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H I G H WA Y

RESEARCH
NUMBER 38
General Report on
Road Research Work Done
In India during 2010-11
IRC HIGHWAY RESEARCH BOARD
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(Packing &
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Edited and Published by the Secretary,
IRC Highway Research Board, New Delhi - 110 011
Printed at : India Offset Press, A-1, Mayapuri Industrial Area, New Delhi-110 064
(i)
CONTENTS
Page No.
INTRODUCTION 1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2
I. PAVEMENT ENGINEERING & MATERIALS 9
1. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS 9
SUMMARY 9
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST TIME 10
1. Development of Fly Ash Waste Plastic Composite for Construction of 10
Bituminous Roads
2. Laboratory Study to Determine the Suitability of Fly Ash and Marble Dust as 10
Mineral Filler in Micro-Surfacing Mixture
3. Laboratory Evaluation of Warm Mix Additives 12
4. Feasibility Study on Use of RoadCem for Use in Situ Stabilization of Soil 12
5. ZycoSoilNanotechnologyMultilayerWaterproofngTreatmentofSoiland 13
Asphalt Concrete in Road Construction
6. Zycosoil Nanotechnology Application in Leh Road, BRO 14
7. Evaluation of Bituminous Layers Bond Strength 14
8. Penetrative Preservation Installation Project NH8 Beawar to Gomti 15
9. Use of Fly Ash in Construction of Bituminous Road Surfacings 16
B. ON-GOING / COMPLETED PROJECTS 16
1. Use of Coir Geotextiles in Road Construction 16
2. Resource Mapping of Road Construction Materials in Kerala - Phase II 17
Pathanamthitta District
3. Study on the Use of Waste Plastic for Road Construction in Urban Areas 17
4. Development of Cold Mix Technology for Structural Layers of Flexible Pavement 18
in Different Climates
5. Performance Evaluation of Bituminous Concrete Surfacing Laid with SBS 19
ModifedBitumen(PMB-40)onNH-1,NearDelhi
6. Repair of Potholes and Patching using Jetpatcher and Infrared Recycling Patcher 20
7. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Asphalt Mixes and Performance Evaluation of 20
Shell Thiopave Test Sections
8. Development of Methodology for Commissioning and Site Acceptance Test (SAT)' 21
of Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) Type of APTF
ISSN 0970-2598
(ii)
9. Development & Design of Thin Stone Matrix Asphalt (TSMA) Mixes as Preventive 21
Maintenance Treatment
10. Development of Improved Quality Bituminous Binders through Polymer 22
Incorporation, Laying and Monitoring of Test Sections
C. R & D ACTIVITY REPORT BY CONSULTANCY FIRMS/CONTRACTORS/ 23
CONCESSIONAIRES
1. Design & Construction of Sub-Grade & Base Pavement Layers with Soil Stabilized 23
Base Course (SSB) for Lighter and Durable Highway Crust for Township Road at
M/s. Sasan Power Limited, Sasan, Madhya Pradesh (2nd Year)
2. Nano Polymer Base Stabilization of NH-1 Stretch on Panipat-Jhalandhar Section 29
from km 96.000 to km 387.000 in the State of Haryana & Punjab,
3. Village Road to Jhenjhari Joining State Highway Road of Durg to Dhamda under 31
PMGSY, Chhattisgarh
2. RIGID PAVEMENTS 36
SUMMARY 36
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST TIME 37
1. Technical Feasibility Studies on Geopolymer Based Building Blocks/Pavers 37
2. Study on Suitability of Synthetics Fiber Reinforced Concrete for the Construction 37
of Concrete Pavements
B. ON-GOING / COMPLETED PROJECTS 38
1. R & D Studies on Performance Evaluation of Rigid Pavements on High Density 38
TraffcCorridorsUsingInstrumentationSupportedbyLaboratoryTests
2. Effect of Bottom ash from Thermal Power Stations as an alternate to Fine Aggregate 38
in Cement Concrete
3. A Study on Dry Lean Concrete Containing Portland Pozzolana Cement 39
3. PAVEMENT EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE 40
a. PAVEMENT EVALUATION 41
SUMMARY 41
A. PROJECT REPORTED FOR THE FIRST TIME 42
1. Evaluation of Master Plan Roads (60 m & 45 m ROWs) in Dwarka and Needed 42
Remedial and Improvement Measures
2. Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of New Materials and Mixes 43
TowardsDevelopmentandUpgradationofStandards/Specifcations
3. Evaluation of Kosi- Nandgaon-Barsana-Govardhan Road and Needed Remedial 43
Measures
(iii)
4. Investigation to Determine the Likely Causes of Pre-mature Distress in Road Section 45
on NH-58 and Needed Remedial Measures
B. ON-GOING / COMPLETED PROJECTS 47
1. Development of National Document /Guidelines on the Use of Weigh-In-Motion 47
System in India for Axle Load Monitoring
2. Development of Management System for Maintenance Planning and Budgeting of 48
High Speed Road Corridors (Supra Institutional Project)
3. Investigation to Determine and Ascertain the Causes of Distress and Suggest Remedial 49
Measures for Runway Pavement at Jaipur Airport
b. PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE 51
SUMMARY 51
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST TIME 52
1. Applications of Rhinophalt Preservative and its Performance Evaluation on Three 52
Toll Roads (Trial Stretches) in Rajasthan and Gujarat States
B. COMPLETED PROJECTS 52
1. Design of Flexible Pavements for Optimum Performance in Fatigue and Rutting 52
Characteristics Using KENLAYER
c. INSTRUMENTATION 55
SUMMARY 55
A. ON-GOING PROJECT 56
1. Upgradation of Road Geometrics and Road Condition Evaluation System 56
II. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING 57
SUMMARY 57
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST TIME 58
1. Feasibility Study of Jarosite Waste Materials (from Chanderia & Debari) in 58
Construction of Embankment and Sub grade
2. Study on Stabilisation of Black Cotton Soil with Lime and Rock Dust 58
3. Experimental Test Track Construction with Cement Stabilisation 59
4. Feasibility Study of Super Fine Copper Slag in Land Filling and Road Construction 59
5. Guidelines for Stabilization of Hill-Rock Slopes 60
6. Guidelines on Management of Landslides on the Indian Roads and Highways 61
7. Design and Performance Monitoring of Test Road Constructed Using C&D Waste 62
(iv)
8. ExperimentalTestTrackConstructionUsingJarofxWasteMaterial 62
9. Guidelines for Soil and Granular Material Stabilisation Using Cement, Lime & Fly Ash 62
10. Typical Problems for Drainage System on Roads and their Remedial Measures 63
B. ONGOING/COMPLETED PROJECTS 64
1. Detailed Geological & Geotechnical Investigation, Instrumentation and Monitoring 64
of Amparav Landslide, Uttarakhand State
2. Demonstration Project on Use of Jute Geotextiles in PMGSY Roads 65
3. Preparation of Guidelines for Construction of Roads, Culverts and Bridges in 65
Cyclone Prone Areas
4. Instrumentation and Monitoring of Kaliasaur Landslide on National Highway-58 66
(Network Project with SERC)
5. Design and Execution of Soil Nail Wall System for the Stabilisation of Railway 67
Embankment for the Construction of Underpass Using Box Pushing Technique
Under the Existing Railway Line Near Apsara Border, Dilshad Garden
6. Soil Nailing Technique for Facilitating Construction of Underpass by Box Pushing 67
Technique at Western Approach of Old Yamuna Bridge
7. Design and Execution of Soil Nail Wall System for the Stabilisation of Railway 68
Embankment for the Trenchless Crossing of 1700 mm Diameter MS Pipe Below
Railway Track Near Old Steel Bridge Near Yamuna Bazaar, Delhi.
8. Problem of Landslides on Dimapur-Kohima-Maram Road (National Highway-39) 68
in Nagaland and Manipur States: (Supra Institutional Project)
9. Protection of Unstable Cut Slopes along Approach Roads and Railway Lines and 69
Stabilization of the Proposed Dumping Sites
10. Design of Road Embankment In Submerged/Flood Affected Border Areas Of Bhuj, 69
Gujarat
11. Validation of Slope Protection Works of Zirakpur-Parwanoo Four Laning Project 70
(Himalayan Expressway)
12. Preparation of Guidelines on Recommended Practice for Treatment of Embankment 70
and Hill Slopes For Erosion Control
C. R&D ACTIVITY REPORT BY CONSULTANCY FIRMS/CONTRACTORS/ 71
CONCESSIONAIRES
1. Evaluating In Situ Performance of Neoweb Novel Polymeric Alloy (NPA) Geocell 71
Reinforcement for Service Roads on Expansive Clay at Govind Dairy Factory, Phaltan
III. BRIDGE ENGINEERING 73
SUMMARY 73
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST TIME 74
1. Long-Term Performance Assessment of Masonry Arch Bridges under Dynamic 74
Loading Conditions
(v)
2. Development of Structural Health Monitoring Schemes for Civil Engineering 74
Infrastructure in India using Smart Sensing Technologies
3. Study on Corrosion Susceptibility of Steel Reinforcement Protected with Anti-Corrosive 75
Coatings / Special Treatments on Ordinary and High Performance Concrete
B. ON-GOING/ COMPLETED PROJECTS 75
1. Mathematical Modeling for Repaired Concrete Structures 75
2. StudiesonVibrationCharacteristicsforDamageidentifcation 76
3. Development of a Critical Infrastructure Information System in GIS Environment 77
for Maintenance of Bridges on National and State Highways
4. Development of One Prototype of the Bridge Inspection Unit 78
5. Creation of Complete Range on Independent Testing Facilities for Expansion 79
Joints at Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) (B-34 Research Scheme)
6. Rehabilitation of Sultanpuri Bridge at RD 21260m on Supplementary Drain, Delhi 80
7. Strengthening Measures for Kalimati Bridge, Jamshedpur 80
8. Assessment of Load Carrying Capacity of a Bridge at Koteshwar HE Project, Uttarakhand 81
IV. TRAFFIC & TRANSPORTATION 82
1. PLANNING & MANAGEMENT 82
SUMMARY 82
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST TIME 83
1. Preparation of Computerized Inventory of Roads for Peravoor and Kuthuparamba 83
Block Panchayaths in Kannur District
2. Integrated Development of Transport Infrastructure for an Emerging Town 83
Kottarakkara Grama Panchayath in Kollam
3. TraffcandTransportationStudiesfor23townsinKeralaState 84
4. TraffcandTransportationStudiesforCochinCoimbatore,IndustrialCorridorin 85
Kerala and Tamil Nadu States
5. Evaluation of Predictive Accuracy of Urban Transport Studies in Selected Towns of 87
Kerala
6. A Study of Para Transit Services for Selected Cities in Kerala 88
7. Design of Rotary at Englishia Intersection 89
8. TraffcStudyforPreparationofTransportSystemManagementPlanforMajor 90
Corridors of Lucknow (Comprehensive Mobility plan of Lucknow)
9. ComprehensiveTraffcandTransportationStudiesofGoa 90
B. ON-GOING/COMPLETED PROJECTS 90
1. TraffcMedicine-AStatusProject 90
(vi)
2. Preparation of Parking Policy for nine TIER II Cities in Karnataka, i.e. Mangalore, 94
Mysore, Hubli-Dharwar, Bellary, Belgaum, Gulbarga, Bijapur, Tumkur and Davangere
3. StudyonTraffcManagementandParkingSpacesforFairsatPragatiMaidan,NewDelhi 95
4. DesignandDrawingof10IntersectionswithComprehensiveTraffcCirculation 96
Scheme Around CBD within New Town, Kolkata
5. Planning and Design of Grade Separator at Crossing of Road No. 56 & G.T. Road 96
near Apsara Border in Delhi
6. Construction of Road Under Bridge (RUB), Connecting Road No. 58 & 64, passing 97
under Delhi Ghaziabad Railway Line near Jhilmil Colony, Delhi
7. Consultancy Services for Formulation of Master Plan for National Network of 98
Expressways in India
8. Comprehensive Mobility Plan for Indore Urban Area 100
9. Detailed Project Report for Mumbai Metro Phase II & III: Mahim BKC 101
Kanjur Marg via Airport
10. Feasibility Study for Elevated Rail Corridor from Churchgate to Virar in Mumbai 102
11. Technical Consultancy for Preparation of Detailed Project Report for 3 - Metro 102
Corridor in Kolkata
12. Constraints in Developing West Coast Canal in Kerala Case Study of National 103
Waterway No.III
13. Computation of Price Index for Auto and Taxi Operations (PIATO) 104
14. Pre-Feasibility Study for Improving Road Connectivity to Kannur Airport 105
15. Development of GIS Based National Highway Information System 105
16. EvaluationofOperationalEffciencyofHighwayNetworkUsingTravelTime 106
Reliability Measure
17. ApplicationofGeographicalInformationSystem(GIS)inTraffccongestion 107
Management
18. Modelling of Driving Cycle for Road Network Development Plan in Urban Area and 108
Suburban Area Applying GPS A Case Study in NCR
19. Travel Time Related Performance Measures for Evaluation of Sustainable Road 108
Transportation System
20. Evaluation Study on Use of On-Site Visualization Method for Monitoring of Safety 109
Management at Construction Site
IV. TRAFFIC & TRANSPORTATION 111
2. SAFETY & ENVIRONMENT 111
SUMMARY 111
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST TIME 112
1. ImpactofPostingScientifcSpeedLimitsonNationalHighways-CaseStudyof 112
Thiruvananthapuram-Kollam section of NH-47
(vii)
2. DevelopmentofRoadSafetyStrategyandGeneratingAwarenessonTraffcand 113
Road Safety - Package VII (Phase-II)
B. ON-GOING / COMPLETED PROJECTS 114
1. PedestrianBehaviourUndervariedTraffcandSpatialConditions(CSIRSponsored) 114
2. Safety Audit for Development period of the 6-Laning of ChilakaluripetVijayawada 114
Section of NH-5 from km 355.00 to km 434.150 in the State of Andhra Pradesh to
be Executed as BOT (Toll) on DBFO Pattern under NHDP (length 82.5 km)
3. Safety Audit for Development & Construction period for Package No. 1 6-laning 115
of Gurgaon Kotputli Jaipur section of NH-8 (NHDP V) under PPP on DBFO
basis (Total length 231.0kms)
4. Study on Ambient Air Quality and its Contribution to Climate Change in Kerala 116
5. Distracted Driving in Simulated Environment: Present Challenges and Mitigation 117
6. Micro Simulation based Driving Cycle in Delhi City for Sustainable Transportation 118
System
V. RESEARCH PROJECTS RELATED TO THESIS FOR POST - GRADUATION/Ph.D. 119
A. PAVEMENT EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE 119
1. Finite Element Analysis of Flexible Pavements 119
2. Evaluation of IRC Method and Effect of Bituminous Mixtures on Pavement 119
Performance Using M-EPDG
3. Experimental Investigations and Modeling of Rutting of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures 120
4. Forensic Investigations on Pre-mature Rutting on a National Highway Pavement 121
B. TRAFFIC & TRANSPORTATION 122
1. StudiesonSafetyPerformanceofTwo-laneRuralHighwaysunderMixedTraffc 122
2. StudyofHeterogeneousTraffc-FlowCharacteristicsonUrbanArterialsinthe 123
Light of Energy Consumption and Environmental Impact.
3. Study on the Effect of Geometric Design Consistency on Level of Safety on 124
Inter-City Roads
4. ReliabilityBasedOptimalRoutingandTraffcAssignmentinStochastic 125
Transportation Networks
5. EvaluationofTurnLanesatSignalizedIntersectioninHeterogeneousTraffc 126
using Microscopic Simulation Model
6. To Assess the Impact of Information Communication and Technology on Travel for 127
Shopping Purpose
7. Transport Strategies and Development Measures for a Green City of Baruipur, 128
West Bengal
8. Impact of Metro on Mobility Patterns in Metropolitan City-Case Study: Delhi 130
9. Role of PPP in Urban Transport Infrastructure Development of Gurgaon 131
(viii)
10. Mobility Strategies for Inclusive Development of Urban Poor: A Case Study of 131
Faridabad
11. Transit Oriented Development along an Urban Arterial - A Case Study of Delhi 132
(Indraprastha Estate, ITO)
12. Impact of Mobility Hub on Urban Arterial Road Network, Case study, Kochi 133
13. Development of Road User Cost Equations for High Speed Corridors 133
14. Speed-Flow Characteristics and Roadway Capacity of Multi-Lane Highways 134
15. Probabilistic Models for Prediction of Road Crash Occurrence and Crash Severity on 135
High speed Corridors
16. Development of Steady State Fuel Consumption Models for Different Vehicle 135
Types on High Speed Corridors
17. Development of Congestion Cost Equations for High Speed Corridors 136
18. Impact of Lane Change Behaviour on Capacity of Multi-Lane Highways using 137
Microscopic Simulation
19. Evaluation of Roadway Capacity of Multi-Lane Highways under Varying Terrain and 138
LaneChangeBehaviorusingMicroscopicTraffcSimulation
20. Critical Evaluation of Free Speed Characteristics and Development of Vehicle 139
Operating Cost Models for High Speed Corridors in India
21. Evaluation of Relationships Between Pavement Distress Parameters 140
22. Modeling Travel Time Variations of Urban corridors 141
23. Accessing Road Compaction Impact on Life Cycle Cost of Road Projects 142
Using HDM-4
24. EvaluationofTurnLanesatSignalizedIntersectioninHeterogeneousTraffc 143
using Microscopic Simulation Model
25. Study of Merging at Urban Uncontrolled Major-Minor Road Intersections under 144
HeterogeneousTraffcConditions
26. TravelTimeandCongestionAnalysisunderHeterogeneousTraffcConditions 145
27. TraffcModelingunderHeterogeneousTraffcConditions 146
28. InfuenceofCrossRoadsandFringeConditionsonTravelTime 147
29. Departure time and Route Choice Modelling for Work Trips 147
30. Study of Arterial Congestion Using Global Positioning System and Geographical 148
Information System
31. Planning for Safe Movement along Linear Intercity corridor 148
32. Safety Along Urban Arterial Roads: Case Study - Delhi 149
33. EstimationofTravelTimeandDelayinUrbanArterialsunderIndianTraffcConditions 150
34. Crowd Behaviour of Pedestrians arriving at Railway Station 151
35. DevelopmentofMethodologyforJustifcationforProvisionofExclusiveBusLanes 151
on Urban Roads
(ix)
36. ApplicationofDynamicTraffcAssignment(DTA)underIndianTraffcConditions 153
37. TraffcDataFusionunderIndianTraffcConditions 153
38. Analysis of Interrelated Activity and Travel Patterns 154
39. EstimationofOrigin-DestinationMatricesforDynamicTraffcAssignmentModels 154
40. DynamicTraffcAssignment(DTA)underMultipleVehicleClasses 154
41. Routing Algorithms on Stochastic and Time Dependent Networks 155
42. Analysis of Delays Along Signalized Urban Corridor 155
43. Modelling Overtaking Sight Distance and Risk Assessment on Two-Way 156
Highway Midblock
44. Modelling Driver Behaviour at Signalized Intersection 157
45. IdentifcationofMissinglinksbasedonTravelDemandforCalicutUsingTransCAD 158
46. School Bus Routing Using TransCAD - A Case Study 159
47. TraffcMonitoringUsingGSMTechnology:AnEmergingOpportunityforATIS 160
ACkNOWLEDGEMENTS 163
LIST OF ORGANISATIONS 164
APPENDIX - PROFORMA SHEET FOR REPORTING R&D WORk 165
FOR THE GENERAL REPORT
GENERAL REPORT ON
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-2011
INTRODUCTION
Highway Research Record No.38 describes the General Report on Road Research Work done in India during the year
2010-2011. This document has been prepared by compiling the progress of research work reported by 16 Research
Organisations and Academic Institutions in the country. The names of reporting organizations have been listed at the
end of the report. As the General Report on Road Research is intended to provide information on research works
carriedoutundervariousresearchprojects,worksreportedonroutineinvestigationsandlaboratory/feldtestinghave
been omitted from the document.
As per the classifcation, the entire material has been divided into four sections, namely, Pavement Engineering
& Paving Materials; Geotechnical Engineering; Bridge Engineering andTraffc &Transportation Engineering.The
projectsineachsectionarefurtherclassifedintotwobroadcategoriesnamely(i)ProjectsReportedFirstTime,i.e.,
New Projects and (ii) Ongoing Projects/ Completed Projects. The research works carried out as a part of Master and
Doctoral thesis in the Academic Institutions have also been reported separately in Section V of the report.
The research work in each section has been reported as per the standard Proforma for the three broad categories of
projects. The proformae alongwith other related information are given in Appendix.
Each sectional report begins with a brief overview in the form of summary followed by a few salient points towards
channelising the discussions during the presentation of the report in the IRC Annual session.
2 GENERAL REPORT ON
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In the General Report on Road Research Work done in India for the year 2010-2011, published as Highway Research
Record No. 38, the research work done by 16 organisations on various aspects has been reported. The report has
beencompiledbyCRRI.TheR&Dworkreportedunderthefollowingfvemajorareasandtheresearchworkdone
in Academic Institutions related to the thesis work is reported under Section V:
1. Pavement Engineering and Paving Materials
2. Geotechnical Engineering
3. Bridge Engineering
4. Traffc&TransportationEngineering
1. Pavement Engineering and Paving Materials
In this chapter projects related to Flexible Pavements,
Rigid Pavements, Pavement Evaluation, Pavement
Performance and Instrumentati on have been
reported.
1.1 Flexible Pavements
This subsection deals with projects reported in the
Flexible Pavement area related to design, construction
and materials. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute
reported twelve projects. The significant projects
pertain to use of fyash in construction of bituminous
road surfacing, development of cold mix technology for
structurallayersoffexiblepavement,performanceof
bituminousconcretesurfacinglaidwithSBSmodifed
bitumen, repair of potholes and patching using different
techniques/machines, evaluation of asphalt mixes
containing thiopave. The developments and design of
thin stone matrix asphalt for maintenance of fexible
pavements, and warm mixes for bituminous road
construction. Guidelines have been developed for
bituminous Macadam, Semi dense bituminous concrete
and Mix seal surfacing using cationic bitumen emulsion.
Studies on use of chemical additives for improvement of
engineering properties of sub grade are also reported
by different organisations.
National Transport Planning and Research Center
reported fndings of studies on coir jute geotextile
and plastic waste in road construction. The resource
mapping of available road construction materials in
Kerala is also reported as a ongoing project. Feasibility
study on use of Road Cem for insitu stabilization of
soil has been completed. From the durability test, it
is concluded that the resistance to effect of water on
strength is enhanced by use of 0.1 percent additive
in cement stabilization. Two projects related to water
proofing treatment of bituminous pavement are
reported.Studiesindicatedsignifcantimprovementin
properties of soil as well as bituminous mixes. Studies
have been carried out on performance of crumb rubber,
SBS and EBA modifed bitumen. Laboratory studies
on warm mix additives indicates that the addition of
0.5 percent additive by weight bituminous mix can
lower the mix laying temperature by 40C to 50C.
Successful installation and feld calibration of State-
of-Art Accelerated Pavement Testing Facility, Heavy
Vehicle Simulator is also reported by CSIR-CRRI.
1.2 Rigid Pavements
Research works reported in the area of Rigid Pavements
relate to technical feasibility studies on Geopolymer
based building blocks/ pavers, R&D studies on the
performance evaluation of rigid pavements on high
densitytraffccorridorsusinginstrumentationsupported
by laboratory tests ( in continuation of the earlier
work reported), study on the properties of concrete
incorporating bottom ash/pond ash as a replacement
offneaggregate,studyonsuitabilityofsyntheticsfber
reinforced concrete for the construction of concrete
pavements, study on dry lean concrete containing
portland pozzolana cement and suitability of oil well drill
cuttings (Assam assets) for road making.
1.3 Pavement Evaluation
Research works reported in this area include projects
on structural and functional evaluation of pavements
and pre-mature distress / failure investigations for road
and airfeld pavements. Completed projects include
Investigation to determine and ascertain the causes
of distress and suggest remedial measures for runway
pavement at Jaipur Airport.
On-going projects include Development of National
Document /Guideline on the Use of Weigh-In-Motion
System for Axle Load Monitoring. Development of
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 3
national guideline on the use of WIM System for axle
load monitoring on Indian Highways would assist
Enforcement authorities to decide the appropriate
WIM system to be used at various locations towards
controlling overloading on Indian Highways which would
economize on road maintenance and rehabilitation
costs, minimize road accidents, and bring about
improved road safety.
ProjectsreportedforthefrsttimeincludeEvaluationof
Master Plan Roads (60 m and 45 m ROWs) in Dwarka
and Needed Remedial and Improvement Measures;
Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of
New Materials and Mixes towards Development and
UpgradationofStandards/Specifcations;Evaluationof
Kosi-Nandgaon-Barsana-Govardhan Road and Needed
Remedial Measures and Investigation to Determine the
Likely Causes of Pre-mature Distress in Road Section
from km 72.600 to km 105 on NH-58 and Needed
Remedial Measures.
Research projects for Thesis work include Finite
Element Analysis of Flexible Pavements and Evaluation
of IRC Method and Effect of Bituminous Mixtures on
Pavement Performance Using M-EPDG. Finite Element
Analysis of Flexible Pavements has been carried out
(i) to analyze and compare stress-strain distribution and
response of pavement system by using asphalt mixes
with various additives like hydrated lime and sulphur;
(ii) to analyze a typical 4 layer flexible pavement
structure by means of Finite Element Method, and
(iii) to study the stress-strain distribution of pavement
using linearized elastic theories and comparisons with
Finite Element Analysis.
1.4 Pavement Performance
This sub-section on Pavement Performance covers
projects related to Design of Flexible Pavements
for Optimum Performance in Fatigue and Rutting
Characteristics Using KENLAYER; Modeling of
Rutting of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures; and Forensic
Investigations on Pre-mature Rutting on a National
Highway Pavement. The study on Design of Flexible
Pavements for Optimum Performance in Fatigue and
Rutting Characteristics Using KENLAYER is focused
on comparing the various design methods in terms
of its performance by conducting damage analysis
in KENLAYER and suggesting the optimum design
method.
Project reported for the first time include Design,
Construction and Performance Evaluation of New
Materials and Mixes towards Development and
Upgradation of Standards / Specifications; and
Rhinophalt Preservative and its Performance Evaluation
on Three Toll Roads in Rajasthan and Gujarat States.
The study is planned to be implemented in three
different phases viz. (i) Pre-Application Investigations
(ii) Post-Application Investigations and (iii) Periodic
Performance Monitoring / Evaluation.
Research projects for Thesis work include Design
of Flexible Pavements for Optimum Performance in
Fatigue and Rutting Characteristics Using KENLAYER;
Experimental Investigations and Modeling of Rutting of
Asphalt Concrete Mixtures; and Forensic Investigations
on Premature Rutti ng on a Nati onal Hi ghway
Pavement.
1.5 Instrumentation
Research work reported in the area of Instrumentation
and Micro-processor Application is an ongoing project
related to Upgradation of Road Geometrics and
Road Condition Evaluation System. The road surface
condition evaluation involving measurement of areas
of surface disintegration will form an important input to
Pavement Maintenance Management Systems which
is directed at coordinating and controlling pavement
rehabilitation associated activities on a road network.
The upgraded and validated system will help in speedy
inventorisation of road network.
2. Geotechnical Engineering
In this chapter projects related to Geotechnical
Engineering and Soil Stabilization, Low Grade
Materials & Low Volume Roads have been reported.
The projects reported in Geotechnical Engineering area
relate to geological and geotechnical investigations ,
instrumentation & monitoring of landslides, problems
of landslides, soil nailing technique for stabilisation of
railway embankment for construction of an underpass
using box pushing technique has been reported. In
addition to the above pushing of a very large size
MS pipe below a railway track using soil nailing has
also been reported. A project on design of road
embankment in submerged/flood affected border
areas of Bhuj, Gujarat has also been reported. A new
project on evaluating in situ performance of Geocell
Reinforcement for Service Roads on Expansive Clay
has also been reported. Another continuing study
relates to Use of Jute Geotextiles in PMGSY roads. In
order to mitigate and address the problems of landslides
and natural disasters; following guidelines have also
been prepared :
4 GENERAL REPORT ON
Guidelines for construction of roads, culverts and
bridges in cyclone prone areas, Guidelines on
Recommended practice for treatment of embankment
and hill slopes for erosion control, Guidelines for
stabilisation of hill rock slopes and Guidelines on
management of landslides on the Indian roads and
highways.
The projects reported in the area of Soil Stabilization,
Low Grade Materials and Low Volume roads relate
to Feasibility study of Jarosite Waste Materials (from
Chanderia & Debari) in construction of embankment and
subgrade, Feasibility study of Super Fine Copper Slag
inlandfllingandroadconstruction,stabilisationofblack
cotton soil, test track construction with cement stabilised
subgrade and subbase, design and construction of test
roads using construction and demolition waste and
Jarofx(wasteofZincindustry).GuidelinesforSoiland
Granular Material Stabilisation Using Cement Lime &
Fly Ash. (IRC special publication, IRC: SP: 89- 2010)
have also been reported.
Therearenineprojectswhichhavebeenreportedfrst
time. Twelve projects are reported under the ongoing
and completed project category and one project is
reported as R&D activity by the consultancy frms/
contractors/ concessionaries.
3. Bridge Engineering
Under this section, four projects have been reported
by CSIR-SERC, Chennai covering topics such as long
term performance studies of arch bridges, technologies
for structural health monitoring of bridges, vibration
studies on bridges and mathematical model for repaired
concrete bridges.
Evaluation of performance of bridges is a major task
to ensure their safety. It also helps in planning the
maintenance scheme for bridges. CSIR-CRRI has
reported the completion of two projects in which a
bridge with distressed pier caps and a bridge with
impact damaged longitudinal girders were investigated
and suitable repair/strengthening schemes were
suggested and implemented. In the third completed
project the load testing of an old bailey bridge is
reported.
There are large number of distressed bridges in
our country which require inspection, repair and
strengthening for their efficient maintenance. An
indigenously designed Mobile Bridge Inspection Unit
(MBIU) is being fabricated for bridge inspection by
CSIR-CRRI and CSIR-CMERI-CoEFM and the project
is partially funded by DST. Also, a Critical Infrastructure
Information System in GIS Environment is being
developed by CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi for maintenance
management of bridges. This consists of development
of vari ous modul es such as Inventory Modul e,
Inspection Module, and Load Carrying Capacity Module,
Maintenance/Rehabilitation/Strengthening Module,
Budgeting Module and Advance Decision Support
System Module. For the ease of implementation,
the road network of Ghaziabad District has been
considered.
Corrosion of reinforcement is a major cause of
distress in bridges especially located in coastal areas.
CSIR-CRRI has undertaken a new research scheme
(B-42) sponsored by MORTH, under which corrosion
susceptibility of steel reinforcement protected with
anti-corrosive coatings embedded in ordinary concrete
vis-a-vis steel reinforcement without anti-corrosive
coating embedded in high performance concrete will
be evaluated.
The Creation of Expansion Joint Test Facility at CSIR-
CRRI, New Delhi is another on-going Research Scheme
(B-34), funded by MORTH.
4. Traffc&Transportation
InthischapterprojectsrelatedtoTraffc&Transportation
Engi neeri ng and Hi ghway Pl anni ng, Desi gn,
Management and Performance Evaluation have been
reported.
4.1 Planning and Management
The salient features of some of the completed projects
are:
Out of total 29 studies reported, 11 studies were on
comprehensive traffic and transportation studies
of various cities further focusing on airport links,
feasibility studies for cities. 7 Projects completed on
investigation on various aspects of Traffc circulation
and management plan at intersections, feasibility of
RUB and Master plan of national highway network of
Expressways in India and one on Evaluation Study on
Use of On-Site Visualization Method for Monitoring of
Safety Management at Construction Site. 11 On-going
projectsincludestudiesoncomprehensivetraffcand
transportation studies, in addition to this, feasibility
study of various public transport systems such as
Metro, airport connectivity and computerized Inventory
of Roads, Travel Time Related Performance Measures,
Application of Geographical Information System (GIS)
in Traffc congestion management and Development
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 5
of GIS Based National Highway Information System
was reported.
Study of proposed methodology for digitized road maps
with supporting data for each Grama Panchayath using
the GIS format consisting of road availability, location
of facilities Road level data-connecting settlements,
populationbenefted,facilitiesalongtheroadinventory-
length, width, surface type, settlements.
Study on Integrated Development of Transport
Infrastructure for an emerging Town was proposed the
various strategies for improving the mobility within the
region and connectivity to the existing ring road was
explained.
Astudyontraffcandtransportationstudiesfor23towns
inKeralaStateconductedthetraffcandtransportation
studies by classifying the total 23 town into large,
medium and small towns. Estimated travel demand for
horizon year; and prepared short-term and long-term
traffc and transportation development proposals for
the selected towns.
StudyonTraffcandtransportationstudiesforCochin
Coimbatore, Industrial corridor in Kerala and Tamil Nadu
States.Studiedthetraffcpatternandcharacteristics
of goods vehicles passing through the study area,
projected the passenger and freight traffic for the
next 20 years and suggested transport infrastructure
requirements for the study region.
A study on evaluation of predictive accuracy of urban
transport studies in selected Towns of Kerala. Studied
the cross-sectional analysis of socio-economic variables
suchasvehicleownership,andtravelbudgetandtraffc
fowpatternofselectedtowns.Evaluatedthepredictive
accuracy of selected variables by comparing the study
forecasts with the actual / observed data in selected
towns and prepared the general guidelines for realistic
projectionofinputvariablesthathaveinfuencetraffc
demand forecasting.
A study of Para transit Services for Selected Cities
in Kerala, studied the characteristics of Para transit
modes, analyzed various current issues regarding
paratransit such as, Organizational set-up, policy and
planning, impact on employment, co-ordination and
competition, cost of service and studied behavior,
characteristics and problem of paratransit drivers
and developed the models to estimate the demand
of paratransit.
Study on design of rotary at Englishia Intersection
studiedthetraffcfowpatternaroundtheintersection
and proposed a traffc management plan around the
Englishia Intersection area at Varanasi.
A study on traffc study for preparation of transport
system management plan for major corridors of
Lucknow,studiedthecharacteristicsofTraffc,parking
and pedestrians and suggested the intersections
improvementsandtraffcmanagementplansatselected
Intersections/locations at Lucknow.
AstudyonComprehensiveTraffcandTransportation
Studies of Goa proposed the short term and long term
solutionsafterconductingthetraffcandtransportation
studies to reduce the congestion and the accidents on
Goa road network and further to suggest the phase-
wise development based on the forecasted travel
demand.
Study on Traffc Medicine-A Status Project basically
envisaged to prepare a status report of Traffic
Medicine for Kerala covering emergency medical care
system in Kerala giving special emphasis to Trivandrum.
Prepared resource material for training NGOs and other
interested persons in taking care of accident victims
andadministeringfrst-aidataccidentsiteandstudied
the present system of trauma registry in hospitals and
suggest methods for improvement.
A study on Preparation of Parking Policy for nine
TIER II Cities in Karnataka, i.e. Mangalore, Mysore,
Hubli-Dharwar, Bellary, Belgaum, Gulbarga, Bijapur,
Tumkur and Davangere studied parking characteristics
based on the CTTS studies available and suggested
the various parking measures in addition to cap on
registering a certain number of automobiles as a
demand management measure.
StudyonTraffcManagementandParkingSpacesfor
Fairs at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi studied the parking
requirements and various traffc management plans
during the fairs and suggested that various options
oftraffcmanagementandparkingspacealternatives
to reduce the congestion around the Pragati Maidan
during the Fairs.
A study on design and drawing of 10 intersections
withcomprehensivetraffccirculationschemearound
CBD within New Town, Kolkata, taken up to study the
traffc fow pattern and suggest the improvements at
the selected ten intersections at Kolkata and traffc
management schemes around the CBD area to reduce
the congestion.
A study on Planning and design of grade separator
at Crossing of Road No. 56 and G.T. Road near
6 GENERAL REPORT ON
Apsara Border in Delhi studied the feasibility of
grade separated and detailed design drawings were
prepared, comprehensive scheme showing the general
arrangement drawings showing the fyover, ramps,
underpass and adjoining roads at proposed location
have been shown. Based on this study grade separator
was constructed and opened to the traffc during the
CWG (Common Wealth Games-2010) at Delhi.
A study on Construction of Road Under Bridge (RUB),
connecting Road No. 58 and 64, passing under Delhi
Ghaziabad Railway line near Jhilmil Colony, Delhi
studied the feasibility of RUB and detailed design
drawings were prepared and submitted to the client.
Study on consultancy services for formulation of master
plan for National network of Expressways in India
recommend guidelines for the new expressways, ROW
and facilities for pedestrians if passing through urban
areas and further recommended a separate called
the National Expressway Authority of India (NEAI) for
functioning and execution of expressways.
A study on comprehensive mobility plan for Indore urban
Area envisages measures to strengthen Pedestrian
movement, Junction improvement plans to ease the
movement of traffc and well as pedestrians, parking
and public transport proposals.
A study on detailed project report for Mumbai Metro
Phase II & III: Mahim BKC Kanjur Marg via Airport
workedoutthefnancialviabilityoftheproject.
A study on feasibility study for elevated rail corridor
from Churchgate to Virar in Mumbai is to study
the feasibility of two track elevated corridor with
a capacity to run 15 car, air conditioned trains for
Churchgate Virar section along the existing tracks
with least disturbance to existing operations, the
study is under progress.
Study on technical consultancy for preparation of
detailed project report for 3 Metro Corridors in
Kolkata to study the implementation of new metro rail
corridors in Kolkata and the study is aimed to provide all
necessary details to RVNL for preparing tender design
andtenderdocumentsforfoatingthetenderondesign
and construct basis, the study is under progress.
The study on constraints in developing West Coast
Canal in Kerala Case Study of National Waterway
No.III suggested some measures such as taking
adequate measures for effective integration of IWT
and coastal shipping, integration of IWT with rail and
road to improve connectivity, revival of inland vessels
building subsidy scheme and operationalisation of
freight subsidy scheme, formation of an inland vessel
leasing company and strengthen the set up of Kerala
Govt. for fulflling its obligation as a regulator under
Inland Vessel Act.
A study on Computation of Price Index for Auto and Taxi
Operations(PIATO)aimedattofndouttheoperational
characteristics like passenger load, passenger lead,
daily collection and expenditures (fxed and V.C) of
Auto and Taxi operations in Kerala and to prepare a
Price Indices for Auto and Taxi Operations (PIATO) for
understanding the periodical movement of prices of
operating cost, and other inputs for different types of
Auto and Taxi operations. Accordingly, study suggested
the Price Indices for Auto Rickshaw Operations (PIARO)
other modes.
A study on pre-feasibility study for Improving road
connectivity to Kannur airport, based on limited surveys
conducted,roughcostestimate,andfnancialanalysis,
the study suggested that development to 4/6 lane
standards on Public Private partnership on annuity
basis is viable. Further, suggesting the Government
should bear the initial cost of land acquisition and
provide a viability gap funding or annuity to ensure
the expected 16 percent return on investment. All
other referred roads may be developed as per the
existing practices and full budgetary support by the
Government.
As study on Development of GIS Based National
Highway Information System is to develop National
Highways Information System in GIS environment which
is to be achieved through collection and collation of road
related information both from primary and secondary
sources for 50,000 km long National Highways network
(except roads under NHDP), the study is under
progress.
A study on Evaluation of Operational Efficiency
of Highway Network Using Travel Time Reliability
Measures is to evaluate operational efficiency/
characteristics of highway transportation system by
considering various travel time reliability measures, the
study is under progress.
The study on Application of Geographical Information
System (GIS) in Traffc Congestion Management is
to frame a methodology for measurement of traffc
congestion is developed and to quantify the magnitude
of the congestion, the study is under progress.
A study on Modelling of driving cycle for road network
development plan in urban area and suburban area
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 7
applying GPS A case study in NCR is to Model the
driving cycles and fnd the effect of road geometry,
traffc volume, speed-limit on driving cycle, the study
is under progress.
A study on Travel Time Related Performance Measures
for Evaluation of Sustainable Road Transportation
System is to identify various performance Measures for
evaluating sustainability of road Transportation System
and analyse the variability of travel time under various
uncertainties from demand side and supply side of the
system, the study is under progress.
A study on Development of Multimodal Level of
Service (MMLoS) Measure for Urban Roads of India
is to develop Level of Service (LOS) measure for
pedestrians on intersection of Indian roads, the study
is under progress.
A study on Effect of Bypass Road on Traffic and
Habitants along Highway is to propose various
measures to control haphazard growth pattern along the
Highways after identifying the performance parameters
of growth and extent of ribbon sprawl along the National
Highway, the study is under progress.
A study on Evaluation Study on Use of On-Site
Vi sual i zati on Method for Moni tori ng of Safety
Management at Construction Site is to evaluate the use
of On-Site Visualization (OSV) Method for Monitoring of
Safety Management at Construction Site (AIIMS Metro
Station). The safety awareness and consciousness
among various stakeholders during construction was
demonstrated.
4.2 Safety and Environment
Research works reported in the area of Safety and
Environment relate to projects on ambient air quality,
traffcemergentsituations,accident&safetyaspects
including safety audit of national highways at design
stage and safety audit of state highways/MDR/ODR
and Road user behavior, Driver simulation and Micro
Simulation based Driving Cycle in Delhi City.
Out of total 8 Projects reported, 2 projects are
reported first time both studies relating to the safety,
one on safe speed limits and second study is on
Road safety audit of Punjab State Highways/MDR/
ODR and Road user behaviour . Under the on-going/
completed section total 6 projects are reported
relating to the pedestrian studies, Road safety,
Micro Simulation based Driving Cycle in Delhi City
for Sustainable Transportation System, Distracted
Driving in Simulated Environment and one project
on study on ambient air quality and its contribution
to climate change in Kerala.
AstudyonImpactofpostingscientifcspeedlimitson
National Highways - Case study of Thiruvananthapuram-
Kollam section of NH-47 studied the various factors
governing the speed limit for various sections of
NH under study, identifcation and design of various
speed control devices and signage scheme for such
locations. It also spells out the techniques available
for monitoring speed limit and traffc management.
It is expected that implementation of the speed limit
scheme at appropriate level, would improve the safety
effcientoperationofthefacilitytothesatisfactionof
the various road users.
