its purpose is to facilitate direct communication between top leaders of two countries in crisis or other urgencies. This is called enforcement of Marital Law. creed. Thus. ? Snap poll This refers to mid . In terms of present principles of International Law. listing their policies and programmes and their achievements and it is released to general public before every general election. many princely states were merged with the Indian Union on the condition that the Government of India will pay some fixed amount of money on annual basis to the rulers of such princely states. religion. ? Martial Law If the civil administration fails to enforce law and order in an area. etc. This is conducted to feel popular reaction on an issue of public importance. For example. India is gradually repatriating Chakma refugees to Bangladesh. ? Referendum This is a method of collecting people’s opinion on a controversial issue. The elections of 1971 after the dissolution of the Lok Sabha is an example of snap poll.term elections which are held within a short notice as a result of sudden and surprising dissolution of the Legislature. ? Repatriation It means returning back of people (refugees) or sending back of war prisoners to their own country from/by another country. The payment of privy purse was stopped in 1971 by the government. . the same is handed over to the Army and its administration is carried out in terms of military laws. Thus. The provision of privy purse was made in order to compensate rulers of princely states for the loss of revenue suffered by them due to merger with India. ? Privy Purse After independence.The Hot Line is not open to general public. ? Territorial waters The term refers to the extent of territorial jurisdiction of a country in a adjacent sea waters. They payment of this money is called privy purse. ? Universal Suffrage The term denotes providing voting rights to all the adult people of a country without any distinctions of caste. ? Red Tapism Traditionally the paper files used in official work of government were tied with a red tape. The principle of universal suffrage is the basis of modern democracies.

in the ––– case.  Minerva Mills Ltd.  60 .  Speaker The time gap between two sessions of the Parliament should not exceed –––  six months The residuary powers under the Indian Constitution rest with the –––  Parliament The Prime Minister is responsible to the –––  Lok Sabha National Integration Council is chaired by –––  The Prime Minister The credential of all Ambassadors or High Commissioners of foreign countries are received by –––  The President   No money bill can be introduced in the Legislative Assembly without the recommendation of the –––  Governor Any dispute between the two houses of the Parliament can be resolved by joint sitting of both the houses summoned by the –––  President The provisions as to disqualification on grounds of defection by a member of Parliament are contained in –––  10th schedule The minimum number of members that must be present to hold the meeting of the Lok Sabha is –––  1/10 of the total membership of the house The number of members of a state Legislative Assembly cannot be more than –––         500 The proclamation of national emergency ceases to operate unless it is approved by the parliament within –––  one month The first no confidence motion was moved in the Lok Sabha after independence was in the year –––  1963 A bill for alteration of boundaries of states shall not be introduced in the Parliament without the recommendation of –––  The President The Supreme Court passed the special judgement that the basic tenets of our constitution cannot be changed by the Parliament by any amendment.One Word Questions   A case of dispute in the presidential election is referred to the –––             Supreme Court Qualifications for appointment as Governor have been stated under Article –––  157 The age of the retirement for the judges of the High Court is ––  62 years The provision for suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies has been made under Article –––  359 The Writ which literally means ‘we command’ is ––  Mandamus ––– is the highest legal adviser to the Government of India.  Attorney General of India ––– decides the question of disqualification of a member of the Lok Sabha. & others A member of Parliament will lose his seat if he remains absent from all meetings without permission for a period of ––– days.