A study on development of road safety strategy and
generating awareness on traffic and road safety -
Package VII (Phase-II), study frst phase covers the
road safety audit to be conducted on state highways/
MDR/ODR and Road user behaviour, second phase
covers based these studies road safety measures and
generation of awareness plan would be disseminated
and monitored along the project road stretches in
Punjab.
AstudyonPedestrianBehaviourUndervariedTraffc
and Spatial conditions envisaged three types of crossing
patterns exist in Indian conditions. These are single
stage, rolling and two stage. The study shows that
speed-density forms negative exponential relations
for crossing facilities and speed-density relationship
is exponential in all types of walking facilities except
for pedestrians walking through carriageway where
as it is linear. A level of service criteria was developed
for crossing and walking facilities with pedestrian
perception under Indian conditions.
A study on Safety Audit for development period of the
6-laning of Chilakaluripet Vijayawada section of
NH-5 from km 355.00 to km 434.150 in the State of
Andhra Pradesh to be executed as BOT (Toll) on DBFO
Pattern under NHDP (length 82.5 km) carried out the
design stage audit and recommend the various safety
measures at the design stage.
A study on Safety Audit for Development & Construction
period for Package No. 1- 6 - laning of Gurgaon
Kotputli Jaipur section of NH-8 (NHDP V). under
PPP on DBFO basis (Total length 231.0 km) proposed
to carry out the safety audit at development stage as
well as construction stage to enhance the safety during
8 GENERAL REPORT ON
the design stage as well as construction stage, the study
is under progress.
A study on ambient air quality and its contribution to
climate change in Kerala proposed is to assess the
air quality in Kerala State and develop a model for
change in climatic conditions due to air pollution and
formulate further preventive and control measures for
abatement of air pollution. The Air Pollution Index and
Wind Rose graphs are prepared after monitoring air
pollutants at 55 locations. From the study results it
indicates that deposition as well as the dispersion of
air pollutants in the ambient air. A prediction model
for change in climatic condition due to air pollution
in the State will be developed, the study is under
progress.
A study on Distracted Driving in Simulated Environment:
Present Challenges and Mitigation is to compare the
behaviour of drivers risk taking practices in both distracted
driving conditions and driving without distraction,
the study results used to create awareness among
the road users and drivers to see the consequences
whichareotherwisemayprovefatalinrealistictraffc
environment.
A study on Micro Simulation based Driving Cycle in
Delhi City for Sustainable Transportation System is
to estimate the emissions based on real world driving
cycle for Delhi, the study is under progress.
5. Research Work done in Academic Institutes
related to Thesis Work
A total of 46 research works have been reported in
the area of Traffc Engineering and Transportation
Planning encompassing various projects focusing on
traffc fow simulation, roadway capacity estimation
of two lane and multi-lane highways, congestion cost
studies of multi lane highways, traffc management
studies, energy consumption of selected transport
modes, road user cost equations for high speed
corridors, road crash management, safety issues on
inter-city roads, impact of metro on mobility patterns,
Mobility Strategies for Inclusive Development, Role of
PPP in Urban Transport, Transit Oriented Development
on typical urban arterials, Impact of Mobility Hub on
Urban Arterial Road Network and Modeling Travel
Time Variations, Evaluation of Relationships Between
Pavement Distress Parameters and Assessment of
impact of communication technologies on shopping
trips etc.
Out of the 46 reported research studies, 14 are either
completed or ongoing Ph.D. works and the remaining
32 are completed Masters dissertation works reported
from various institutions like IIT(Madras), SPA (New
Delhi), CSIR-CRRI (New Delhi), M.S. University
(Vadodara), NIT (Surathkal), S.V. NIT (Surat), College
of Engineering, (Thiruvananthapuram), IIT (Roorkee)
and Anna University, Chennai.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 9
I. PAVEMENT ENGINEERING & MATERIALS
1. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
SUMMARY
Research work reported under the area of Flexible Pavementincludesstudiestofndoutthepossibleutilizationoffy
ash,marbledustandwasteplasticsasfllerandfneaggregateinbituminousmixes.Laboratoryandfeldperformance
studies pertaining to the cold mixes, warm mixes additives for soil stabilization and use of nanotechnology based
materials in pavement layers have been also reported. Some of the reported studies includes performance of use of
coir and jute geotextile. Studies on use of plastic waste are also reported. Long term performance studies on use
ofSBSmodifedbitumenonheavilytraffckedroadshavebeencompleted.Laboratorystudiesonthinstonematrix
asphalt are also reported.
Therearenineprojectswhichhavebeenreportedfrsttime.Twelveprojectsarereportedundertheongoingand
completed project category.
SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Utilizationoffyash,wasteplasticandmarbledustinbituminousmixes
2. Use of warm mixes in bituminous road construction
3. UseofthinSMAforpreventivemaintenanceoffexiblepavement
4. Use of jute and coir based geotextile in pavements
5. Use of chemical additives include nanotechnology for stabilization of soil
6. Performanceofpolymermodifedbitumen
7. Sustainable technologies for pothole repair & patching
10 GENERAL REPORT ON
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST
TIME
1. Development of Fly AshWaste Plastic
Composite for Construction of Bituminous
Roads
Date of Start: March 2011
Date of Completion: March 2013
CSI R- Cent ral Road Research I nst i t ut e,
New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
The objective of the project, is development of technology
forutilizationofwasteplastic-fyashcompositeasfller
andfneaggregateinbituminousroadconstruction.To
achieve this objective, following scope of work have
beenidentifed:
Optimization of fly ash and waste plastic for
development of useful composite
Performance of bituminous mixes containing
modifedfyash.
Methodology
Following methodology shall be adopted to carry out
study :
Characterizationoffyash,pondashandplastic
waste material
Optimization of fly ash and plastic waste for
development of composites
Characterization of composite by IR, TGA, DSC
and microscopic methods
Optimization of dose of FLYPLA in a SMA and
BC mixes.
Study of fatigue, rutting and moisture sensitivity
of SMA and BC mixes
Data analysis and report preparation
Signifcance/UtilizationPotential
Plastic waste along with byproduct of thermal power
planti.epondashwillfndpotentialforuseinbituminous
roadconstructiontoreplaceconventionalfllermaterial
andfveaggregate.
Limitations of Conclusions/Recommendations for
furtherwork/furtherproposedwork
Study is under progress.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Dr. P.K. Jain, (pramodj.crri@nic.in), Chief Scientist &
Head, Flexible Pavement Division CSIR-Central Road
Research Institute, New-Delhi-110 025.
2. Laboratory Study to Determine the Suitability
of Fly Ash and Marble Dust as Mineral Filler
in Micro-Surfacing Mixture
Date of Start: October 2007
Date of Completion: April 2010
CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi
Scope and Objectives
Themajorobjectivesoftheprojectaretofndoutthe
viabilityofutilizationoffyashandMarbledustasmineral
fllerinmicrosurfacingmix.Foraccomplishmentofthe
objectives,followingscopeofworkwereidentifed:
Developmentofsuitabletypeofpolymermodifed
(Naturalrubber/SBRmodifed)emulsiontomeet
out the compatibility requirement with micro
surfacing aggregate blend
Laboratory evaluation of polymer modified
emulsion, mineral aggregate and waste materials
i.efyashandmarbledust
Development of new formulations of micro
surfacingmixwithfyashandmarbledust
Determinationofoptimumcontentoffyashand
marble dust in micro surfacing mix
Laboratoryevaluationofmodifedmicrosurfacing
mix at varying percentage of bitumen emulsion
Analysis of results
Development of mix design guidelines for micro
surfacing mix containing waste materials i.e fy
ash and marble dust
Methodology
Micro surfacing is the mixture of polymer modifed
bitumen emulsion, mineral aggregate, water and
necessary additive (if needed). Mineral aggregate, fy
ash and marble dust were characterized to fnd out
their engineering properties. Micro surfacing aggregate
blend containing fyash and marble dust in varying
percentage (by total wt. of aggregate) were prepared as
pertherequirementofIRC:SP-81.Polymer modifed
bitumen emulsion than mixed with the aggregate blend
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 11
and prepared micro surfacing slurry were evaluated on
various performance parameters given in IRC:SP-81
and ISSA A-143. Optimization of fy ash and marble
dust concentration in the micro surfacing were carried
out with the help of consistency, set time and wet track
abrasion tests.
SBR modi f i ed bi t umen emul si on can be
successfully used for preparation of micro
surfaci ng sl urry wi th fl y ash and marbl e
dust.
Micro surfacing slurry prepared with SBR
modified bitumen emulsion satisfies all the
requirement of quick set quick traffc mix
system.
Limitations of Conclusions/Recommendations for
furtherwork/furtherproposedwork
Research study can be further extended in to the
following areas :
Effectoffnecontenti.e.fyashandmarbledust
over deformation characteristics of micro surfacing
mix
Variation in the upper limit of emulsion content with
the varying concentration of fy ash and marble
dust in the mix
DevelopmentofemulsiferforpreparationofSBR
latexmodifedemulsion
Relation between the torsional elastic recovery
and ductility of residual bitumen
Naturalrubbermodifedbitumenemulsionvs.SBR
latexmodifedbitumenemulsion
Reports/Publications
1. Project report entitled Laboratory study to
determinethesuitabilityoffyashandmarbledust
asmineralfllerinmicrosurfacingisavailablewith
CRRI.
2. Interim conclusion of the project report help to
develop IRC:SP-81 Tentative Specifcation for
Slurry Seal and Microsurfacing.
3. Satish Pandey, Dr. Sangita, Dr. N.K.S Pundhir,
Microsurfacing: An Ecofriendly Bailout for Indian
Roads, 11
th
-12
th
Feb.2011, presented in 8
th
All
India People Technology Congress, Kolkata.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Dr. P.K. Jai n, Chi ef Sci enti st & Head, Fl exi bl e
Pavements, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New-Delhi110 025.

P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

p
a
s
s
i
n
g

b
y

w
e
i
g
h
t

SieveSizeinmm
Microsurfacingwith
FlyAsh
uppervalue
lowervalue
Fig. 1 Aggregate blend containing 8 percent fy ash (by wt. of aggregate)
Table1DeterminationofTraffcTime and
Cohesion Characteristics
Time
in
Minute
Torque in kg-cm
Job Mix A Job mix B Job mix C SpecifedValue
15 11 14 9 12 kg-cm in
30 minute
20 kg-cm in
60 minutes
30 14 17 11
60 21 26 18
120 27 31 23
180 28 33 24
240 29.5 34 26
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
Marble dust can be used successfully in the micro-
surfacing mix as alternate of ordinary Portland
cement.
Micro surfacing mix containing 6 percent marble
dust by wt. of aggregate, offer better set time in
comparison to Fly Ash mix.
Lowcalciumfyashcannotbeusedasreplacement
of OPC in the micro surfacing mix.
Flyashcanbeutilizedsuccessfullyasfnesinthe
micro surfacing mix.
Bothmarbledustandfyashofferbettercohesion
and torque resistance to the micro surfacing mix.
Under wet abrasive condition mix containing
fy ash and marble dust offers better abrasion
resistance.
12 GENERAL REPORT ON
3. Laborat ory Eval uat i on of Warm Mi x
Additives
Date of Start: July 2009
Date of Completion (Actual): April 2010
i. MeadWestvaco India Pvt. Ltd., Pune-
(I)
ii. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
To evaluate Evotherm additive for its ability to bring down
the mixing and compaction temperature of bituminous
mixes as compared to the conventional mix and to
check whether it affects the other mix performance
properties.
Methodology
Designof30-45mmthickBituminousConcrete
(BC) using VG-30 grade bitumen.
Warmmixadditivewasaddedtothebitumen@
0.5 percent by weight of the bitumen and BC mix
was designed.
Various performance tests of the prepared mix
were carried out in laboratory and the behavior
of Evotherm Warm Mix Asphalt was studied and
compared with the conventional bituminous mix.
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
Warmmixat(150C) can be successfully laid at
lower temperature as low as 100C as compared
to conventional hot mix.
Warmmixasphaltisabletoachievethedesired
properties of mix like, stability, durability, workability,
compaction, resistance to deformation.
Reduction of the mixing and compaction
temperature by 35C.
Improvedresistancetopermanentdeformation.
Limitations of Conclusions/Recommendations for
further work
It is obvious that there will be an overall reduction in
quantity of emission of pollutants when the mix is made
at 120C than at 155C. Extensive study is required in
this area to get better conclusion. Field performance
studies have to be carried out to actually see and
substantiate the behavior and economy of the warm
mix in pavements.
Furtherinformation/Copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Dr. P.K. Jain, Chief Scientist & Head, Flexible Pavement
Division, CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi-110 025.
Phone 011-2631 1117 Fax +91 2684 5943;
e-mail ID: pramodj.crri@nic.in
4. Feasibility Study on Use of RoadCem for Use
in Situ Stabilization of Soil
Date of Start: May 2010
DateofCompletion(Targeted/Actual):
December 2011
i. PowerCem Technologies, SK Moerdijk,
Neitherlands(I)
ii. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
Laboratory studi es on use of RoadCem i n the
stabilization of soil
Methodology
Inthisstudy,engineeringpropertiesofsoilwere
investigated.
RoadCemwasusedasasoilstabilizerattherate
of 0.1 percent by weight of the soil along with
10 percent cement by weight of the soil.
SamplespreparedforCBR,UCSandITSwere
tested with and without the addition of stabilizer.
Durabilitywasinvestigated
TheeffectofRoadCemStabilizerwasstudiedand
necessary recommendations were made based
on the test data.
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/
Supporting Data
The CBR values of untreated soil sample after
7 days soaking period is found to be 7 percent,
whereas the soil stabilized with 10 percent
cement and 0.1 percent Roadcem by weight
of soil indicates CBR value of 126.4 percent
(7 days soaking) as compared to 122.8 percent
(7 days soaking) for cement stabilized soil without
Roadcem.
TheUCSofuntreatedsoilafter7dayscuringis
found to be 1.07 kg/cm
2
.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 13
The soil stabilized with 10 percent cement
and 0.1 percent Roadcem gives 28 days curing
UCS value of 26.1 kg/cm
2
as compared to
25.6 kg/cm
2
UCS value for cement stabilized soil
without Roadcem.
Theadditionof10percentcementand0.1percent
Roadcem lead to increase in CBR as well as UCS
value of soil.
From durability test, it is observed that the
resistance to effect of water on strength for soil
treated with 10 percent cement and 0.1 percent
Roadcem is 92 percent and as compared to
78 percent of cement stabilized soil.
Recommendations for further work / further
proposed work
Full scale feld studies may be done for large scale
adoption of RoadCem technology.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Dr. P.K. Jain, Chief Scientist & Head, Flexible Pavement
Division, CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi-110 025
Phone 011-2631 1117 Fax +91 2684 5943;
e-mail ID: pramodj.crri@nic.in
5. Zycosoi l Nanot echnol ogy Mul t i l ayer
Waterproofng Treatment of Soil and Asphalt
Concrete in Road Construction
Date of Start: March 2010
Date of Completion (Actual): June 2010
i. Zydex Industries, Vadodara (R,S)
ii. Gujarat, Panchayat (R&B), Vadodara (R, C)
iii. GERI, Vadodara (R, C, I)
Scope and Objectives
Study on Zydex nanotechnologies and its effcacy to
enhance pavement life on black cotton soil and water
logged area.
Methodology
Soil base: Zycosoil (new name Terrasil for soil
application) applied on the compacted soil layers
f or maki ng wat er pr oof ed vapour per meabl e
layer
WBM/Carpetlayer: Prime / Tack coat using Zycosoil
(new name Terrasil) solution with cationic bitumen
emulsion and sprayed on WBM / Carpet layer for
improved wetting, penetration, bonding and quick
set.
Asphalt layer: Zycosoil added in hot asphalt binder
@ 0.1 percent by weight of binder and mixed thoroughly
withcirculatingpump.Thehotmodifedasphaltbinder
(80/100 Pen.) was mixed with heated aggregates in
drum mix plant at site.
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/
Supporting Data
Sections AD detail the findings and define the
benefts/potentialapplicabilityofthetechnology.
Section A: No waterproofng treatment- Bituminous
surface stripped out and formed big depression
with water pond, few cracks and depression were
observed.
Section B: Subgrade and Sub-base waterproofng-
(Black top) BT surface was little bit damaged and
cracks and settlement on BT surface at few places
observed.
Section C: Waterproofng of Subgrade and Sub-base,
WBM primecoat, tack coat on carpet layer and anti-
strippingadditive on carpet &wearing coat (BUSG
between WBM and carpet not treated)-waterproofng
treatment in earth work and BT surface has worked
perfectly.
Section D: Only wearing coat is treated- no pot holes,
no cracks, no depression was observed.
Limitations of Conclusions/Recommendations for
furtherwork/furtherproposedwork
Long term evaluation by GERI, Vadodara for 3 post
monsoon years for conclusive effectiveness of the
technology
Initial visual inspection in June 2011 shows no
deterioration.
Reports/Publications
Firstpostmonsoonreportdetailingeffectiveness
documented in year 2010, issued by Gujarat
Engineering Research Institute, Vadodra.
14 GENERAL REPORT ON
SecondreportexpectedbyOct2011.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Zydex Industries, 25-A, Gandhi Oil Mill Compound,
Gorwa, Vadodara-390 016, Gujarat
Phone +91 265 2280120 Fax +91 265 2280872,
e-mail ID: info@zydexindustries.com
6. Zycosoil Nanotechnology Application in Leh
Road, BRO
Date of Start : March 2011
Date of Completion (Actual): March 2011
i. Zydex Industries, Vadodara, Gujarat (R,C)
ii. Border Roads Organisation, Leh (R,I)
Scope and Objectives
Zycosoil additive mixed with hot asphalt binder for
improving asphalt-aggregate bonding, eliminating
moisture sensitivity (anti-stripping) and to improve
compaction and workability.
Methodology
Zycosoil added in hot asphalt binder @ 0.15 percent by
weight of binder and mixed thoroughly with circulating
pump.The hot modifed asphalt binder (80/100 Pen.)
was mixed with heated aggregates in drum mix plant
at site.
Signifcance/UtilisationPotential
Laying & compaction of asphalt concrete was
found to be better and no sticking was observed
on the compactors roller. It took 4 passes as
against 8 passes inconventional material, for
same amount of compaction.
Asphalt coating on aggregates found to be a
very uniform coating and mixture was found
shiny.
Field Lab Test Report:-
Stripping value at 0.1 percent to 0.15 percent dose
was found 90 to 100 percent.
Better bonding and improved stability laboratory
test samples of Zycosoil mixed Asphalt concrete
mixture.
Zycosoil mixed easily in hot melted asphalt
tank.
Recommendations for further work / further
proposed work
Considering the life of pavements and low stripping
value which happens on the mountainous snowy roads
quartzite/metamorphic rock aggregates, it is strongly
recommended to carry out extensive trials & long term
evaluation of the pavements.
Reports/Publications
Report issued by Border Roads Organisation
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Zydex Industries, 25-A, Gandhi Oil Mill Compound,
Gorwa, Vadodara-390 016, Gujarat.
Phone +91 265 2280120, Fax +91 265 2280872,
e-mail ID: info@zydexindustries.com
7. Evaluation of Bituminous Layers Bond
Strength
Date of Start : December 2010
Date of Completion : On-going
L&T ECC, LTD (R.I)
Scope and Objectives
In recent times there has been a notable increase in the
slippage cracks on high volume highways, expressways
and runways. In runways the areas subjected to high
breaking and turning have been found to be prone to
slippage cracks. In highways and in particular at ghat
road section with curves, top layers experiences high
breaking and turning forces. The slippage cracks mainly
occur due to poor bonding between the asphalt layers.
The bonding between the pavement layers is achieved
with application of sufficient quantity of asphalt
emulsion tack coat. The lack of testing procedures
to evaluate the bond strength between layers, often
leads to the use of inferior quality material as binding
agents leading to bond related cracks and failure.
Therefore, there is a need to develop and regularize
a test procedure to determine the bond strength
between various pavement layers. Larsen and Toubro
Construction Research and Testing Centre (LTCRTC)
had taken up the task to evaluate a runway portion
with slippage cracks. The bond strength between the
DBM and BC layers were evaluated with the in-house
developed bond strength set up. Further to study the
effect of tack coats, the same set up was also used to
evaluate few laboratory prepared samples.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 15
Methodology
Bituminous core samples with intact DBM and
BC were obtained from the distressed and non-
distressed areas of the runway or a pavement.
The samples were evaluated for their dimensions
and density.
The LTCRTC developed bond strength set up
was used to determine the bond strength of the
specimen.
The set up had arrangement to keep the DBM part
ofthespecimenfxedandtheBCportioncould
be sheared.
The BC portion was loaded circumferentially at
the rate of 1mm/min till the specimen failed at the
interface.
The maximum load at failure is recorded and used
to determine the bond strength of the specimen.
Laboratory samples were also prepared using
Marshall Compactor with rapid setting emulsion
as the bi nder between the DBM and BC
layers.
Conclusions
The specimens were found to fail at the interface.
The average Bond strength of the core samples
was found to be around 0.6 MPa. As per
International practice bond strength of 1.0 MPa
has been found to be adequate for critical sections
of runways where as a bond strength of 0.5 MPa
has been found to give good performance for
highways.
Samples prepared with emulsion as bonding
agent were found to be dependent with minimum
curing period. Some emulsions even after 28 days
of curing have not improved the bond strength
beyond 0.2 Mpa.
Some laboratory samples have been evaluated
with some mechanical interlocking grooves, which
can enhance the shear strength properties at the
intersection.
Recommendationsforfurtherwork/furtherproposed
work
Bond strength depends on climate conditions and
the application process. Due to high wind and
crude methods of application will not be able to
yield better bond properties.
Guidelines on tack coats in terms of mechanical
properties will be very essential to improve the
service life of highways.
Further information can be obtained from
Larsen & Toubro Construction Research and Testing
Centre.
8. Penetrative Preservation Installation Project
on NH-8 Beawar to Gomti
Date of Start : October 2010
Date of Completion : On-going
i. ASI Solutions plc (R)
ii. ITNL (S)
iii. CRRI (I)
iv. Gordon Paving (I)
Scope and Objectives
The scope is to evaluate the benefts of applying a
Penetrative Preservation onto a relatively new surfaced
road to extend the operational life of that road.
The objectives of this project were:
Carry out an installation section on a post
investigatory section of new road, NH8 Beawar
to Gomti, Rajastan.
On-site monitoring of the Penetrative Preservation
area against a control section over a range of
extreme weather conditions
On-site testing with laboratory evaluation of the
benefts Penetrative Preservation can give in
extending the operational life of that road.
Methodology
To carry out a series of site inspections to pre and post
application of the Penetrative Preservation product and
a series of planned site assessments, pre and post
monsoon, with samples taken for on-going evaluation
between the sprayed sections and the control sections.
The testing ranges from:
- Surfaceprofle
- Bitumen analysis
- Skid Resistance
- Surface integrity
- Hydro Conductivity
- Accelerated ageing
16 GENERAL REPORT ON
Signifcance/UtilisationPotential
Asphalt Preservation as a Means of Reducing
Carbon Footprint in the Road Construction Industry
Rhinophalt Cost Comparison under Indian
Conditions
Case History, Beawar, Rajasthan, India, NH8
Beawar to Gomti
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
M/s ASI Solutions plc
Mobile +44(0)7841863320 Phone+44 (0) 1908246000
Fax+44 (0) 1908246000
e-mail ID:paul.acock@asiplc.co.uk
9. Use of Fly Ash in Construction of Bituminous
Road Surfacings
Date of Start and Duration : April 2009
Date of Completion (Actual) : May 2010
i. NTPC Ltd. (I)
ii. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R)
Present Status and Progress
Completed.Possibleutilizationoffyashasamineral
fller in various bituminous surfacing i.e. bituminous
concrete (BC), Semi dense bituminous concrete (SDBC),
Stone Matrix asphalt (SMA) besides micro surfacing and
cold mix technology has been investigated. Laboratory
evaluation of constituent materials i.e mineral aggregate,
fllers, SMA additive, bitumen and bitumen emulsion
were carried out to determine engineering properties.
Test samples were prepared at varying concentration
of fy ash to fnd out the mechanical and engineering
properties of bituminous mixes. Optimum concentration
of fy ash and binder content in different bituminous
surface treatment has been ascertained though
laboratory detailed studies.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
Pondashcanbeusedasfllerforbituminousroad
construction.
Pond ash can be used upto 5 percent as part
of mineral aggregate for semi dense and dense
bituminous concrete. However, usage of ash may
be in the range of 8-10 percent for microsurfacing
and stone matrix asphalt.
Optimizedmixeswithashasfllerinplaceoflime
led to about 0.2 percent lesser bitumen content,
which amounts to 4-5 percent saving in bitumen
consumption.
Use of ash as fller in SDBC,BC and SMA mix
enhance resistance to moisture sensitivity of
mix as evident from higher value of indirect
tensile strength ratio and retained Marshall
stability, after conditioning Marshall specimen in
water.
Cold mix SDBC containing 5 percent ash indicates
acceptable values of stability and volumetric
properties.
Cold mixed micro-surfacing containing 8 percent
ash and 9 percent latex modified emulsion
meet requirement of specification given in
IRC:SP:81-2008.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
Bituminous mixes containing ash are slightly susceptible
to rutting.
Recommendations for further work
Full scale performance studies are needed for hot mixed
SDBC, BC and SMA as well as cold mixed SDBC, BC
and Micro surfacing for framing standard guidelines and
specifcations.
Recommendations for Discussion/ Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
NeedofIRCGuidelinesandfullscalefeldtrials.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Dr. P.K.Jain, Chief Scientist & Head, Flexible Pavement
Division, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi- 110 025.
B. ON-GOING/COMPLETEDPROJECTS
1. Use of Coir Geotextiles in Road Construction
Date of Start : April 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted) : March 2012
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (R)
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 17
Present Status and Progress
Laboratory experiments were conducted on weak soil
reinforced using natural geotextiles like coir mattings
with different mesh size (half inch and one inch), panama
weave (commercial name given by manufacturer)
and also polymeric geotextile viz. High Density Poly
Ethylene (HDPE). The improvements in soil properties
obtained with the use of coir geotextiles were found
out. It is proposed to lay test tracks and canal bank
protection using biodegradable geotextiles like coir.
The performance of the same will be monitored and
evaluated.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
By providing geo-textiles the CBR value of weaker sub
grades could be enhanced. Thereby, the pavement
layer thickness can be considerably reduced and this
facilitates the construction of roads in poor sub-grade
soil areas.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
Performance studies have to be conducted on test
tracks and canal bank protection constructed using
biodegradable geotextiles like coir. The performance
of the same has to be monitored and evaluated. Also
studies are to be conducted regarding the useful age of
these biodegradable geotextiles like coir.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Director, National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace P. O.,
Thiruvananthapuram-695 004.
2. Resource Mapping of Road Construction
Materials in Kerala - Phase II Pathanamthitta
District
Date of Start: April 2010
Date of Completion (Actual): March 2011
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (R)
Present Status and Progress
Geo referenced maps in GIS platform is prepared for
resource locations in Kollam district with attribute data
containing the physical and engineering properties of
the resources, geo coordinates, photos and bitmaps
showing the accessibility of resource locations. Similar
work is being done for other districts in Kerala. Inventory
oftheaggregatequarriesinfvetaluksofPathanamthitta
District is completed. General data is collected and the
quantum of materials available is assessed. Laboratory
testing of the samples is also completed.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
In the case of coarse aggregate, most of the samples
testedhavedesirablevaluesofSpecifcGravity,Water
absorption, Bulk density and Aggregate Impact Value. As
regards to the shape of the coarse aggregates, higher
values is obtained for the combined index for majority of
samples showing their unsuitability for road construction
purpose when compared with the present MORTH
Specifcations. The properties of the fne aggregate
samples tested are within the values stipulated for
construction purposes.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
Majority of coarse aggregates have combined index
valueshigherthedesirablevaluesspecifedinMORTH
indicating that they are unsuitable for construction
purposes.Thesefndingscallforathoughtontheneed
for revision of the current specifcation of combined
index values, and also for recommending these for low
volume roads.
Recommendations for further Work
Study could be extended by relating the characteristic
properties of the coarse aggregates especially the shape
of the aggregates with the type and age of the crushers
used for their production.
Reports/Publications
Interim Report
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Di rector, Nati onal Transportati on Pl anni ng and
Research Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace,
P.O.,Thiruvananthapuram-695 004.
3. Study on the Use of Waste Plastic for Road
Construction in Urban Areas
Date of Start: April 2009
DateofCompletion(Targeted/Actual):
March 2012
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (R)
18 GENERAL REPORT ON
Present Status and Progress
Marshal Mix design of Bituminous Concrete, Semi Dense
Bituminous Concrete and Dense Bituminous Macadam
using ordinary aggregate and waste plastic coated
aggregate is done and the results are compared. Test
stretchesareresurfacedusingmodifedmixwithplastic
coated aggregates and control section using ordinary
aggregates. Periodical evaluation of the test stretches is
done. Both functional and structural evaluation is done.
Condition survey, roughness, skid resistance and texture
depth studies were done and the results are compared.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
It was found from the studies that the optimum binder
contentgetsreducedbyusingmodifedmixinalltypes
resulting in savings in bitumen. The stability increases
by 1.2 times for DBM and 1.5 times for BC and SDBC.
Aggregates coated with plastic waste showed zero
stripping even after 72 hours of soaking. Roads laid with
modifedmixshoweddelayeddistress.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
Performance studies were conducted only on roads
resurfacedwithmodifedmixhavingwasteplastics.More
studies have to be conducted on roads constructed or
overlaidwithmodifedmixhavingwasteplasticunder
controlled conditions.
Recommendations for further Work
Studies may be extended towards providing input for
evolvingguidelines/specifcationsfortheuseofwaste
plastic materials in road construction and help in its
effective usage thereby reducing a serious community
menace.
Reports/Publications
Interim Report
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtainedfrom
Di rector, Nati onal Transportati on Pl anni ng and
Research Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace,
P. O., Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004.
4. Development of Cold Mix Technology for
Structural Layers of Flexible Pavement in
Different Climates
Date of Start and Duration: April 2006
Date of Completion (Actual): Dec. 2010
CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi
Present Status and Progress
Status : Completed
Year of Last Reporting : 2009-10
Progress : The construction of Bituminous Macadam
as binder course with emulsion based cold mix
technology was carried out with existing hot mix road
construction machineries as Hot mix Plant (with out
heating facility) for manufacturing cold mixes, paver
for laying mixes and road roller at three locations,
viz. (i) Dantaur-Khajuwala in Rajasthan in desert
area, (ii) By-pass Road Aizawl, Mizoram in heavy
rainfall area and (iii) near Jawahar Tunnel on Jammu-
Srinagar National Highway (NH-1A) in J&K under cold
and snow bound area. The semi dense bituminous
concrete / mix seal surfacing were laid over cold mixed
bituminous macadam on the same road stretch. The
post construction performance evaluation was carried
out by visual inspection based on 8- performance
factors.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
Construction of structural layer bituminous
macadam (BM) and semi dense bituminous
concrete (SDBC) and mix seal surfacing (MSS) as
wearing courses using bitumen emulsion based
cold mixes is feasible using presently available
road construction machineries.
The per f or mance of r oad speci f i cat i on
BM+ SDBC and BM+ MSS was satisfactory
after 3 years.
The performance of road specifcation PMC is
satisfactory in High rainfall area (Mizoram) after
3 years.
Construction with cold mix is economical by
15-20 percent as against hot mix.
The construction of road with emulsion based
cold mixes is environment friendly and energy
effcient.
Construction of roads with cold mix technology
is feasible in inclement weather including wet
conditions.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 19
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
The setting of mix takes a longer time compared to hot
mix.
Recommendations for further work
The cold mix technology for construction of dense graded
specifcationsuchasDenseBituminousMacadamand
Bituminous concrete.
Reports/Publications
Report on Development of Emulsion Based Cold Mix
Technology for Structural Layers of Flexible Pavement
is available with CRRI.
Thefollowingtentativespecifcationswereprepared.
TentativeSpecifcationforBituminousMacadam
(Base & Binder Course) with Cationic Bitumen
Emulsion
ProposedTentativeSpecifcationforSemi-Dense
Bituminous Concrete Using Cationic Bitumen
Emulsion
Proposed Tentative Specifcation of Mix Seal
Surfacing (Dense-Graded Premix Carpet) with
Cationic Bitumen Emulsion
Recommendations for Discussion/ Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
Framing of Code for Cold Mix Design for Dense Graded
Mixes.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Dr. P.K. Jain, Chief Scientist & Head, Flexible Pavements
Division, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi110 025.
5. Performance Evaluation of Bituminous
Concrete Surfacing Laid with SBS Modifed
Bitumen (PMB-40) on NH-1, Near Delhi
Date of Start and Duration:March 2006
Date of Completion (Actual): March 2011
CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R )
Present Status and Progress
Status: Completed
Year of Last Reporting: First time
Progress: Laboratory evaluation of SBS modifed
bitumen binder was carried out to determine engineering
properties. Modifed bituminous concrete mixes were
retrieved and laboratory evaluation of retrieved core
sample were carried out to fnd out the bulk density,
Marshall stability, Flow value and marshall quotient.
Important performance parameters of road ie. surface
distress,roughnessanddefectionweremeasuredon
control section constructed with normal bitumen and
thesectionconstructedwithmodifedbitumen.Periodic
performance was monitored for 60 months at the internal
of 6 months.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
ThepropertiesofSBSmodifedbituminousmixes
are superior than bituminous mixes produced with
60/70 conventional bitumen.
SBS modified bituminous mixes have better
resistance to rutting at higher temperatures.
The progression of development of surface
distressislowontestsectionslaidwithmodifed
bitumen as compared to test sections laid with
conventional bituminous mixes.
TherutdepthvalueonSBSmodifedsectionsis
low as compared to conventional sections.
SBSmodifedsectionsindicatedlesserincrease
in roughness than conventional sections.
SBS modifed bitumen performed better than
conventional bitumen under overloading condition/
exceptionallyheavytraffc.
SBS modifed bitumen lead to increase service
life of overlays.
Reports/Publications
Report on Performance Evaluation of Bituminous
Concrete Surfacing Laid with SBS Modifed Bitumen
(PMB-40) on NH-1, Near Delhi is available with CRRI.
Recommendations for Discussion/ Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
Report is useful for revision of IRC:SP:53
20 GENERAL REPORT ON
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Dr. P.K.Jain, Chief Scientist & Head, Flexible Pavement
Division, CSIR- Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi-110 025.
6. Repair of Potholes and Patching using
Jetpatcher and Infrared Recycling Patcher
Date of Start and Duration: December 2010
Date of Completion (Actual): March 2011
i. CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi (R)
ii. Municipal Corporation of Delhi (I)
Present Status and Progress
Status : Completed
Progress
PerformanceofJet Patcher & Infrared Recycling
Patcher and then working on the roads under the
jurisdiction of Municipal Corporation Delhi
Utilityofmachineswithrespecttofllingofpotholes
of different sizes
Utilityofmachinesforpatchingofraveledareain
terms of quality and quantity
Performance of patches prepared and potholes
flledduringlast2-3months
Correctionofothertypesofsurfacedefectslike
cracking, undulations and utility cuts
Efficiency of machines in items of hourly
output
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
Machines are suitable for faster repair of small
as well as large raveled surface area by patching
aswellasfllingofpotholesonvariousroadsof
MCD.
Machines can be used for repair of surface
defects viz., small, medium and deep potholes,
depressions, utility cuts, edge breaks, wheel
path rutting, cracked stripped and raveled area
effciently.
The treated area can be opened for traffic
within30minutesaftercompactionwitheffcient
machine.
Recommendations for further work
Itissuggestedthataggregateinmixedmaterial
mayconformtogradingspecifedinClause No.
519ofMORTHspecifcations.
Rapid Setting-2 (RS-2) Emulsion conforming to
IS:8887-2004 may be used to rejuvenate the
oxidizerd surface and prepair by premix for repair.
Reports/Publications
Reports on Nuphalt Infrared Recycling Patcher & Jet
Patcher Works, are available with CRRI.
Recommendations for Discussion/ Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
IRC may bring out Codes/Guidelines.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Dr. P.K.Jain, Chief Scientist & Head, Flexible Pavement
Division, CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi110 025.
7. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Asphalt
Mixes and Performance Evaluation of Shell
Thiopave Test Sections
Date of Start: July 2010
DateofCompletion(Targeted/Actual): July 2013
CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R)
Present Status and Progress
A Thiopave test has been laid at 1 km with support from
Shell Technical Team. CRRI has done two rounds of
feldperformanceevaluation.Benkelmanbeamstudies
defectionstudiesvisualobservationofthetestsection
and roughness were done and cores were obtained for
further analysis in laboratory.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
TheThiopaveDBMmixtureshavehigherMarshal
stability values than the Conventional DBM
mixtures
TheThiopaveDBMmixtureshavehigherstiffness
values indicating better resistance to rutting
compared to conventional DBM mixture.
TheBenkelmanbeamdefectionvaluesshowed
that the thi opave secti on i ndi cated l ower
characteristic defection as compared to other
two sections showing better structural adequacy
of the pavement.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 21
Recommendations for further work
Work is under progress
Reports/Publications
Interim Report
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Dr. P.K. Jai n, Chi ef Sci enti st & Head, Fl exi bl e
Pavement Division, Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi 110 025.
8. Devel opment of Met hodol ogy f or
Commi ssi oni ng and Si te Acceptance
Test (SAT) of Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS)
Type of APTF
Date of Start: 2010
DateofCompletion(Targeted/Actual): 2010
CSI R-Cent ral Road Research I nst i t ut e,
New Delhi (R,I,S)
Present Status and Progress
Completed.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
The accelerated pavement testing facility is the answer
for the R&D needs of developing performance based
specifcationsformaterialsanddesignasapplicable
to Indian conditions, but in a much shorter period.
Actually, Accelerated Pavement Testing Facility
(APTF) simulates, under controlled conditions of load,
speed and pavement temperature, the rolling action of
the wheels of heavy commercial vehicles to produce
realistic data which otherwise is needed under normal
traffcconditions.
However, the facility requires careful commissioning and
a Site Acceptance Test (SAT) for ensuring its proper
working before any R&D application is made. The same
was achieved under the task.
APTF, after commissioning and SAT, is now ready to
put for R&D usage. When properly used with adequate
planningandwelldefnedobjectives,APTFallowsfor
the monitoring of pavement performance and response
to accelerated accumulation of damage within a shorter
time frame, providing pavement engineers with valuable
information concerning the behaviour, performance, and
life expectancy of pavement structures. This ultimately
results in enhanced understanding of pavement
structures and improved, cost effective design and
rehabilitation construction methods. However, the facility
is expected to be used at various sites in the long run
and hence needs a methodology developed that could
help systematic and near trouble free commissioning
at every new site.
Thus, HVS has been found to help researchers and road
authorities to bring theory and practice together to the
beneftofbothfelds,elsewhere,andthesamemaybe
expected in this country also.
Signifcant/UtilizationPotential
ThedevelopmentandrefnementoftheAPTFprogramme
is expected to have a major technological and economic
impact on the design, construction and maintenance of
Indianroadswithsignifcantcostsavingsandamany-
fold return on research investment. Data obtained from
HVS testing is invaluable as decision support for the
selection of alternative road design and rehabilitation
options.
LimitationsofConclusions/InterimConclusions
SAT is through short term operation period.
Recommendations for further work
Further work involves research applications of APTF
(HVS) involving different new materials, techniques,
designs and maintenance treatments for improved
pavement performance of Indian roads
Reports/Publications
Documented procedures
Further information can be obtained from
Dr. P.K. Jai n, Chi ef Sci enti st & Head, Fl exi bl e
Pavement Division, Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi 110 025.
9. Devel opment & Desi gn of Thi n Stone
Matrix Asphalt (TSMA) Mixes as Preventive
Maintenance Treatment.
Date of Start: 2010
Date of Last Report : 2010
Date of Completion (Actual): 2010
Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R,I,S)
Present Status and Progress
Completed.
22 GENERAL REPORT ON
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
SMA principally is the mineral aggregate composition
(gap-graded) which gives a coarse and frm skeleton
of coarse aggregate. The stresses imposed by traffc
loads can thus be absorbed by coarse aggregates and
recovered by the stone-on-stone contact in the aggregate
skeleton. SMA offers improved functional characteristics
over conventional dense graded bituminous mixes
(DBM and BC). A detailed laboratory investigation
has been carried out on constituent materials used for
production of TSMA, which include Delhi quartzite of
9.5 mm nominal sized stone aggregate, stone dust, lime
as mineral fller, cellulose fbers in the form of pellets
asstabilizingadditivesandpolymermodifedbitumen.
Marshall method of mix design was adopted, wherein
the optimum binder content was calculated based on the
criterion of 4.5 percent air voids in the mix and voids in
the mineral aggregateat min. 17 percent. Following are
thesignifcantfndingsofthestudy:
SMA mixes designed with available aggregate
showed good stone on stone contacts.
The criterion of 17 percent voids in mineral
aggregate and 3 percent air voids in the mix were
fulflledasSMAMixdesignrequirement.
TSRvalueisfoundtobeintherangeofmorethan
80.
ThedraindownvaluesofSMAmixesinvestigated
are in the range of 0.05 to 0.12 percent against
the stipulated value of 0.3 percent. Hence,
use of stabilizing agent reduced the drain
down of SMA mixes at hot storage and during
transportation.
Signifcant/UtilizationPotential
Thin SMA can be use as preventive maintenance
treatment on urban roads to restrict thickness and save
aggregateasitoffersignifcantresistancetodeformation
onheavytraffcroads.
Reports/Publications
Report onDevelopment & Design of Thin Stone Matrix
Asphalt (TSMA) Mixes as Preventive Maintenance
Treatment is available with CRRI.