 State According to the Indian Constitution. after retirement. in –––  any courts in the country If the Finance Minister fails to get the annual budget passed in the Lok Sabha. How many languages have been recognised by the Constitution of India under 8th Schedule. integrity  On whose recommendation was the Constituent Asse-mbly formed?  Cabinet Mission  To whom does the Public Accounts Committee submit its report?  The Speaker of the Lok Sabha. reference to Hindus shall include a reference to Sikhs.  22  The provision for a Consolidated Fund of India and Consolidated Fund for each state has been made under which article?  Article 266  The basic aims and objectives of the constitution are discussed in  The preamble  Which Article was described as the “heart and soul of the constitution” by Dr.  Article 25 Raja Chellayya Committee dealt with –––  tax reforms The Constituent Assembly of India took all decision by –––  consensus The Amendment procedure of the Indian  Constitution has been modelled on the constitutional pattern of which country?  South Africa  . the Prime Minister should be expected to –––  submit the resignation of his/her cabinet The name of an Indian State can be changed by –––              the Parliament of India The Finance Commission is a ––– body. Ambedkar?  Article 32  Name the words which were added to the Preamble by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment.  Who is the executive head of a state in the Indian Union?  The Governor  If a state is under President’s rule.  State ‘Prisons’ are included in ––– list. Secular.  Quasi-Judicial The article which lays down the amendment of the constitution is –––  368 The introduction of ‘no confidence’ motion in the Lok Sabha requires the support of at least ––– members.  Socialist. the ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the –––  Prime Minister of India The function of a Public Service Commission in India is –––  Advisory In ––– of the constitution.  50 ‘Betting and Gambling’ is included in ––– list. Judges of the Supreme Courts cannot practice. then the state Budget is passed by whom?  The Parliament  By how many years has the 62nd Amendment of the Constitution in 1990 extended the reservation for persons belonging to SC and ST in Public Services?  10 years  What is the power of the Rajya Sabha in regard to money bills?  It can only withhold the bill for 14 days to make recommendations .

the power to make laws rests with whom?  The Union Government In which year the state reorganisation Bill was passed by the parliament?  1956       .  Article 74   Death sentence In which year was voting age reduced from 21 to 18 in India?  1989 A party in India in order to be recognised as official opposition in the parliament should have at least how many seats?  1/10 th of the elected members of the parliament   Which is the oldest financial committee in the Parliament?   Public Accounts Committee ‘Extradition’ is included in which list?  Union List Through which resolution. How many states in India have bicameral legislature?  What is meant by ‘Capital Punishment’?             6 Name the Union Territories which have a legislature and a Chief Minister?  Puducherry and Delhi Which state in India has the largest membership in its Legislative Assembly?  Uttar Pradesh Who finances the Village Panchayat?  State Government ‘Freedom of the Press’ is guaranteed under which Article?  Article 19 (1) Who is legally competent to declare war or conclude peace?  The President How many times has a national emergency been declared so far by the President?  Thrice Which parliamentary comm-ittee in India is normally chaired by a prominent member of the opposition?  Public Accounts Committee What is contained in the Tenth Schedule of the Constitution?  Provisions regarding disqualification on grounds of defection How many times can the President of India seek re-election to his post?  Any number of times How many committees were set up by the Constituent Assembly for framing the Constitution of India?  13 Name the article which empowers the President to appoint the Prime Minister of India. the Lok Sabha brings a change in the Government?  No Confidence Motion What is the maximum number of starred questions that can be asked in Lok Sabha on a particular day?  20 How long does a national emergency duly proclaimed and approved by the Parliament remain in force?  Until repealed States earn more revenue directly through which tax?  Sales tax In the case of subjects not mentioned in any of the three lists.