Further information can be obtained from
Dr. P.K. Jain, Chief Scientist & Head, Flexible Pavement
Division, Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi 110 025
10. Development of Improved Quality Bituminous
Binders Through Polymer Incorporation,
Laying and Monitoring of Test Sections
Date of Start : December 2005
Date of Completion: December 2010
CSIR-Central Road Reseach Institute,
New Delhi (R)
Present Status and Progress
One km test section was laid with 25 mm SDBC
mix prepared with three different modified binders
commercially developed by IIP Dehradoon (under
a CHT funded project) at Chenni Refinery using
modifiers namely crumb rubber modifier (CRM),
styrenebutadienestyrene (SBS) and ethylene butyl
acrylate (EBA). These binders were characterized for
their physical properties as per IRC:SP:53-2002 and
a comparison of the properties of PMBs and CRMB,
theirmodifedmixesandtheirfeldperformanceisbeing
assessed on a 1 km long test section in Uttaranchal on
SH-57 (Sharanpur-Herbertpur Road, km 223 to 224).
Post construction evaluation included unevenness
measurements using dipstick (Photo 1), defection by
Benkelman beam test and evaluation of bituminous mix
properties through testing of core samples extracted
from test section.
Condition of SBS and CRMB sections in June 2009
SBS CRMB
2009
SBS
EBA
View of test section in June 2010

Photo 1
The data generated through this study will become
the basis to compare the relative performance of thin
SDBC overlays containing different PMB/CRMB beside
correlatingthelaboratoryandfeldperformanceofthese
mixes.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 23
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
Based on the field observations, deflection data,
roughness data & subsequent laboratory analysis of
core samples, it was concluded that 25 mm SDBC
overlay constructed with Polymer and Crumb Rubber
modified binders sustained for three years more
than the conventional SDBC under the similar traffc
and and environmental conditions on SH-57.The
comparative performance was in the following order:
SBS>CRMB=EBA.
Recommendations for further Work
Thin PMB/CRMB overlays for State Highways catering
mediumtraffc.
Reports/Publications
Development of Improved Quality Bituminous
Binders Through Polymer Incorporation , Laying
and Monitoring of Test Sections (SSP 4409)
Submitted in Jan, 2011
Use of polymers/waste rubber in road network
in Uttarakhand, Kamal Kumar, and Singh (IIP),
Dr. Sangita, M.N. Nagabhushana, M.P. Singh
& Shivani (CRRI) 10
th
- 12
th
November, 2010
presented at Uttarakhand State Council for Scince
and Technology, Dehradun.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtainedfrom
Dr. P.K. Jain, Chief Scientist & Head, Flexible
Pavement Division, Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi 110 025.
Mobile 99101 13992 Phone 011-2631 1117,
2692 1833, 2692 1835 Fax +91 2684 5943,
e-mail ID: pramodj.crri@nic.in
C. R & D ACTIVITY REPORT BY CONSULTANCY
FIRMS/CONTRACTORS/CONCESSIONARIES
1. Design and Construction of Sub-Grade and
Base Pavement Layers with Soil Stabilized
Base Course (SSB) for Lighter and Durable
Hi ghway Crust for Townshi p Road at
M/s. Sasan Power Limited, Sasan, Madhya
Pradesh (2
nd
Year)
Date of Starting and Duration: 02 Sep 2011
DateofCompletion(Actual/Targeted) : 02 Sep 2011
i. Sasan Power Limited, Madhya Pradesh
(SPL)(I)
ii. India Polyroads Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, Haryana
(IPPL) (R,I)
Scope and Objectives
ToassessthesuitabilityofSSBLayerwithNano
Polymer base SoilTech MK-III for Road, Runway,
Hard Strand Construction by comparing their
Physical, Engineering, Financial and Execution
time properties with those already implemented
vide IRC Codes, MORTH, MORD, NNRDA and
StatePWDsspecifcationsbydetailedLaboratory
investigations.
To correlate design procedure with IRC:37;
as per the Pavement Crust Catalogue frizzed
in IRC:37, though; how the crust derived in
catalogue not detailed but formulas are given
for Layer Theory of Crust Design. Considering
the same formula but different E-module value
of higher strength Layer like SSB, design
establishment has been derived for failure of
Rutting and need to be endorsed.
Desi gn of Pavement Cross Secti on usi ng
SoilTech MK-III, considering the actual traffc
to be stimulated over design life and site
condition.
Geotechnical Laboratory and feld investigation
to evaluate the suitability ofmaterial/design mix/
product application for real time construction.
Qualityexecutionandcontrolassurance,guideline
and its implementation at site.
MonitoringofperformanceofConstructedRoad
over a period of time including monsoon which
includes DCP Test and APTF simulates.
Design, Drawing and Execution Methodology
Design of Road and Concept
As per IRC:37-2001, trail pavement design are to
be analyzed using linear elastic layered theory and
maximum vertical strain on sub-grade and maximum
tensile strain at the bottom of bituminous layer are
computed for a standard load. Design thickness
combination is so selected that the computed critical
strain values, which correspond to the initial condition
of the pavement, are less than the limiting strain
values given by the performance criteria adopted in
the guidelines. Limiting strain criteria have been given
in IRC:37 for two distresses: - rutting along wheel
paths and fatigue cracking in bituminous layers. No
separate criterion is available for rutting in bituminous
layers. The criteria for rutting and fatigue cracking
in bituminous layers are given in Equations 1 and 2
respectively.
24 GENERAL REPORT ON
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ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 25
Thereafter the highway stretch had been constructed
with an over strength Nano Polymer Base Liquid called
SoilTech MK-III, as a composite SSB (Soil Stabilized
Base) Layer. While calculating the stress/strain failures
in Layer Theory formulated in IRC:37 for this crust, it was
found the reduced crust itself is more than enough to
take 5 CBR & 4 msa design over a period of 10 years.
Table B- Cross-Section Overview
CONVENTIONAL CRUST
PMC 20 mm
BM 50 mm
WMM 250 mm
GSB 250 mm
SUB GRADE 500mm
POLYMAR STABILIZED ROAD
SEAL COAT 10 mm
BM 40 mm
SOIL STABILIZED BASE 150 mm
GSB 125 mm
SUD GRADE 200 mm
Execution Methodology
Atfrsttheselectedborrowsoilwasspreadover
the Sub-grade top layer.
The additional blending ofAggregates for SSB
layer as per Design/requirement was spread over
the borrow soils for 150 mm thickness layer and
the aggregates mixed thoroughly with borrow soils.
OMC of the material to be stabilized was
calculated as per lab. Thereafter SoilTech MK-III
@ 0.5 percent of the weight of Soil to be stabilized
was added to the water in the water tanker.
ThiswatermixedwithSoilTechwasspreadover
uniformly on the desired layer.
PulverizationontheSSBlayerafterapplyingthe
SoilTech MK-III.
Afterpropermixing,thesurfacewasgradedtothe
required camber and compacted to 98 percent of
MDD.
On completion of stabilization , a diluted mix of
SoilTech + Water was sprinkled on treated road
surface in order to avoid dust during its usage by
the villagers and as the wearing course had be
done after 7 days.
Situations of Constructions
In this particular project the borrow/In-situ material
available in the entire stretch was plastic soil. Then,
additional 15 percent of 0 - 40 mm size aggregate
blended with this soil and then Soil Tech MK-III used. The
outcome is excellent with CBR more than 90 percent,
UCS 2918 KPa and Resilient Modulus 4578 MPa.
PerformanceofSuchNewMaterials/Technology
The product had been invented long 13 years back
and being used extensively in South Africa, Australia,
Middle East, Europe and Far East Countries. Before
India Polyroads launched it commercially in India,
extensive trials were conducted in many places and
the outcomes are evaluated by Premier Authorities like
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, Indian
Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, Council
forScientifcIndustrialResearch,SouthAfricaetc.
AnnexedTabularReportsarethefactfndingresults:
Table C
Sr.
No.
Description Test Type
IIT, Kharagpur Test Results IPPL, Gurgaon
CSIR, South Africa
Test Results
Sasan Power Ltd
Township Road
Natural
Soil
With 0.5%
SoilTech MK-III
by weight of
Soil
Natural Soil
With 0.5%
SoilTech
MK-III by
weight of
Soil
Natural
Soil
With 0.5%
SoilTech MK-
III by weight
of Soil
Natural
Soil
With 0.5%
SoilTech
MK-III by
weight of
Soil
A. Physical Properties of Natural Soil
1 Gradation
Gravel (%) 17.00 12.00 24.00 4.3
Sand (%) 62.00 34.50 52.00 72.2
Silt & Clay (%) 21.00 53.50 24.00 23.5
2 Liquid Limit (%) 25.00 33.50 28.00 26.67
...Contd.
26 GENERAL REPORT ON
3 Plastic Limit (%) 13.00 19.60 18.00
4 Plasticity Index (%) 12.00 13.90 10.00 10.44
15%
Aggregate
Blending
materials
B. Laboratory Output results with Soil Tech MK-III
5 C.B.R. (%) 16.80 30.80 7.60 28.50 28.00 101.00 12.90 40.57
6 U.C.S. (KPa) 790 3871 378 1465 386 1100 (soaked) 2918
7 Resilient Modulus (MPa) 154 8016 268 6895 4578
C. Field Testing & Visual Observation
8 C.B.R. (%)
IIT & CRRI
Laboratory Test Only
90
9 R.I.(mm/km) 1706
10 Rutting Not Found
11 Actual Traffic Stimulation 3,000 ESAL
Looking to Table C and Layer Theory of Highway
Design (IRC:37); it is now understood that once, we
are replacing Base /Sub-base Layer with SSB Layer,
the impact of wheel load or failure of Fatigue & Rutting
minimize substantially.
Themostsignifcantandimpotentpointinthisroadtobe
noted that the Soil Stabilized Base (SSB) Layer which
is the top surface now has not been salted with the
designed Bituminous Layer. Already 2
nd
monsoon period
is going to get over and movement the earth moving
equipments such as dumpers, Tripper and 110 Transit
Mixture Machine on the bed of SSB layer is intact with
no Rutting, Porthole or any other failure.
Evaluation Report (Half Yearly) and Performance under
real traffc is regularly submitted to IRC and all other
premium Government Organisation.
Interim Conclusion
TheusageofNanoPolymerbaseSoilTechMK-
III has been optimized at 0.5 to 0.55 percent by
weight of Mix to be stabilized for cost effective
SSB Layer. In case, soil criteria dont suit, then
additional blending of material recommended.
The Geotechnical Characteristics, Laboratory
resultsandfeldin-situresultsofmanytypeof
soil stabilization are available. It is now time
to evaluate the standard of each based on
Strength, Durability and Ease of Application.
The outcome results of SoilTech MK-III is
substantially higher than any other stabilizer
and as it is used in OMC Ratio with water to be
pulverized, the ease of application and misuse
in this case is zero.
Performance of real time traffc stimulation for
last twelve month shows that; this SSB Layer in
construction enhances the pavement life and also
minimizes the maintenance cost of pavement.
Alternatecompositedesignandpavementsave
Timeandenablefrstconstruction.
ConnotationandUtilizationPotential
Substantially increases the Soil strength over
300 percent.
Stabilized Base Layer has E- modulus of more
than 3000 MPa.
RoadcanbedesignedwithreducedBituminous
and Base Layers.
Thus;ReductioninQuarry/MiningofAggregate
is Substantial
Reduction in Crust Layers Hence; reduction in
Construction time.
ResultinginLowerCostsLessequipmentwear
and tear.
Stabilization process simple- No Specialization
required.
ExceedingAASHTOstructuralloadbearingaxle
capacity
Environmentalfriendlyandagreenproduct,(Much
less CO
2
emission than other stabilizers)
ToxicityeffectisZero.
Contd. from prev. page...
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 27
Application of SoilTech Mk-III on the SSB Stretch
SSB stretch after SoilTech used
Pulverization on the Compaction with 10 ton Vibro Profle and Grading the top surface of SSB Layer Roller on the Stretch
Projects and Execution Photographs:
Before Soil Tech used
AdditionalR&D/worksrequiredinthisArea
It may be excellent to stimulate the alternately designed
crust with HVS machine in CRRI campus or in any
project to know the life of road.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
India Polyroads Pvt. Ltd., Plot No.-115, Sector-44,
Gurgaon-122002,Haryana.Mobile: +91 9560106662
Phone: +91124 4477743/47, Fax: +91124 4477748
e-mail id:ippl-gurgaon@ippl.net.in
28 GENERAL REPORT ON
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ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 29
2. Nano Polymer Base Stabilization of NH-1
Stretch on Panipat-Jhalandhar Section from
km 96.000 to km 387.000 in the State of
Haryana & Punjab
Date of Starting and Duration : 17 Dec 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted): 23 Dec 2011
India Polyroads Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, Haryana
(IPPL) (R,I)
Scope and Objectives
ToassessthesuitabilityofSSBLayerwithNano
Polymer base stabilizer SoilTech MK-III for
Road, Runway, Hard Strand Construction by
comparing their Physical, Engineering, Financial
and Execution time properties with those already
implemented vide current specifications by
detailed Laboratory investigations.
TocorrelatedesignprocedurewithIRC:37;Asper
the Pavement Crust Catalogue frizzed in IRC:37.
Desi gn of Pavement Cross Secti on usi ng
Nano Polymer base stabilizer SoilTech MK-III
consideringtheactualtraffctobestimulatedover
design life and site condition.
Geotechnical Laboratory & feld investigation to
evaluate the suitability of material/design mix/
product application for real time construction
MonitoringofperformanceofConstructedRoad
over a period of time including monsoon which
includes DCP Test and APTF simulates.
Design, Drawing & Execution Methodology
a) Design of Road and Concept
As per IRC:37-2001, trail pavement design are to
be analyzed using linear elastic layered theory and
maximum vertical strain on sub-grade and maximum
tensile strain at the bottom of bituminous layer are
computed for a standard load. Design thickness
combination is so selected that the computed critical
strain values, which correspond to the initial condition
of the pavement, are less than the limiting strain
values given by the performance criteria adopted in
the guidelines. Limiting strain criteria have been given
in IRC: 37 for two distresses: - rutting along wheel
paths and fatigue cracking in bituminous layers. No
separate criterion is available for rutting in bituminous
layers. The criteria for rutting and fatigue cracking
in bituminous layers are given as Equations 1 and 2
respectively.
Thereafter the highway stretch had been constructed
with an over strength Nano Polymer.
Base Liquid called SoilTech MK-III, as a composite
SSB (Soil Stabilized Base) Layer. While calculating
the stress/strain failures in Layer Theory formulated in
IRC: 37 for this crust, it was found the reduced crust itself
is more than enough to take 10 CBR & 10 msa design
over a period of 15 years.
Table B- Cross-Section Overview
CONVENTIONAL CRUST
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE
DENSE BITUMINOUS
WET MIX MACADAM 250 mm
GRANULAR SUB BASE 200 mm
SUB GRADE 500mm
POLYMAR STABILIZED ROAD
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE
SOIL STABILIZED BASE 150 mm
GRANULAR SUB BASE 150 mm
SUB GRADE 300 mm
b) Quantity & Resources Comparison
(Conventional Crust vs Alternate Crust)
Special Situations / Problems faced during
Investigations/Constructions
In this particular project Panipat Jhalandhar, NH-1,
Six Laning - the Borrow/ In-situ material available in
the entire stretch was less than 2 particle size sandy
and non-plastic soil. The stabilization of the same was
not cost effective as coating area of SoilTech MK-III was
more and grading was not proper.
Then, additional 40 percent of 0 40 mm size aggregate
blended with this soil and then SoilTech MK-III used.
The outcome is excellent with CBR more than 218, UCS
1868 KPa and Resilient Modulus 1887 MPa.
PerformanceofSuchNewMaterials/Technology
The product Nano Polymer base stabilizer had been
invented long 13 years back and being used extensively
in South Africa, Australia, Middle East, Europe and Far
East Countries. Before India Polyroads launched it
commercially in India, extensive trials were conducted in
30 GENERAL REPORT ON
many places and the outcomes are evaluated by Premier
Authorities like Central Road Research Institute, New
Delhi, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West
Bengal,CouncilforScientifcIndustrialResearch,South
Africa, Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg, Chhattisgarh,
etc.
AnnexedTabularReportsarethefactfndingresults:
Table C Premium Organisation Investigation and Performance Report
Sr.
No.
Description Test
Type
IIT, kharagpur Test
Results
IPPL, Gurgaon
CSIR, South Africa
Test Results
IPPL-Panipat-Jh-
halandhar (NH-1)
Natural
Soil
With 0.5%
SoilTech
Mk-III by
weight of
Soil
Natural
Soil
With
0.5%
SoilTech
Mk-III by
weight of
Soil
Natural
Soil
With 0.5%
SoilTech
Mk-III by
weight of
Soil
Natural
Soil
With 0.5%
SoilTech
Mk-III by
weight of
Soil
A. Physical Properties of Natural Soil
1 Gradation
Gravel (%) 17.00 12.00 24.00
3.00
Sand (%) 62.00 34.50 52.00
62.00
Silt & Clay (%) 21.00 53.50 24.00
35.00
2 Liquid Limit (%) 25.00 33.50 28.00
20.00
3 Plastic Limit (%) 13.00 19.60 18.00
NA
4
Plasticity Index
(%)
12.00 13.90 10.00
NP 40% Ag-
g r e g a t e
Bl endi ng
materials
B. Laboratory Output results with SoilTech Mk-III
5 C.B.R. (%) 16.80 30.80 7.60 28.50 28.00 101.00
12.00
46.00
6 U.C.S. (Kpa) 790 3871 378 1465 386
1 1 0 0
(soaked)
423 1868
7
Resilient Modulus
(Mpa)
154 8016 268 6895 154 3264
C. Field Testing and Visual Observation 7 Days 6 Months
8 C.B.R. (%)
IIT & CRRI
Laboratory Test Only
90
218
9
Resilient Modulus
(Mpa)
1448 1887
10 R.I. (mm/km) 1436
1232
1265
11 BBD Test (mm)
0.071
0.477
12 Rutting Not Found
New
Not Found
13 Fatigue Not Found
New
Not Found
14
Actual Traffc
Stimulation
1.80 MSA
Looking to Table C and Layer Theory of Highway
Design (IRC:37); it is now understood that once, we
are replacing Base /Sub-base Layer with SSB Layer,
the impact of wheel load or failure of Fatigue & Rutting
minimize substantially.
In Table C, it has been observed that after six months
report1.80MSARealstimulationoftraffc,thereisno
major failure or deviation from the original construction
made.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 31
Interim Conclusion
Substantially increases the Soil strength over
300 percent.
RoadcanbedesignedwithreducedBituminous
and Base Layers.
Performance of real time traffc stimulation for
last six months shows that; this SSB Layer in
construction enhances the pavement life and also
minimizes the maintenance cost of pavement.
Alternatecompositedesignandpavementsave
time and enable fast construction.
Reduction in Quarry/ Mining of Aggregate is
Substantial
Reduction in Crust Layers Hence; reduction in
Construction time.
Environmentalfriendlyandagreenproduct,(Much
less CO
2
emission than other stabilizers)
ToxicityeffectisZero.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
India Polyroads Pvt. Ltd., Plot No.-115, Sector-44,
Gurgaon-122 002, Haryana.
Mobile: +91 9560106662 Phone: +91124 4477743/47,
Fax: +91124 4477748
e-mail id:ippl-gurgaon@ippl.net.in
3. Village Road to Jhenjhari joining State
Highway Road of Durg to Dhamda under
PMGSY, Chhattisgarh
Date of Starting and Duration : 09 June 2010
Date of Completion (Actual/Targeted) :
09 June 2010
i. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana,
Chhattisgarh (PMGSY) (I)
ii. Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg (BIT) (I)
iii. BSBK Private Limited Contractor Bhilai,
Chhattisgarh (BSBK) (I)
iv. India Polyroads Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, Haryana
(IPPL) (R, S)
Scope and Objectives
To assess the suitability of SSB Layer with
Nano Pol ymer base Soi l Tech MK-III for
Road, Runway, Hard Strand Constructi on
by comparing their Physical, Engineering,
Fi nanci al and Execut i on t i me propert i es
with those already implemented vide IRC
Codes, MORTH, MORD, NRRDA and State
PWDs specifications by detailed Laboratory
investigations.
TocorrelatedesignprocedurewithIRC:37;asper
the Pavement Crust Catalogue frizzed in IRC:37,
though; how the crust derived in catalogue not
detailed but formulas are given for Layer Theory
of Crust Design. Considering the same formula
but different E-module value of higher strength
Layer like SSB, design establishment has been
derived for failure of Rutting and need to be
endorsed.
DesignofPavementCrossSectionusingSoil
Tech MK-III, considering the actual traffic
to be stimulated over design life and site
condition.
GeotechnicalLaboratory&fieldinvestigation
t o eval uat e t he sui t abi l i t y of mat er i al /
design mix/product application for real time
construction.
Qualityexecutionandcontrolassurance,guideline
and its implementation at site.
MonitoringofperformanceofConstructedRoad
over a period of time including monsoon which
includes DCP Test and APTF simulates.
Design, Drawing & Execution Methodology
a) Design of Road and Concept
As per IRC:37-2001, trail pavement design are to
be analyzed using linear elastic layered theory and
maximum vertical strain on sub-grade and maximum
tensile strain at the bottom of bituminous layer are
computed for a standard load. Design thickness
combination is so selected that the computed critical
strain values, which correspond to the initial condition
of the pavement, are less than the limiting strain
values given by the performance criteria adopted in
the guidelines. Limiting strain criteria have been given
in IRC:37 for two distresses: - rutting along wheel
paths and fatigue cracking in bituminous layers. No
separate criterion is available for rutting in bituminous
layers. The criteria for rutting and fatigue cracking in
bituminous layers are given as Equations 1 and 2,
respectively.
32 GENERAL REPORT ON
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ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 33
Alternate Pavement Design as per IRC: SP-72 (Layer
Theory of Crust)
Table B Cross-Section Overview
CONVENTIONAL CRUST
PMC 20 mm with Seal Coat
WBM 225 mm
GSB 100 mm
Sub Grade 150 mm
POLYMAR STABILIZED ROAD
PMC 20 mm with Seal Coat
SOIL STABILIZED BASE 125 mm
Sub Grade 100 mm
The reduced crust itself is more than enough to take
3 CBR & 400,000 ESAL design over a period of 10 years.
b) Execution Methodology
Atfrsttheselectedborrowsoilwasspreadover
the Embankment top layer.
The additional blending ofAggregates for SSB
layer as per Design/requirement was spread over
the borrow soils for 100 mm thickness layer and
the aggregates mixed thoroughly with borrow
soils.
OMC of the material to be stabilized was
calculated as per lab. Thereafter SoilTech MK-III
@ 0.5 percent of the weight of Soil to be stabilized
was added to the water in the water tanker.
ThiswatermixedwithSoilTechwasspreadover
uniformly on the desired layer.
PulverizationontheSSBlayerafterappliedthe
SoilTech MK-III.
Afterpropermixing,thesurfacewasgradedtothe
required camber and compacted to 98 percent of
MDD.
On completion of stabilization, a diluted mix of
SoilTech + Water was sprinkled on treated road
surface in order to avoid dust during its usage by
the villagers and as the wearing course had be
done after 7 days.
Situations of Constructions
In this particular project the borrow/ In-situ material
available in the entire stretch was plastic soil. Then
SoilTech MK-III used in the borrow soil. The outcome
is excellent with CBR more than 66, UCS 1866 KPa &
Resilient Modulus 1708 MPa.
PerformanceofSuchNewMaterials/Technology
The product had been invented long 13 years back
and being used extensively in South Africa, Australia,
Middle East, Europe and Far East Countries. Before
India Polyroads launched it commercially in India,
extensive trials were conducted in many places and
the outcomes are evaluated by Premier Authorities like
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi, Indian
Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, Council
for Scientifc Industrial Research, SouthAfrica, Bhilai
Institute of Technology, Durg, Chhattisgarh etc.
AnnexedTabularReportsarethefactfndingresults:
Table C Premium Organisation Investigation & Performance Report
Sr.
No.
Description Test
Type
IIT, kharagpur Test
Results
CRRI, New Delhi, Test
Results
CSIR, South Africa
Test Results
PMGS&Y Road
Durg to Dhamda
Natural
Soil
With 0.5%
SoilTech
Mk-III by
weight of
Soil
Natural
Soil
With 0.5%
SoilTech
Mk-III by
weight of
Soil
Natural
Soil
With
0.5%
Soil
Tech
Mk-III by
weight
of Soil
Natural
Soil
With
0.5%
Soil
Tech
Mk-IIIby
weight
of Soil
A. Physical Properties of Natural Soil
1 Gradation
Gravel (%) 17.00 6.00 24.00
27.40
Sand (%) 62.00 88.60 52.00
51.40
....Contd.
34 GENERAL REPORT ON
Silt & Clay (%) 21.00 17.40 24.00
21.20
2 Liquid Limit (%) 25.00 34.00 28.00
31.85
3 Plastic Limit (%) 13.00 21.30 18.00
21.13
4
Plasticity Index
(%)
12.00 12.70 10.00
10.72
B. Laboratory Output results with SoilTech Mk-III
5 C.B.R. (%) 16.80 30.80 4.80 34.00 28.00 101.00
10.40
43.69
6 U.C.S. (Kpa) 790 3871 368
4 4 4
(soaked)
386
1 1 0 0
(soaked)
468 1866
7
Resilient Modulus
(Mpa)
154 8016 172 6254 268 6895 282 7568
C. Field Testing & Visual Observation 7 Days 1 Year
8 R.I. (mm/km)
IIT & CRRI
Laboratory Test Only
1638 1708
9 C.B.R. (%) 57 66
10 Rutting New
Not
Found
11
Actual Traffc
Stimulation
10, 000
ESAL
Looking to Table C and Layer Theory of Highway
Design (IRC:37); it is now understood that once, we
are replacing Base /Sub-base Layer with SSB Layer,
the impact of wheel load or failure of Rutting minimize
substantially.
Themostsignifcantandimportantpointinthisroadis
to be noted that the Soil Stabilized Base (SSB) Later
which is the top surface now has not been sealted with
the designed Bituminous Layer. Already 2
nd
monsoon
period is going to get over and the bed of SSB layer
is intack with no Rutting, Porthole or any other failure
(Average Rainfall 1136 mm).
Evaluation Report (Half Yearly) and Performance under
real traffc is regularly submitted to IRC and all other
premium Government Organisation.
Interim Conclusion
TheusageofNanoPolymerbaseSoilTechMK-
III has been optimized at 0.5 to 0.55 percent by
weight of Mix to be stabilized for cost effective
SSB Layer. In case, soil criteria dont suit, then
additional blending of material recommended.
The Geotechnical Characteristics, Laboratory
resultsandfeldin-situresultsofmanytypeof
soil stabilization are available. It is now time
to evaluate the standard of each based on
Strength, Durability and Ease of Application.
The outcome results of SoilTech MK-III is
substantially higher than any other stabilizer
and as it is used in OMC Ratio with water to be
pulverized, the ease of application and misuse
in this case is zero.
Performanceofrealtimetraffcstimulationfor
last twelve month shows that; this SSB Layer
in construction enhances the pavement life
and also minimizes the maintenance cost of
pavement.
Alternatecompositedesignandpavementsave
Timeandenablefrstconstruction.
Connotation and Utilisation Potential
Substantially increases the Soil strength over
300 percent.
Stabilized Base Layer has E- modulus of more
than 3000 MPa.
RoadcanbedesignedwithreducedBituminous
and Base Layers.
Thus;ReductioninQuarry/MiningofAggregate
is Substantial
Reduction in Crust Layers Hence; reduction in
Construction time.
ResultinginLowerCostsLessequipmentwear
and tear.
Stabilization process simple- No Specialization
required.
Contd. from Previous page ....
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 35
Pulverization on the SSB stretch after Soil Tech used surface of SSB Layer Profling and grading the top
Compaction with 10 ton Vibro. Roller on the Stretch Surface of SSB Layer Finished
ExceedingAASHTOstructuralloadbearingaxle
capacity
Projects & Execution Photographs
Environmentalfriendlyandagreenproduct,(Much
less CO
2
emission than other stabilizers)
ToxicityeffectisZero.
Spreading the Borrow Soil at Site SoilTech MK-III on the SSB Stretch
AdditionalR&D/worksrequiredinthisarea
It may be excellent to stimulate the alternately designed
crust with HVS machine in CRRI campus or in any
project to know the life of road.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
India Polyroads Pvt. Ltd., Plot No.-115, Sector-44,
Gurgaon-122 002, Haryana.
Mobile: +91 9560106662 Phone: +91124 4477743/47,
Fax: +91124 4477748
e-mail id:ippl-gurgaon@ippl.net.in
36 GENERAL REPORT ON
2. RIGID PAVEMENTS
SUMMARY
Research works reported in the area of Rigid Pavements relate to
1. Technical feasibility studies on Geopolymer based building blocks/ pavers.
2. R&D studies on the Performance Evaluation of Rigid Pavement on High Density Traffc Corridors Using
Instrumentation Supported by Laboratory Test (in continuation of the earlier work reported).
3. StudyonthepropertiesofconcreteincorporatingBottomash/Pondashasareplacementoffneaggregate.
4. Study on Suitability of Synthetics Fiber Reinforced Concrete for the Construction of Concrete Pavement.
5. Suitability of oil well drill cuttings (Assam assets) for road making.
6. A Study on Dry Lean Concrete Containing Portland Pozzolana Cement.
SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Technical feasibility studies on Geopolymer based building blocks/ pavers.
2. Suitability of Synthetics Fiber Reinforced Concrete for the Construction of Concrete Pavement.
3. SuitabilityofBottomash/PondashasareplacementoffneaggregateinconcretePavement.
4. Use of Portland Pozzolana Cement in Dry Lean Concrete.
5. PerformanceEvaluationofRigidPavementonHighDensityTraffcCorridorsUsingInstrumentation.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 37
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST TIME
1. Technical Feasibility Studies on Geopolymer
Based Building Blocks/Pavers
Date of Start : April 2008
Date of Completion: June 2010
i. CSIR- Structural Engineering Research
Centre, Taramani, Chennai (R,I)
ii. AEONs Construction Products Ltd.(S)
Scope and Objectives
Development of Geopolymer Concrete (GPC)
recipes of consistency suitable for the production
of building blocks/pavers and which can be cured
under ambient conditions.
DevelopmentofGPCbuildingblocks/paversof
typical dimensions in the laboratory and in the
factory using the developed recipes.
Testingandevaluationofbuildingblocks/pavers.
Methodology
In this project, the use of eco-friendly Geopolymer
Concretes (GPCs) in lieu of Ordinary Portland Cement
Concretes (OPCCs) for the production of building blocks
and pavers was investigated. Two mix compositions,
one incorporating high volume GGBS (75 percent
GGBS)andotheronehighvolumefyash(80percent
FA) and activated by alkaline hydroxide-alkali silicate
combination, which can acquire the target strength
of 25-50 MPa by ambient temperature curing alone
were fnalized. More than 2000 specimens of GPC
paver blocks of size 100 x 100 x 200 mm and hollow
blocks of size 100 x 200 x 400 mm were with different
mix proportions were produced in two stages. Some
ofthesolidandhollowblocksutilizedsinteredfyash
aggregates keeping in view the dead weight reduction
of masonry infll and other non-structural inflls. The
specimens were tested for compressive strengths
and other important properties at different ages after
subjecting to both air curing and high temperature curing
(60C). Fly ash based geopolymer blocks attained a
grade of M35 while GGBS based blocks developed
compressive strength of the order of M50 suitable for
heavy duty pavers.
Signifcance/UtilisationPotential
With the scarcity in availability of fred clay bricks,
concrete building blocks and pavers are the most widely
used concrete components other than structural concrete.
ThestudiesshowedthattheGPCpaverblocks
and building blocks have rapid rate of strength
development and do not necessitate water
curing up to 28 days as in case of conventional
concrete blocks. As a result, the turn over time
and production cost are reduced.
GPCpaverblocksbasedonhighvolumeGGBS
show excellent compressive strength (up to
55 MPa), low water absorption (5 per cent)
and good resistance to abrasion(thickness loss
<2 mm). By varying the mix proportions, it is
possible to produce M-30 to M-50 grade paver
blocks suitable for use in non-traffc and heavy
traffcareasasperIS:15658:2006.
Thestudieshavedemonstratedthefeasibilityof
producing GPC paver blocks and building blocks
of different grades on a large scale. These blocks
because they are non-Portland cement based and
utilize large volumes of industrial wastes, they are
a viable eco-friendly alternative to conventional
concrete blocks.
Reports/Publications
N.P. Rajamane, J.K. Dattatreya, P.S. Ambily,
and D. Sabitha, Technical Feasibility Studies
on Geo-Polymer Based Building Blocks/Pavers,
SSP 07241, June 2010 for AEONS, Construction
Products Limited, Chennai
Further information can be obtained from
Director, CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre,
Chennai
2. Study on Suitability of Synthetics Fiber
Reinforced Concrete for the Construction of
Concrete Pavements
Date of Start: July 2010
Date of Completion: December 2011 (Targeted)
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R, I)
Present Status and Progress:
On-going and 80 percent completed
Scope and Objectives
The major objective of this project includes
Evaluation of the suitability of synthetics fber
reinforced concrete for construction of concrete
pavements in Indian conditions.
38 GENERAL REPORT ON
To investigate on possible increase in fexural
strengthatoptimumfbredosagew.r.t.controlled
concrete
Toachievetheobjectives,twotypesofsyntheticfbers
(polyester and polypropylene), three dosages of fber
content i.e. critical fber content required for fexural
enhancement as determined based on the calculations,
lessthanthisfbrecontentandmorethanthiscritical
fbre content were used. Additionally, polypropylene
fbrillated fber was also used for the study. In total,
976 concrete specimens (10 cm x 10 cm x 50 cm
beams, 15 cm cubes, 15 x 30 cm cylinders, 7.5 cm
x 7.5 cm x 30 cm beams and 50 cm x 50 cm x 10 cm
slabs) from 36 concrete mixes have been studied.
The fresh state properties of concrete such as slump,
bleeding, settlement and hardened state properties
i.e. fexural strength, compressive strength, abrasion
resistance and shrinkage etc. have been studied for
fberreinforcedconcreteaswellascontrolledconcrete
mixes. Experimental work is almost completed.
Preliminary Conclusions
Additionofsyntheticfbresdrasticallyreducesthe
drying shrinkage.
Atthesamefbrecontent,thereductionindrying
shrinkage is more in case of concrete containing
PPfbresthanPolysterfbres.
Thecompressiveandsplittingtensilestrengthare
notsignifcantlyaffectedbyadditionofsynthetic
fbres.
Further Information can be obtained from
Dr Rakesh Kumar, Principal Scientist, Rigid Pavements
Division, CRRI
e-mail : rakeshkumar.crri@nic.in
B: ON-GOING/COMPLETEDPROJECTS
1. R & D Studies on Performance Evaluation
of Rigid Pavements on High Density Traffc
Corridors Using Instrumentation Supported
by Laboratory Tests
Date of Start: May 2007
Date of Completion (Targeted): March 2011
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways,
New Delhi (S)
Status: On-going
Year of Last Report: 2010
Scope and Objective
The objective of the project is to validate and verify the
actual relationships between various design parameters
assumed in theoretical design and those actually
observed under the rigid pavements. The results of the
study are to be used for furthering the actual design
consideration and incorporating modifcations in the
design methodology to be used in future. The scope of
the work includes the following:
Verifcationofdesigntraffcof25percentoftotal
commercial vehicles
Studyoftemperatureandloadstressesatedge
and corner of concrete slabs
Impact of 1.5 m wi de ti ed / unti ed ri gi d
shoulders
To study the load transfer at joints and its
comparison with assumed value of 40 percent
and to examine the stresses surrounding dowel
bars
TimeseriesevaluationoftestsectionswithFWD
andBPTtofndkvalue,Evalue,loadtransferat
joints and skid resistance
Progress
The work of embedment of sensors was completed in
August, 2008. The sensors were embedded in concrete
pavement slabs at Allahabad by-pass on NH-2; Kota,
Rajasthan, on NH-76 and Siliguri, West Bengal, on
NH-31.The feld testing of the instrumented concrete
pavement slabs and the data collection from all the sites
has been completed. The analysis of data led to the
following major conclusions:
Measuredcurlingstressessignifcantlylessthan
the theoretical stresses
Loadinducededgestressesmuchlessthanthe
theoretically calculated stresses
Tied shoulders and tie bars at longitudinal joint
reduces edge load stresses considerably
2. Effect of Bottom ash from Thermal Power
Stations as an Alternate to Fine Aggregate in
Cement Concrete
Date of Start : April 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted) : December 2011
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 39
CSIR Central Road Research Insti tute,
New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
To study the properties of concrete incorporating Bottom
ash/Pondashasareplacementoffneaggregateand
study its strength development, engineering properties in
green and hardened concrete and durability aspects.
Methodology
Bottom ash from NTPC Dadri was used for replacement
offneaggregate(Badarpursand).Twotypesofconcrete
were prepared M-10 for base course and M-40 for
wearing course. The replacement of fne aggregate
was up to 70 percent. A Comparative study with
normal cement concrete was carried out on strength
development(compressivestrength,fexuralstrength
and split tensile strength) up to 180 days and durability
aspects such as abrasion resistance, drying shrinkage,
chloride ion penetration and resistance to sulphate
attack.
Interim Conclusion
The density of concrete decreased with increase in
bottom ash content. The compacting factor in terms of
workability is almost same up to 25 percent replacement
of fne aggregate by bottom ash after that the water
demand increases with increase in the percentage
of bottom ash. The compressive strength , fexural
strength and splitting tensile strength of the bottom ash
specimens are low (3-12 percent) at 28 day, compare
to normal cement concrete, the bottom ash specimens
gained more strength after 28 days and the difference
in the strength between normal concrete and bottom
ash specimens is reduced between 28 days and 180
days .
3. A Study on Dry Lean Concrete Containing
Portland Pozzolana Cement
Date of Start: December 2009
Date of Completion: November 2010
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R, I)
Scope and Objectives
Dry Lean Concrete (DLC) used in the construction of
a base/sub-base of concrete pavements contains a
large ratio of aggregate to cement than conventional
concrete. DLC is mostly made with Ordinary Portland
Cement (OPC). However, IRC:SP-49 advocates use of
Portland Pozzolana cement (PPC) in the manufacturing
of DLC but gives no further information about concrete
mixes containing PPC i.e., the amount of PPC, maximum
aggregate to PPC ratio, curing period, etc. Therefore,
this research study was conducted with the following
important objectives:
To determine optimum quantity of Portland
Pozzol ana Cement (PPC) to be used i n
DLC meeting the strength requirements of
IRC:SP-49
To determine optimum water content for achieving
maximum dry density of dry lean concrete
containing PPC with a maximum aggregate-to-
cement ratio
Todetermineoptimumcuringperiodfordrylean
concrete meeting the strength
Methodology
After evaluation of suitability of the basic materials of
DLC, numerous DLC trial mixes for OPC and PPC with
cement contents varying between 125 to and 200 kg/m
3

were used in the study. The aggregate to cement ratio
was varied between 10 and 15. The moisture content
of the mixes was varied from 5 to 9 percent in order to
determine OMC for maximum dry density of dry lean
concrete. The compressive strength of DLC mixes was
determined at different ages i.e. 5, 7, and 28 days.
Conclusions
DLC containing PPC can be manufactured for the
use in the construction of base/sub base of concrete
pavements. Such concrete mix requires a higher cement
content, higher moisture content and lower aggregates-
to-cement ratio than the case of OPC for satisfying the
strength requirement at 7-day.
Reports/Publications
Rakesh Kumar and Renu Mathur, A Study on Dry Lean
Concrete Containing Portland Pozzolana Cement,
CRRI/RPD/OLP-490/2011
Further Information can be obtained from
Dr Rakesh Kumar, Principal Scientist, Rigid Pavements
Division, CRRI.
rakeshkumar.crri@nic.in
40 GENERAL REPORT ON
3. PAVEMENT EVALUATION, PERFORMANCE AND INSTRUMENTATION
(a) Pavement Evaluation
Research work reported in this area include projects
on structural and functional evaluation of pavements
and pre-mature distress / failure investigations for road
and airfeld pavements. Completed projects include
Investigation to determine and ascertain the causes
of distress and suggest remedial measures for runway
pavement at Jaipur Airport.
On-going projects include Development of National
Document /Guideline on the Use of Weigh-In-Motion
System for Axle Load Monitoring. Development of
national guideline on the use of WIM System for axle
load monitoring on Indian Highways would assist
Enforcement authorities to decide the appropriate
WIM system to be used at various locations towards
controlling overloading on Indian Highways whichwould
economize on road maintenance and rehabilitation
costs, minimize road accidents, and bring about
improved road safety.
Projects reported for the frst time include Evaluation
of Master Plan Roads (60 m & 45 m ROWs) in Dwarka
and Needed Remedial and Improvement Measures;
Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of
New Materials and Mixes towards Development and
UpgradationofStandards/Specifcations;Evaluationof
Kosi- Nandgaon-Barsana-Govardhan Road and Needed
Remedial Measures and Investigation to Determine the
Likely Causes of Pre-mature Distress in Road Section
from km 72.600 to km 105 on NH-58 and Needed
Remedial Measures.
Research projects for Thesis work include Finite
Element Analysis of Flexible Pavements and Evaluation
of IRC Method and Effect of Bituminous Mixtures on
Pavement Performance Using M-EPDG. Finite Element
Analysis of Flexible Pavements has been carried out (i)
to analyze and compare stress-strain distribution and
response of pavement system by using asphalt mixes
with various additives like hydrated lime and sulphur;
(ii) to analyze a typical 4 layer flexible pavement
structure by means of Finite Element Method, and (iii)
to study the stress-strain distribution of pavement using
linearized elastic theories and comparisons with Finite
Element Analysis.
(b) Pavement Performance
This sub-section on pavement performance covers
projects related to Design of Flexible Pavements
for Optimum Performance in Fatigue and Rutting
Characteristics Using KENLAYER; Modeling of
Rutting of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures; and Forensic
Investigations on Pre-mature Rutting on a National
Highway Pavement. The study on Design of Flexible
Pavements for Optimum Performance in Fatigue and
Rutting Characteristics Using KENLAYER is focused
on comparing the various design methods in terms
of its performance by conducting damage analysis
in KENLAYER and suggesting the optimum design
method.
Project reported for the first time include Design,
Construction and Performance Evaluation of New
Materials and Mixes towards Development and
Upgradation of Standards / Specifications; and
Rhinophalt Preservative and its Performance Evaluation
on Three Toll Roads in Rajasthan and Gujarat States.
The study is planned to be implemented in three different
phases viz. (i) Pre-Application Investigations (ii) Post-
Application Investigations and (iii) Periodic Performance
Monitoring / Evaluation.