the following Article shall be substituted.‘The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may by law. The new article 21 A deals with Right to Education. provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years. The institution of District Collector was first established in 1772. (b) Various attempts at de-centralization (c) Increasing Developmental Responsibilities (d) Increase in Public consciousness The promulgation of the new constitution has weakened the position of collector. he works under the supervision of sta te government. The main factors influencing the emergency role of the collector are (a) Democratic set up in the country. For Article 45 of the Constitution. There are now separate Judicial Officers in the district and therefore the collector no longer holds the same judicial a uthority a s he did ea rlier as a District Magistrate. occupies a unique position in the Indian Administrative System. 2007 has inserted ion the constitution a new article 21 A after article 21. The Collector. The emergence of political parties has diminished the importance of the office of the Collector. Article 51 A of the Constitution was amended and a new clause (k) was added after clause (j) namely “K” who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or as the case may be. It reads . Article 50 envisages for the separation of executive and judicia ry powers. At present the portfolio of the Collector’s office generally includes the following functions and activities. The new article 21 A after article 21. Though he has been appointed by Central Government. The democratic decentralisation in the form of Panchayat Raj Institutions has further eroded the powers of the collector. cooperatives etc. The nature of the role of the District Collector has been constantly changing since independence. Though his . irrigation. He acts as the Head of Land and Revenue ? Role of District co llectors in Administration The District Collector is the officer in charge of the administration at the district level. Some of the technical departments are headed by specialists and are independent of collector.” influence has been shrinking his areas of influence are growing day by day. determine. The introduction of new technica l departments like Agriculture. ward between the age of six and fourteen years. Substitution of new Article for Article 45. as the hea d of the district administration. namely. Article 45 : “The state shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years. together with officers who head these departments at the state level. Parties have become an extremely important channel of communication between the government and people and the collector is more than often side tracked while ta king decisions affecting common man.? 86th Amendment to the Constitution and Consequential Enactment The Constitution (86th Amendment) Act. labour. The Zilla Parishads ha ve emerged as sepa ra te power centres independent of the collector. have all led to diminishing of the authority of the collector.

either through direct super intendence or through oversight. a ma jor pa rt of the Huma n Resource Development is transferred to the Panchayat Raj institutions. These statutory powers have to be exercised with care and responsibility. The collector plays a very critical role in the execution of welfare programmes such as those relating to disability. old age pension etc. The District Collector has specific powers entrusted to him under several Union and State enactments. Hence. . Thus the collector is responsible for a multiplicity of tasks at the district. Though may activities of Agriculture. Animal Husbandary Veterinary. in the districts. old age pension etc. It is the officer in over all charge of Law and Order and internal security in the district. the collector would remain a key figure in the scheme of administration at the field level. Textiles. including responsibility for District Finance (expenditure and audit). One of the most important roles of the collector is to coordinate activities of other agencies or departments at the district level. facilitator and a person who is responsible for inter sectorial coordination of various activities that characterise the work of our grass roots administration. the District Collector has been retained as Chairman in some of the district level committees. He also reviews their activities in monthly or bimonthly meetings and coordinates among the departments. He chairs meetings of various committees of Agriculture. He acts as the Chief Information and Grievance Redressal Officer of the district. The collector is the principal Census Officer. Sericulture. In most States. Handlooms. Irrigation and Industries departments.Administration. The Collector acts as a guardian of public lands with the responsibility to prevent and remove encroachments which are often a source of tension between vested interests and the district administration. the Collector still has some role in many of these programmes. Industry etc transferred to Panchayat Raj Institutions and local bodies. in service training and promotion. The Collector handles all matters connected with land reforms and revenue administration (including custody of government lands) Collector acts as the district head of the Executive Magistracy and over all supervision of law and order and security and some say in the police matters. State Legislature and Local Bodies. He will have the role of a coordinator. The Collector is the District Election Officer for Parliament. The Relief / Disaster Management branch of the Collector’s Office deals directly with these functions. He landless issues of local cadre management such as recruitment. the collector has a direct role to pay in the functioning of the Food and Civil Supplies Department at the district level. either through direct superintendence or through over sight. Irrigation. He acts as the officer-in-charge of Disaster Management. Though. He overseas the implementation of the Public Distribution system and has powers to enforce provisions of the Essential Commodities Act and related Rules and Orders. The collector plays a very critical role in the execution of welfare programmes such as those relating to disability. The collector is the licensing and regulatory authority under various special laws such as Arms and Cinematography Acts etc. He is the functiona ry who would provide overa ll leadership in the district in the task of nation building.

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