Research projects for Thesis work include Design
of Flexible Pavements for Optimum Performance in
Fatigue and Rutting Characteristics Using KENLAYER;
Experimental Investigations and Modeling of Rutting of
Asphalt Concrete Mixtures; and Forensic Investigations on
Premature Rutting on a National Highway Pavement.
(c) Instrumentation
Research work reported in the area of Instrumentation
and Micro-processor application is an ongoing project
related to Upgradation of RoadGeometrics and Road
Condition Evaluation System. The road surface condition
evaluation involving measurement of areas of surface
disintegration will form an important input to Pavement
Maintenance Management Systems which is directed
at coordinating and controlling pavement rehabilitation
associated activities on a road network. The upgraded
and validated system will help in speedy inventorisation
of road network.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 41
(a) PAVEMENT EVALUATION
SUMMARY
Research work reported in this area include projects on structural and functional evaluation of pavements and pre-mature
distress/failureinvestigationsforroadandairfeldpavements.Completedprojectsincludeinvestigationtodetermine
and ascertain the causes of distress and suggest remedial measures for runway pavement at Jaipur Airport.
On-going Projects include Development of National Document /Guideline on the Use of Weigh-In-Motion System for
Axle Load Monitoring; Development of Management System for Maintenance Planning and Budgeting of High Speed
Road Corridors (Supra Institutional Project); and Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of New Materials
andMixestowardsDevelopmentandUpgradationofStandards/Specifcations.
ProjectsbeingreportedforthefrsttimeincludeEvaluationofMasterPlanRoads(60m&45mROWs)inDwarkaand
Needed Remedial and Improvement Measures; Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of New Materials
andMixestowardsDevelopmentandUpgradationofStandards/Specifcations;EvaluationofKosi-Nandgaon-Barsana-
Govardhan Road and Needed Remedial Measures; and Investigation to Determine the Likely Causes of Pre-mature
Distress in Road Section on NH-58 and Needed Remedial Measures.
Research projects for Thesis work include Finite Element Analysis of Flexible Pavements; and Evaluation of IRC
Method and Effect of Bituminous Mixtures on Pavement Performance Using M-EPDG.
SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Effect of Bituminous Mixes on Pavement Performance
2. Use of Weigh-In-Motion System for Axle Load Monitoring
42 GENERAL REPORT ON
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST TIME
1. Evaluation of Master Plan Roads (60 m & 45 m
ROWs) in Dwarka and Needed Remedial and
Improvement Measures
Date of Start: July 2009
Date of Completion (Targeted): October 2010
i. Central Road Research Institute (CRRI),
New Delhi (R, I)
ii. Delhi Development Authority (DDA)(S)
Scope and Objectives
To carry out detailed evaluation of Master Plan roads
(60 m & 45 m ROWs) in Dwarka and subsequently
recommend the remedial and improvement measures
in terms of specifc maintenance treatments required
to be applied.
The scope of work included the following:
Structural evaluation of roads by Benkelman
Beamdefectionmethod
Visualassessmentofpavementsurfacecondition
for the entire length of all the project roads, to
assess the extent and severity of various types
of surface distress.
PavementRoughnessmeasurements,lanewise,
by using Roughometer II on the entire length of
all the project roads.
Traffcvolumecountsonsixroads,24hoursround
the clock.
Axleloadsurvey,coveringonlytrucksandbuses,
on random sampling basis, at one location for
about 12 hours during the night hours.
Testpitsobservationscoveringatotalofsixpits
Laboratory evaluation of sub grade soil to
determine its engineering / physical properties
and strength (CBR).
Methodology
Field measurements caried out, as per the scope of work,
includeed (i) defection measurements by Benkelman
Beam (ii) assessment of pavement surface condition
by visual inspection (iii) roughness measurements by
usingRoughometerII(iv)traffcvolumeandaxleload
surveys (v) test pits observations and (vi) laboratory
evaluation of road building materials/mixes. Based on
thefeldandlaboratorydata/results,theanalysisofdata
was carriedout and report prepared.
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
The major fndings, based on the data/results, are
summarized as under:
Averageroughnessofprojectroadsvariesfrom
2200 mm/km to 3570 mm/km. This indicates
that the surface condition of project roads is in
average and poor condition and there is a need
to provide strengthening and / or resurfacing /
renewal layer to improve upon their condition.
The t ot al sur f ace di st r ess var i es f r om
5 percent to 40 percent. This indicates that the
surface condition of project roads is in fair to
poor condition and there is a need to provide
strengthening and/ or resurfacing / renewal layer
to improve upon their condition. Commercial
Vehicles Per Day on these project roads varied
from 136 to 2463.
Vehicle Damage Factors of 9.29 and 5.54 on
Road No. 201 for Najafgarh Road to Delhi
and Delhi to Najafgarh Road carriageways
respectively indicate that the commercial vehicles
carry more loads on the Najafgarh Road to Delhi
carriageway.
Limitations of Conclusions/Recommendations for
furtherwork/furtherproposedwork
The following recommendations were made:
The requirements for rehabilitation (structural
overlay) and resurfacing for various project
roads have been worked out separately for
two different design periods i.e. 5 years and
10 years. Overlay required, based on 10
years design life is recommended, wherever
required.
Itisfurtherrecommendedthatforthoseroads
which are not in need of any overlay either for
5 years design life and / or for 10 years design
life, a 40 mm thick Bituminous Concrete (BC)
layer may be provided as resurfacing layer /
renewal coat now and at the end of 5 years from
functional (serviceability) requirements point
of view to ensure better rideability to the road
users.
Reports/Publications
Report on Evaluation of Master Plan Roads (60 m &
45 m ROWs) in Dwarka and Needed Remedial and
Improvement Measures
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 43
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
The Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011- 26313569 Fax: 011-26313569
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
2. Design, Construction and Performance
Evaluation of New Materials and Mixes
Towards Development and Upgradation of
Standards / Specifcations
Date of Start: July 2009
Date of Completion (Targeted): October 2012
Central Road Research Insti tute (CRRI),
New Delhi (R, I)
Scope and Objectives
The broad objectives of the study are given as under:
Laboratory characterization of materials/mixes
and design of Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA),
Microsurfacing and Hot Asphalt Mixes using waste
plastic.
Construction supervision and quality checking
during execution of road sections laid with Stone
Matrix Asphalt (SMA), Microsurfacing and Waste
PlasticModifedHotMixAsphalt.
Time-SeriesPeriodicPerformanceMonitoringof
road sections laid with SMA, Microsurfacing and
WastePlasticModifedHotMixAsphalt.
Refinement / Revision of present Codes of
Practi ce vi z. IRC: SP: 79-2008 for SMA,
I RC: SP: 81-2008 f or Mi crosurf aci ng and
DevelopmentofSpecifcationsforWastePlastic
ModifedHotMixAsphalt.
In addition to the above, study will also be extended
to other upcoming / new materials such as Warm Mix
Asphalt, Foam Bitumen etc., whenever and wherever
feasible.
Methodology
40 mm thick Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA) mix and 40 mm
thick Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) i.e. Bituminous Concrete
(BC) mix were designed in the laboratory by using 60/70
Penetration Grade Paving Bitumen. Marshall method
of mix design using 50 blows was used for design of
SMA Mix. The locally available waste plastic was used
as additive in the Bituminous Concrete (BC) mix. The
Marshall method using 75 blows was used for design
of HMA Mix. Type-III Microsurfacing (layer thickness
of 6-8 mm) was designed using Polymer Modified
Bitumen Emulsion and composition of mix designed
was 13.0 percent emulsion, 1.0 percent Portland cement
asfller,13.0percentwaterand0.5percentchemical
additive.
Different roads in the jurisdiction of Municipal Corporation
of Delhi (MCD) and New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC)
wereidentifedforlaying(i)40mmthickStoneMatrix
Asphalt (SMA) (ii) 40 mm thick Bituminous Concrete (BC)
with waste plastic over 50 mm thick Dense Bituminous
Macadam (DBM) and (iii) Microsurfacing over Dense
Bituminous Macadam (DBM) or Semi Dense Bituminous
Concrete (SDBC) as preventive maintenance treatments
etc on existing bituminous pavement surface as wearing
course.
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
Thefrstseriesofperformanceobservationsonvarious
road sections laid with Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA), Hot
Mix Asphalt mixes using Waste Plastic and Microsurfacing
were undertaken during November December 2010.
The performance observations being undertaken over
the road sections included the following:
Assessment of Pavement Surface Distress by
visual observation
Measurement of Pavement surface roughness
by using Roughometer-II
Defection measurements by using Benkelman
Beam Method
Traffcvolumesurvey,24hoursroundtheclock
Further work with regard to processing / analysis of 1
st

series of performance data is in progress.
Further information /copy of the report can be
obtained from
The Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011- 26313569 Fax: 011-26313569
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
3. Evaluation of Kosi- Nandgaon-Barsana-
Govardhan Road and Needed Remedial
Measures
Date of start: October 2010
Date of Completion: March 2011
i. Central Road Research Institute (CRRI),
New Delhi (R, I)
44 GENERAL REPORT ON
ii. Pr ov i nc i al Di v i s i on of UPPWD,
Mathura (S)
Scope and Objectives
To determine structural capacity so as to evolve suitable
corrective /remedial measures needed to improve
currentconditionandtocorrectthedefciencies(distress/
defects) being encountered on the road.
The scope of work included the following:
Visualassessmentofpavementsurfacecondition
for the entire length of road.
Laboratory evaluation of materials retrieved
through test pits in order to assess the subgrade
strength and quality of constituent materials.
Traffcvolumecountsontheprojectroadattwo
strategic locations for 24 hours round the Clock.
Axleloadsurveyatonelocationfor24hoursround
the clock to compute Vehicle Damage Factor
(VDF).
Benkelmanbeamdefectionstudieson50percent
of road length, covering all types of surface
condition, as per IRC: 81-1997.
Methodology
Field investigations and laboratory evaluation of road
building materials /mixes were undertaken. A variety
of activities / tasks were carried out under the feld
investigations with a view to assess the structural and
functional conditions of existing pavement, so that
the suitable recommendations on remedial/corrective
measures for improving the present condition of road
can be suggested. The different types of data /results
collected /observed /measured, both in the feld and
in the laboratory, with regard to this project road have
been processed /analyzed /computed and presented in
the project report.
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
Salient observations made from the synthesized data /
results are discussed below:
The distress levels on the project road vary from
fair to worst. In general, predominant distress
types on the pavement surface are large sized
and wide pot holes, deep settlement and extensive
patching. Though the cracked area had been
patched at many locations (between km 3 to
km 10) but most of the patched surface has started
deteriorating again.
The hi gher val ues of mean characteri sti c
deflections obtained clearly indicate that the
road in question is structurally unsound/weak
and has inadequate capacity to be able to resist
thestressesduetocurrentandprojectedtraffc
loading. It may, therefore, be inferred that the
project road is in dire need of rehabilitation /
strengthening in terms of structural overlay which
is absolutely essential to improve its condition and
ensure long term performance.
Thewheelloadsofvehiclesweremeasuredwith
the aid of static wheel weigh pads. On an overall
basis, the average weighted VDF is 6.10 for
UP direction (i.e. Kosi to Nandgaon/ Rajasthan
border), whereas, it is 13.60 in DN direction
(i.e. from Nandgaon/Rajasthan border to Kosi).
These results clearly indicate that higher axle
loads and overloading are being carried by large
number of commercial vehicles plying on the
project road, especially in DN direction (i.e. from
Rajasthan border to Kosi). The higher value of
VDF (which is 13.60), amongst the two values
obtained in UP and DN directions, has been
considered for rehabilitation design of road section
from km 0 to 10.
As regards the VDF for road section from km.
10 to km 37 (i.e. from Nandgaon to Barsana/
Govardhan), a value of 3.5, as per IRC: 81-1997,
has been assumed since this road section is
foundtobesubjectedtolightlyloadedtraffconly
and not many heavily loaded vehicles, as in the
road section from km 0 to km 10, are using this
particularly road section since it is passing through
many villages and no major activities are taking
place.
Therelativecompactionofsubgradelayervaries
from 89.3 to 91.1 percent. The soil type varies
from ML to CL- ML with low CBR values ranging
from 3 to 3.5 percent. The physical properties of
aggregates used during the production of SDBC
mixes are satisfactory, though they are found to
behavingmorefakyandelongatedmaterialsthan
permissible.
Limitations of Conclusions/Recommendations for
furtherwork/furtherproposedwork
In view of the above considerations, it is thought
appropriate to provide 150 mm thick layer of Granular
subbase (GSB) in road sections from km 0 to km 3
and km 10 to km 37, which would primarily act as the
drainage layer which is presently missing in the existing
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 45
pavement structure. In addition, it is further advised to
provide 250 mm thick (125 mm 2 ) Wet Mix Macadam
(WMM) in road section from km 0 to km 3 which would
facilitate and ensure proper levels and Camber/Cross
fall of the road section before the bituminous overlay is
provided.
As regards the road section from km 10 to km 37, it
is advised that 100 to 150 mm thick WMM may be
provided, depending on the site requirements, to
achieve proper levels and Camber/Cross fall. This is felt
absolutely essential to ensure long term performance
of the rehabilitation measures being recommended for
the two road sections.
In addition to the provision of cement concrete overlay
recommended in road section from km 0 to km 3, it
is strongly suggested to provide the same Cement
Concrete overlay on different road sections lying in the
village areas, stating from one end of a village boundary
to the another end of a village boundary.
Reports/Publications
Report on Evaluation of Kosi-Nandgaon-Barsana-
Govardhan Road and Needed Remedial Measures
Further information /copy of the report can be
obtained from
The Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011- 26313569 Fax: 011-26313569
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
4. Investigation to Determine the Likely Causes
of Pre-mature Distress in Road Section on
NH-58 and Needed Remedial Measures
Date of Start: July 2009
Date of Completion (Targeted): October 2010
i. Central Road Research Institute (CRRI),
New Delhi (R, I)
ii. Project Manager, M/s Gayatri Projects
Limited (GPL), Modipuram (S)
Scope and Objectives
To investigate and determine the likely causes for
development of pre-mature distress viz. cracking,
settlement / deformation and rutting etc. on the road
section on NH-58 and suggest the needed remedial
measures.
Fi el d i nvest i gat i ons undert aken i ncl uded t he
following:
Assessmentofpavementsurfacecondition(km
wise) on visual basis for the entire length of affected
road section (for each of the two carriageways)
to fnd out the extent and severity of various
distress types developed on the road section
Laboratoryevaluationofroadmaterialsretrieved
through the test pits in order to find out the
subgrade strength and quality of different
materials used
Traffc volume survey at one strategic location,
representing the road section, for 24 hours round
the clock
Axleloadsurvey,usingstaticwheelweighscales,
at the same traffc location, for 24 hours round
the clock (covering commercial vehicles only, on
random sampling basis) to compute the extent
of axle loading being carried by the trucks and
determination of Vehicle Damage Factors (VDFs).
BenkelmanBeamdefectionstudiesontheentire
road section
Measurement of pavement surface roughness
on two carriageways for the entire length of road
section (lane wise, per km)
Methodology
Field investigations were undertaken to assess the
current pavement condition. Traffic volume survey
was done at one strategic location, representing the
road section, for 24 hours round the clock (Manual
classifedcounts).Axleloadsurvey,usingstaticwheel
weighscales,atthesametraffclocation,for24hours
round the clock (covering commercial vehicles only, on
random sampling basis) was conducted to compute the
extent of axle loading being carried by the trucks and
determination of Vehicle Damage Factors (VDFs). The
traffcloadingintermsofcumulativenumberofstandard
axles has been worked out, separately for each of the
two carriageways, for three different scenarios of design
lives viz. 5, 10 and 15 years, assuming an annual growth
rate of commercial vehicles as 7.5 percent. Roughness
measurements, by using Roughometer- II, were
undertaken with a view to assess the riding quality of
road section, which gets affected mainly by the condition
of pavement surface.
A total of fve test pits, three on Down carriageway
and two on Up carriageway, measuring 1 m x 1 m in
size, were also dug open upto the subgrade level, at
46 GENERAL REPORT ON
selected/ representative locations. The total thickness
including thickness of each constituent layers was also
measured at several locations in each of the test pits
and average value was computed. The samples of
bituminous materials (mixes), granular materials and
sub grade soil were also collected from all the test pits
for detailed evaluation in CRRI laboratory. Based on the
general appraisal of pavement surface condition, a total
of 21 cores were retrieved from bituminous layers (BM,
DBM and BC), from the representative locations spread
over different lanes in each of the two carriageways.
Finally, the overlay thicknesses were worked out, as per
IRC: 81-1997, for four segmented road sections, based
on the severity of pavement surface condition.
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
Based on the feld and laboratory investigations and
data/resultsobtained,themajor/keyfndingsemerged
can be summarized as given under:
Themagnitudeofdistressishighonpavementof
Down carriageway as compared to pavement of
Up carriageway mainly due to its use by increasing
number of commercial vehicles carrying heavy
axle loads. The predominant types of surface
distress developed on the road section are
cracking and rutting/settlement.
Ithasbeenobservedthattheroughnessiswithin
the acceptable limits in both the carriageways, as
specifedintheConcessionAgreementandthe
pavement may be considered to be functionally
adequate at the present time except for few kms.
(4 to 5 km) on Down carriageway which would
need immediate resurfacing with 40 mm BC.
The trends of defection data, obtained through
Benkelman Beam deflection studies, clearly
indicate that the defections are much higher
on Down carriageway as compared to Up
carriageway, implying thereby that the pavement
is structurally inadequate on Down carriageway
and would be unable to cater to anticipated
heavier axle loading in future. Consequently,
the road sections are in dire need of immediate
rehabilitation/ strengthening to augment their
structural adequacy so as to improve their load
carrying capacity.
Very high VDFs (17 & 8) have been found on
Down and Up carriageways indicating excessive
overloading. VDFs, as per the prevailing traffc
loads, are much higher than the VDFs suggested
in IRC Guidelines and / or adopted for the road
section during design stage. It is primarily due to
the excessive loads that the pavement layers have
got over-stressed, resulting into the development
of pre-mature distress, especially on Down
carriageway.
Itwasalsofoundthatthebinderflmorthecoating
of bitumen with aggregates was not satisfactory
making the mix vulnerable to stripping in the
presence of water.
Itwasobservedduringthetestpittingthatcracks
are not deep seated in lower pavement layers and
thesewereconfnedonlyuptoBClayer.
Some of the probable causes for development of pre-
mature distress on the road section may be summarized,
as given below:
Theshapeandbinderabsorptioncharacteristics
of aggregates used during the execution of
bituminous works may have impacted on the
fatigue and deformation characteristics of
bituminous mixes.
Itappearsthatthepavementlayershavegotover-
stressed, primarily due to these being subjected to
excessivestresses/strains(duetohighertraffc
volume and excessive axle loads), especially due
to repetitive loads on wheel paths (mainly within
the inner lane of Down carriageway).
Useofuncrushedgravel(shingles/riverpebbles)
in bituminous mixes appears to be one of the
contributing factors in development of pre-
mature distress on the road section since such
aggregates have got poor / inadequate binder-
aggregate coating ability.
Excessivetraffcvolumeandaxleloads(i.e.high
vehicle damage factors) than considered during
the pavement design stage are largely responsible
for the distresses developed.
Limitations of Conclusions/Recommendations for
furtherwork/furtherproposedwork
Recommendations, based on the investigations
undertaken, are given as under:
ItisfurtheradvisedthatnoBClayerberemoved
since even the distressed BC layer would only
add to the structural strength of existing pavement
(which seems to be structurally inadequate
commenuseratingtotheprojectedtraffcloading)
and would thus contribute in resisting/ bearing
the stresses and strains which are excessive on
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 47
theroadsectionduetohighertraffcvolumeand
heavier axle loading.
AnumberofroadsectionsonDowncarriageway
are distressed due to inadequate structural strength
of the existing pavement. Thus, some of the
sections would need immediate resurfacing while
the rest of sections would need strengthening/
rehabilitation in the immediate future.
Openandwidecracks,atisolatedlocations,shall
be sealed with rubberized bitumen (preferably
PolymerModifedBitumen)immediatelyaftertheir
occurrence on the pavement surface.
As regards the rectifcation of distresses (i.e.
mainly alligator cracks), developed on the road
section, it is suggested that crack prevention
course in the form of Stress Absorbing Membrane
Interlayer (SAMI), as per Clause 522 of MORTH
Specifcation,maybeprovidedovertheaffected
road sections. For ensuring desirable performance,
two coats of SAMI on Down carriageway have
been recommended for majority of the sections
due to the extensive cracking and inadequate
structural capacity of the pavement. Two / one
coat of SAMI, only on few sections, on Up
carriageway (as the case may be), has also been
recommended.
SAMI would arrest the cracking and minimize /
retard further deterioration of road section which
would in a way lead to augmentation of the ability
of existing pavement to some extent to enable
it to resist heavy stresses being witnessed on
this road section and minimize progressive
deterioration. This would ensure not only the
improved pavement performance but also the
safeandcomfortabletraffcoperations.
Stress Absorbing Membrane (SAM), which is
elastomeric bitumen rubber membrane, is laid
over the cracked surface, together with a cover
of aggregate chips, in order to extend the life
of pavement before major treatment is carried
out. SAM can be laid either in single coat or in
double coat depending on the type, severity and
magnitude of cracking. It is recommended that
SAM may be provided in double coat on the
cracked surface of road section in question.
Inviewofpoorbinderabsorptioncharacteristics
of aggregates available in the vicinity of project
road, it is advised that anti-stripping agent may be
used in both DBM and BC mixes. It may also be
consideredtousepolymermodifedbitumeneven
in DBM mixes (as against the conventional 60/70
bitumen), which is though slightly costlier and
not a common practice in India, but it is expected
to provide durable, long lasting and improved
performance of the road section. If this is not
found appropriate / acceptable, then the source
of aggregates will need to be changed at least
fortheBClayerandaggregatesfnallyselected
should be cubical having adequate binder coating
ability.
Resurfacing with 50 mm BC is recommended
for some sections on immediate basis. However,
rehabilitation in terms of structural overlay will be
required for the remaining sections after about
1-1.5 years on Down carriageway to sustain
projected traffc loading, over a design life of 5
years.Basedonthecharacteristicdefectionsdata
andprojectedtraffcloading,theoverlaythickness
and suggested treatments, as recommended, may
be provided.
Reports/Publications
Report on Investigation to Determine the Likely Causes
of Pre-mature Distress in Road Section on NH-58 and
Needed Remedial Measures
Further information /copy of the report can be
obtained from
The Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011- 26313569 Fax: 011-26313569
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
B. ON-GOING/COMPLETEDPROJECTS
1. Development of National Document /Guidelines
on the Use of Weigh-In-Motion System in India
for Axle Load Monitoring
Date of Start: 01 Oct 2009
Date of Completion (Targeted): 31 Oct 2011
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi
(R, S, I)
Present Status and Progress
Status: On-going
Year of Last Report : 2010
Progress
Literature survey covering various Weigh-In-Motion
technologies available worldwide and their operational
48 GENERAL REPORT ON
practices have been completed. State-of-Art-Report
on Weigh-In-Motion Technologies/System is currently
under preparation.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
This study will be a step forward in developing
national guidelines on the use of weigh-in-motion
(WIM) systems for axle load monitoring on
Highways.
Enforcement authorities would be able to use
the appropriate WIM system towards controlling
overloading on Indian Highways which would
economize on road maintenance and rehabilitation
costs, minimize road accidents costs, and bring
about improved road safety.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
The Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011- 26313569 Fax: 011-26313569;
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
2. Development of Management System for
Maintenance Planning and Budgeting of High
Speed Road Corridors (Supra Institutional
Project)
Date of Start: April 2007
Date of Completion: March 2012
i. Central Road Research Institute (CRRI),
New Delhi (R, I)
ii. Council of Scientifc and Industrial Research
(CSIR), New Delhi (S)
Present Status and Progress
Status: On-going
Year of Last Report: 2010
Progress:
Pavement Related Aspects
Procurement of hardwares and softwares for
Establishing Data Management and Information
System (DMIS) completed.
1
st
seriesofperformanceobservationsonidentifed
test sections completed.
MethodologyforcalibrationofHDM-4Pavement
DeteriorationModelsfnalised.
Landslide Related Aspects
Five critical landslide locations have been
identifedinthestateofNagalandonNH-39.
All fve locations have been investigated with
regard to their geological, geomorphological and
geotechnical aspects.
Remedial measures designed for all the five
landslides.
Implementation of the remedial measures has
been completed in some locations and is in
progress for the remaining locations
OutofsixteenlocationsselectedonMumbai-Pune
Expressway,feldworkhasbeencompletednow
in six locations.
Remedialmeasureshavealsobeendesignedfor
six locations and implementation of the same has
been completed in four locations.
Road User Cost Related Aspects
RoadUserCostDatacollectedinDelhi,Chennai,
Kolkata, Hyderabad, Vijayawada and Mumbai
cities
RoadwayCapacityEstimatesdoneformultilane
Highways
Preliminary Road User Cost Models developed
for multilane Highways
Bridge Related Aspects
Culvertandbridgeinspectionandconditionrating
module has been developed. The development of
repair and strategizing / budgeting module is in
progress.
Analyzed the axle load data of different types
of trucks presently plying at 10 locations for use
in the load carrying capacity evaluation of
bridges
Two concrete bridges with distress in bridge
superstructure and substructure have been
identifed for carrying out the feld studies for
physical and material characterization
Further information /copy of the report can be
obtained from
The Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011- 26313569 Fax: 011-26313569
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 49
3. Investigation to Determine and Ascertain the
Causes of Distress and Suggest Remedial
Measures for Runway Pavement at Jaipur
Airport
Date of start: February 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted): June 2010
i. Central Road Research Institute (CRRI),
New Delhi (R, I)
ii. Airports Authority of India, Jaipur(S)
Present status and progress
Status: Completed
Year of Last Report: 2010
Progress
The feld investigations undertaken at Jaipur Airport
included general appraisal of surface condition to assess
the likely causes of distresses developed. The pavement
surface of Runway was closely examined through visual
survey for evidence of distress / deterioration. In order
to collect detailed information regarding the depth of
different pavement layers, their composition and feld
densities etc., four test pits, of size 1.25 m x 1.25 m,
on/ near the edge of pavement were cut open. Samples
of sub grade soil from the representative locations and
construction materials from different component layers in
the pavement structure were also collected for laboratory
evaluation. Finally, results obtained from the field
and laboratory were analyzed and recommendations
made.
Inordertoassesstheinfltrationofwaterthroughthe
surface of runway and the rate of exit of water through
the pavement layers, software available at CRRI called
DRIP (Drainage Requirement in Pavements) was
used to check the severity of problem. It was found that
the time to drain i.e., t for the given condition is about
1588 hrs, which comes out to be almost 2 months,
therebyconfrmingthestatusofrunwayinPoorQuality
Drainage.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/Supportingdata
Testpitobservationsandlaboratorytestresults
show that that there is ingress / movement and
entrapment of moisture into the bituminous
layers. Moisture movement into these lower
layers were generally through porous surface of
runway, through wide cracks in surface course
and / or through water which percolates down
into the pavement structure from or near the
shoulders.
Laboratory evaluation of cores for bituminous
mixes shows that the densities of DAC and
SDAC layers are less than the designed bulk
density. Binder contents in DAC and SDAC
mixeswerealsolessthanthespecifedvalues.
The physical properties of aggregates used
for production of DAC and SDAC mixes are
well within the specifed limits except for the
combined flakiness and elongation indices.
The gradations of DAC and SDAC mixes are
outside the grading envelope and these are
on the coarser side making the surface texture
porous.
Camber was al so f ound t o be di st urbed
t hr oughout t he r unway due t o f r equent
mai nt enance and r ehabi l i t at i on wor ks
undertaken from time to time for repair of
distressed pavement. As the top surface of
runway had already stripped off, the surface
has become porous and in the absence of
proper camber, rainwater tends to percolate
down through the pavement surface, allowing
the passage of surface water in road pavement.
Most of the free water has entered underneath
into pavement through joints, cracks, and pores
in the surface of pavement.
Theprimarysourceoffreewatertothepavement
structureisinfltratedwater.
Permeabilityrequirementsforlateralfowarevery
high because the hydraulic gradient is very low
andtheareaoffowissmall.
Properfltersneedtobeincludedifthedrainage
system is to function properly for a longer period
of time.
Onthebasisoffeldandlaboratoryinvestigations,
it can be concluded that the following three factors
have contributed to the distress related problems
on the runway.
o Poor drainage condition
o Stripping of binder
o Inadequate quality control measures
50 GENERAL REPORT ON
Recommendation for further work (if completed)
In order to drain off the water from runway, the following
two remedial measures have been suggested as
Option I and Option II.
Option I: Provision of Edge Drains
It is recommended that all along the shoulder of
runway, 30 cm wide and 80 cm deep trenches be
made which may be flled in with granular material
(flter)conformingtothespecifcationsgiveninTable
1.Itisalsorecommendedthatthefltermaterialbe
encapsulated with a Geotextile conforming to the
specifcationsindicatedinTable2.
Geo-textiles of half the strength given above may be
used in trenches because of lower stress which would
be imposed on them. K of fabric 10 k (of the soil to be
drained).
Option II : Provision of Geo-Composite Panel Drain
Geo-Composite Panel Drain is a cost effective subsoil
drainage system which comprises of high density
polyethylene core encapsulated in a flter Geotextile
that provides high strength and faster response due
to its unique ribbed panel design. It is supplied in rolls
and is simple and easy to installin trench excavations.
The cores are supplied in rolls, generally 40 mm wide
and 450 mm deep. It can be placed in trenches with a
minimum cover of 100 mm. These cores can sustain a
loading of more than 150 KPa.
Besides the above, following remedial measures have
also been recommended for rehabilitation of runway
pavement.
As per PCN reported by AAI, the runway is structurally
adequate for the aircrafts presently plying on it. Keeping
in view the distress condition of runway, poor surface
Table 1 Grading of Filter Material
IS Sieve Designation Percent passing by weight
75.0 mm 100
26.5 mm 55-75
4.75 mm 10-30
0.425 mm <10
0.075 mm 0
Note: The material passing 425 micron (0.425 mm)
sieve according to IS: 2720 (Part 5) shall have
liquid limit and plasticity index not more than
25 percent and 6 percent respectively.
and subsurface drainage condition, absence of side
drainage, inadequate binder content and compaction
of bituminous layers, high porosity and air voids etc.,
it may be inferred that the runway might deteriorate
very rapidly, if corrective measures are not taken
timely and urgently. The runway, therefore, requires
strengthening/ rehabilitation measures on immediate
basis. It is, therefore, suggested that 50 mm thick BC over
75 mm thick DBM may be overlaid after providing the
subsurface drainage. It would arrest further deterioration
and would also improve the structural and functional
ability of runway.
Reports/Publications
Report on Investigation to Determine and Ascertain the
Causes of Distress and Suggest Remedial Measures for
the Runway Pavement at Jaipur Airport.
Further information /copy of the report can be
obtained from
The Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011- 26313569 Fax: 011-26313569
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
Table 2 Strength Requirements of Drainage Textile
Property ASTM Test Method Units
Geotextile
Elongation,
< 50%
Elongation,
>50%
Grab Strength D 4632 N 1100 700
Puncture Strength D4833 N 400 250
Burst Strength D3786 KPa 2700 1300
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 51
(b) PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE
SUMMARY
Under this sub-section on pavement performance, projects reported relate to Design, Construction and Performance
EvaluationofNewMaterialsandMixestowardsDevelopmentandUpgradationofStandards/Specifcations;Modeling
of Rutting of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures; and Forensic Investigations on Premature Rutting on a National Highway
Pavement.
ProjectsbeingreportedforthefrsttimeincludeApplicationsofRhinophaltPreservativeanditsPerformanceEvaluation
on Three Toll Roads in Rajasthan and Gujarat States; and Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of New
MaterialsandMixestowardsDevelopmentandUpgradationofStandards/Specifcations.
Research projects for Thesis work include Design of Flexible Pavements for Optimum Performance in Fatigue and
Rutting Characteristics Using KENLAYER; Experimental Investigations and Modeling of Rutting of Asphalt Concrete
Mixtures; and Forensic Investigations on Premature Rutting on a National Highway Pavement.
SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Modeling of Rutting of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures
2. Premature Rutting on Highways
52 GENERAL REPORT ON
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST TIME
1. Applications of Rhinophalt Preservative and
its Performance Evaluation on Three Toll
Roads (Trial Stretches) in Rajasthan and
Gujarat States
Date of Start: July 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted): December 2013
i. Central Road Research Institute (CRRI),
New Delhi (R, I)
ii. IL & FS Transportation Network Limited,
Ahmedabad (S)
Scope and Objectives
To undertake performance evaluation of Rhinophalt
Preservative used on Three Toll Roads in Rajasthan and
Gujarat States viz. (a) Gomti Beawer, (b) Ahmedabad
Mehsana, and (c) Vadodara - Halol. Performance
observations are planned to be undertaken on three
stretches for a period of three years and include the
following:
Assessment of Pavement Surface Condition by
Visual Inspection
BenkelmanBeamDefectionMeasurements
PavementSurfaceRoughnessMeasurements
TraffcVolumeandAxleLoadSurveys
TestPitObservations
SkidResistance
Laboratory Evaluation of Cores Retrieved from
Bituminous Layers
Methodology
Rhinophalt preservative protects the surface from
weathering and oxidization and following application,
effectively halts the deterioration of bituminous surface.
Rhinophaltisarevolutionaryprocessthatsignifcantly
extends the life of asphalt and macadam. Rhinophalt
is suitable for all asphalt surfaces laid on roads, airport
runways and taxiways, car parks, platforms, docks and
ports etc.
The study is planned to be implemented in three different
phases, as described below:
Phase-I: Pre-Application Investigations
Phase-II: Post-Application Investigations
Phase-III:Periodic Performance Monitoring /
Evaluation
During the first phase, monitoring of construction
quality during the application of Rhinophalt preservative
treatments on all the three trial stretches has already
been done. In addition to the monitoring of construction
quality with regard to application of Rhinophalt
preservative treatment on trial stretches, pre and post
application investigations were also undertaken to
study the effectiveness of Rhinophalt preservative on
three Toll Roads. Second series of Post-Application
Investigations is planned to be undertaken in the month
of October 2011.
Signifcance/Utilizationpotential
The product being applied under this study is already
in use in different countries and is now proposed to be
evaluated for Indian conditions. If found suitable, it would
assist in increasing the life of pavements and ensure
improved performance on large term basis.
Further information /copy of the report can be
obtained from
The Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011- 26313569 Fax: 011-26313569
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
B. COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. Design of Flexible Pavements for Optimum
Perf ormance i n Fat i gue and Rut t i ng
Characteristics Using KENLAYER
Date of Start: November 2009
Date of Completion: November 2010
i. College of Engineering, Trivandrum (R)
Scope and Objectives
Toconductthedesignoffexiblepavementsections
using Asphalt Institute Method (AI method: using
SW1 software), American Association of State
Highways and Transportation Offcials method
(AASHTO method) and Indian Roads Congress
method (IRC method).
ToconductthedamageanalysisusingKENLAYER
software of pavement section designed by using
the above three methods.
To compare the design outputs of the three
methods when appl i ed on sel ected study
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 53
stretches on a National Highway with different soil
characteristicsandtraffcdata.
To study the variations in damage ratio owing
to the variations in failure coeffcients specifed
by agencies like AI, Shell and IRC and their
comparisons.
Toconductsensitivityanalysistounderstandthe
effect of pavement components on pavement life
with respect to fatigue and rutting.
Tostudytheeffectofaxleloadspectrumonthe
damage ratio.
Methodology
Select study stretches on NH-47 through
Balaramapuram in Thiruvananthapuram District
and Kalavoor in Alleppy District and collection
of traffi c data and determi nati on of l ayer
coeffcients.
Design pavement sections based on Asphalt
institute method, American Association of State
Highways and Transportation Offcials method
and Indian Roads Congress method.
PerformtheDamageanalysisusingKENLAYER
software to identify the optimum design method.
Conduct Sensitivity analysis on the sections
designed using optimum design method to identify
the effect of pavement components on pavement
life.
To understand the effect of various failure
coeffcients and axle load data on the damage
ratio obtained for sections designed using IRC
method.
Findings/Conclusions
Thedesignforpavementsectionwasdoneusing
IRC method and the thickness obtained for the
pavement layers such as sub-base, base, Dense
Bituminous Macadam (DBM) and Bituminous
Concrete (BC) were 260 mm, 250 mm, 134 mm
and 46 mm respectively.
The design for the pavement section was done
using AASHTO method and the thickness
obtained for the pavement layers such as base
course, Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM) and
Bituminous Concrete (BC) were 305 mm, 254 mm
and 89 mm, respectively.
Pavement section designed using Asphalt
Institute (AI) method which resulted in six types
of pavement section components comprising of
Base, Asphalt concrete and Emulsifed asphalt
base respectively.
Thetotalthicknessesofeachpavementtypewere
431 mm, 583 mm, 685 mm, 660 mm, 635 mm and
761.2 mm for Type 1, 2,3,4,5 and 6, respectively.
Thoughthetotalthicknessesofpavementlayers
designed using AI methods for Type 1 to 6 were
comparable to that of IRC method and AASHTO
method, the Asphalt component layers for sections
designed using AI method were higher than that
of IRC method (180 mm) and AASHTO method
(343 mm) for Type 1, 2,3,4,5,6.
The design for another pavement section was
done using IRC method and the thickness
obtained for the pavement layers such as sub-
base, base, Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM)
and Bituminous Concrete (BC) were 200 mm,
248 mm, 128 mm, and 43 mm respectively.
Thedesignforpavementsectionwasdoneusing
AASHTO method and the thickness obtained for
the pavement layers such as base course, Dense
Bituminous Macadam (DBM) and Bituminous
Concrete (BC) were 280 mm, 225 mm, and
86 mm respectively.
The total thicknesses of pavement sections
designed using AI method for Type 1 to 6 were
454 mm, 556 mm, 693 mm, 647 mm, 591 mm and
736 mm for Type 1, 2,3,4,5 and 6, respectively.
Thoughthetotalthicknessesofpavementlayers
designed using AI methods for Type 1 to 6 were
comparable to that of IRC method and AASHTO
method, the Asphalt component layers for sections
designed using AI method were higher than that
of IRC method (171 mm) and AASHTO method
(311 mm) for Type1, 2,3,4,5 and 6.
Hence,itcanbeconcludedthatAImethodgives
more conservative results followed by AASHTO
method and IRC method.
Damage analysis was performed for the three
methods of design for a design period of ten years
using KENLAYER software.
Thedamageratioobtainedforthefrstsectionwas
1.8, 0.311 and 0.015 for section designed using
IRC, AASHTO and AI methods, respectively.
Thedamageratioobtainedforthesecondsection
was 1.1, 0.29 and 0.014 for section designed using
IRC, AASHTO and AI methods, respectively.
54 GENERAL REPORT ON
From the values obtained, it can be concluded
that AI method yields the lowest value of damage
ratio followed by AASHTO and IRC methods,
which indicates that the life of pavement is more
for sections designed using AI method.
Hence, from both the study stretches, it can
be concluded that even though the pavement
sections are designed for a design period of ten
years, the sections designed using IRC methods
needs earlier rehabilitation, owing to the high
value of damage ratio followed by AASHTO and
AI methods.
Sensitivityanalysisresultsindicatethatdamage
ratio caused due to fatigue cracking is highly
sensitive to changes in bituminous layer thickness
(d1), whereas it changes mildly with variations
in subgrade modulus (E3) and insensitive to
changes in base layer thickness (d2).
Damage rati o caused due to permanent
deformation is sensitive to changes in bituminous
layer thickness (d1), base layer thickness (d2) and
subgrade modulus (E3).
25percentdecreaseinbituminouslayerthickness
(d1) leads to 83 percent decrease in pavement
life compared to 1.24 percent and 8.89 percent
in changes for base layer thickness (d2) and
subgrade modulus (E3).
25percentincreaseinbituminouslayerthickness
(d1) leads to 221 percent increase in pavement
life compared to 0.53 percent and 11.38 percent
in changes for base layer thickness (d2) and
subgrade modulus (E3).
Itcanbeconcludedthatbituminouslayerthickness
(d1) is the most effective component in pavement
structure followed by subgrade modulus (E3) and
base layer thickness (d2).
TheeffectofvariationsondamageratiousingAI,
ShellandIRCfailurecoeffcientswasstudiedfor
pavement section designed using IRC method
and the damage ratio obtained were 1.8, 0.2 and
0.03, respectively.
AI coefficients gave higher value of damage
ratiofollowedbyShellcoeffcientandIRCfailure
coeffcients.
AsAI gives conservative value (much ahead of
others), the use of AI coeffcient for pavement
design purpose is recommended.
For the axle load data of Balaramapuram road
stretch, the damage ratio obtained was 2.5 which
indicates pre-mature failure of sections designed
using IRC method.
Publications
Aswathy, C.Nair., & Satya Kumar, (2010), Design
of Flexible Pavement for Optimum Performance in
Fatigue and Rutting Characteristics using KENLAYER.
International Conference on Technological Trends
(ICTT-2010), November 25-27, 2010, College of
Engineering, Trivandrum, Kerala.
Further Information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Dr. M. Satya Kumar, Deptt. of Civil Engineering, College
of Engineering, Trivandrum.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 55
(c) INSTRUMENTATION
SUMMARY
Research work reported in the area of Instrumentation and Microprocessor Applications includes an on-going project
on Upgradation of RoadGeometrics and Road Condition Evaluation System. The upgraded and validated system will
help in speedy inventorisation of road network. The road surface condition evaluation involving measurement of areas
of surface disintegration will form an important input to Pavement Maintenance Management Systems
Salient Points for Discussion
1. Validation of Road Geometrics and Pavement Condition Evaluation System
56 GENERAL REPORT ON
A. ON-GOING PROJECTS
1. Upgradation of Road Geometrics and Road
Condition Evaluation System
Date of Start: June 2009
Date of Completion: May 2011
Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New
Delhi (R, I)
Present Status and Progress
Status: On-going
Year of Last Report: 2010
Progress
For upgradation of Road Condition Evaluation
System, equipments viz. Distance Measuring
Device, Pavement View Cameras and Asset View
Cameras have been procured
ForupgradationofRoadGeometricsMeasuring
System, equipments viz. Navigation system,
Roughness measuring Device and GPS is under
progress
Further information /copy of the report can be
obtained from
The Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011- 26313569 Fax: 011-26313569
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 57
II. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
SUMMARY
In this chapter projects related to Geotechnical Engineering and Soil Stabilization, Low Grade Materials & Low
Volume Roads have been reported.
The projects reported in geotechnical engineering area relate to geological and geotechnical investigations ,
instrumentation & monitoring of landslides, problems of landslides, soil nailing technique for stabilisation of railway
embankment for construction of an underpass using box pushing technique has been reported. In addition to the
above pushing of a very large size MS pipe below a railway track using soil nailing has also been reported. A project
ondesignofroadembankmentinsubmerged/foodaffectedborderareasofBhuj,Gujarathasalsobeenreported.A
new project on evaluating in situ performance of Geocell Reinforcement for Service Roads on Expansive Clay has
also been reported. Another continuing study relates to Use of Jute Geotextiles in PMGSY roads. In order to mitigate
and address the problems of landslides and natural disasters; following guidelines have also been prepared:
Guidelines for construction of roads, culverts and bridges in cyclone prone areas, Guidelines on Recommended
practice for treatment of embankment and hill slopes for erosion control, Guidelines for stabilisation of hill rock
slopes and Guidelines on management of landslides on theIndian roads and highways.
The projects reported in the area of Soil Stabilization, Low Grade Materials and Low Volume roads relate to Feasibility
study of Jarosite Waste Materials (From Chanderia & Debari) in construction of embankment and subgrade, Feasibility
study of Super Fine Copper Slag in land flling and road construction, stabilisation of black cotton soil, test track
construction with cement stabilised subgrade and subbase, design and construction of test roads using construction
&demolitionwasteandJarofx(wasteofZincindustry).GuidelinesforSoilandGranularMaterialStabilisationUsing
Cement Lime & Fly Ash. (IRC:SP:89- 2010) have also been reported.
Six new R&D projects have been reported, while eighteen projects are reported to be either on-going or completed.
SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Use of geosynthetics, geowebs and other geosynthetics materials in road construction
2. Utilisation of waste materials in road and embankment construction
3. Soil nailing technique /nail wall system for stabilisation of slopes
4. Soil stabilisation techniques
5. Construction of roads in Cyclone prone area
6. Landslides and hill slope stabilisation
58 GENERAL REPORT ON
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST
TIME
1. Feasibility Study of Jarosite Waste Materials
(from Chanderia & Debari) in Construction of
Embankment and Sub grade
Date of Start: April 2010
Date of Completion : March 2011
i. Cent r al Road Resear ch I nst i t ut e,
New Delhi (R),
ii. Hindustan Zinc Ltd. Chanderia, Chittorgarh,
Rajasthan(S)
Scope and Objectives
Feasibility Study of Jarosites Waste Materials in
Construction of Embankment and Sub Grade.
Table 1 Laboratory Results of Jarosites
Type of mix* MDD
(kN/m
3
)
OMC
(%)
LL
(%)
PL
(%)
PI
(%)
CBR
(%)
JD 13.2 32 55 36 19 6
BA 12 30 NA NA NP 22
JD1BA 12.7 25 NA NA NP 21
JD2BA 12.9 26 NA NA NP 18
JD3BA 13.5 29 NA NA NP 14
S 20.5 7 25 12 13 10
JD1S 18.5 14 33 16 17 8
JD2S 16.7 17 37 20 17 8
JD3S 15 26 50 33 17 6
*JD Jarosite Debari, BA Bottom ash, S Soil, NP Non plastic, NA Not applicable
Methodology
Laboratory investigation was carried out to utilise
them in the construction of embankment and sub
grade, results given in table . Both Jarosites (from
Chanderia & Debari ) are light weight material
havi ng yel l owi sh col our. Consi deri ng thei r l ow
density, both Jarosites were mechanically stabilised
i n the range of 25 to 75 percent wi th bottom
ash and local soil to improve their geotechnical
properties.Typical Geotechnical characteristic of
jarosite and mechanically stabilised Jarosite mixes
from Debari HZL, Rajasthan, India is given below.
It is recommended that Jarosite alone or mixed
with bottom ash and local soil can be tried for the
construction of experimental test track section in the
pavement layers of embankment and sub grade if
it is a non hazardous material.
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
Laboratory investigation-completed. It is recommended
that Jarosite alone or mixed with bottom ash and local
soil can be tried for the construction of experimental test
track section in the pavement layers of embankment
and sub grade.
Signifcance/UtilisationPotential
It can be used in construction of embankment and
subgrade.
Limitations of Conclusions/Recommendations for
furtherwork/furtherproposedwork
It has to be ascertained that it is a non-hazardous
material.
Reports/Publications
Feasibility Study of Jarosites Waste Materials in
Construction of Embankment and Sub Grade (CRRI
Report).
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
The Head, GTE Division,Central Road Research
Institute, New Delhi.
2. Study on Stabilisation of Black Cotton Soil
with Lime and Rock Dust
Date of Start: June 2011
Date of Completion (Targeted): March 2012
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 59
Karnataka Engineering Research Station,
Karnataka (R, I)
Scope and Objectives
Stabilisationofblackcottonsoilwithlime&rock
dust
Improvementinphysical&engineeringproperties
of black
Cottonsoilbyrockdustasadditive
Methodology
The study will be done with the BC soil available in
Yelandur village area (Yelandur BC soil), stabilizing it
with powdered lime and rock dust as an additive. The
strength of mix (CBR) along with other characteristics will
be noted at different percentages of lime and additive.
It is programmed to utilize the rock dust as an additive
tosoillimemixinthefrstphaseofstudy.Inthesecond
phase, soil will be replaced with a known percentage of
rock dust and stabilizing with lime. Guidelines as per
IRC:51 will be followed during preparation and testing
of the specimen.
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
Preparation for study under progress.
Signifcance/UtilisationPotential
To be evolved after drawing conclusions.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from:
TheDirector,KERS,K.R.Sagara-571607
Fax : 08236-257223
e-mail ID: kerskrs dir @yahoo.co.in
3. Experimental Test Track Construction with
Cement Stabilisation
Date of Start: June 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted): October 2012
Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R,S)
Scope and Objectives
Stabilisation of soil & Granular sub base with
cement.
Construction of Experimental Test Track With
Cement
Methodology
This study was carried out under inhouse research
programme. Around 60 m length (2 lanes) of road
was constructed at left side of road, towards Wagha
border near Amritsar along the Amritsar wagha border
4 lane road on National Highway. In this experimental
test track construction, two sections were made. One
section was constructed with pavement layers as per
conventinal method of fexible pavement and second
one is cement stabilised sub grade and granular sub
base layers with 2.5 percent cement. Pavement cross-
sectional thickness is as given in Table 1. Performance
study of this experimental road is in progress by using
Bankelman beem and dip stick equipments before and
after monsoon season.
Table 1 Pavement Thicknesses Provided for
Conventional and Experimental Stabilised Section
Pavement
layers
Conventional
design section
(mm)
Experimental design
section- stabilised, (mm)
BC 40 40
DBM 90 90
WMM 250 150
GSB 250 300 (GSB I Close graded stabilised
with 2.5 % cement)
Sub grade 500
(CBR = 7 %)
200 (Stabilised with 2.5 % cement)
300 (Conventional soil CBR = 7 %)
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
The study is under progress.
Furtherinformation/Copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division,Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
4. Feasibility Study of Super Fine Copper Slag
in Land Filling and Road Construction
Date of Start: January 2010
Date of Completion: March 2011
i. Cent r al Road Resear ch I nst i t ut e,
New-Delhi (R)
ii. M/s Hindalco Industries Limited, Dahej,
Gujarat (S)
Scope and Objectives
Characterisationofsuperfnecopperslag
60 GENERAL REPORT ON
Mechanicalstabilisationofsuperfnecopperslag
withgranulated copper slag and pond ash
Methodology
Superfnecopperslagisawastematerialproduced
during extraction of copper concentrate from high
copper ore by foatation and fltration processes.At
present, the accumulated super fne copper slag is
about 2 lac MT, while its annual production is about
1.5 lac MT per year at Hindalco Industries Limited,
Dahej,Gujrat.Feasibilitystudyofsuperfnecopper
slag in the road construction was carried out by
detailed laboratory investigation. It is mixed with
pond ash and granulated copper slag collected
from the same plant in the range of 25 percent to
75 percent. A typical geotechnical property of super
fne slag is given in theTable 2. It is recommended
thatsuperfnecopperslagaloneormixedwithpond
ash and granulated copper slag can be tried for the
construction of experimental test track section in the
pavement layers of embankment and sub grade if it
is a non-hazardous material.
Table 2 Laboratory Results of Super Fine Copper Slag
Type of mix MDD
(kN/m
3
)
OMC
(%)
LL
(%)
PL
(%)
PI
(%)
CBR
(%)
SF 20.12 17 NA NA NP 14
P 10.72 40 NA NA NP 4
SF1P 12.7 32 NA NA NP 6
SF2P 15.2 26 NA NA NP 8
SF3P 18.6 19 NA NA NP 12
G 24.5 7 NA NA NP 50
SF1G 25.3 5 NA NA NP 52
SF2G 24.2 8 NA NA NP 35
SF3G 22.1 12 NA NA NP 22
SF Super fne slag, P Pond ash, G Granulated copper slag, NP Non plastic, NA Not applicable
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
It is concluded that super fne copper slag alone or
mixed with pond ash and granulated copper slag can
be tried for the construction of experimental test track
section in the pavement layers of embankment and sub
grade if it is a non hazardous material.
Signifcance/UtilisationPotential
It can be used i n embankment and subgrade
construction.
Limitations of Conclusions/Recommendations for
furtherwork/furtherproposedwork
It is to be ascertained that the material is non- hazardous.
Reports/Publications:
Feasibility Study of Super Fine Copper Slag in Land
Filling and Road Construction
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from:
GTE Division,Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
5. Guidelines for Stabilization of Hill-Rock
Slopes
Date of Start: January 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted): March 2012
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R,S)
Scope and Objectives
Guidelines for stabilization of hill-rock slopes, has been
taken up by CRRI to prepare a manual for IRC. The
scope & objectives of the project are:
Evaluation of existing different methods of rock
slopeinvestigationinformofnewandmodifed
techniques
Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Slope Mass Rating
(SMR) and Rock Mass Quality (Q) etc and their
inter relationship to understand rock defects and
rock slope instability
Lessons learnt from the Implementation of
remedial measures Rock slope failure
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 61
Evaluation of different types of stabilization
techniques for rock slope failure
Monitoring the efficacy of different types of
stabilization techniques for rock slope failure
PreparationguidelinesforstabilisationofHillRock
slope failure
Methodology
Review of existing different methods of rock
slopeinvestigationinformofnewandmodifed
techniques such as RMR, SMR and Q etc and
their inter relationship to understand rock defects
and rock slope instability in a better way.
RockMassRating(RMR)andSlopeMassRating
(SMR) are required to be evaluated in a joint control
rock blocks of different locations of hill slope of
India. Rock Engineering Investigation as shown
infg38forunstablerockslopeareadescribed
based on different method such as Rock Mass
Rating (RMR), Slope Mass Rating (SMR), and
Rock Mass Quality (Q) and Rock Defect study by
determining the Block Volume (Vb), Measurement
of the Volumetric Joint Count (Jv) etc. It helps
to characterize the rock slope and indicate
the causes of slope failure in specifc location.
Rock Slope stabilityAnalysis will be carried out
to evolve a set of suitable remedial measures will
be brought out both for short term and long term
remediation of failure of rock slope. These remedial
measures would comprise improving surface
and sub-surface drainage, retaining structures,
reinforcement techniques, Rock bolts, Shotcrete,
Rock Anchors, Cable Anchors, Steel ribs, Steel
fiber reinforced shotcrete (SFRS), etc. Rock
slopes in hilly terrains of India failed due to several
parameters. (The guidelines for stabilization
for rock slopes presents concrete remediation
programme for unstable rock slope stretches
for implementing agencies like state PWDs and
Border Road Organization(BRO) where unstable
rock slopes are encountered adjacent to National
and State highways in hill region states in India.
The preparation of Guidelines for stabilisation of
hill rock slope failures is in progress.
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
Work is under progress.
Reports/Publications
Guidelines for Stabilization of Hill-Rock Slopes (In House
Project)
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi
6. Guidelines on Management of Landslides on
the Indian Roads and Highways
Date of Start:January 2011
Date of Completion (Targeted): March 2012
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R,S)
Scope and Objectives
To prepare guidelines for integrating landslide
management withdevelopment planning.
NationalGuidelinesonManagementofLandslides
on Roads and Highwaysin India will be prepared
with particular reference to the background of:
o Planning, preparedness and prevention,
o Cost and time effective slope engineering,
landslide correction,and road safety through
early warning , and
o Rapid response and speedy reconstruction
and rehabilitation.
The Guidelines will address the landslide management
issues related to the highway sector in the overall
context of national vision, strategy and action plan for
management of disasters.
Methodology
Guidelines would be prepared to familiarize highway
engineers with special areas of interest such as
instrumentation and monitoring of critical slopes and
landslide hot spots, landslide hazard zonation mapping
and risk assessment, retroftting of slopes and road
infrastructure and design of cost-effective slope
protection works fashioned to suit different geotechnical
situations.
The Guidelines under preparation are the part of IRC
(Disaster Management Committee), 11
th
Five Year Plan,
Network project on Engineering of Structures against
Natural and other Disasters and Collaborative proposal
on Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for Katra-
Qazigund sections of proposed Udhampur- Srinagar
Baramullah Railway Link in J&K with CSIR-NEERI.
InterimConclusions/Conclusions/SupportingData
Work is under progress.
62 GENERAL REPORT ON
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division,Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
7. Design and Performance Monitoring of Test
Road Constructed Using C&D Waste
Date of Start: June 2009
Date of Completion: February 2012
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi(R)
ii. IL & FS ltd (S)
Present Status and Progress
CRRI had earlier carried out "Feasibility Studies on
Use of C&D Waste for Road Construction to explore
and assess its use as an Embankment Fill Material, in
Base/ Sub-base layers, for Bituminous and Concrete
Pavements and had found this material to be useful for
Base and Sub-base layers. Extending this laboratory
work, test road construction of about 150 m length
involving widening on both sides of existing road was
taken up in Delhi. The project has been sponsored by
IL&FS ltd. The test road is presently under construction.
Its performance would be recorded for evolving suitable
guidelines for C&D waste usage in road works after the
completion of the project. The work is in progress.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
Work is in progress.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division,Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi.
8. Experimental Test Track Construction Using
Jarofx Waste Material
Date of Start : June 2010
Date of Completion (Actual): February 2012
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi(R)
ii. M/s Hi ndustan Zi nc Ltd. Chanderi a,
Chittorgarh, Rajasthan (S)
Present Status and Progress
Based on l abor at or y char act er i sat i on and
recommendation, an experimental test track section
wasconstructedusingJarofxat50kmfromChittorgarh.
Design of embankment and sub grade are carried out
using Jarofx and mix of Jarofx:soil (50:50) material.
Stability analysis of a proposed typical section under
different conditions was evaluated considering the water
table and seismic factor and found safe (more than 1.5).
Construction of experimental test track of length 500 m is
carriedoutusingJarofxandmixes(50Jarofx:50soil)
in the embankment and sub grade layers along the left
side of widened portion of a State Highway (SH 76)
towards Udaipur . Project is under progress.
Reports/Publications: work is in progress
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division,Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi.
9. Guidelines for Soil and Granular Material
Stabilisation Using Cement, Lime & Fly Ash
Date of Start : May 2010
Date of Completion (Actual): March 2011
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. Indian Roads Congress (S,I)
Present Status and Progress
Presently due to paucity of funds and non availability of
good construction materials, great emphasis is being
laid to utilise locally, waste and marginal materials.
Often these materials need to be stabilised to achieve
the desired gradation and strength. It was observed by
IRC that there are several guidelines dealing with the
subject of soil stabilisation, which is listed below. It was
found that most of them are quite old and outdated in
context of present days construction practices.The
identifedguidelineswere:
IRC:33-1969:StandardProcedureforEvaluation
and Condition Survey of Stabilized Soil Roads
IRC:49-1973: Recommended Practice for the
Pulverisation of Black Cotton Soils for Lime
Stabilization.
IRC:50-1973: Recommended Design Criterion
for the use of Cement Modifed Soils in Road
Construction
IRC: 51-1992: Guidelines for the use of Soil- Lime
Mixes in Road Construction
IRC:88-1984:Recommended Practice for Lime-
Fly Ash Stabilized Soil s Base/Sub-base in
Pavement Construction.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 63
All these Guidelines were reviewed by Central Road
Research Institute, New Delhi and based on the
current national and international practices, they are
being modified and brought into a single document
with above title. The Guidelines include, general
features of stabilization, guidelines for soil/granular
mat eri al st abi l i zat i on, speci f i cat i ons and t est
requirements for stabilized materials, construction
procedure, quality control and limitations for the
use of stabilized materials. These Guidelines have
been published by IRC as a Special Publication
(IRC:SP:89- 2010).
Reports/Publications
Guidelines For Soil And Granular Material Stabilisation
Using Cement, Lime & Fly Ash. (IRC:SP:89- 2010)
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Indian Roads Congress, Kama Koti Marg, Sector-6,
R.K. Puram, New Delhi-110 022.
e-mail ID:secretarygen@irc.org.in / hrb@irc.org.in
10. Typical Problems for Drainage System on
Roads and their Remedial Measures
Date of Start: May 2010
Date of Completion (Actual): April 2011
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi
(R, S)
Present Status and Progress
It has been observed that many roads despite good
drainage system, fail prematurely. The reason for the
same was investigated and it was found that the reason
for failure can be attributed to the poor drainage capacity
of the pavement itself. It is essential that whatever
amount of water which enters into the road pavement
layers due to several reasons, must come out from
the pavement as early as possible. The investigations
revealed that the pavement during rainy season gets
choked with water due to poor permeability of the
pavement layers itself. Normally, in conventional method
of pavement design, a drainage layer popularly known
as Granular Subbase(GSB) is provided on the entire
width, to remove the water from pavement structure.
But it has been observed that such layers do not serve
its intended function. It was therefore decided to study
the drainage capacity of Granular Sub-Base Layer for
all the six grades of MORTH specifcations. Further,
the effect of permeability was analysed by changing
thegradationi.e.,removingthefnesandthenadding
fnesinsmallincrementstotheMORTHspecifcations.
TheeffectoffnesinGSBlayerwasanalysedfor2,4,
6 and 8 lane roads at 2 percent and 3 percent slopes.
Results for Coarse Grade-1 are given in Table 3. The
Project has been completed and some of the salient
fndingsareasfollows:
Table 3 Time-to-Drain for 2% and 3% Slope against Permeability Values for Coarse Grade-I
Lane Type K(ft/
day)
K
(cm/sec)
Time-to-drain (hours)
2% Slope 3% Slope
2 Lane (25 ft)
As per MORTH 41.44 0.014 50 28
Without Fines 87 .0300 23 18
With 5% Fines 19.2 .0066 80 63
4 Lane (49 ft)
As per MORTH 41.44 0.014 96 73
Without Fines 87 .0300 45 34
With 5% Fines 19.2 .0066 207 159
6 Lane (70 ft)
As per MORTH 41.44 0.014 153 114
Without Fines 87 .0300 72 54
With 5% Fines 19.2 .0066 254 247
8 Lane (92 ft)
As per MORTH 41.44 0.014 189 139
Without Fines 87 .0300 89 65
With 5% Fines 19.2 .0066 408 301
64 GENERAL REPORT ON
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
If we restrict the fnes in GSB layer, the rate of
fowandpermeability(k) increases.
Ithasalsobeenconcludedfromthestudiesthat
as the lane width increases, GSB layer with higher
permeability be used because the time to drain
increases with the increase in lane width.
Rate of k increases drastically if fnes are not
presentandreducessignifcantly,evenif5percent
fines are added. So, it is suggested that the
existingMORTHspecifcationsbemodifedfrom
the existing limit of 3-10 percent to 3-5 percent for
soil passing 75 micron sieve.
Theresultsfurthershowthatat3percentinternal
slope, time-to-drain off water is far less as
compared for time-to-drain at 2 percent internal
slope. It is therefore suggested that the slope
within the pavement layers should be kept at
3 percent for better intra-pavement drainage.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division, Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi.
B. ON-GOING/COMPLETEDPROJECTS
1. Det ai l ed Geol ogi cal & Geot echni cal
Investigation, Instrumentation and Monitoring
of Amparav Landslide, Uttarakhand State
Date of Start: April 2006
Date of Completion (Actual):December 2010
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. Department of Science and Technology (S)
Present Status and Progress
Status: Completed
Year of Last Report: 2010
Progress: Completed
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
Detailed studies, which includes geological and
geotechnical studies were carried out. For this
purpose, large scale mapping was done at 1:500
scales with 2 m contour interval. Large scale mapping
include all topographical, manmade features and also
the dimension of landslides. It was found that study
area is highly vulnerable for slope instability. Mainly,
three different types of failures namely, plane/block
failure, talus failure on higher reaches and rotational
failure at lower reaches are affecting the NH-87.
Further, studies revealed that there were natural
as well as anthropological factors playing important
role, causing instabilities in the area. These factors
are listed in Table 1. Proposed remedial measures
are given in the report. Project report has now been
submitted to DST.
Table1CausativeFactorsIdentifedatAmparavLandslide
Natural Causative Factors Anthropological Causative Factors
Geology Weak Lithology Deforestation
Structure Domination Excessive irrigation in agriculture felds
Steep Slope Improper Drainage
Land use and land cover Inadequate maintenance of old existing remedial measures
High Weathering Construction of concrete bridge with low ground clearance
Presence of Mud Stone Layers -----
High Seismic Zone / Close to MBT ---------
Limitations of Conclusions
Following are the limitations:
Large Area rugged topography
inaccessible areas - wild life
Restrictedtimeduetounfavourableweather
conditions
Recommendations for further Work
Proposed remedial measures may be applied.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 65
Reports/Publications
Report has been submitted to DST.
Recommendations for Dissemination
The studies made in the project would be utilized by
CRRI in the preparation of Guidelines for landslide
prevention and control. This work has been assigned
to CRRI by Indian Roads Congress.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
The Head, GTE Division,Central Road Research
Institute, New Delhi
Phone: 011-26842612,
Fax :011- 26845943,011- 26830480
e-mail ID: sudhirmathur.crri@nic.in
2. Demonstration Project on Use of Jute
Geotextiles in PMGSY Roads
Date of Start : July 2005
Date of Completion: Continuing
i. Cent r al Road Resear ch I nst i t ut e,
New Delhi( R )
ii. Jute Manufacturers Development Council
(S),
iii. National Rural Road Development Agency (I)
Present Status and Progress
In continuation to the project entitled, Pilot Project on
Use of Jute Geotextiles in PMGSY sponsored by Jute
Manufactures Development Council (JMDC) on use of
JuteGeotextilesinPMGSYRoads,constructionoffve
PMGSY roads using different types of jute geotextiles
has been completed in four states. Each of these PMGSY
Roads, comprise of several sub-sections in which JGT of
different varieties (woven, non-woven and open weave),
of different strengths and rot treated as well as non
treated varieties have been laid to study their relative
performance. Control sections without JGT have also
been constructed. A distinguishing feature of these test
roads is the construction of reduced pavement thickness
sections where in JGT as drainage improvement layer
has been laid above subgrade. During 2010-11, second
cycle of performance monitoring of these roads was
completed. The performance indicators which have
been recognised for monitoring include Benkelman
Beamdefectionstudies,DCPtestsatsubgradelevel,
retrieval of JGT samples below pavement and tests on
retrieved JGT samples and visual pavement surface
condition evaluation for recording distress. Report
preparation based on the performance monitoring is
under progress.
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
Work is under progress.
Reports/Publications:
Interim reports submitted to JMDC.
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
A State-of-Art-Report on Jute Geotextiles has been
prepared by CRRI and has been accepted by IRC for
publication.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Head, GTE Division,Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi.
Phone: 011-26842612; Fax: 26845943, 26830480
e-mail ID: sudhirmathur.crri@nic.in
3. Preparation of Guidelines for Construction of
Roads, Culverts and Bridges in Cyclone Prone
Areas
Date of Start : June 2009
Date of Completion (Actual): February 2011
(Under Review by NDMA and IRC)
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi( R )
ii. National Disaster Management Authority(S)
Present Status and Progress
This project was also undertaken in the network project
of CSIR, however, some support was also provided by
National Disaster Management Authority in the project by
assigning a study to prepare Guidelines for construction
of roads in cyclone prone areas and administrative
support was also provided to collect the relevant
information from different bodies dealing with projects
of such nature. After carrying out exhaustive literature
review, site visits, discussion with experts, etc., draft of
the Guidelines for Road Construction in Cyclone Prone
Areas has been prepared and submitted to NDMA. Brief
summary of the Guidelines is given below:
TheGuidelinesdealswithDefnitionandDestructions
Caused by Cyclones, Planning of Road Network
in Cyclone Prone Areas, Construction of Road
Embankments, Sea Erosion Control Techniques & River
66 GENERAL REPORT ON
Bank Protection selection of pavement types for roads
to be constructed in Cyclone prone areas, mitigation
measures for bridge structures to effectively withstand
impactofcycloneandtraffcmanagementmeasuresto
be taken while conduction evacuation exercises before
the onslaught of cyclone.
Recommendations for further Work
Construction of Roads, Culverts and Bridges in Cyclone
Prone Areas may be done in the light of the Guide
lines.
Reports/Publications
Draft Guidelines for Construction of Roads, Culverts and
Bridges in cyclone Prone Areas
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Head, GTE Division,Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi.
Phone: 011-26842612;
Fax: 011- 26845943, 011- 26830480
e-mail ID: sudhirmathur.crri@nic.in
4. Instrumentation and Monitoring of Kaliasaur
Landslide on National Highway-58 (Network
Project with SERC)
Date of Start : June 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted): December 2012
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. Structural Engineering Research Centre (C)
iii. Department of Science & Technology (S)
Present Status and Progress
Under network project of CSIR, i.e., Engineering of
Structures against Natural and Other Disasters, two
landslides namely, Patalganga and Kaliasur landslides
had been selected. In continuation to this project the
work on investigation, instrumentation and monitoring
of Kaliasaur Landslide on National Highway-58 has
been done by CRRI under a DST sponsored project and
Network Project of CSIR. The work done on Kaliasaur
Landslideduringthelastfveyearshasbeenanalyzed
andafnalreportalongwithsuggestionsforlong-term
remedial measures for the stability of Kaliasaur landslide
was submitted to DST. One of the most important
elements of our research work which continued under
Network Project was monitoring of the slope through
DGPS (Differential Global Positioning System) and
specially designed steel pedestals. Monitoring results
of the slope and other investigations have revealed
that the landslide was still in active form. This was
clearly brought out in our report submitted to DST.
The reactivation of this slide in themonths of Sept-Oct
2010 has confrmed the revelation of the prediction
made on the basis of the monitoring results and other
investigations. Highly fractured rocks at the crown part
of the landslide have been indicated with least safety
factor and maximum movement magnitude during the
analysis. During recent reactivation of slide this part
(crown portion) in the month of October 2010 has been
thesourceoffailure.Signifcantincreaseintheextension
of landslide boundary i.e., 20 meters was observed
with in a period of 45 days. A stretch of about 93 m of
National Highway-58 was blocked for almost all these
45 days. Indirect losses on account of detouring due to
reactivation of this slide have been calculated using unit
cost estimation method.
Closure of the NH-58 forced traveller to detour through
by-pass: Khedakhal- Kandai. The detour distance is
approximately 28km which is three times the distance
on highway (aprox. 9 km, i.e. A to B). To calculate the
costofthesedetours,wehaveexaminedtraffcpattern,
extra charges on fares as well as on vehicles fuel,
along the highway and used the unit cost estimation
method. The total detouring cost calculated for 45 days
during September-October, 2010 was Rs 2,45,43,180
(approx).Thoughthisfgureonlyindicatesthedetouring
cost excluding the cost on man hour lost, expenditure
on repeated restoration and sliding for four months by
BRO (this includes two dozers deputed with a dozens
of laborers for four months and still continuing), cost
of life lost, cost of property (including a few damaged
vehicles) etc. The total loss due to this landslide is being
estimated.
The reactivation of Kaliasaur landslide comes as a
constraint for our slope monitoring agenda. Out of
75 pedestals installed in landslide for the purpose of
monitoring, only a few have been able to sustain their
positions. The rest of the pedestals have got buried
under the debris or carried away by it.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
Project is still in progress.
Reports/Publications
Instrumentation and Monitoring of Kaliasaur Landslide
on Nati onal Hi ghway-58 (Network Proj ect wi th
SERC)
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 67
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
Thefndingsofthestudyshallbeusedinthepreparation
of Guidelines on Landslide investigations and mitigations
measures awarded by Indian Roads Congress to
CRRI.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi
Phone: 011-26842612;
Fax :011- 26845943,011- 26830480
e-mail ID: sudhirmathur.crri@nic.in
5. Design and Execution of Soil Nail Wall System
for the Stabilisation of Railway Embankment
for the Construction of Underpass using Box
Pushing Technique under the Existing Railway
Line near Apsara Border, Dilshad Garden
Date of Start : June 2009
Date of Completion (Actual): December 2010
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. Public Works Department, Delhi (S)
Present Status and Progress
Under this project, Delhi PWD has proposed to construct
two subways across the Shadhara-Gaziabad road at the
intersection of Apsara border. One of the underpasses
was proposed from ISBT Anand Vihar side to Seemapuri
and the other was proposed from Seemapuri side to
ISBT, Anand Vihar bus terminal. These two proposed
underpasses are parallel to existing Railway over
bridge (ROB) on either side of the same ROB. The
side slopes of the approaches embankments for ROB
were protected and confned with 900 mm diameter
sheet piles These sheet piles were constructed from
the footpath top and were interconnected with girder
arrangements prior to construction of underpass. The
internal dimensions of each segment of precast boxes
were of 9.0 m x 5.75 m with the thickness of 0.90 m.
The maximum outer dimensions of the boxes are
10.80 m x 7.55 m with an overburden of about 2 m above
the box level. The estimated pushing length was found
to be 50 m for each box.
About 200 to 250 trains pass this section daily. In order
to create an underpass box pushing was proposed
through a strata which was of consisting of Silty sand/
Poorly graded fine sand. The work of designing a
scheme for stabilisation of cohesion less soil strata so
thatitremainsstablewhencuttoalmostverticalprofle
for a height of about 7.5 to 8 m during box pushing
operation was entrusted to CRRI by M/s AFCONS
Infrastructure Limited. After site visit, exploratory boring,
laboratory tests and meetings with Contractor/ Railway
authorities, CRRI Team proposed the use of Soil Nailing
Technique for stabilisation of sandy soil. The complete
design details of soil nailing and a suitable construction
methodology was provided. As per the design provided
by CRRI, series of driven nails were inserted into the
ground which resulted in the stabilisation of vertical cut
slope. The box pushing and gradual removal of sand of
the cut slope was taken up simultaneously. The exposed
nails were pushed further after subsequent pushing and
removal of sand till the target end was reached. Project
is successfully completed.
Reports/Publications
Design and Execution of Soil Nail Wall System for the
Stabilisation of Railway Embankment for the Construction
of Underpass Using Box Pushing Under the Existing
Railway Line Near Apsara Border, Dilshad Garden
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Head, GTE Division, Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi.
Phone: 011-26842612;
Fax :011- 26845943, 011- 26830480
e-mail ID: sudhirmathur.crri@nic.in
6. Soil Nailing Technique for Facilitating
Construction of Underpass by Box Pushing
Technique at Western Approach of Old
Yamuna Bridge
Date of Start : June 2009
Date of Completion (Actual): September 2010
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. M/s S.P. Singla, Contractor, Northern
Railway (S)
Present Status and Progress
For the underpass construction by pushing two numbers
of RCC Boxes with internal dimensions (opening) of
10.5 m x 5.75 m each and one number RCC box of 9 m x
68 GENERAL REPORT ON
4 m, the boxes were pushed through existing 135 years
old embankment having highly unstable cohesionless
sandysoilbackfllinbetweenretainingwalls.About200
to 250 trains pass this section daily, and any disruption
torailtraffcinanycasewasnotallowed.Toaccomplish
box pushing for construction of underpass a novel
methodology using Soil Nailing was adopted. The
project is now completed.
Reports/Publications
Soil Nailing Technique for Facilitating Construction
of Underpass by Box Pushing Technique at Western
Approach of Old Yamuna Bridge
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011-26842612,
Fax : 011- 26845943, 011- 26830480
e-mail ID: sudhirmathur.crri@nic.in
7. Design and Execution of Soil Nail Wall System
for the Stabilisation of Railway Embankment
for the Trenchless Crossing of 1700 mm
Diameter MS Pipe Below Railway Track Near
Old Steel Bridge Near Yamuna Bazaar, Delhi
Date of Start: June 2010
Date of Completion (Actual): February 2011
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. Larsen and Toubro Limited (S)
Present Status and Progress
Delhi Jal Board had proposed the work to lay a water
pipe line of 1700 mm diameter parallel to new bye-
pass ring road, below railway track near old steel
bridge, Yamuna Bazar. A small Tunnel Boring Machine
(TBM) of diameter 1.7 m having length of 3 m was
being used for trenchless technique at the depth of
7.5 m from the rail top. The work was allocated to
Larson & Toubro (L&T) Ltd., further, the work was
awarded by L&T to CRRI. The alignment of the pipe
line was passing through the Railway embankment
near old steel bridge at Saleem Garh Fort, comprising
of poorl y graded sand. The pi pe was pushed
through sandy strata by stabilising the embankment
using driven Soil Nailing Technique as was done
for box pushing through the same embankment
2.5 m away. The work was completed manually by
cutting and pushing the vertical face with the help of
jack without using the heavy TBM before stipulated
time.
Reports/Publications
Design and Execution of Soil Nail Wall System for the
Stabilisation of Railway Embankment for the Trenchless
Crossing of 1700 mm Diameter MS Pipe Below Railway
Track Near Old Steel Bridge Near Yamuna bazaar, Delhi.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division,Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011-26842612,
Fax : 011- 26845943, 011- 26830480
E-mail ID: sudhirmathur.crri@ nic.in
8. Problem of Landslides on Dimapur-Kohima-
Maram Road (National Highway-39) in Nagaland
and Manipur States (Supra Institutional Project)
Date of Start : June 2009
Date of Completion (Actual): February 2011
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. Border Roads Organisation (S)
Present Status and Progress
National Highway-39 is the only connecting route between
Dimapur and Kohima (the state capital of Nagaland)
and having slope failure at various locations. The
investigation work required geomorphologic, structural
and geological analysis along with the evaluation
of geo-technical properties for designing suitable
remedial measures to stabilize the slopes at various
critical locations including km 162, km 174, km 179,
km 180, 214 and km 221., which have been completed.
Geo-technical evaluation of slope materials was done
to perform the stability analysis. Several remedial
measures were suggested including the provision of
a reinforced earth wall. The complete report has been
submitted to BRO for the purpose of implementation.
Reports/Publications
Problem of Landslides on Dimapur-Kohima-Maram
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 69
Road (National Highway-39) In Nagaland and Manipur
States.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011-26842612;
Fax No. : 011- 26845943, 011- 26830480
e-mail ID: sudhirmathur.crri@nic.in
9. Protection of Unstable Cut Slopes along
Approach Roads and Railway Lines and
Stabilization of the Proposed Dumping Sites
Date of Start : June 2009
Date of Completion: February 2012
i Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii M/s Konkan Railway Corporation Limited (S)
Present Status and Progress
The project was sponsored by M/s Konkan Railway
Corporation Limited to study for protection of unstable
cut slopes along the approach roads and railway lines
and to stabilize the proposed dumping sites on Katra-
Quazigund section of Udhampur Srinager-Baramullah
Rail link in Jammu and Kashmir. From Kashmir to
Banihal section, three dumping yards were selected for
the study. On Katra to Laole section (Jammu to Banihal),
preliminary site visit was carried out. Laboratory
investigation of muck generated during tunnelling
and stability analysis of selected dumping yards is in
progress. Stability analyses of existing slopes of all three
sections were carried out.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim
Conclusions
Work is in progress.
Reports/Publications
"Interim Report on Protection of Unstable Cut Slopes
Along Approach Roads and Railway Lines and
Stabilization of the Proposed Dumping Sites".
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi
Phone: 011-26842612;
Fax No. : 011- 26845943, 011- 26830480
e-mail ID: sudhirmathur.crri@nic.in
10. Design of Road Embankment in Submerged/
Flood Affected Border Areas of Bhuj, Gujarat
Date of Start : June 2010
Date of Completion (Actual) : March 2011
i. Cent r al Road Resear ch I nst i t ut e,
New Delhi (R)
ii. National Buildings Construction Corporation
Ltd (S,I)
Present Status and Progress
The National Buildings Construction Corporation
Ltd (NBCC) is executing the works to construct
Border Fencing and Border Roads along a part of
our countrys international border in Gujarat. Indias
international border in Gujarat is situated in Rann of
Kutch where Arabian Sea water enters and recedes
frequently leaving inland marshy and swampy, dotted
with small to very large salt water bodies. During 2010-
11, CRRI proposed road construction methodology
for a severely water logged stretch of about 3.5 km.
The natural ground level along this stretch is in the
form of a bowl, hence even after the stagnated water
dries up, this area may get waterlogged once again
during monsoon. Depth of waterlogging at present
varies from 1.5 to 2 m. Hence it was suggested that
well graded coarse particles, obtained from stone
or moorum quarry can be used as fll material in
waterlogged area. This material can be back dumped
into the water (by end tipping) and a working platform
be created. Once the working platform rises above
surrounding water level, compaction of further layers
offllingmaterial(coarsegrainedmaterialfromquarry)
can be taken up using vibratory rollers in layers.
Construction of side slope erosion control measures
using revet mattresses and geotextile layer and toe
wall made of gabions can be taken up in the next
stage after the stagnant water dries up. Accordingly,
NBCC has now constructed road embankment in this
stretch using coarse granular material .
Reports/Publications
Design of Road Embankment in Submerged/Flood
Affected Border Areas of Bhuj, Gujarat
70 GENERAL REPORT ON
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi
11. Validation of Slope Protection Works of
Zirakpur-Parwanoo Four Laning Project
(Himalayan Expressway)
Date of Start : May 2010
Date of Completion (Actual) : March 2011
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. M/s Himalayan Expressway Ltd (I)
Present Status and Progress
Transportation corridors in hilly regions are highly
susceptible to landslides/ rockfalls. M/s Himalayan
Expressway Ltd (Concessionaire) are executing
Zirakpur-Parwanoo Road project for NHAI, which
involves four laning of NH22 (Chandigarh-Shimla Road)
for 17.44 km length and new bypass of 10.14 km length
in the states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.
Bypasses are being constructed to provide alternate
routes to existing congested road sections passing
through towns, namely Pinjore, Kalka and Parwanoo in
this project. Such bypass section of this new alignment is
being constructed in hilly terrain involving embankment
construction of height upto about 20 m and slope cutting
upto 25 m. Suitable slope protection measures are
required in slope cutting sections to prevent occurrence
of landslide/ rockfall. The task of Validation of Slope
Protection Measures was taken up by CRRI.
CRRI undertook detai l ed fi el d and l aboratory
investigations including electrical resistivity studies
to characterise slope forming material. The slopes
comprise of weathered shale/ conglomerate/ soil mix.
Stability of slopes was analysed using software. The
analysis showed that even though slopes are safe
under normal serviceability conditions, when saturation/
earth quake conditions are considered, the slopes had
factor of safety less than one. Hence, passive protection
measures like provision of steel rope net/ cable panel,
turfing with netting, ISMB fencing, etc have been
suggested.
Reports/Publications
Validation of Slope Protection Works of Zirakpur-Parwan
Four Laning Project (Himalayan Expressway)
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi
12. Preparation of Guidelines on Recommended
Practice for Treatment of Embankment and
Hill Slopes For Erosion Control
Date of Start : May 2010
Date of Completion (Actual) : March 2011
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. Indian Roads Congress (S)
Present Status and Progress
The impact of highway location on the environment
is a major concern to the highway engineer and
the public. The highways, if they are not properly
located, designed, constructed or maintained, would
be subjected to erosion and may at times contribute
sediments to the streams. The control of soil and water
is basic to the protection of the road structure and
the conservation efforts; therefore, highway design,
construction and maintenance procedures must
be continuously evaluated to minimise erosion and
sedimentation problems. Erosion can be controlled
to a considerable degree by geometric design,
particularly through aspects relating to cross section.
In some respects the control is directly associated
withproperprovisionofdrainageandfttinglandscape
development. Thus effect of erosion should be
considered in the location and design stage. Instances
are not wanting where many embankment slopes
made up of different types of soils have suffered a
high degree of damage due to erosion from rain and
wind. Denudation of vegetation from soil slopes or
the lack of vegetative cover on embankment slopes
is often responsible for formation of rills and rain-
cuts, eventually leading to a surfcial slide or to an
undermining of the edges of the road pavement
structure. When vegetation is established on the
slopes, there becomes available an effective dense
network of root system, penetrating to a depth of about
0.5 to 0.75 m into the slope, which serves to anchor
down the soil mantle and render it resistant to erosion.
CRRI took up the task of revising the IRC Guidelines
on erosion control (IRC:56) which was formulated in
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 71
1974. Presently this task has been completed and
IRC Council has approved the revised guidelines
prepared by CRRI. This revised guideline highlights
the techniques of establishing a vegetative cover
on embankment slopes by different methods such
as use of organic mulch, readymade turfs of grass,
application of jute or coir nettings, etc. In the recent
past, considerable research has been carried out in
thefeldofUseofGeosyntheticsforerosioncontrol.
There is also an emerging area of bioengineering
techniques, which can be adopted for erosion control
byfeldengineers.Theseaspectshavebeenkeptin
view while revising these guidelines.
Reports/Publications
Guidelines on Recommended Practice for Treatment of
Embankment and Hill Slopes for Erosion Control.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
GTE Division, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi.
Phone: 011-26842612;
Fax No. : 011-26845943, 011-26830480
e-mail ID: sudhirmathur.crri@nic.in
C. R&D ACTIVITY REPORT BY CONSULTANCY
FIRMS/CONTRACTORS/CONCESSIONAIRES
1. Evaluating In Situ Performance of Neoweb Novel
Polymeric Alloy (NPA) Geocell Reinforcement
for Service Roads on Expansive Clay at Govind
Dairy Factory, Phaltan
Date of Start and Duration : March 2010
Date of Completion : April 2011
i. Dapatment of Civil Engineering, Indian
Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (R)
ii. PRS- Professional Reinforcement Solution,
Israel (S)
iii. Technochem Agencies (I)
iv. Govind Milk & Milk Products Pvt. Ltd.
(C)
Special Situations/ Problems faced During
Investigations/Constructions
Subgrade Restrain expansive clay subgrade
and increase bearing capacity, lime treatment and
NPA geocell stiffened the pavement structure.
Reinforcement Neoloy@ Neoweb@ cellular
confinement system manufactured by PRS
was installed in base layer with local morrum
infll,whosemoduluswasimprovedbytheNPA
Neoweb.
New Concept evaluates and calibrates the
magnitude of the Modulus Improvement factor
(MIF); i.e. the increase in modulus of NPA Neoweb
reinforced vs. Unreinforced sections.
Laboratory Limitations validated modulus
improvement by back calculations of static plate
load test.
Field investigations on site forensic investigation
revealed large indigenous boulders under
unreinforced section, affecting data collection for
unreinforced section.
Methodology / Procedure adopted for solving the
Problems
Installation Neoloy based Neoweb geocell was
installedinbaselayerofaccessroadandinflled
with locally available granular material.
Laboratory Plate Load tests- Test pavement
structures over soft clay subgrade with and without
Neoweb reinforcement.
Field plate load tests- Plate load tests at Govid on
Neoweb and unreinforced pavements generated
pressure settlement data for interpreting layer
modulus.
DatawascalibratedviabackcalculationusingUS
DOT Kenpave pavement design program.
Modulus Improvement Factor- the structure design
performance was validated by the mechanistic-
empirical design method which utilized the MIF
whichwasconfrmedbythefeldtesting
AnyNewMaterials/NewTechnologiesifAdopted
Utilization Potential Neoweb Neoloy@ provides high
tensile strength, rigidity and durability with low polymeric
creep&lowcoeffcientofthermalexpansion.Neoweb
confnementincreasesthemodulusandbearingcapacity
of granular materials in structural layers. This enables
the use of low quality local and recycled material in the
base layer reinforcement for pavements.
72 GENERAL REPORT ON
New Methodologies Thelayeredelasticmodeldefned
by thickness, modulus and poisson ratio is applied to
evaluate the Neoweb reinforced base layer as compared
to an unreinforced layer. Pressure settlement data was
generated by plate load tests in laboratory and in-situ.
Black calculation method were used to calibrate the
Modulus Improvement Factor (MIF).
PerformanceofsuchNewMaterials/Technology
Laboratory test results- modulus of Neoweb layer was
nearly 3 times greater than the unreinforced layers.
In-situ Tests
Visual observation after 9 months and 1 severe
monsoon season, Neoweb pavement section
maintained perfect level surface and good riding
quality while unreinforced section evidenced
severe rutting.
Plate load tests- average settlement of 3.35mm
under 10T load in Neoweb reinforced section.
AnalysisbyUSDOTKenpaveprogram
Conclusions
Neoloy Neoweb increases layer strength and
stiffness with low quality (low-modulus), low cost
infll.
Field test data supports previous research,
calibrates and substantiates Neoweb modulus
Improvement Factor (MIF) of 2.75.
AdditionalR&D/Workrequiredinthisarea
Conduct additional laboratory plate load tests with
differentinfllmaterialforNeowebcellularconfnement
system, as well as in situ plate load tests in following
years.
Further details can be obtained from
Dr. K.Rajagopal, Department of Civil Engineering,
IIT Madras, Chennai-600 036.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 73
III. BRIDGE ENGINEERING
SUMMARY
Under this section, four projects have been reported by CSIR-SERC, Chennai covering topics such as long term
performance studies of arch bridges, technologies for structural health monitoring of bridges, vibration studies on
bridges and mathematical model for repaired concrete bridges.
Evaluation of performance of bridges is a major task to ensure their safety. It also helps in planning the maintenance
scheme of bridges. CSIR-CRRI has reported completion of two projects in which a bridge with distressed pier caps
and a bridge with impact damaged longitudinal girders were investigated and suitable repair/strengthening schemes
were suggested and implemented.
There are large number of distressed bridges in our country which require inspection, repair and strengthening
fortheireffcientmaintenance.AnindigenouslydesignedMobileBridgeInspectionUnit(MBIU)isbeingdesigned
and fabricated for bridge inspection by CSIR-CRRI and CSIR-CMERI-CoEFM and the project is partially funded by
DST. Also, a Critical Infrastructure Information System in GIS Environment is being developed by CSIR-CRRI, New
Delhi for maintenance management of bridges. This consists of development of various modules such as Inventory
Module, Inspection Module, and Load Carrying Capacity Module, Maintenance/Rehabilitation/Strengthening Module,
Budgeting Module and Advance Decision Support System Module. For the ease of implementation, the road network
of Ghaziabad District has been considered.
Corrosion of reinforcement is a major cause of distress in bridges especially located in coastal areas. CSIR-CRRI
has undertaken a new Research Scheme (B-42) sponsored by MORTH, under which corrosion susceptibility of steel
reinforcement protected with anti-corrosive coatings embedded in ordinary concrete vis-a-vis steel reinforcement
without anti-corrosive coating embedded in high performance concrete will be evaluated.
The Creation of Expansion Joint Test Facility at CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi is another on-going Research Scheme (B-34),
funded by MORTH.
SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Development of Bridge Maintenance Management System
2. Creation of Complete Range of Independent Testing Facility for Expansion Joints
3. Long Term Performance Monitoring of Arch Bridges
4. Repair and Strengthening of Bridges
74 GENERAL REPORT ON
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST
TIME
1. Long-term Performance Assessment of
Masonry Arch Bridges under Dynamic Loading
Conditions
Date of Start: January 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted): December 2012
CSIR-Structural Engineering Research
Centre, Chennai (R, I)
Southern Railways, Chennai (S)
Scope and objectives
Long-term performance assessment of a masonry arch
railway bridges underdynamic loading conditions.
Methodology
A masonry stone arch bridge between Tirutani and
Nagariwasinstrumentedwithfatjacksforevaluatingthe
performance of the bridge under increased axle loads of
freight wagons. Flat jacks were inserted into the arch
span at two locations by cutting slots along masonry
joints.Aftercuttingtheslot,thefatjackwasinsertedinto
the slot and then the slot was grouted fully for ensuring
proper contact with the masonry. A pressure sensor was
connected to the fat jack for measuring the pressure
exerted during testing. Dynamic load test at various
speeds of the Loco with bogies was conducted to obtain
response of the bridge under dynamic loads. Response
of the bridge was also measured due to traction and
brakingeffects.Usingthefatjackstressesduetolive
loads are evaluated. Further, long-term performance
evaluationofthebridgeisbeingcarriedoutusingfat
jack technique.
Interimconclusions/conclusions/supportingdata
Condi t i on assessment of masonry bri dges i s
evaluated.
Signifcance/UtilisationPotential
The outcome of the investigation is useful to evaluate
the structural safety of old masonry bridge and also
used to design the strengthening/repair measures, if
necessary.
Further information can be obtained from
Director, CSIR- Structural Engineering Research Centre,
Chennai
2. Development of Structural Health Monitoring
Schemes for Civil Engineering Infrastructure
in India using Smart Sensing Technologies
Date of Start : April 2010
DateofCompletion(Targeted/Actual): March 2013
i. CSIR Structural Engineering Research
Centre (R, I)
ii. Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai (I)
iii. National Program on Micro and Smart
Systems, ADA, Bangalore (S)
Scope and Objectives
To formulate and implement a cost effective smart
structural monitoring framework for remote and wireless
monitoring of the health of civil engineering infrastructure
with a special focus on existing railway / highway bridges
in India taking advantage of recent developments.
Methodology
Theworkinvolvesdevelopmentoflowcostremote
/ wireless smart structural health monitoring (SHM)
strategies for ageing infrastructure especially railway
/ highway bridges. Further, the applicability of the
developed strategy is demonstrated through an
on-feld pilot project. Guidelines are proposed to
be prepared for scaling up the bridge monitoring of
railway and highway bridges in India, which can be
used to develop appropriate strategies for health
monitoring of generic railway and highway bridges.
A comprehensive State-of-the-Art-Report on
Analytical and Experimental Methods for Remote
and Conventional Structural Health Monitoring
Techniques of Civil Infrastructures is prepared.
The report has ample coverage on some of the
recent trends of Structural Health Monitoring
(SHM) which include the following aspects:
o Advanced analytical techniques for damage
identifcation including output-only modal
analysis techniques
o ConfgurationandArchitectureofMotes
o Sensors and fault diagnosis techniques
o Electro-mechanical impedance based
damageidentifcationmethodologies
Supporting Data
Development of novel feature extraction techniques
fordamageidentifcationofbridges
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 75
Laboratory level demonstration of remote
structural health monitoring techniques using
IMote2 platform
Signifcance/UtilisationPotential
Development of new devices and systems for structural
health monitoring.
Reports/Publications
Analytical and Experimental Methods for Remote and
Conventional Structural Health Monitoring Techniques of
Civil Infrastructures, State-of-the-Art Report on Grant-
in-Aid Project GAP 4341, CSIR-SERC, December 2010
Further information can be obtained from
Director, CSIR Structural Engineering Research
Centre, Chennai.
3. Study on Corrosion Susceptibility of Steel
Reinforcement Protected with Anti-Corrosive
Coatings / Special Treatments on Ordinary and
High Performance Concrete
Date of Start: June 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted): May 2015
i. CSIR- Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R, I)
ii. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways,
New Delhi ( S)
Scope and Objectives
The objective of the project is to compare the corrosion
susceptibility of steel reinforcing bars, protected with
anti-corrosive coatings / special treatments, and
embedded in ordinary concrete vis--vis the un-coated
steel reinforcing bar embedded in high performance
concrete. Two grades of concrete viz. M 35 and M 40
shall be used. The commercially available anti-corrosive
coatings / special treatments for steel reinforcing bars
shall be tested. HPC shall be made using fly ash,
silica fume or ggbfs, or a suitable combination. The
mechanical properties of the plain concrete specimen
and, the corrosion potential, corrosion current, chloride
penetration, chloride permeability of the rebar embedded
concretespecimenshalltested.Thefexuralbehaviour
of RCC beams, reinforced with the chosen reinforcement
bars shall also be tested.
Present Status & Progress
The inception report, and the State-of-the-Art-Report
have been prepared. Beam moulds have been
fabricated and the reinforcement cages are under
fabrication at the time of reporting.
Reports/Publications
State-of-the-Art-Report entitled Study of Corrosion
Susceptibility of Steel Reinforcement Protected with
Anti-Corrosive Coating/ Special Treatment in Ordinary
and High Performance Concrete, Report No. CRRI/
BAS/B-42/2011/1, March 2011.
Further information can be obtained from
Director, CSIR-CRRI, Delhi-Mathura Road, New Delhi
110 025.
Phone: 011-26832173, 26831760, Fax: 011-26845943,
26830480
e-mail: director.crri@nic.in
B. ON-GOING/COMPLETEDPROJECTS
1. Mathematical Modeling for Repaired Concrete
Structures
Date of start : October 2008
Date of completion: October 2011
CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre,
Chennai (R,I)
Present Status
Status : On-going
Year of Last report : 2010
Progress
Experimental investigation has been conducted for
two simply supported RC beams of span 3.74 m
(section size: 150 mm x 275 mm) strengthened by
external prestressing using single draped tendons,
as follows:
Phase-I: Inducing cracks in the RC member by
subjecting two-point load such that the strain in
untensioned steel is 80 percent of the yield strain,
and removal of load.
Phase-II: Strengthening by external prestressing while
the member is subjected to UDL (by loading sand bags)
to simulate the dead weight of a bridge girder.
Phase III: Load testing of the strengthened member
to study the post-strengthening fexural behavior till
failure.
76 GENERAL REPORT ON
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
Flexuralloadcarryingcapacityofthestrengthened
members were increased by 41percent when
compare to the calculated ultimate load capacity
of the RC member.
Compression received due to the external
prestressing (maximum of 0.64 f
pu
) has shifted
the neutral axis in the strengthened members and
increasedthefexuralcapacity.
Using external prestressing the induced cracks
could be closed.
Strengthened members failed when concrete
crushing occur in the extreme compressive
fber.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
The conclusions are applicable only for the cracked RC
Beams strengthened by external prestressing with single
draped steel tendons, in which limitation of the crack is
such that the untensioned steel is not yielded.
Recommendations for further work (if completed)
Investigations are still going.
Reports/Publications
Manisekar, R., Sivakumar, P., Lakshmikandhan K.N.
and Ravichandran, R., (2010) Strengthening of
Concrete Beams by External Prestressing-Various
issues, Proceedings of the Seventh Structural
Engineering Convention (SEC-2010), Annamalai
University, Annamalainagar, 8-10 December 2010,
pp.814-823.
Further information can be obtained from
Director, CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre,
Chennai.
2. Studies on Vibration Characteristics for
Damage Identifcation
Date of Start : April 2009
Date of completion (Targeted) : March 2012
CSIR-Structural Engineering Research Centre,
Chennai (R,I)
Present Status and Progress
Status: On-going
Year of Last Report : 2010
Progress
Forced vibration testing of reinforced concrete beam of
3.3 m overall length withcross section of 0.3 m x 0.3 m
was carried out using the electro-dynamic shaker and
impact hammer towards damage identifcation based
on system parameters. Vibration testing was also
performed at different levels of damage that was induced
by static loading. Dynamic characteristics (frequencies
and mode shapes) were calculated based on measured
vibration data.
Analytical and experimental studies were also carried
out on a reinforced concrete (RC) slab strip towards
identifcationofdamageusingvibrationcharacteristics.
The dimensions of the slab strip are 3.3 m long, 0.1 m
deep and 0.5 m wide. Experimental studies were carried
out on the slab strip by applying incremental static load.
Thefrstcrackwasobservedat7.9kN.Thesubsequent
cracks were observed at 10 kN. The yielding of the
reinforcement occurred at 16.2 kN. Further, to study
the changes in vibration responses at various damage
levels, vibration testing was conducted at different
damage levels.
Transient dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete
slab strip was also carried out at selected damage
levels, i.e., initial cracking, yielding of steel, failure of
the concrete element in order to study the variation
in vibration responses with damage. The stiffness
matrix corresponding to selected damage level was
used for transient dynamic analysis. Displacement and
acceleration time histories were obtained corresponding
to each damage level including undamaged case. The
frequencies obtained from the power spectral plots
clearly indicated decrease in frequencies with the
progression of damage. Steep decrease with increase
in damage level was observed in frequencies of higher
modes. It was also observed that the amplitudes
increase with increase in the level of damage/cracking.
Further studies are being carried out to study the effect
of damage on nonlinearity in vibration responses of
reinforced concrete structural elements.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
A signifcant shift in natural frequency of reinforced
concrete beam at different levels of damage was
observed. Shift in frequencies of different modes during
different levels of damage was also quantifed. The
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 77
frequencies corresponding to undamaged, frst crack
and yielding of reinforcement cases are found to be
52.34 Hz, 45.16 Hz, 36.25 Hz, respectively.
Reports/Publications
1. V. Srinivas and K. Ramanjaneyulu, Artifcial
Neural Net works f or St ruct ural Damage
Detection using Modal Data, Journal of the
Institution of Engineers (India), Vol 91, May
2010, pp.3-9.
2. V.Srinivas, K., Ramanjaneyulu and Antony
Jeyasehar Multi-Stage Approach for Structural
DamageIdentifcationusingModalStrainEnergy
and Evolutionary Optimization Techniques,
Internati onal Journal of Structural Heal th
Monitoring, 10(2), 2011, 219230.
3. V. Srinivas, Saptarshi Sasmal, K. Ramanjaneyulu
and Nagesh R.Iyer, Vibration Testing of a Concrete
Bridge for Evaluation of Modal Characteristics, Jl
of The Bridge & Structural Engineer, Vol 39, No.3,
September 2010.
4. V. Srinivas, C. Antony Jeyasehar, Saptarshi Sasmal
and K. Ramanjaneyulu Modal Characteristics
Based Computational Approaches for Structural
Damage Identification, Proc. of Structural
Engineering Convention -2010 (SEC2010), 8-10
December 2010, Annamalai University, Tamilnadu,
Vol II, pp. 709-720.
5. V. Sr i ni v as , K. Ramanj aney ul u and
C. Antony Jeyasehar A Combined Evolutionary
Optimization and Modal Strain Energy Approach
forDamageIdentifcationinStructures,Proc.
of International Conference on Theoretical,
Appli ed, Computational and Experimental
Mechanics (ICTACEM 2010), December 27-29,
2010, IIT Kharagpur, India.
6. M. Kishor Kumar, V.Srinivas, P. Eswaramoorthi,
K. Ramanj aneyul u, Non-Li near Numeri cal
Investigations of Reinforced Concrete Beam
towardsDamageIdentifcation,Proc.ofNational
Conference on Innovations in Civil Engineering-
NCIEC11, 26th March 2011, Erode, Tamilnadu,
pp. 31-43.
Further information/copy of report be obtained
from
The Journal Papers and Conference Proceedings are
in Public Domain.
3. Development of a Critical Infrastructure
Information System in GIS Environment for
Maintenance of Bridges on National and State
Highways
Date of start : February 2005
Date of completion : March 2012
i. CSIR- Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R.I)
ii. Department of Science and Technology,
New Delhi (S)
Present Status and Progress
On-going
The following work has been completed:
CollectionofdatafrombridgeAuthority
Procurementofsatellitedata
PreparationofabasemapforGhaziabaddistrict
and other features from topographical maps and
satellite data.
GenerationofexistingroadnetworkforNHandSH
GenerationofBridgeinventory
PreparationofThematicBaseMapsofthearea
Upgradation of GIS Database and spatial
analysis
Devel opment of bri dge /cul vert i nventory
module
Development of culvert and bridge inspection
module
DevelopmentofLoadcarryingcapacitymodule
Development of Methodologies & Algorithm
Repair & Strengthening module
Development of Methodologies & Algorithm -
Budgeting module
Criteria for prioritization of maintenance of
bridges
The following work is in progress:
Development of user friendly and webenable
software in .NET environment and database
in SQL and report generation using CRYSTAL
software
Signifcance/UtilizationPotential:
The software being developed could be effectively
used as Bridge Maintenance Management System in
78 GENERAL REPORT ON
GIS environment, which is very much required for our
Country.
Recommendationsforfurtherwork/furtherproposed
work
Integration of all the modules by advanced
decision support system
Preparationoffnalreport
Reports/Publications
Rajeev Goel, R.K. Garg, P. Lakshmy and
Ram Kumar (2010), "Assessment of Residual
Life of Existing RCC Bridges", Proceedings
of Joint IABSE-fb Conference on CODES IN
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING - "Developments
and Needs for International Practice", Cavtat,
Dubrovnik-Neretva County, Croatia, May 3-5,
2010, pp.1209-1216.
"Devel opment of a Cri ti cal Infrastructure
Information System in GIS Environment for
Maintenance of Bridge", Report No. CRRI/BAS/
GAP-4456/2010/11 July 2010.
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
The Director, Central Road Research Institute, Mathura
Road, New Delhi 110 025.
Phone: 011-26832173, 26831760, Fax: 011-26845943,
26830480,
e-mail: director.crri@nic.in
4. Development of One Prototype of the Bridge
Inspection Unit
Date of Start : April 2008
Date of Completion (Targeted) : June 2012
i. CSIR- Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R,I)
ii. Department of Science & Technology, New
Delhi (S)
Present Status and Progress
Status : On-going
Year of Last Report : 2010
Progress
To facilitate the proper inspection of the bridge a truck
mounted device called the Mobile Bridge Inspection
Unit (MBIU) was planned to develop indigenously.
The MBIU is a mechanical device mounted on a truck
which is being developed jointly by CSIR-CRRI and
(CSIR-CMERI-CoEFM, Ludhiana (erstwhile MERADO
renamed as Centre of Excellence for Farm Machinery)
with partial grants from DST. The objective of this project
on the MBIU is to design and fabricate indigenously a
mobile bridge inspection unit.
The major activities involved in the development of the
MBIU are
(a) Design of the structural frame and joints
(b) fabrication of the frame and the joints
(c) Procurementofatruckandthemodifcationofits
thesuspensionsystem,fxingofadditionalaxles
andmodifcationofchassis
(d) Construction of the test platform along with ramp
(mimicking the bridge) for testing of various
componentsoveritbeforefttingonthetruck
(e) Fitting of the frames on the truck
(f) Development and installation of the control
system, to integrate the operations of various
components of MBIU
(g) Testing and Demonstration of the functions of the
MBIU.
Regarding the present progress/ status of the project,
the activities (a) and (b) have been completed. Regarding
the activity (c) a Tata truck with BSIII compliance has
been procured. The vehicle has been temporarily
registered in the name of CRRI. The suspension system
hasbeenfttedatPuneandthetruckhasbeenbrought
back to COEFM, Ludhiana. The strengthening of the
existing chassis of the truck is under progress. The
activity (d) is in progress. Under the activity (e) the frame
and the joints have been tested individually for their
intended functionality at the raised test platform.
Signifcance/UtilizationPotential:
The Mobile Bridge Inspection Unit being fabricated
indigenously could help in visual inspection of in accessible
parts of the bridge with ease. The technology could be
used in the fabrication of more number of less expensive
MBIUs, which are very much required in our country.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
Applicable for 2-3 lane bridges only.
Reports/Publications
Interim reports
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 79
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Director, Central Road Research Institute, Delhi-
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 025
Phone: 011-26832173, 26831760, Fax: 011-26845943,
26830480,
e-mail: director.crri@nic.in
5. Creation of Complete Range on Independent
Testing Facilities for Expansion Joints at
Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) (B-34
Research Scheme)
Date of Start : June 2005
Target Date of Completion : March 2012
i. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute, New
Delhi (R, I)
ii. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (S)
Scope and objective
To create an independent testing facility for expansion
joints consisting of the following:
Opening movement vibration (OMV) test/cyclic
motion test.
Fatigue test on expansion joints assemblies
Debris expulsion / Pull out test
Ponding test
Upgradation of the existing Shimadzu universal
testing machine (UTM)
To set up test for the chemical composition of steel
and neoprene seal
Present Status and Progress
On-Going
FurtherFinding/Conclusions/SupportingData
During the reporting period the following test facilities
have been created:
Further the testing system requirements to conduct the
(a) cyclic motion test, (b)debris expulsion test, (c) pull
out test (d) OMV test (e) fatigue test and (f) seal push
outtestofexpansionjointshavebeenfnalized.
Signifcance/UtilizationPotential
The facility being could be used to evaluate the raw
materials used in expansion joints/ bearings well as for
testing of different types of expansion joint assemblies
as stated in IRC: SP:69.
Sr.
No.
Type of Material Type of Property of Evaluate Testing Standard
A. Chloroprene Seal Hardness
Tensile Strength
Elongation of Fracture
Tear Propagation Strength
Shock Elasticity
Abrasion
Residual Compression Strain
Ageing in hot air
Swelling behaviour in oil
Cold Hardness point
Adhesion Strength
ASTM D2240
ASTM D412
ASTM D412
ASTM D624C
ASTM D7121
ASTM D5963
ASTM D395
ASTM D573-04
DIN 53521
ASTM D1043
IS :3400 (Pt-14)
B. Edge Beam
(Steel)
Mechanical Properties
Thickness of Paint Coating
Inspection of Weld joints
IS:1499/IS:1608
-
LPT
80 GENERAL REPORT ON
Furtherinformation/copyofreportcanbeobtained
from
Director, Central Road Research Institute, Delhi
-Mathura Road,New Delhi- 110 025.
Phone : 011-26832173, 26831760, Fax : 011-26845943,
26830480
e-mail : director.crri@nic.in
6. Rehabilitation of Sultanpuri Bridge at RD
21260 m on Supplementary Drain, Delhi
Date of Start : March 2010
Date of Completion (Actual) : June 2010
i. CSIR- Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R, I)
ii. Irrigation & Flood Control Department,
New Delhi (S)
Scope and Objectives
To carry out visual inspection of superstructure and
pier caps of four spans of the bridge and determination
of in-situ concrete strength of superstructure and
subst ruct ure (deck sl ab, l ongi t udi nal gi rders,
di aphragms, pi er and pi er cap) t hrough non-
destructive tests. To suggest suitable rehabilitation
measures for the pier caps and for other components
(if required).
Methodology
Conducted non-destructive investigations such as
Schmidt Rebound Hammer test for estimating the
compressive strength of concrete, Ultrasonic Pulse
Velocity test to find out the uniformity of concrete
and strength of concrete and chloride content on four
spans.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
Based on the investigation, rehabilitation measures
have been suggested for the pier caps and other
components. The existing elastomeric bearings need
to be replaced with new elastomeric bearings of the
same dimensions. The expansion joints are also
needs repair or to be replaced with strip seal type
expansion joints.
Reports/Publications
Technical Report entitled Rehabilitation of Sultanpuri
Bridge at RD 21260 m on Supplementary Drain, Delhi
Report No. RRI/QSP/BAS/CNP-1652.
Further information can be obtained from
Director, CSIR-CRRI, Delhi-Mathura Road, New Delhi-
110 025
Phone : 011-26832173, 26831760, Fax : 011-26845943,
26830480,
e-mail : director.crri@nic.in
7. Strengthening Measures for Kalimati Bridge,
Jamshedpur
Date of Start : December 2009
Date of Completion (Actual) : March 2011
i. CSIR- Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R,I)
ii. TISCO, Jamshedpur (S)
Scope and Objectives
To suggest the strengthening measures of impact
damaged bridge based on NDT.
Methodology
The visual inspection of the 45 year old, 4-span, RCC
T-girder road over bridge at 30 skew at Kalimati road,
Jamshedpur was carried out to quantify the type and
extent of damage occurred to the longitudinal and cross-
girder near the central pier. During the visual inspection
it was noticed that the bridge was gunited sometimes
back, prior to the impact damage. Subsequently, the
non-destructive investigations of the distressed spans
of the bridge were carried out by conducting the Schmidt
Rebound Hammer test, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity test,
Core test, Rebar Locator Test and Carbonation test.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
Based on the results of the study it was concluded
that no major damage to the bridge has occurred due
to the collision of the vehicle with the bridge deck
and the damaged portion is repairable. The scheme
for repair of the damaged portion of the bridge was
suggested.
Reports/Publications
Strengthening measures for Kalimati Road Bridge,
Jamshedpur, TATA Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, Report
No. CRRI/BAS/CNP-1665.
Further information can be obtained from
Director, CSIR-CRRI, Delhi-Mathura Road,
New Delhi-110 025
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 81
8. Assessment of Load Carrying Capacity
of a Bri dge at Koteshwar HE Proj ect,
Uttarakhand
Date of Start : December 2011
Date of Completion (Actual) : January 2011
i. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (R,I)
ii. THDC I ndi a Li mi t ed, Ri shi kesh,
Uttarakhand (S)
Scope and Objectives
To assess the load carrying capacity of an existing Bailey
Bridge through load testing.
Methodology
Prior to load testing of bridges, steel samples were
collected and tested for properties. The bridge was
modeled and analysed using RM-2006 software for
IRC 30R tracked and wheeled loading to obtain the
load effects. Subsequently, load testing of the bridge
was carried out for placing the load symmetrically and
asymmetrically and defection was measured during
loading and unloading. Temperature corrections were
appliedtothemeasureddefections.
FurtherFindings/Conclusions/SupportingData
Based on the results of load testing, theoretical analysis,
conclusions were drawn on the ability of superstructure
to withstand the IRC 30R loading.
Reports/Publications
Technical Report entitled Assessment of Load Carrying
Capacity of Bailey Bridge, Koteshwar Hydroelectric
Project, Uttarakhand, Report No. CRRI/QSP/BAS/
CNP-1712, January 2011.
Further information can be obtained from
Director, CSIR-CRRI, Delhi-Mathura Road, New Delhi-
110 025.
Phone : 011-26832173, 26831760, Fax : 011-26845943,
26830480
e-mail : director.crri@nic.in
82 General report on
IV. TRAFFIC & TRANSPORTATION
1. PLANNING & MANAGEMENT
SUMMARY
Research/Consultancy works reported in the area of Traffc & Transportation-Planning & Management on comprehensive
traffc and transportation studies of various cities, feasibility studies for cities and airport links. Traffc circulation plans,
master plan of expressways network in India, travel time related performance measures and GIS applications in
transportation sector are reported.
Out of total 31 studies reported, 11 studies were on comprehensive traffc and transportation studies of various cities
further focusing on airport links, feasibility studies for cities. 7 Projects completed on investigation on various aspects
of Traffc circulation and management plan at intersections, feasibility of RUB and Master plan of national highway
network of Expressways in India and one on Evaluation Study on Use of On-Site Visualization Method for Monitoring
of Safety Management at Construction Site . 12 on-going projects include studies on comprehensive traffc and
transportation studies, in addition to this, feasibility study of various public transport systems such as Metro, airport
connectivity and computerized Inventory of Roads, Travel Time Related Performance Measures, Application of
Geographical Information System (GIS) in Traffc Congestion Management and Development of GIS Based National
Highway Information System.
SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Traffc Management, Traffc Flow and Transportation Planning
2. Feasibility Studies for Various Studies and Airport Connectivity
3. Simulation Studies for Capacity Analysis Under Heterogeneous Traffc Conditions
4. Road User Cost Models for High Speed Multi Lane Corridors.
5. Travel Time Related Performance Measures
6. Application of GIS in Transportation Sector
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 83
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST
TIME
1. Preparation of Computerized Inventory of
Roads for Peravoor and Kuthuparamba Block
Panchayaths in Kannur District
Date of Start: April 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted /Actual):
March 2011
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (NATPAC) (R)
Scope and Objectives
The scope of the study is limited to rural roads
coming under the rural local bodies comprising of
Grama Panchayaths, Block Panchayaths and District
Panchayath. Within the scope, the objectives of the
study are:
Identifcation of all sub settlements (wards) within
each Grama Panchayath in the study area;
Listing of all roads passing through the settlements
(all categories);
Inventory of Grama Panchayath roads (roads
having a minimum width of six meters that can be
developed to motorable standards and a minimum
length of 500 m), and
Preparation of digitized road maps with supporting
data for each Grama Panchayath using the GIS
format.
Methodology
Settlement level data-sub settlement (within
each Panchayath) identifcation, road availability,
location of facilities
Road level data-connecting settlements, population
benefted, facilities along the road
Road inventory-length, width, surface type,
settlements connected
Road mapping-base maps(cadastral) provided
by the Kerala State Land Use Board were
further modifed by Digitizing, Mosaicing, Geo-
referencing, Scaling using GIS format and
development of attribute tables
Interim Conclusions/ Conclusions/ Supporting
Data
Assessment of settlement level connectivity
Total settlements
Connected/unconnected
Road l engt h r equi r ed f or connect i vi t y
improvements
Signifcance /Utilisation Potential
Development of an authentic spatial data base on Grama
Panchayath roads together with supporting information
required for the development of plan documents and
rural road management system in GIS platform.
Limitations of Conclusions/ Recommendations for
further work /further proposed work
Updated road details along with settlement level data
can be used for the preparation of Road Development
Plan required for PMGSY, Bharath Nirman or NABARD
funded road development schemes.
Reports/ Publications
Preparation of Computerized Inventory of Roads for
Peravoor and Kuthuparamba Block Panchayaths in
Kannur District.
Further information/ Copy of report can be obtained
from
The Director, National Transportation Planning and
Research Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace
P. O., Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004.
2. I ntegrated Devel opment of Transport
Infrastructure for an emerging Town
Kottarakkara Gramapanchayath in Kollam
Date of Start: April 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted /Actual):
March 2011
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (NATPAC) R
Scope and Objectives
The scope of the study was to understand the existing
transport infrastructure facilities available in the
Kottarakkara Panchayath and to suggest and formulate
strategies for improving the mobility within the region.
Methodology
Discussion with Local Administration
Inventory of Roads/other transport infrastructure
facilities
84 General report on
Traffc Surveys
o Traffi c Vol ume Mi dbl ock and
Intersection
o Speed and Delay
o Parking Survey
o Pedestrian Volume
Data Analysis
Interim Conclusions/ Conclusions/ Supporting
Data
The present status of various transport infrastructure
facilities in the study area was assessed. The traffc
demand on the existing system was quantifed.
Signifcance /Utilization Potential
The data obtained will be used for assessing the need
for new infrastructure facilities required to be developed
in the town taking into account its future developments
also.
Limitations of Conclusions/ Recommendations for
further work /further proposed work
Scope for developing bypass/ring road for the town
to be assessed and the alignment for the same to be
identifed.
Reports/ Publications
"Integrated Development of Transport Infrastructure for
an emerging Town Kottarakkara Gramapanchayath
in Kollam".
Further information/ copy of report can be obtained
from
The Director, National Transportation Planning and
Research Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace
P. O., Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004.
3. Traffic and Transportation Studies for 23
Towns in Kerala State
Date of Start : 20 April 2010
Date of Completion : 25 March 2011
i. National Transportation Planning and
Research Centre (NATPAC) (R)
ii. Department of Town and Country Planning,
Government of Kerala (S)
Scope and objectives
To assess the existing condition of road network
and transportation issues of selected towns in
Kerala State
To study the traffc volume on selected roads and
to assess the defciencies of the road system
To analyse the origin-destination characteristics of
traffc passing through the town and to estimate
the extent of by- passable traffc
To estimate the traffc demand for the horizon
year and formulate a suitable transportation
development plan for the selected towns
Methodology
The study was carried out in 23 small and medium
sized towns in Kerala State, where Preparation of
Development Plan for next 20 years is in progress. The
lists of towns identifed for the study are given below:
Large Towns (Population above one lakh)
(7 No. of Towns)
Thiruvananthapuram, Kozhikode ,Kollam, Thrissur
town, Alappuzha, Palakkad, Kottayam
Medium Towns (Population between 50,000 &
one lakh) (6 No. of Towns)
Vadakara, Neyyattinkkara, Kayamkulam, Kannur,
Malappuram, Kasaragod
Smal l Towns (Popul at i on bel ow 50, 000)
(10No.ofTowns)
Thodupuzha, Pathanamthitta, Kothamangalam,
Angamal y, Nor t h Par avoor, Kal pet t a,
Moovattupuzha, Adoor, Aluva and Idukk
The tasks undertaken include:
Design and conduct of primary surveys covering
road inventory, volume count, O-D survey, screen
line counts, goods transport, parking, speed and
delay and collection of data pertaining to rail, water
and air transport services in the study town;
Analysis of data to prepare a base line data report
of the town, and identifcation of defciencies in
road network and major travel corridors;
Estimation of traffc and transport demand for
horizon year; and Preparation of short-term and
long-term traffc and transportation development
proposals for the selected towns.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 85
Analysis of data : The data collected from the feld studies
were analyzed using appropriate computer software.
From the analysis, the base year travel characteristics
of the study area were obtained namely:
Defciencies in existing transportation system.
Capacity of major roads, and intersections.
Parking demand and supply.
Pedestrian demand.
Inter-city passenger movement and freight
transportation.
Inter-city vehicular traffc.
Forecasting of travel demand : transportation plans
are long range and involve planning for future target
year. The usual horizon period of transportation plan
varies from 15 to 25 years into the future. Provision of
facilities such as widening of roads, transport terminals,
restructuring of the public transport system and
development of off-street parking-lots will come under
this category. Therefore, the facilities are designed
to meet the travel demand for the anticipated future
year. Future transportation demand is tied up with the
future land use, economic activities, future population
and employment data. For forecasting of future travel
demand, a horizon year of 2030 was considered and
accordingly future levels of traffc on the road system
were estimated. Growth rate method was used to project
the traffc demand for various horizon years.
Preparation of traffc and transportation improvement
proposals : To meet the base year and projected demand
for various horizon years, a long term transportation
development plan was formulated for each of the
identifed towns. The proposals include: planning of
future transport system and network improvements such
as developing parallel roads, missing links, bypasses for
inter-city movement, grade-separated pedestrian facilities
across busy roads, fyovers at major intersections, over
bridges/underpasses and development of integrated bus
terminals. These proposals would become an integral
part of the Master Plan being fnalized for the selected
urban centres.
Conclusions and Signifcance/Utilization potential
Based on detailed studies, base line data pertaining to
traffc and transportation system has been prepared for
all 23 towns. The base line data contains an evaluation
of existing transport network in the study area, volume
and capacity ratio and utilization of major roads, parking
demand, pedestrian traffc, intersection studies, inter-city
passenger and goods traffc movement. Projection of
traffc on major roads has been carried out for various
horizon years considering the growth potentials of the
study area. Based on traffc projection, a long term
development plan and transport network plan has been
prepared covering all modes of transport namely: road,
rail, and water transport. The data base and the long term
transport development plan contained in this report would
be useful to the Town and Country Planning Department
for fnalization of Development Plan for the towns.
Reports/Publications
The Reports are completed and available for reference
in NATPAC.
Further information/copy of report can be had from
Di rector, Nati onal Transportati on Pl anni ng and
Research Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace
P. O., Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004.
4. TraffcandTransportationStudiesforCochin
Coimbatore, Industrial Corridor in Kerala and
Tamil Nadu States
Date of start : January 2011
Date of completion : April 2011
i. National Transportation Planning and
Research Centre (NATPAC) (R)
ii. Infrastructure Kerala Limited (S)
Scope and objectives
To assess the traffc potentials for developing the
identifed corridor for industrial development;
To study the traffc pattern and characteristics of
goods vehicles passing through the study area;
To project the passenger and freight traffc for the
next 20 years; and
To suggest transport infrastructure requirements
for the study region.
Methodology
The following tasks were performed:
Collection of socio economic data for the study
area and time -series traffc data
Traffc surveys and analysis
Traffc demand estimation
Preparation of project report
86 General report on
The study was confned to the transportation corridor
between Cochin and Coimbatore (193 km long) with
a band width of 50 km on either side of the existing
arterials road corridors.Collection of Secondary data
pertaining to the socio-economic profle of the study
area was collected from census publications. Past traffc
volume data were obtained from study reports prepared
by NATPAC and other organizations during the last ten
years. Classifed traffc volume counts were carried out at
important locations on the Cochin-Coimbatore industrial
corridor. The survey was carried out continuously for a
period of three days at three locations and for one day at
two locations. Origin-destination survey was carried out
continuously for a period of 24 hours at fve locations
where volume count survey was conducted.
Analysis of data: The data compiled from the feld
were analyzed to arrive at the base year traffc of the
study area and prediction of future traffc scenario. The
following parameters were used to assess the base year
traffc scenario:
Average Annual Daily Traffc (AADT) along the
study corridor
Pattern of passenger traffc and freight movement
Volume count data collected from the selected locations
were analyzed to estimate the daily traffic volume
and converted into Passenger Car Units (PCU) using
conversion factors suggested by IRC. Daily traffic
volume was then converted into Average Daily Traffc
(ADT) using conversion factors obtained from past traffc
data. This was done to account for weekly variations
in traffc volume. Average Daily Traffc Volume (ADT)
estimated above was converted into Average Annual
Daily Traffc (AADT) to account for seasonal variations
in traffc volume. Past traffc data were used for obtaining
the conversion factors.Origin-destination details of
passenger and goods traffc passing through the survey
points on the Cochin Coimbatore industrial corridor were
analyzed to obtain the pattern of movements taking
place among various regions. For this purpose, the
study region was divided into a number of zones so as
to identify the traffc generating and attracting points.
Future traffc scenario: Future traffc scenario of the
study region was evolved by considering various traffc
fow likely to pass through the corridor and projecting
the same for various horizon years. Three types of
traffc fows were considered for the purpose of traffc
projection. They were;
Existing traffc volume passing through the study
region
Traffic flow generated due to the impact of
proposed infrastructure in the study region
Traffc fow generated and induced to the existing
travel corridors due to the proposed improvements
in the road network.
Existingtraffcvolume: Growth rate method was
used to project the base year traffc volume for
various horizon years. In this way, future traffc
fow arising out of growth in vehicle population,
socio-economic and industrial development
was accounted for. Two different methods
were adopted to estimate the growth rates. By
comparing the growth rates obtained from both
methods, realistic growth rate for passenger and
goods vehicles were adopted for various horizon
periods.
o ADB method: This is a method employed by
Asian Development Bank for their highway
projects. In the case of passenger vehicles,
the growth rates are obtained based on the
parameters of annual population growth
rate and per capita income growth of Kerala
State. In the case of goods vehicles, the
growth rates are calculated by taking the
weighted average of the growth of industrial
and agricultural sectors of the States of
Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
o Traffcgrowthmethod: Under this method,
data pertaining to past traffc volume were
obtained from earlier studies carried out in
the study region.
Generatedtraffcduetoinfrastructuredevelopment:
This component of traffc pertains to the additional
demand arising out of infrastructure development
proposed for the study region. To assess the
extent of such traffc, a three stage method was
used.
o In the frst stage, additional income generated
in the region due to the investment on
infrastructure development was quantifed.
The concepts of marginal propensity to
consume and investment multiplier were
used for quantifcation of additional income
generated.
o In the second stage, income elasticity
of traffic demand was estimated from
time series data available on gross state
domestic product and vehicle population
for the study region.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 87
o The third stage involved the estimation of
projected vehicle population in response
to the additional income generated in the
region. The data were then used to arrive
at the proportion of generated traffc.
From the three stage procedure adopted, generated
traffc arising out of infrastructure development was
derived for both passenger and goods traffc demand.
Generatedandinducedtraffc: Generated traffc
refects the economic law of demand, which
states that consumption of a good increases as
its price declines. Induced traffc is defned as
the additional traffc that has been induced by
the project through mode changes, destination
changes, trip re-timing, trip frequency changes
or new trips associated with different land
uses.
In the present study, Variable Trip Matrix (VTM) method
is used to model Generated and Induced Traffc. In
this VTM method, an elasticity approach, where all
responses are subsumed into a single elasticity, is used
to estimate the Generated and Induced Traffc. The basic
model used for estimating the Generated and Induced
Traffc is based on elasticity of demand for travel in
response to reduction in generalized cost.
Signifcance/ Utilization Potential
NATPAC carried out traffc volume counts and origin
destination surveys at fve travel corridors on the
Cochin Coimbatore Industrial corridor. Based on
the analysis of data compiled from the surveys,
the existing traffc scenario was assessed in terms
of volume of traffc plying on the travel corridors
and pattern of passenger and goods traffc passing
through the Industrial corridor. From the base year
traffc scenario assessed from detailed traffc surveys,
the volume of passenger and goods traffc likely to
ply through Cochin-Coimbatore industrial corridor
for the horizon year of 2030 have been estimated.
The data inputs provided in the report would help in
assessing the infrastructure requirement of the study
area especially in the transportation sector.
Reports/Publications
Final Report
Further information/Copy of report can be had from
Di rector, Nati onal Transportati on Pl anni ng and
Research Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace
P. O., Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004
5. Evaluation of Predictive Accuracy of Urban
Transport Studies in Selected Towns of
Kerala
Date of Start : 01 April 2011
Date of completion : 31 March 2012
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (R)
Scope and Objectives
The scope of the study is confned to Urban Transportation
studies conducted between 2000 and 2010. Scheme-
specifc studies such as parking / intersection designs,
inter-urban highway studies, rural road studies, traffc
management schemes etc are excluded from the
study.
The objectives of the study are as given below:
To undertake cross-sectional analysis of socio-
economic variables, vehicle ownership, travel
budget and traffic flow pattern of selected
towns;
To evaluate the predictive accuracy of selected
variables by comparing the study forecasts with
the actual / observed data in selected towns;
To critically examine the assumptions made in
forecasts and cause-effect of the same in predictive
accuracy of travel demand estimation;
To identify the commonalities in transportation
issues, traffc problems and remedial actions
suggested thereof; and
To prepare general guidelines for realistic
projection of input variables that have infuence
traffc demand forecasting.
Methodology
NATPAC has carried out Traffc and Transportation
studies for more than 30 towns in Kerala during the last
10 years. There is a wealth of information and data-
base available in NATPAC. As a part of these studies,
socio-economic characteristics, travel data and traffc
fow pattern were collected. Data-base on population
projections, growth of vehicles, trip rate, traffc volume,
parking demand, public transport demand on different
corridors are available for different time periods. It
is proposed to analysis the temporal variation and
predictive accuracy of the identifed variables for towns
of different sizes in Kerala.
88 General report on
Conclusions
Available data from urban transport studies will be
utilized to assess the accuracy of various parameters by
comparing the study of forecasts with the actual changes
that have taken place. A cross-sectional analysis of
changes in planning variables like population growth,
vehicle ownership, trip rate, travel budget, modal split,
public transport demand, traffc fow pattern etc. will be
undertaken. The assumptions made in various studies
will also be critically examined.
Signifcance / Utilization Potential
Based on the evaluation of predictive accuracy of
selected parameters, a general guide line will be
prepared for the benefit of Urban Planners and
Transportation Researchers.
Further information can be obtained from
Di rector, Nati onal Transportati on Pl anni ng and
Research Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace
P. O., Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004
6. A Study of Para Transit Services for Selected
Cities in Kerala
Date of Start : April 2009
Date of Completion : March 2011
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (NATPAC) (R)
Scope and Objectives of the Study
To identify and study the characteristics of
Paratransit modes;
To analyses and study various current issues
regarding paratransit like, Organizational set-up,
policy and planning, impact on employment, co-
ordination and competition, cost of service etc;
To develop models to estimate the demand of
paratransit; and
To study the behaviour, characteristics and
problem of paratransit drivers.
Methodology
NATPAC has collected data on paratransit modes for few
cities in Kerala. The data and other information available
in these reports/ and published material was collected.
A primary surveys to understand the problems of drivers
were also conducted.
By using time series, data demands for paratransit
modes for cities in Kerala are estimated. Along with
traffic demand estimation, a comparative analysis
of paratransit modes has been undertaken. Suitable
models to estimate the optimum number of different
types of paratransit modes is developed and used.
Interim Conclusion/Conclusions/Supporting Data
Paratransit modes in urban areas occupy an important
pl ace. These modes have many di sti ngui shi ng
characteristics, like, low carrying capacity, low speed,
high cost, and low fuel effciency, more dependable
and easily available. Due to many advantages
the paratransit modes offer commuter, these have
grown quick fast. However, as the city size increases
mass transit tends to carry proportionately more
passengers.
The study has proposed two models to estimate the
demand for paratransit modes. For this purpose, a
concept of Capacity Equivalent Auto Rickshaw (CEAR)
has been introduced. The CEAR has been defned as
the weighted average of various paratransit modes,
weights being the service capability of these modes.
The computation of CEAR may be of great value when
the combined demand of all paratransit modes is to be
estimated.
The second model tries to estimate the population size
p which can be satisfactorily served by one vehicle of
mode m. This is achieved by frst estimating the traffc
demand of population p for mode m and then equating
it with the estimated service capability of one vehicle
of mode m. Once the value of p is known, the total
demand for mode m can be calculated just by dividing
the total population of the city by (p).
Signifcance/Utilisation Potential
Models developed can be used as a tool for obtaining
the optimum demand for various paratransit modes
on other places where similar transportation scenario
is found.
Reports/Publications
A Study of Paratransit Services for Selected Cities in
Kerala
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Di rector, Nati onal Transportati on Pl anni ng and
Research Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace
P. O., Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 89
7. Design of Rotary at Englishia Intersection
Date of Start : 11 Nov. 2010
Date of Completion : 28 Dec. 2010
CSI R- Cent ral Road Research I nst i t ut e,
New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
To design the rotary on old G.T. Road at the
Englishia Line Intersection and
To design the access points around the intersection
and to suggest measures to relieve congestion.
The scope is limited to design of Rotary at English
intersection based on intersection traffc volume
survey conducted by CRRI and Topographical
map supplied by UPPWD.
Methodology
The physical survey plan supplied by UPPWD for the
study section has been critically examined to ascertain
the appropriateness of the intersection details on the
ground including location of utilities and structures.
Classifed Turning Volume Count was conducted for
14 hour period (from 07:00 A.M. to 09:00 P.M.) at
Englishia intersection. Further, 24-hour classified
mid-block traffc volume count survey near Varanasi
Cantonment railway station was also conducted to
understand the pattern of traffc volume during the night
hours on the G.T. Road. The traffc data was analyzed
for effecting geometric improvements to the Englishia
intersection. Based on the observed traffc fows the
intersection design has been recommended keeping
in mind the available ROW.
Conclusions/Supporting Data Provision of Rotary
at Englishia Intersection
As the maximum traffc interaction is between Mughal
Sarai and BHU bound approaches, a roundabout of
(15 m radius) coupled with dividers and channelising
islands of appropriate dimensions has been proposed
to guide the traffc. This design is prepared keeping in
mind the higher percentage of traffc plying between
Mughal Sarai and BHU bound approaches suiting to the
geometry of the intersecting legs and thereby achieve
longer weaving length for the desired intersecting
approaches. The design is self regulating without any
external control and would be capable of handling
the projected peak traffc in the immediate short term
which is expected to sustain for the next 4-5 years. This
design also facilitates easy movement of straight traffc
between Allahabad and Mughal Sarai bound approach
arms through properly delineated lane markings and at
the same time, appropriate weaving length has been
provided for the right turning traffc from BHU approach
arm to the Mughal Sarai approach arm. Further, the
left turning traffc from BHU to Allahabad direction is
physically segregated by providing 5.5 m exclusive
lane and thereby the traffc bound to / from the Nehru
Market has also been merged with the left bound
traffc emanating from BHU approach as shown in the
drawing.
Provision of Pedestrian Facilities like contiguous foot
path all around the vicinity of the intersection and
pedestrian zebra crossing is earmarked at appropriate
locations.
Provision of Parking Facilities like parking lots have
been recommended to be earmarked on both sides of
the BHU approach arms catering to the parking of auto
rickshaws and cycle rickshaws. To facilitate the rail
commuters emerging from Varanasi Cantonment railway
station, exclusive parking area has been allocated for
auto rickshaws.
Provision of Service Road has included on approach of
railway station only due to non availability of ROW on
other approaches
Estimation of Future Traffic and Sustainability of
Improvement Plan : The maximum peak hour traffc
handled presently at this intersection is of the order
of 5398 PCUs. Since the left turning traffc from BHU
approach to the Allahabad has been segregated
coupled with provision of two lanes for the left turning
from Mughal Sarai approach to BHU approach,
the peak hour traffc estimated to negotiate at this
intersection is about 3741 PCUs only at present.
Assuming 7 percent growth rate in traffc in the next
4 years, the projected traffc volume which will be
handled at this intersection is estimated to be 4903
PCUs by the end of 2014 and it is expected that the
short term design conceived in this study would be
sustainable till that period of time. Further, it may
be noted that it will be useful to consider extending
the flyover presently being constructed beyond
Cantonment Railway Station up to Kamlapati Girls
Inter College.
Signifcance/Utilisation Potential
The recommendations were made to implement the
action plan on ground expecting to reduce traffc and
pedestrian problems around the Englishia intersection
which is closely located near Varanasi Railway station.
90 General report on
Reports/Publications
One Technical report along with action plan submitted
to UPPWD, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025,
Phone 011-26312268; Fax: 011-26845943;
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
8. Traffic Study for Preparation of Transport
System Management Plan for Major Corridors
of Lucknow (Comprehensive Mobility plan of
Lucknow)
Date of Start : December 2009
Date of Completion (Targeted) : August 2011
Present Status and Progress
On-going; Reported frst time.
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting data
In order to meet the objectives of the study the study
was divided into three sub-studies.
(a) Interseciton Study : Keeping in view the traffc
problems, strategic importance and location of
intersections, six typical intersections, were selected
for study. Keeping in view the existing topographic and
other site conditions, available Right Of Way (ROW),
peak hour traffc turning movements, pedestrian fow
and other traffc characteristics, traffc management
plans and infrastructure improvement plans have
been prepared for each intersection for effcient and
safe operation of existing traffc and near future traffc
along. Other recommendations such as road marking,
road signage, lighting and proper drainage have also
been proposed for effcient and safe operation of
traffc at the intersections. It is also recommended
to upgrade the intersections in future (5 to 10 years
later) as grade separated intersections (fyovers /
interchanges) when total traffc at these intersections
reach 10,000 PCU during critical peak hour. It is hoped
that the proposed intersection designs if implemented
along with suggested traffc management plans and
other recommended measures will help in effcient and
safe operation of existing and future traffc at these
intersections at Lucknow.
(b) Parking Study : Keeping in view the problems of
intensive parking demand in different parts of the city,
eight parking areas/ locations were identifed for detailed
parking study and parking management planning. As
part of study various feld surveys were carried out
in order to quantify and assess the characteristics of
parking, site conditions and appreciate the improvement
needs.Keeping in view the parking demand, parking
characteristics and availability of parking spaces
and other site conditions following conclusions/
recommendations have been made for effective parking
management of the locations:
It is proposed to manage the parking facility
so created by state of art technology and
employing Intelligent Parking Management
System and discourage on-street parking by strict
enforcement.
It is also recommended to encourage use of public
transport and explore other measures to curtail
the increase in parking demand.
It is further recommended to improve infrastructure
for pedestrians and non-motorised vehicles
for effcient use of parking and other transport
infrastructure.
(c) Corridor Management Study : efficiency of
transport system of a city depends upon the performance
of its road network particularly major arterial and
arterial corridors. In order to improve the performance
of transport operation of a city or area it is important to
consider the improvement of arterial corridors of the
area or city rather than local improvements. Keeping
this in view the whole road network of Lucknow was
studied and ten corridors comprising of arterial network
of the city were considered for detailed study. For the
purpose of detailed surveys each corridor was divided
into a number of small links based on the overall length
of the corridor, homogeneity of traffc and physical
parameters and indicators. In order to assess the
performance parameters of each corridor and to prepare
traffc management plan and infrastructure improvement
plans following field surveys were carried out viz.
(i) Traffic Volume Survey, (ii) Occupancy Survey,
(iii) Pedestrian Survey, (iv) Non-Motorised Transport
Survey, (v) Speed and Delay Survey, (vi) Inventory
Survey and (vii) Topographic Survey. Analyses of
data were carried out to assess the desired traffc and
transportation characteristics of each corridor.
Details of Corridors Management Plans : Detail of
various traffc and transportation characteristics, physical
parameters, limitations and site constraints, performance
parameters, suggested traffic and transportation
management plans, infrastructure improvement plans
and other measures, recommendations and policy
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 91
guidelines for efficient and safe transport system
operation along each link of the each of the selected
corridors and for the city road network is presented and
described in the report.
Traffc Management and Infrastructure Improvement
Plans : Details of proposed traffc management plan,
traffc management measures, recommendations and
transport infrastructure improvement plans for various
sections (links) and nodes (intersections) of the corridor
are worked out and presented in the report. Keeping in
view the traffc characteristics and site conditions at these
intersections improvement proposals have been worked
out for each of the critical intersections. It is observed
that the existing layout and geometrics of intersections
are not appropriate. The improvement proposals and
traffc management plans have been suggested based
on scientifc analyses of requirement of different users,
site condition and functional requirements at each of
links and the intersections. The brief of proposed traffc
management plan and geometric improvement plan
of various links and intersections are presented in the
report and recommendations have further been made
for safe and effcient transport system management
along the corridor.
Recommendations
Keeping in view the varying width of available right
of way, it is recommended to ensure uniform width
of ROW for links depending upon its location in
the inner or outer part of the city and land-use by
removing encroachments or acquisition.
Keeping in view the low share of passenger
fow by public transport in the outer areas along
the corridor it is recommended to introduce
reliable and effcient public transport to reduce
the dependability of commuters on private and
intermediate modes of transport.
In view of the higher percentage of NMT vehicles
in traffc and share of passengers fow by NMT
along the corridor, it is recommended to segregate
NMT traffic from MV traffic by providing well
constructed and maintained NMT lanes along
the corridor with boarding, resting and parking
facilities and safe crossing at intersections.
It is recommended to provide minimum number of
cuts in median and integrate various entries/ exits
to streamline the traffc fow along the corridor.
It is recommended to regulate pedestrian fow
along the corridor and crossing access the
corridor and intersections by providing railing
barrier along median and side walk with openings
only at designated pedestrian crossings at
grade with zebra marking and provision for
exclusive pedestrian phase in signal cycle at
intersections.
It is proposed and recommended to provide
appropriate road marking, signage and lighting
for guiding the road users.
On-street parking may strictly be removed from
the entire corridor and may be shifted to off-street
parking. Strict enforcement is recommended in
order to make the proposed traffc and transport
management plan successful and safe.
It is recommended to plan and assess the
feasibility of providing fyovers/ elevated road
along section of the corridor passing through
heavily built up areas and where, ROW is limited
such as Nishatganj, Sikanderbagh, Hazratganj,
Husai nganj , Charbagh, Al ambagh, Awadh
Hospital intersection, Kanpur road-Shahidpath
intersection for enhancement of capacity and
segregation of smaller (local) and longer trips
through city in the long run.
Limitations of Conclusions
The study recommendations are based on detailed study
of the existing traffc and site conditions and considering
normal growth of traffc and are relevant for short term (up
to fve years). The basis of proposed traffc management
plans and infrastructure improvement plans/ design
have been taken as existing traffic volume and its
characteristics. The future traffc has been assessed
keeping in view normal growth of traffc, the role and
importance of the various roads of the network in near
future. For long term planning of transport infrastructure
Comprehensive Traffic and Transportation study is
needed to prepare Transport System plan for the city.
Recommendations for Further Work
The study recommendations are required to be
implemented with immediate effect to achieve the
benefts and further study may be carried out may be on
pilot basis to study and evaluate the impact of proposed
interventions for the given traffic, topographic and
geometric parameters. This would help in assessment of
the requirement of transport infrastructure improvement
needs of a city in more realistic and scientifc manner,
which will further help in better planning and management
of existing and infrastructure.
92 General report on
Reports/ Publications
Interim report submitted to Lucknow Development
Authority (LDA). Draft fnal report.
Further information/ copy of the Reports can be
obtained from
The Head,TES Division, Central Road Research
Institute, Delhi-Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Mobile: +91- 9311158643 Phone : 91-11 26312268
Fax: 91-11 26845943, 91-11-26312268;
e-mail: sbk.crri@nic.in
Vice Chairman, Lucknow Development Authority,
Vipin Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow
9. Comprehensive Traffc and Transportation
Studies of Goa
Date of Start : 01 June 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted) : 31 May 2012
CSIR- Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi
Scope and Objectives
To accomplish the above said objectives, the study
would be conducted in two phases namely short term
and long term:
The scope of the study in Phase-I encompasses
conducting feld studies for the preparation of
Traffc System Management Plans for all the fve
traffc circles. Study of major intersections on
national highways corridors in addition to the other
major roads. On the basis of set of traffc surveys
proposed to be conducted on the identifed road
network of the city, short term traffc improvement
plans would be recommended.
This phase is to prepare a comprehensive road
network plan such as multi-modal transport
system considering transport requirements of
existing and future travel demands. In the long
term study under phase II, the household travel
characteristics and establishment surveys will
form the basis for recommending transport plan
for the horizon years.
Methodology
The short term solutions will provide relief to the
congestion and chaotic situations of traffc. To achieve
perceivable relief certain minimum required structural
changes and mandatory controls will have to be devised.
These changes may be in the form of geometric design
of intersections and provision of signals to control the
movements at intersections by allocating the right of
way. Besides this, the parking characteristics would be
analyzed and polices for parking regulations in terms
of time rationing, physical restrictions, designing and
control of off-street facilities will be undertaken. Safety
measures at some accident prone zones along the
National Highways passing through the Goa cities shall
be recommended.
The parking needs of the central business area will be
assessed at more detailed level to work out regulatory
steps which might include physical and fscal measures.
Pedestrian facilities will be recommended on the basis
of scientifc study of pedestrian counts along the roads
and across the roads.
Long term solutions are aimed at developing the
transport infrastructure and related system in a scientifc
manner by considering the planned growth of the city
and estimating the future travel demand. This shall be
accomplished by systematically conducting the primary
surveys to assess the transport demand of passenger
and goods as existing and evolve transport models to
project this demands for the horizon years. On the basis
of estimating demands the master plans of roads with
appropriate hierarchical set-up will be prepared. Efforts
will also be made to identify the phase wise development
of this proposed master plan.
Signifcance/Utilization Potential
The recommendations were made to implement the
action plan on ground expecting to reduce traffc, parking
problems and pedestrian problems. And Phase wise
development of road network would immensely help
to reduce the congestion as well as accidents on road
network of Goa.
Reports/Publications: Inception Report
Further information/Copy of report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road,
New Delhi -110 025
Phone : 011-26312268; Fax: 011-26845943;
e-mail : director.crri@nic.in
B. ON-GOING/COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. TraffcMedicine-AStatusProject
Date of Start : April 2009
Date of Completion : March 2011
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (NATPAC) (R)
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 93
Scope and Objectives of the Study
The study would basically concentrate on preparing a
status report of Traffc Medicine for Kerala. The main
objectives of the study would be as given below:
To review the emergency medical care system in
Kerala, with special reference to Trivandrum.
To analyse the accident injury pattern of accident
victims from hospital records.
To interact with doctors involved in treating
accident victims, especially orthopedic and neuro
surgens, in order to understand the problems of
accident victims as perceived by them.
To prepare resource material for training NGOs
and other interested persons in taking care of
accident victims and administering frst-aid at
accident site.
To examine the accident victims rehabilitation
programme and suggest methods to improve the
system.
To st udy t he present syst em of t rauma
registry in hospitals and suggest methods for
improvement.
Methodology
The fi rst part of the study woul d exami ne the
emergency medical care system in Kerala and study
the ambulance service system. The second part of
the study would concentrate on understanding the
injury pattern of accident victims. Accident victims
would be classifed according to helmet/non helmet
users, seat belt/non seat belt users and socio-
economic and demographic characteristics. Interviews
and discussions with doctors would also be held to
understand the problems of accident victims. The third
part of the study would examine the rehabilitation
programme of accident victims. Along with this
resource - material for training volunteers, NGOs etc
in frst-aid, and care of victims at accident site would
be developed.
Interim Conclusion/Conclusions / Supporting
Data
The MACT and Peoples Lok Adalat is a good beginning
to cut the delays in disposing of accident claims. But
there are obvious short comings with respect to the
expenses incurred, the amounts claimed and the
amounts actually disbursed. These processes should
be further streamlined to avoid falsifcation of records
and to make sure that injured persons get a fair share
of their medical expenses as compensation after the
accident.
In the case of rehabilitation services in Trivandrum, the
suggestions from some physiotherapists are:
The Government should start a degree in
Physiotherapy.
One Physiotherapy Centre in Medical College is
not enough. Road traffc injuries are increasing.
The demand for physiotherapy is also increasing.
They should start Physiotherapy Department in
district hospitals.
They should start high quality training in PT and
increase recruitment.
Road traffc injury is a major problem in Trivandrum,
but, it has got very little attention in terms of support for
interventions to reduce them. A comprehensive injury
prevention program with a public health and traffc
medicine perspective has to be considered, if the policy
makers are serious about the problem.
Policy makers should acknowledge that accidents are
a public health problem and take immediate action.
At frst, a preliminary policy should be attempted from
the health sector point of view. The following activities
should be supported: a booklet as training resource for
paramedics, establishment of a trauma registry/hospital
RTA surveillance system, education of general public
and prevention education in educational institution and
community organisations.
Signifcance/Utilisation Potential
Characteristics of accident victims can be analysed
and suitable insurance plan need to be developed. A
database is prepared regarding the accidents reported
in Thiruvananthapuram city. Improvement measures are
suggested for trauma registration in hospitals.
Reports
Traffc Medicine- A Status Report
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Di rector, Nati onal Transportati on Pl anni ng and
Research Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace
P. O., Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004
94 General report on
2. Preparation of Parking Policy for Nine TIER II
Cities in Karnataka, i.e. Mangalore, Mysore,
Hubli-Dharwar, Bellary, Belgaum, Gulbarga,
Bijapur, Tumkur and Davangere
Date of Start : June, 2010
Date of Completion : Ongoing
CRAPhTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd., Faridabad
(R)
Present Status and Progress:
Status : On-going
Year of Last Report : 2011
Progress : Draft Final Report submitted. Awaiting
comments / observations from client.
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
Summary of parking data as given in the Report.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
In all nine TIER II towns have been studied. Sample
parking survey have been carried each landuse category
in each town. However, the desired database from CTTS
of certain towns were not comprehensive enough for
further analytical purposes. Also some of the towns have
not been able to frame up their Master / Development
Plans. Stakeholders comments are of course, more or
less, consistent.
Reports / Publications
Inception Report
Stakeholder Consultation Report
Draft Final Report
Conclusions
This Draft Final Report, while enunciating the Parking
Policy for the nine Tier II towns, also gives an overview
of the activities undertaken by the Consultants so far.
It examines the parking characteristics as could be
observed in each of the nine towns in terms of space
utilization and duration of parking by various modes. All
these towns are at an economic threshold and a lift off
could be expected sooner than later when space will be
available at a tremendous premium. That brings into
focus the need and importance of the Parking Policy as
enunciated in this Report.
Parking Policy never aims at suggesting case specifc
parking development schemes. However, keeping in
view the need to draw up certain action plans (by the
ULBs / Development Authorities) along the contemplated
lines as refected in the policy statement, an effort has
been made by the Consultants to suggest town-wise
parking action plans and the same have been reported
in the Report.
Recommendations
Onstreet parking shall have to be regulated.
Every parking lot must be priced. Long term
parking must be discouraged at on street parking
facilities. The revenues so generated shall be
utilized towards development and upkeep of off
street parking facilities.
ULBs to be in-charge of priced parking (both on-
street and off-street). Where necessary these may
also be outsourced on an appropriate revenue
sharing basis.
A committee of ULB and Traffc Police to designate
on-street parking stretches after considering
present and future traffc / parking loads.
Develop off-street parking facility on vacant
lands in a judicious manner (both public and
private) wherever available near the key demand
generating zones. However, the basic principle
of sustainable development as enunciated
elsewhere must not be lost sight of.
Design mechanisms to incentivize private land
owners for creating parking facilities that are
essential for economic sustainability of activity
areas.
ULB and UDA to invest in new parking facilities, if
and when required. This may also be done on PPP
basis under certain revenue sharing scheme.
Mandatory provision of NMT parking in off-street
parking facilities. The proportion of areas to be
dedicated to such modes shall be decided on
the principles of hierarchy as mentioned in this
report.
Provisions for IPT parking to be made on-street at
key demand generating zones (select streets) and
at all public transport terminals. The total number
of vehicles to be parked at any such lot must be
pre decided.
Either the ULB or UDA to have a wing on
developing, operating and maintaining new parking
facilities that must work in close coordination with
the urban planning wing.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 95
Either the ULB or UDA to take up the provisioning
of Truck Terminals, unless DDUTL is willing to
develop in the respective city. Such terminals are
to be located outside the town limits.
Traffc restraint measures must be introduced for
CBDs and other important activity areas through
introduction of peripheral parking facilities, park
and ride system etc (may be at a later stage)
The cap on registering a certain number of automobiles
as a demand management measure can be pursued in
the long run as felt necessary by respective towns but
certainly something on this should be introduced in the
next 5 - 10 years.
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Offce of the Commissioner, Directorate of Urban Land
Transport No. 504, 5th Floor, 4th Gate, MS Building,
Ambedkar Veedhi, Bangalore 560 001.
e-mail : dulbangalore@gmail.com
3. Study on Traffc Management and Parking
Spaces for Fairs at Pragati Maidan, New
Delhi
Date of Start : July 2010
Date of Completion : April 2011
CRAPhTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd., Faridabad (R)
Present Status and Progress
Status : Completed
Year of Last Report : April 2011
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
The IITF may not result into any signifcant traffc
demand if the maximum number of visitors is
restricted to 1,00,000 (and an additional 25,000
pass holders). However, the problem of parking
needs to be addressed through augmentation of P
& R services along with other achievable means.
The transport network around the venue is already
overloaded with the city level traffic and the
same warrants implementation of a combination
of remedial measures (greater usage of public
transport, demand management, capaci ty
augmentation etc).
Great emphasis must continue to be laid on
increased use of public transport like the Metro
Rail, the P&R buses, the proposed Mono Rail, the
route buses, the Ring railway etc. for accessing
the core area. This should be attempted through
development of attractive P&R terminals as
mentioned in the report and through effcient multi
modal integration.
Introduction of BRT corridor along Mathura
Road is likely to change the traffc operational
characteristics along this road. The impact of that
must be duly assessed and short comings if any,
promptly addressed.
With slowing down of traffc as is likely to happen
along Mathura Road after implementation of BRT,
traffc pile up might escalate at the intersections
enroute. The solution to this problem should
become an integral part of the BRT package. P&R
buses and other HOVs should be allowed to use
the BRT lane for better capacity utilization of the
facility so created.
In the long term the Consultants have proposed a
two tier system (surface level road and underpass)
along Mathura Road between Bhairon Marg and
Bhagwan Dass Road. One could examine if one
tier could be used exclusively for BRT. That will
leave the surface geometry of the carriageway
largely undisturbed.
A decision on long term solution for A Point
intersection has been pending for over two
decades. Perhaps it is high time that a decision
is taken towards resolving the traffc problems
being faced at A & W Point intersections. The
Consultants have indicated the latest plan that
had some semblance of approval at the level of
the DDA.
The Loop Road along Bhairon Marg shall have to
be improved as mentioned in the report and traffc
circulation along Bhairon Marg organized in the
manner shown.
Three FOBs are already in place across Mathura
Road in addition to a pedestrian subway across
Bhairon Marg. The Consultants recognize the
need to have additional pedestrian facilities across
Bhairon Marg and go on to suggest construction
of one pedestrian subway/FOB across Bhairon
Marg near Gate No.1
The Consultants also recommend development
of a P&R terminal towards NOIDA at the Metro
Rail Station. The Metro Rail could offer the P&R
service from this location to IITF.
96 General report on
Towards increasing the parking capacity around
the core area the Consultants recommend that
augmentation of parking capacity should be strictly
need based in such areas and every parking slot
must be priced.
The parking at the Ware House Complex should
have certain area earmarked for Exhibitors.
They should be following a circulation pattern as
indicated in the report.
Loading/unloading shall be done only between
10.00 pm and 6.00 am and the goods vehicles
should not be allowed to park for any duration
longer than what is reasonable for performing the
intended tasks.
VIP movement shall continue to take place through
Gate No. 7. VIP routes have been indicated in
the report although these routes might change
depending on the traffc situation at the appointed
time.
The ent i r e ar ea must have a compl et e
and comprehensive signage scheme for all
categories of users. Extensive use must be
made of Variable Message Signs (VMS) which
must be controlled from a centralized control
unit. An extension control unit (in addition to
Central Police Control Room) could be set
up at Bhairon Marg DTC terminal. The P&R
terminals, the parking lots, the road segments
in between could all be linked to this for central/
segmental moni tori ng (i nputs from Traffi c
Police will be necessary). This system (of
VMS) could gradually be extended towards
Connaught Place, Delhi Gate, Kashmere Gate,
ITO Chunghi, NOIDA Morh, Ashram, Moolchand
intersection etc. Proper pavement marking must
complement all signage schemes.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
Delhi is continuously experimenting with various
systems and all recommendations are valid only
for the given system as obtaining at the time of the
study.
Recommendations for further Work
Detailed Feasibility Studies for Parking Facilities and
Mono Rail
Reports / Publications
Final Report
Supplementary Report to Final Report
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Seni or Manager (Ci vi l ), Indi a Trade Promoti on
Organization, Pragati Bhawan, Pragati Maidan,
New Delhi 110 001
Phone : 91-11-23371540, 91-11-23371492/1493
Email id : info@itpo-online.com
4. Design and Drawing of 10 Intersections with
Comprehensive Traffc Circulation Scheme
Around CBD Within New Town, Kolkata.
Date of Start : February 2010
Date of Completion : On-going
CRAPhTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd., Faridabad (R)
Present Status and Progress
Status : On-going, Inception Report submitted. Awaiting
clients observations.
Year of Last Report : April 2011
Reports / Publications : Inception Report
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Special Offcer (EP), WBHIDCO, HA-304, Sector 3,
Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 156
e-mail id : housing@cal2.vsnl.net.in
5. Planning and Design of Grade Separator at
Crossing of Road No. 56 & G.T. Road Near
Apsara Border in Delhi.
Date of Start : October 2005
Date of Completion (Actual) : October 2010
CRAPhTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd., Faridabad (R)
Present Status and Progress
Completed and open to traffc during CWG-2010
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
Feasibility Study
Collection of data on existing traffc characteristics
at the project location including assessment of
peak hour traffc volume and projection of traffc
for design year.
Development of conceptual alternative schemes
for the grade separator including submission of
Feasibility Report.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 97
Obtai ni ng approval from PWD, Techni cal
Committee of DDA, DUAC etc.
Development of L-section,, X-section of approved
schemes including development of architectural
model of the approved scheme.
Detailed Design :
Submission of comprehensive scheme showing
the general arrangement drawings showing the
fyover, ramps, underpass and adjoining roads at
proposed location.
Submission of soil investigation report.
Submission of Architectural Drawing for various
components of structures covered i n the
scheme.
Submission of Preliminary Drawings & Cost
Estimate.
Submission of suitable scheme for traffc diversion
during construction to ensure smooth traffc fow
during construction.
Submission of the Tender Drawings, Bill of
Quantities, Detailed Estimate including Tender
Documents.
Submission of the detailed design and construction
drawings of all components covered in the
scheme.
Submission of detailed Horticultural and Electrical
Drawi ngs, Esti mates and rel ated Tender
Documents.
Reports / Publications
Feasibility Report
Design Philosophy
Sub Soil Exploration Report
Design Calculations
Detailed Good-for-Construction Drawings
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Executive Engineer, Flyover Project Division F-113,
PWD, Govt. of Delhi, Apsara Border, Near Dilshad
Garden Metro Station, Behind Red Cross Hospital,
Delhi 110 095
Phone : 91-11-22597067 ; Fax : 91-11-22597067
Email id : ee_f113pwd@yahoo.com
6. Construction of Road Under Bridge (RUB),
Connecting Road No. 58 & 64, Passing under
Delhi Ghaziabad Railway Line Near Jhilmil
Colony, Delhi
Date of Start : February 2006
Date of Completion (Actual) : October 2010
CRAPhTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd., Faridabad
(R)
Present Status and Progress
Completed in October 2010
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
Feasibility Study:
Collection of data on existing traffc characteristics
at the project location including assessment of
peak hour traffc volume and projection of traffc
for design year.
Development of conceptual alternative schemes
for the grade separator including Feasibility
report
Obtai ni ng approval from PWD, Techni cal
Committee of DDA, DUAC etc.
Development of L-section, X-section of approved
schemes including preparation of traffc diversion
scheme during construction.
Detailed Design:
Submission of comprehensive scheme showing
the general arrangement drawings showing
the ramps of underpass and adjoining roads at
proposed location.
Submission of soil investigation report .
Submission of Architectural Drawing for various
components of structures covered in the scheme.
Submission of Preliminary Drawings & Cost
Estimate.
Submission of suitable scheme for traffc diversion
during construction to ensure smooth traffc fow
during construction
Submission of the Tender Drawings, Bill of
Quantities, Detailed Estimate including Tender
Documents.
Submission of the detailed design and construction
drawings of all components covered in the
scheme.
98 General report on
Submission of detailed Horticultural and Electrical
Drawings, Estimates and related Tender Documents.
Reports / Publications
Feasibility Report
Design Philosophy
Sub Soil Exploration Report
Design Calculations
Detailed Good-for-Construction Drawings
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Executive Engineer, Flyover Project Division F-113,
PWD, Govt. of Delhi, Apsara Border, Near Dilshad
Garden Metro Station, Behind Red Cross Hospital,
Delhi 110 095
Phone : 91-11-22597067; Fax : 91-11-22597067
Email id : ee_f113pwd@yahoo.com
7. Consultancy Services for Formulation of Master
Plan for National Network of Expressways in
India
Date of Start : Dec 2008
Date of Completion (Targeted/Actual) : Dec
2009
CRAPhTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd., Faridabad
(R)
Present Status and Progress
Completed (All formalities completed during March
April, 2010)
Conclusions/Supporting Data
The study brings out clearly the urgency of
developing an expressway network in India in a
phased manner by the year 2022. The present
National Highway System cannot cope with the
current and anticipated traffc requirements as
is already evident from the levels of congestion
along the existing arterials. By all indications road
will continue to remain the back bone of the inland
transportation system.
The study having considered the existing and
already proposed expressway segments in
different states, revealed the need to construct
18,477 kms of expressway network (as against a
target of 15,600 kms. set by the Ministry) spanning
the length and breadth of the country. The network
so developed shall be both supplementary and
complimentary to the existing arterial network
including the North South and East West
Corridors and the GQ (besides the well laid out
network of National Highways).
The expressway network will offer the highest level
of service and would connect major economic
hubs in a purposive manner thereby facilitating
faster economic development. It will not involve
up-gradation of any of the existing corridors and
instead, would be the Primary Road Transport
Network developed entirely as a Green Field
Project.
Development of expressways in the said manner
would call for large scale land acquisition effort
by the government. By and large, the network is
proposed to be developed on PPP model except
in cases where connectivity warrants could dictate
construction of expressway links on Annuity
basis.
It is recognized that the States would be major
stake holders in this entire exercise. State level
inputs and involvements would be a mandatory
requirement for successful implementation of
the project. However, till the time of fnalizing
this report, reactions from only a few states had
become available for consideration.
This is a Master Plan level study and the objective
is to translate a Vision Statement into a physical
plan based on the basis of Map Study and data
gathered largely from secondary sources. This is
therefore, not a detailed feasibility study and thus,
the corridor alignments shall have to be examined
critically during Feasibility Study/ Detailed
design stages. For the same reason, this study
is not in a position to exactly defne the capacity
requirements of each separate expressway link.
However, since the prioritization of expressway
segments takes into account the base year and
estimated design year traffc volumes, it could
be said that all the links to be constructed on
PPP model shall have at least 4 lane divided
carriageway cross section. The Right of Way
(ROW) shall of course, be a uniform 90 m. It will
be a Toll Expressway Network with toll rates as per
the Ministrys Guidelines (2008). The prioritized
segments are to be constructed in three phases
for which the Viability Gap Funding would be to
the extent of 20 percent and the concession period
20 years.
Construction of this network over the next
decade would call for the creation of a separate
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 99
authority, much in the lines of the NHAI. The
new authority so created could be named as the
National Expressway Authority of India (NEAI).
This shall have appropriate state/project units
for coordinating various project activities. The
Consultants have emphasized the creation of
a Commissionerate (Lands) within the NEAI
for easing the task of land acquisition. Suitable
amendments in the Land Acquisition Act have
also been visualized by the consultants.
Recommendations
The present study, being only a Master Plan
Level Study, must be adequately supplemented
by detailed feasibility/design studies before
project packages could actually be taken up for
implementation.
Towards successful implementation of the project,
formation of a separate authority that would be
dedicated to this task shall be absolutely essential.
This separate body could be called the National
Expressway Authority of India (NEAI).
A separate cell (Commissionerate) must be
formed within the NEAI for overseeing the Land
acquisition process. Following the DMRC Act,
even developers/builders could be authorized
to undertake land acquisition and its utilization
for decentralizing the whole process. In addition
to the usual stake holders, the PAPs must lo be
made stake holders in the project.
Considering the fact that the expressway network
shall have to be totally access controlled, it must
have a level difference with the natural ground
level (NGL). The optimum level should be
+3.5 m above the NGL.
Expressway shall have no at grade intersections.
All such intersections with National and State
Highways shall be developed into interchanges.
There shall be no intersections with roads of lower
hierarchy.
A reserved ROW of 90 m must be uniformly
provided over the entire network except in
hill sections/other sensitive areas where the
ROW could be suitably modifed if absolutely
necessary.
For best results the entire length of 18,477 km
of the expressway network must be constructed
following the certain prioritization scheme.
Construction of new expressway links is likely
to result in certain changes in the existing travel
pattern. This is likely to be signifcant for some of
the hitherto less traffcked segments that have
been proposed to be taken up for construction
on annuity basis. It is recommended that data on
traffc volumes etc. along these links be recorded
on a regular basis towards revalidation of priorities
for some of these (and other related) segments.
Certain schematic interchange plans have been
proposed by the Consultants. Efforts must be
made to make best use of the land confned
within the interchange ramps for development of
way side amenities so that best value for land is
obtained.
Service roads, wherever necessary, shall have
to be provided as an integral part of the total
project.
Being a Green Field Project, the expressway
network i s most l i kel y to have si gni fi cant
environmental impacts. All mandatory clearances
therefore, must be obtained before proceeding
with actual execution of the projects. The NEAI
must have a separate cell to expedite actions on
this.
Wherever necessary conflict free pedestrian
crossings and cattle crossings must be provided
across the expressway segments in a realistic
manner.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
As a Master Plan level study, this involved translating a
vision statement to a physical network. The fndings are
based on data gathered largely from secondary sources.
Sample data collected through primary surveys have
also been used.
Recommendations for further Work (if completed)
The study gives broad alignments for 18,477 km of green
feld expressways. These shall have to be fne tuned
through the conduct of Feasibility studies and DPR for
each segment.
Reports / Publications
Final Report submitted to MoRTH
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from:
Executive Engineer (Plng.), Ministry of Road Transport
& Highways, Transport Bhawan, 1, Parliament Street,
New Delhi 110 001
100 General report on
8. Comprehensive Mobility Plan for Indore Urban
Area
Date of Start : December 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted) : October 2011
RITES, Gurgaon (R)
Present Status and Progress
Status: On-going
Year of Last Report: June 2011
Progress: Draft Final Report in Progress
Study Progress:
The Indore Metropolitan, industrial/commercial
hub of State of Madhya Pradesh, is poised for a
higher growth in coming decades. As per Master
Plan 2021, the population of Indore is expected
to grow from 1.54 million to 2.2 million in the year
2011. The developed area of the city is expected
to grow from 10,000 hectares to 21,000 hectares
by the year 2011 as per the City Development
Plan 2005-06.
With the expected phenomenal growth of the
city, the existing problems are bound to multiply
in magnitude unless advance actions are
undertaken now. There is an urgent need for
signifcant improvements in the transport system
including mass transport system keeping in view
the long term requirements of the city.
The Indore Municipal Corporation has, therefore,
decided to undertake a detailed study for preparation
of Comprehensive Mobility Plan (CMP) for the
Indore Urban Area which will give short, medium
and long term requirement of transportation
i nfrastructure for the hori zon year 2031.
The Study is being carried out in close coordination
with IMC and a Monitoring Committee with
members from IDA, IMC, AICTSL, Traffc Police,
PWD and Transport Department and other related
agencies involved in the development of the
city.
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
In all about 7 lakh vehicles ply at 15 surveyed mid
block traffc locations.
Private Modes account for 74 percent of the
total passenger trips while the passenger
trip catered by buses and mini buses is only
19 percent as tabulated from the midblock traffc
volume surveys. Locations handling more than 1
lakh passenger trips per day are Jawahar Marg,
Near Prem Sukh, A.B Road, Near Indra Colony,
Bhanwar Kuan Road, Near Allahabad Bank, M G
Road, Near TI Mall, New Dewas Road, A.B. Road
Near Surabhi Garden, Ring Road, Near Mayur
Hospital, Usha Nagar
Main Road.
The discharge capacity observed at various
midblock locations varies from 350 PCUs /m/h
to 550 PCUs /m/h depending upon the traffc
conditions, composition, delay profle, pedestrian
vehicular intermixing, etc.
National and State highways account for majority
of the traffc however function ineffciently due
to insuffcient carriageway width and absence
of essential network facilities such as medians,
footpaths etc.
Most of the roads in the Study Area have on-street
parking resulting in reduced speeds, reduced
discharge rate, congestion and a higher VC ratio
leading to reduced level of service of the roads
and degrading conditions of travel.
There are a number of issues in relation to the
pedestrian movement. The four prime locations
that experience very heavy pedestrian and
vehicular fow are MG Road towards Regal, Guitar
Chowk towards Vijay Nagar, Imli Sahib Gurudwara
Chowk towards Gandhi Hall and palassia Chowk
towards Vijay Nagar, each of these having very
high PV values of 225.2, 63.1, 60.6 and 48.2,
respectively.
Parking is an important component in a traffc
and transport plan and its management needs
priority. Some of the parking issues observed
in the Study Area are Lack of off street parking
spaces, Extensive on street parking at Rajwada,
Jail road, Jawahar marg, Siyaganj etc, availability
of easy and free parking and absence of good
public transport is pushing people to use private
vehicles, Parking on the junctions and absence
of a comprehensive parking policy for the Study
Area.
The effective implementation of Public transport
is limited primarily due to fnancial unavailability,
lack of road carriageway, lack of parking spaces
as well as the competition of PT from other IPT
modes of transport on the same routes.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 101
IPT has grown on an alarming rate over the years.
As the city grows the informal high demand to
travel is being catered by IPT and recently by bus
after the formation of AICTSL.
IPT system is highly unorganized. Dishonoring
the route permits, overloading, running on high
demand corridors, misbehaving etc are some of
the major issues in case of IPT.
Enforcement on traffc control and management is
very weak in case of IPT as such IPT has become
a major competitor to PT and is damaging citys
growth towards better PT systems.
The IPT system is considered to be inconvenient
and unsafe. Overcrowding is also one of the
reasons that limit a huge segment of the society
from choosing IPT modes.
IPT feet operators charge higher rent for their
vehicles/day due to which the drivers are
constrained with long working hours, overloading
of the vehicles, rash driving, misbehaving with bus
drivers, run on high demand routes, deviate from
their route permits etc.
The short term proposals recommended in the
Study aims at giving priority to the movement
of people rather than movement of vehicles and
generally follow the guidelines of National Urban
Transport Policy (NUTP). The Study, therefore,
suggests measures to strengthen Pedestrian
movement, Junction improvement plans to ease
the movement of traffc and well as pedestrians,
parking and public transport proposals.
Reports/Publications
Inception Report, Interim Report
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
IRC Codes need to be revised for urban roads in
the context of contemporary research and NUTP
for promoting usage of Public transport, NMVs and
pedestrians by way of standardized cross sections for
different ROWs for providing dedicated/painted bus
lanes, segregated/painted NMV lanes and pedestrian /
NMV friendly designs for footpath and road crossings.
The discharge capacity of number of PCUs per hour per
lane for different category of roads need to be revised
based on contemporary research. Parking norms also
need a revision based on specifc areas (central, outer),
availability and public transport accessibility, different
land uses.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Mr Piyush Kansal, RITES Bhawan, No.1, Sector-29,
Gurgaon-122001 (India)
Phone: (0124) - 2571666
Fax: (0124) 2571638 e-mail ID: piyush@rites.com
9. Detailed Project Report for Mumbai Metro
Phase II & III: Mahim BKC Kanjur Marg via
Airport
Date of Start : January 2010
Date of Completion : June 2011
RITES, Gurgaon (R)
Present Status and Progress
Status : Completed
Year of Last Report : April 2011
Progress : Study Completed. The study corridor is part
of the Master Plan for Mumbai Metro. This Corridor is
proposed to be integrated with the Colaba Mahim
Bandra Corridor with an extension from BKC to
Mahim.
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
The Metro Corridor of 22.0 km length (elevated for about
10 km and underground for about 12 km) is feasible
and a total of 16 stations have been proposed - 8
stations areunderground and remaining 8 are elevated.
The Corridor is planned to connect the major nodes
of Mumbai i.e Colaba, Bandra Kurla Complex (BKC),
Airport (both Domestic and International), SEEPZ
(Industrial Hub), Powai Residential cum Institutional
area and Hiranandani Residential cum Commercial
Estate.
This Corridor will provide a diagonal connectivity i.e. from
Colaba in the South to Centre (BKC & Santacruz) and
Kanjur Marg in the west.The MRT system is expected
to cater to a daily ridership of about 12 lakh passengers
with maximum PHPDT of 20,000 by 2031. It will provide
intermodal integration with Metro Line II at ITO, Suburban
Railway in Santacruz, Metro Line I at Marol Naka and
Suburban Railway & proposed Ghatkopar Mulund Metro
Line at Kanjur Marg. The project cost is estimated at
` 82018 Million including taxes and duties with an annual
operating & maintenance cost of ` 2886 Million (2016).
EIRR is greater than 12 percent in the base case, thus
refecting the economic viability of the project.
The project is however, not fnancially viable and will
require a fnancial support, which may be in the form of:
102 General report on
Increasing the concession period beyond 35
years;
Giving the right of real estate development to the
entrepreneur who constructs and operates the
proposed metro line;
Providing full tax exemption to the project to make
it more attractive;
Revising the tariff structure imposed on the metro
system for increase in the fare box revenue;
Considering the option of giving land to the
Concessionaire with commercial development
rights, to cross subsidize the losses on the metro
project with the earnings from the commercial
development;
Implementing the project on Annuity, so that the
payment to be made by MMRDA is deferred over
time; or
Implementing the project through government
funding.
Recommendations for Further Work (if completed)
Further work on utilities, land and fnancial planning
etc may be taken up once the project has in-principle
approval of the Government.
Reports/Publications
Inception Report; Ridership Report; Final Alignment
Report with Horizontal and Vertical details; Report
on Train Operation Plan, System Design, Depot and
Maintenance Facilities, Cost Estimates, Financial &
Economic Analysis; and Detailed Project Report.
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
codes/Specifcations
A new set of IRC Codes may be developed to standardize
urban road/ transport networks to accommodate the
provision for the metro systems/ stations in conjunction
with road based modes.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
UT Division, RITES Bhawan, No.1, Sector-29, Gurgaon
Phone: (0124) 2818666 Fax: (0124) 2571638
e-mail ID: piyush@rites.com
10. Feasibility Study for Elevated Rail Corridor
from Churchgate to Virar in Mumbai
Date of Start : January 2009
Date of Completion (Targeted) : June 2011
RITES, Gurgaon (R)
Present Status and Progress
Status : On-going
Year of Last Report : 2011
Progress : Draft Feasibility Report Submitted. Mumbai
is the fnancial capital of India with a population of over
13 million, and one of the most populous cities in the
world. The objective of the study was to check the
feasibility of two track elevated corridor with a capacity to
run 15 car, air conditioned trains for Churchgate Virar
section along the existing tracks with least disturbance
to existing operations.
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
After the consultations with State Government and
Indian Railways, the corridor is technically found
feasible. Further, Indian Railways will undertake a study
on the fnancial feasibility of the corridor.
Reports/Publications
Inception Report, Gauge Study Report, Ground
Survey and Alignment Reports, Architectural Report,
Construction Planning Report, Mandatory CAPEX
Report and Draft Feasibility Report
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
In view of the recent emergence and development of
Rail based Mass Transit as a functional urban transport
system, it is important that a new set of IRC Codes are
developed to standardize urban road/ transport networks
to accommodate the provision for the system and its
stations in conjunction with road based modes.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
UT Division, RITES Bhawan, No.1, Sector-29, Gurgaon
Phone: (0124) 2818666 Fax: (0124) 2571638
e-mail ID: piyush@rites.com
11. Technical Consultancy for Preparation of
DetailedProjectReportfor3-MetroCorridor
in Kolkata.
Date of Start : May 2010
Date of Completion : On-going
RITES, Gurgaon (R)
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 103
Present Status and Progress
Status : On-going
Year of Last Report : 2011
Progress : Draft DPR for New Garia Airport Corridor
submitted
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
RVNL has been mandated by Indian Railways, with the
task of implementing the additional Corridors of Metro
Rail system in Kolkata area. The Corridors identifed for
development of Metro System include the following:
Baranagar Barrackpore (10.5 km)
Dum Dum Airport New Garia via Rajerhat (32 km)
Joka Binoy Badal Dinesh Bagh via Majerhat
(16.72 km)
The overall study objective is to implement the new
metro rail corridors in kolkata and the Study is aimed
to provide all necessary details to RVNL for preparing
tender design and tender documents for foating the
tender on design and construct basis.
Reports/Publications
Inception Report; Ridership Assessment Report;
Technical Report of Corridor 1 & 2; Survey and Alignment
Report for Corridor 3; GT Report for all three Corridors;
Draft Detailed Project Report for Corridor 3.
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes/Specifcations (if completed):
A new set of IRC codes may be developed to standardize
urban road/ transport networks to accommodate the
provision for the metro systems/ stations in conjunction
with road based modes.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
UT Division, RITES Bhawan, No.1, Sector-29, Gurgaon
Phone: (0124) -2818666 Fax: (0124) -2571638
e-mail ID: piyush@rites.com
12. Constraints in Developing West Coast Canal in
Kerala Case Study of National Waterway No.III
Date of Start: March 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted/Actual):
March 2011
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (R)
Present Status and Progress
Development of the National Waterway No.3 has
almost reached the final stage of completion. But
even after providing the necessary infrastructure
facilities, the anticipated traffc is not achieved so far.
At this instance it is necessary to study the problems
of waterway development so as to improve the traffc
and maintain the sustainability of the canal. The current
status of development of the project is studied and the
problems encountered during execution are identifed.
The status of the canal in terms of traffc achieved and
regional development are also studied. After discussion
with the IWAI Authorities, state departments and other
stake holders like industries, boat operators, shipping
companies etc. the constraints in cargo movement are
identifed and suggestions for improvement are proposed.
Further Findings/Conclusions
It is necessary to study the socio economic impacts of the
development of the waterways. Specifc problems are to
be addressed and necessary additional facilities are to be
provided. It is required to work out an effcient management
system for the smooth operation of the waterways.
Suggestions for improvement of the navigability of the
NW-3 are
Completion of capital dredging work in NW-3
Removal of fishing nets from the navigable
channel of the waterways
Widening of lock gates at Thaneermukkom and
Thrikkunnapuzha locks
Development of feeder canals of NW-3
Encourage transportation of containers through
NW-3
Providing container handling facilities at terminals
of IWAI
Exploring the possibility of usage of bullet
containers on NW-3
Conceptualization of cargo oriented projects with
guaranteed quantity of cargo for a specifed time
frame for movement by waterways
Encouraging facilities for construction of ship
building and ship repair in Kerala
Taking adequate measures for effective integration
of IWT and coastal shipping
Integration of IWT with rail and road to improve
connectivity
104 General report on
Revival of inland vessels building subsidy scheme
and operationalisation of freight subsidy scheme
Formation of an inland vessel leasing company
Strengthen the set up of Kerala Govt. for fulflling
its obligation as a regulator under Inland Vessel Act
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
Cross structures not confirming to the standards
of horizontal and vertical clearances, fishing nets
obstructing the waterway are the main constraints for
the operationalisation of the waterway.
Recommendations for further Work (if completed)
The cargo potential of the waterway is to be studied
and a strategy for suitable vessel design is to be
developed.
Reports/Publications
Interim Report
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Director, National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace P. O.,
Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004
13. Computation of Price Index for Auto and Taxi
Operations (PIATO)
Date of Start: June 2010
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (R)
Present Status and Progress
Status : On-going
Year of last Report : March, 2011
Scope and Objectives
The major objectives of the study area:
To fnd out the operational characteristics like
passenger load, passenger lead, daily collection
and expenditures (fxed and V.C) of Auto & Taxi
operations in Kerala.
To prepare a Price Indices for Auto and Taxi
Operations (PIATO) for understanding the
periodical movement of prices of operating cost,
and other inputs for different types of Auto & Taxi
operations.
Methodology
National Transportation Planning and Research Centre
(NATPAC) brought out Price Indices for Auto and Taxi
Operations (PIATO) for the frst time in Kerala State. Cost
table approach is adopted to compute cost of operations
of vehicles under optimum utilization of capacity, which
is derived from detailed analysis of life cycle behavior
of almost all important vehicle components. The Price
Index compares the movement of prices of operating
components for any base year with current year. The
method has compared entry level conditions for two
time periods and has the advantage that the movement
of prices can be assessed and the index revised in future
also. The index presents a clear methodology for taking
decisions such as fare revisions.
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
The fare for Taxi services was fxed as ` 6.50 per
kilometer and that of Autos at ` 4.58 per km as per the
fare revision effected in March 2010. The Price Indices
for Taxi Operations (PITO) moved from 128.02 in 15
th

December 2010 to 143.57 at the end of March 2011. The
Price Indices for Auto Rickshaw Operations (PIARO)
moved from 130.41 in 15
th
December 2010 to 148.22
at the end of March 2011.
Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
Computation Periodical updating of Price Indices for
Auto and Taxi Operations (PIATO) gives a scientifc basis
of fare revision of Stage Carriage Operation. The value
of inputs compiled for PIATO refers to survey based on
limited sample basis conducted by NATPAC in 2006 and
accurate demand forecast have not been made for any
particular route. Frequent fuctuations in fuel and other
cost inputs and also the load and lead parameters could
not be realistically estimated. The cost of components
and weights used for computing the values of these
factors remain unaltered.
Reports / Publications
Interim Report -December 2010 and Final Report
March 2011
Further information / copy of report can be obtained
from
Director, National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace P. O.,
Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 105
14. Pre-Feasibility Study for Improving Road
Connectivity to Kannur Airport
Date of Start: December 2009
Date of Completion: March 2011
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (R)
Present Status and Progress
The Pre-feasibility study of the identifed seven project
roads were taken up by NATPAC in December 2008 and
the Final Report has been submitted to the Kerala Road
Fund Board in December 2009. A summary report was
also presented to the Government in December 2009.
As per suggestion from the district level committee the
feasibility of new green feld alignment was carried out
along with the revised FIRR calculations and again the
fnal report was submitted to the Kerala Road Fund
Board in March 2011.
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
As per the pre- feasibility study conducted based on
limited surveys, rough cost estimate, and financial
analysis, Kannur Mattannur road, Thalassery
Mattannur road and Thaliparamba Mattannur road will
qualify for development to 4/6 lane standards on Public
Private partnership on annuity basis. The Government
should bear the initial cost of land acquisition and provide
a viability gap funding or annuity to ensure the expected
16 percent return on investment. All other referred roads
may be developed as per the existing practices and full
budgetary support by the Government.
Limitations of Study
The present pre-feasibility report is intended to give
only a broad picture of undertaking the proposed
airport road connectivity project under public
private participation nods. The preliminary fnancial
analysis results suggest that the project will not be
fnancially viable without major fnancial commitment
from the Government especially considering the
present uncertainty brought about by global economic
recession. Broad assumptions made with regard to
regional economic development and land use changes
in the vicinity of improved roads and the optimistic
traffc projections need not be exactly realized. As
the present exercise is carried out based on limited
feld surveys and broad assumptions with regard to the
demand for real estate/commercial/business space
in the region and suitability of land for various uses,
detailed exercises on planning and design of facilities
need to be done at the time of preparation of detailed
feasibility study/ DPR.
Reports/Publications
Interim Report, February 2009
Draft Final Report, March 2009
Summary Report, July 2009
Final Report, December 2009
Final Report, March 2011 (New Green Field Alignment)
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
Road development if properly planned in any region
is expected to bring improvement in socio-economic
condition of people. Unplanned spatial growth of regions
cause ultimately many traffc woes and chock up further
development. Such road improvement works can be
made fnancially viable if it is developed as a public-
private joint venture project.
Further information/ copy of report can be obtained
from
Director, National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace P. O.,
Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004
15. Development of GIS Based National Highway
Information System
Date of Start: Feb 2006
Date of Completion (Targeted): Dec 2011
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
The main objective of the project is the development
of National Highways Information System in GIS
environment which is to be achieved through collection
and collation of road related information both from
primary and secondary sources for 50,000 km long
National Highways network (except roads under
NHDP).
Methodology
The entire study comprises of the following four
modules:
Module I: Development of GIS Based Highways
Information System
Module II: Inventorisation of National Highways
106 General report on
Module III: Traffc Volume and Axle Load Surveys for
National Highways
Module IV: Long Term Maintenance and Rehabilitation
Strategies for National Highways Based
on HDM-4 Tool
Interim Conclusion/Conclusions/Supporting data
A GIS based database software has been developed
and about 40,000 km of primary data collected has
been uploaded in the software. Integration with
HDM-4 is in progress. Till now, about 45,000 km of
National Highways has been surveyed using the
Network Survey Vehicle. Secondary data for about
25,000 km has been completed and uploaded in to the
software. The survey in the remaining section is under
progress.
Limitations of conclusion/Recommendation for
further work/further
The inventory data collection is for one time only, these
data should be updated in time series manner.
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Phone : 011-26312268 Fax : 011-26845943;
e-mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
16. Evaluation of Operational Efficiency of
Highway Network Using Travel Time Reliability
Measures
Date of Start : March 2009
Date of Completion (Targeted/Actual):
December 2011
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
To evaluate operational effciency/characteristics
of highway transportation system by considering
various travel time reliability measures.
Analyse travel time variability under various
uncertainty factors of transportation system by
considering stochastic simulation technique. from
demand side factors, supply side factors and
external factors.
Selection of appropriate travel time reliability
Indices for Indian Highways.
Application of stochastic simulation modelling
technique and Artifcial Intelligence modelling
techniques such as Stochastic Response Surface
Method (SRSM).
Neural Network Models and Genetic algorithms
models for modelling travel time distribution in the
light of demand side factors, supply side factors
and other external effects of the transportation
system.
Methodology
Review of Various Performance Measures.
Devel opment of Frame Work for Factors
Infuencing Travel Time Reliability Measures.
IdentifcationofStudyArea: In this study initially
one corridor from urban arterial road network
(Delhi), one corridor from National Highway and
a small road network (urban area, within Delhi)
will be identifed for performance measurement.
Data Collection: Various surveys are to be carried
out in the proposed study area for collecting the
necessary traffc information, incident information.
Similarly external data such as rainfall intensity
and fog visibility information is to be collected from
various Meteorological agencies related to study
area. In this study continuous 24 hours data for
6 months duration would be considered for travel
time estimation.
Estimation of Travel Time: In this study the direct
measurements would be considered for travel time
estimation.
Performance Evaluation of Proposed Study Area:
Examination of various reliability measures for the
study area and investigation of the appropriate
measures to passenger and freight traffc.
Application of SRSM and ANN Simulation Model
for Travel Time Distribution.
Interim Conclusion/Conclusions/Supporting data
For examining travel time reliability on Indian roads a
pilot based study has been carried on National Highway
route number 2 (NH2). Urban corridor (from km 8 to
km 12) and Rural corridor (km 47 to km 52) has been
identifed and travel time reliability analysis has been
carried separately. License plate matching techniques
has been considered for measuring travel time of the
study area. Travel Time has been computed from the
difference in arrival times of matching the license plate
between entry and exit points. The following conclusions
were drawn based on the analysis.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 107
This study identifed the requirement of travel
time reliability measurements for measuring
performance of Road Network in India than the
traditional measures.
Vehicle enters on study area before 9 AM the
90 percent (planning time) travel time is about
12 minutes, where as vehicles enter after 9 AM
and before 10 AM has to plan 25 minutes to ensure
90 percent on time arrival at the destination on
urban corridor.
Highest BI value i.e. more than1.0 was observed
during morning period between 9 to 9.15 AM.
This indicates that travellers should budget
an additional 12 minutes buffer to ensure
90 percent on time arrival at the destination on
urban corridor
The mean 95 percent travel time for urban corridor
is varies between 3.45 to 8 min per km during
morning peak hour. Whereas this value varies
between 1.5 to 1.74 min per km in rural section
on NH-2.
Travel time reliability measures such as buffer time
index is more useful to the commercial vehicle
users and freight signifcant corridors. Whereas
planning time and planning time index is more
suitable to normal traffc.
SRSM technique was found to be an effcient
method of uncertainty analysis for determining
the travel time variation under the uncertainty of
traffc fuctuation and effect of random pedestrian
crossing on highway.
Travel time distribution obtained by MLR models
are bimodal frequency curves having two peaks,
one maximum at 665 seconds and the other
maximum at 797 seconds, whereas travel time
obtained by SRSM model is well distributed
between 545 seconds to 985 seconds.
Further, the difference between the estimated
distribution by SRSM model and actual distribution
may be improved by increasing the number of
uncertainty parameters in the model.
Reports/ Publications
Dr. Ch. Ravi Sekhar, Dr. B.K. Durai, A.Mohan Rao
and K. Sitaramanjaneyulu "Toll System Design
based on Travel Time Reliability for High Speed
Corridors, 2009
Dr. S. Gangopadyay Dr. Ch. Ravi Sekhar,
Dr. B. Kanaga Durai, Travel Time Reliability
Measurement for an Urban Corridor - A Case
Study, Indian Highways, May 2010.
Ch. Ravi sekhar., B. Kanagadurai and S.
Gangopadhyay Modeling Travel Time Variation
under Uncertainties: A Case Study of Urban
Corridor in Delhi, Conference on Infrastructure,
Sust ai nabl e Tr anspor t at i on and Ur ban
Planning, Indian Institute of Science, Bangaluru
(CDROM).
Ch. Ravi sekhar, B. Kanagadurai and S.
Gangopadhyay Exami ni ng Travel Ti me
Distribution of Urban and Rural Corridor of
National Highway in India, Eastern Asia Society
for Transportation Studies,(EASTS) 2011.
Further information/copy of Report Can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Phone : 011-26312268 Fax : 011-26845943
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
17. Application of Geographical Information System
(GIS)inTraffcCongestionManagement
Date of Start: May 2009
Date of Completion (Targeted) : Feb 2011
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
Review of traffc congestion characteristics and
existing indices worldwide.
To identify the congested areas.
A methodology for measurement of traffic
congestion is developed.
To quantify the magnitude of the congestion.
Suggestion of mitigation measures for traffic
congestion.
Methodology
Identifcation of study area
Data collection
Analysis of the data
Devel opment of congesti on measurement
methodology
Report Preparation
Interim Conclusion/Conclusions/Supporting data
A statistical study was performed to see whether there
108 General report on
are signifcant differences between the manual method
and the GPS method. Analyses of means and variances
were used to test if the difference between the two
methods was due to a signifcant difference or due to
chance. Evidently, when the variances and means have
no signifcant difference, the two methods can be said
to be statistically indifferent. Thus, they can be used
interchangeably.
Signifcance/ Utilisation Potential
Traffc congestion management and suggestions for
mitigations
Limitations of conclusion/Recommendation for
further work/further
Proposed work Study will be limited to few stretches in
urban arterials of Delhi area.
Reports/Publications
K. Ramachandra Rao and A. Mohan Rao , Application
of GPS for Traffc Studies Journal of Urban Transport
Vol 8 No.1, December 2009-12-08.
Further information/copy of Report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Phone : 011-26312268 Fax : 011-26845943
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
18. Modelling of Driving Cycle for Road Network
Development Plan in Urban Area and Suburban
Area Applying GPS A Case Study in NCR
Date of start: March 2010
Date of completion (Targeted): October 2011
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. Edinburgh Napier University, UK
Scope and Objectives
Modelling the driving cycles and to develop the
effciency of road network
To fnd the effect of road geometry, traffc volume,
speed-limit on driving cycle
Scope of the work will be initially restricted to Delhi
& NCR corridors for cars only.
Application of driving cycle to estimate pollution
Methodology
Identifcation of study area in Ghaziabad, Gurgaon
and Delhi
Collection of data using GPS
Synthesising and deriving driving cycle obtained
from GPS
Application of driving cycle for traffc demand
management
Signifcance/ Utilisation Potential
Traffc demand management and emission estimation
in real world scenario
Limitations of conclusion/Recommendation for
further work
Proposed work study is limited to car only.
Reports/Publications
Kumar Ravindra, Kamini Gupta and B.K.Durai (2010)
Credibility of Speed Limit A Case of Gaziabad City",
International Conference on National Road Safety Issue
India, March 2011, SAP and WRA Delhi
Further information/copy of Report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Phone : 011-26312268 Fax : 011-26845943
e-mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
19. Travel Time Related Performance Measures for
Evaluation of Sustainable Road Transportation
System
Date of Start : Aug 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted) : Aug 2012
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
To identify various performance Measures for
evaluating sustainability of road Transportation
System.
To Analyse the variability of travel time under
various uncertainties from demand side and
supply side of the system
To evaluate sustainability of road transportation
system for current future transportation scenarios.
Methodology
This proposed system collects the traffc related data
through video graphic tools such as handy cameras for
the identifed road network (Small size). This data used
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 109
to estimate travel time for the same network. Travel
time variation due to various uncertainties for link wise
of network will be modeled with the help of stochastic
and Artifcial Intelligent (AI) modeling techniques such
as Neuro Genetic Algorithms etc. Finally, sustainability
of transportation system is evaluated by considering
travel time based performance measures.
Interim Conclusion/Conclusions/Supporting data
This project has taken an initial research on the
pedestrian level of service for Indian road & traffc
scenario at an intersection. Considering the pedestrians
opinion on crossing facilities; extracted factors with
signifcant effects are: walking/running speed while
crossing, initial wait time, safety, active/inactive signal
and their education level. Model has been developed
based on these signifcant variables however factors
other than these have been considered important
through literature and felds surveys. Therefore the need
of revealed data collection is being highlighted. Such
data include number and type of conficts; wait time at
median, attempts made for road crossing, etc.
Reports/Publications
Master Thesis is on Modeling Travel Time
Variation for Urban Corridor, jointly organized by
Anna University and CRRI is submitted to Anna
University, Chennai.
Kamini Guptra, Ch. P. Ravisekhar, Kanagadurai
and S. Gangopadhyay Provision of Sustainable
Road Transport Infrastructures: A case study of
Urban Corridor in Delhi, published in International
Conference for Women Engineers & Scientists,
ICWES 2011, Adelaide,Australia
Further information/copy of Report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Phone : 011-26312268 Fax : 011-26845943;
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
20. EvaluationStudyonUseofOn-SiteVisualization
Method for Monitoring of Safety Management
at Construction Site
Date of Start : April 2010
Date of Completion (Actual) : December 2010
i. Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi (R)
ii. Kobe University, Kobe Japan
iii. Japan International Cooperative Agency
(JICA) Japan
Progress
Completed
Scope and Objectives
The main objective of the study is to evaluate the use
of On-Site Visualization (OSV) method for monitoring
of Safety management at Construction Site (AIIMS
Metro Station) by considering the following evaluating
criteria:
Safety awareness and consciousness among
various stakeholders during construction.
Recognizing of OSVs and safety issues
Effectiveness of OSV techniques
Contribution of OSV to the safety activities/
management
Improvement of safety mind/consciousness
through OSV activities
Methodology
Awareness programme/demonstration of OSV
system
Technical Discussions on Design Parameters for
Opinion Survey
Design of Survey Formats for Various Groups such
as Workers, Site Engineers and Road Users.
Data Collection at DMRC Metro stations (AIMS
and Green Park)
Data Analysis
Interim Conclusion/Conclusions/Supporting data
The rate uses of OSV in construction safety
moni tori ng were quanti fi ed on a 4 poi nt
measurement scale. Site Workers it is about 3.0,
for nurse building residents and road users is
about 2.22 and site Engineers/Offcers/ Scientists
is about 2.79.
The i mprovement of safety consci ous by
introducing OSV has been quantifed on a 4 point
measurement scale. From results, it is identifed
that workers group, it is about 3.3, engineer/
offcers/Scientists it is about 2.94 and Nurse
building residents and road users is about 2.3.
Randomly 118 site worker at AIIMS metro station
have been Interviewed including day and night
shift. Out of this, 95 percent of the workers
110 General report on
understand the purpose of OSV. Very often
they observed the sensor during the work. This
emphasizes that Site workers are very keen
interest in monitoring the safety condition through
OSV.
Randoml y 45 nurse bui l di ng resi dents at
Safdajung nurse hostel have been interviewed.
Out of this, 78 percent residents are very keen in
watching the lights installed on top of the building
and 82 percent residents are agreed that they feel
of security by installing OSV on top their hostel
building.
Randomly 47 road users in front of AIIMS metro
station have been interviewed. Out of this,
46 percent residents are very keen in watching the
lights installed on top of the hostel building and
79 percent of observed road users are agreed
that they feel of security by installing OSV on top
their hostel building.
Site Engineers of SOMA, offcers of DMRC and
some selected Scientist of CRRI have been
interviewed (total 38 sample). 97 percent of this
group understands the purpose of OSV. Very
often they observed the sensor during the work.
This emphasizes that Site Engineers and Offcers
are very keen interest in monitoring the safety
condition through OSV.
Reports/ Publications
Dr. Ch.Ravi Sekhar and Dr.B.K Durai Evaluation
Study on Use of On-Site Visualization Method for
Monitoring of Safety Management at Construction
Site", Workshop on SAPI- Applying the Monitoring
Method by OSV at Delhi Metro Construction Site,
Claridges, New Delhi, organized by JICA, on 4th
June 2010.
Dr.Ch.Ravi Sekhar, Ms Kamini Gupta and
Dr.B.K.Durai Techniques for Monitoring Safety
Management at Construction Site, Proceedings
of the International Seminar on National Road
Development Strategies and Road Safety on
Improved Highways, Indian Habitat Center, New
Delhi, Organized by School of Planning and
Architecture.
Further information/Copy of Report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Phone : 011-26312268 Fax : 011-26845943
e-mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 111
IV. TRAFFIC & TRANSPORTATION
2. SAFETY & ENVIRONMENT
SUMMARY
Research/Consultancy worksreported in the area of Safety and Environment relate to projects on ambient air quality,
traffc emergent situations, accident & safety aspects including safety audit of national highways at design stage&
Construction stage and safety audit of state highways/MDR/ODR and Road user behavior, Driver simulation and
Micro Simulation based Driving Cycle in Delhi City.
Out of total 7 Projects reported, 2 projects are reported frst time both studies relating to the safety, one on safe speed
limits and second study is on Road safety audit of Punjab State highways/MDR/ODR and Road user behaviour . Under
the on-going/completed section total 5 projects are reported relating to the pedestrian studies, Road safety, Micro
Simulation based Driving Cycle in Delhi City for Sustainable Transportation System, Distracted Driving in Simulated
Environment and one project on study on ambient air quality and its contribution to climate change in Kerala.
SALIENT POINTS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Road Safety Audit
2. Pedestrian Behaviour
3. Speed Limits on National Highways
4. Driver Simulation
5. Micro Simulation for Development of Driving Cycle Pattern for Emission Estimation
6. Ambient Air Quality and its Contribution to Climate Change
112 General report on
A. PROJECTS REPORTED FOR THE FIRST
TIME
1. Impact of Posting Scientific Speed Limits
on National Highways - Case Study of
Thiruvananthapuram-KollamSectionofNH-47
Date of Start: 01 April 2010
Date of Completion: 31 March 2011
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (NATPAC) (R)
Scope and Objectives
The aim of the study is to evaluate various techniques
available for establishing scientific speed limits on
highways and propose appropriate speed limits on
National Highways in Kerala. It is also intended to
implement a scheme of speed limits and evaluate its
impact on traffc fow and safety of road users.
The objectives of the study are:
To review the modern techniques for evaluating
travel speed and posting speed limits on major
arterial roads;
To assess the travel speeds of vehicles on different
sections of the road under study;
To evaluate the effect of land use, road geometrics,
roadside developments, pedestrian movements,
number of accesses and their infuence on travel
speed of different vehicle types;
To identify the locations for posting of speed limits;
and
To assess the requirement of various types of
speed control measures like speed limit, signage,
road markings, other auxiliary devices to be
posted.
The scope of the study was limited to Thiruvananthapuram
- Kollam section of NH 47 having a distance of 70 km.
Methodology
The tasks carried out include collection of data through
primary and secondary sources, analysis of data to
arrive at speed limit restriction on selected stretches.
The required data for the study were collected through
both primary and secondary surveys. The following
surveys were conducted:
Inventory survey of the study stretch to assess
the geometric profle of the highway including
roadway and shoulder widths, and adjoining land
use characteristics
Traffc surveys including classifed volume count,
pedestrian and parking activities
Speed and delay survey along the sections
Collection of accident data for the last three
years
Data collected from primary and secondary
surveys were systematically analyzed to obtain
the required inputs for the study.
Analysis of speed data to estimate the 85th
percentile speed on selected sections along the
study corridors
Analysis of the road geometrics, land use pattern,
road side development, etc. and to evaluate their
impact on travel speeds of vehicles.
Analysis of traffic flow, pedestrian, parking
activities and accident statistics.
Posting differential speed limits for various types
of vehicles.
A scheme to post various speed limits was formulated on
the study stretch and it involved the following tasks.
Identifying locations for implementation of speed
limit scheme and the type of control devices to be
installed.
Detai l ed desi gn of vari ous speed control
devices.
Conclusions/ Signifcance of the Study
The research report gives a detailed account of various
factors governing the speed limit for various sections
of NH under study, identifcation and design of various
speed control devices and signage scheme for such
locations. It also spells out the techniques available
for monitoring speed limit and traffc management. It is
expected that implementation of the speed limit scheme
at appropriate level, would improve the safety effcient
operation of the facility to the satisfaction of the various
road users.
Limitations of Conclusions
There are several tools available for management of
speed. The study recommends posting of advisory
speed limit signage as a method for bringing a balance
between safety and travel time. Besides engineering
treatments, effective enforcement of speed limits by
police and the use of extensive public information and
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 113
education programmes for encouraging compliance
to both advisory and statutory speed limits will be
required. The advisory speed posted is based on the
85
th
percentile method which was modifed on the basis
of trial runs and speed tests.
The advisory speed limit will not be applicable for all
times of the day, and for all weather conditions. The
motorist is expected to make appropriate judgment
during night time and adverse weather conditions.
Further work include fne tuning of the basic speed which
is applicable to a particular section of the road taking into
consideration various factors such as road geometrics,
road side development, traffic characteristics and
roadway conditions.
The study report is completed and it is implemented on
the selected corridor. Evaluation of the speed limit on
the safety and level of service is being monitored.
Further information/copy of report can be had
from
Di rector, Nati onal Transportati on Pl anni ng and
Research Centre, Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace
P. O., Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004
2. Development of Road Safety Strategy and
Generating Awareness on Traffc and Road
Safety-PackageVII(Phase-II)
Date of Start : 08 December 2010
Date of Completion (Targeted) : 07 August 2012
CSIR- Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi(R)
Scope and Objectives
Objectives are divided into two phases. The objective of
the study entails prevention and minimization of road
accidents. The other key objectives are:
Review of the Road Safety Audit studies undertaken
by PRRDB for the test sections and conduct of
RSA conforming to IRC Manual on RSA - 2010
Study Road User Behaviour on project roads
Study Enforcement & Evacuation mechanism as
prevalent on road Corridors
Identify an exhaustive list of stakeholders
expected to bear the direct and indirect impacts
of Road Safety measures (or lack of it)
Review of safety status of select stretches during
construction stage.
Develop a Safety Awareness Generation Plan with
an object to:
o Instigate a sense among communities that
traffc safety is a community concern.
o Educate Policy makers as well as common
people regarding the road safety as a major
tool to prevent accident & action to be taken
in the incident of accident.
o Initiate community policing in the selected
areas to ensure obedience to traffc laws by
local road users.
o Indoctrinate the residents along the road,
the sense of ownership of the road signs &
other safety measures installed and explain
that these are meant for their safety.
o Provide capacity building training to target
population.
o Strengthening of local Non-Governmental
Organizations (NGO) and Community Base
organizations (CBO) and their linkage
through capacity building training, so that
they in-turn can provide training to other
road users/personnel
o Delivery of an Awareness Generation
plan
Methodology
The Study proposed the following methodology for
carrying out the study, which is sub-divided into Group
Tasks, Tasks and Sub-Tasks.







Task 1:
Reconnaissance Survey of
the Identified Road Sections
and Data Collection
Task 2: Study
of Road User
Behaviour
Task 3:
Analysis
of Data
Task 4:
Presentation of the
Data and the Report
Task 5:
Awareness Generation
Plan
Task 6:
Delivery of Road Safety
Awareness Campaign
Task 7:
Campaign Monitoring,
evaluation & Coordination
Signifcance/Utilization Potential
The recommendations were made to implement the
action plan on ground expecting to reduce the accidents
and generate the awareness along the project roads.
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Phone 011-26312268 Fax 011-26845943;
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
114 General report on
B. ON-GOING / COMPLETED PROJECTS
1. PedestrianBehaviourUndervariedTraffcand
Spatial Conditions (CSIR Sponsored)
Date of Start : 01 June 2008
Date of Completion : 31 May 2011
I ndi an I nst i t ut e of Technol ogy Roorkee,
Roorkee (R)
Present Status and Progress
Status : Completed
Year of Last Report : June 2010
Progress: Data were collected by videography at 36
locations in fve cities of India for walking and crossing
conditions. The pedestrian parameters like speed, fow,
gap accepted and arrivals was extracted from recorded
data, and the pedestrian fow analysis, vehicle interaction
analysis, risk analysis was carried out. Behaviour
analysis was done separately to know the pedestrian
movement under the infuence of various factors like
bottleneck, encroachment, road width etc. Pedestrian
interview survey was also conducted to model the
pedestrian Level of Service in different facilities.
Conclusions
The pedestrians in India walk at slower speeds
(1.17 m/s) as compared to their counterparts in
countries like China, Sri Lanka and Singapore
where as the average crossing speed on a two-
lane one-way system (1.34 m/s) is higher than
that reported in most of the earlier studies.
Three types of crossing patterns exist in Indian
conditions. These are single stage, rolling and
two stage.
The study shows that speed-density forms negative
exponential relations for crossing facilities and
speed-density relationship is exponential in all
types of walking facilities except for pedestrians
walking through carriageway where as it is
linear.
A level of service criteria was developed for
crossing and walking facilities with pedestrian
perception.
Limitations of Conclusions
The study of pedestrians speed by geographical region
has not incorporated the features of population like
their ethnic characteristics, body-dynamics, attires,
temperatures in the area, etc. The relationship between
fow characteristics could not be developed based on
multi-regime approach mainly due to limited size of
data.
Recommendations for further work
The present study enhances the knowledge pertaining to
pedestrian behaviour on different types of facilities and
land uses. Though it covers almost all factors infuencing
the pedestrians, further research may taken up to study
the LOS for controlled type of crossing, effect of city
size and demography on pedestrian speed, behaviour
and fow.
Reports and Publications
1. Final Technical report on "Pedestrian Behavior
under Varied Traffic and Spatial Conditions",
Submitted to CSIR, New Delhi, June 2011.
2. Kotkar, K. L., Rastogi, R. and Satish Chandra
(2010), Pedestrian Flow Characteristics in Mixed
Flow conditions. Journal of Urban Planning and
Development, Vol. 136 (3), ASCE, pp.23-33.
3. Ilango, T, Satish Chandra and Rajat Rastogi,
(2010), "Comparison of Pedestrian Characteristics
of North and South India", Indian Highways,
Journal of Indian Roads Congress, pp.29-37.
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
IRC: 1031988, Guide Lines for Pedestrian Facilities
can be modifed with the design values given in the
report.
Further information can be obtained from
Dr. Satish Chandra, Professor, Department of Civil
Engineering, IIT Roorkee.
2. Safety Audit for Development Period of
the 6-laning of ChilakaluripetVijayawada
SectionofNH-5fromkm355.00tokm434.150
in the State of Andhra Pradesh to be Executed
as BOT (Toll) on DBFO Pattern under NHDP
(length 82.5 km)
Date of Start : February 2010
Date of Completion : On-going
CRAPhTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd.,
Faridabad (R)
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 115
Present Status and Progress
Road Safety Audit has been carried out for 82.5 km
of NH5. The bypass alignment connecting km 355 to
km 375 could not be audited in absence of approved
alignment plan.
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
The accident scenario in India is extremely grim. At least
13 people die every hour in road accidents in the country
(latest report of the National Crime Records Bureau).
Nearly 1.14 lakh people in India lost their lives in road
mishaps during the year 2007. Road deaths in India
registered a sharp 6.1 percent rise between 2006 and
2007. Andhra Pradesh accounts for a very signifcant
proportion of total number of road accidents in the
country. The existing road [NH5] (of four lane divided
carriageway confguration) is going to be widened to
six lanes. This is also going to be an access controlled
highway. This report on Accident Analysis in connection
with Development Stage Road Safety Audit relates to
the existing road. The set of parameters leading to
heightened hazard index at various locations along the
existing alignment would expectedly undergo signifcant
changes coinciding with widening of this section of NH5.
However, importance (and relevance) of this activity lies
in the fact that the nature of traffc abutting land use
and traffc road characteristics interactions as studied
during this phase would become a useful analytical
tool for the next stage of activity wherein the detailed
drawings are to be audited in terms of road safety within
the already analyzed traffc environment.
The major defciencies observed by the Consultants for
the project stretch are:
Improper median opening
Inadequate sight distance at junctions
Inadequate intersection design at the cross roads
merging with the main carriageway
Improper design of median
Uncontrolled junctions even where signalization
is inevitable
Defciencies in Road Signs, Markings, Signages,
Street Lights (even where necessary) etc.
Irrational behavior of Vulnerable Road Users and
lack of traffc enforcement
Improper location of Bus shelters
Reports / Publications
Accident Report
Safety Audit Report
Further information/Copy of report can be obtained
from
The General Manager (Safety), National Highways
Authority of India (Ministry of Road Transport &
Highways), Plot No. 20, Institutional Area, Sector 32,
Gurgaon 122 001 (Haryana)
3. Safety Audit for Development & Construction
Period for Package No. 1 6-Laning of
Gurgaon Kotputli Jaipur SectionofNH-8
(NHDP V). under PPP on DBFO Basis (Total
Length 231.0 km)
Date of Start : June 2010
Date of Completion : On-going
CRAPhTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd., Faridabad (R)
Present Status and Progress
Development stage audit completed
Construction stage audit completed for two
Calendar Quarters
Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
Construction Stage Audit : Following are some of the
important fndings :
Barricades/Guard fences are discontinuous over
large part of the sections
Standard Practice of Guard fencing/Barricading
was not been adopted for protecti ng the
construction zone.
Consistency in using materials for guard fencing
is not observed.
Concrete blocks placed for barricades are
hazardous at some locations as these protrude
in to the main carriageway
Retro reflective markings required to guide
the users are missing on the concrete blocks/
barricades at some locations.
Proper Entry/Exit is not demarcated for the
construction vehicles moving around the site.
116 General report on
Piling of materials such as sand and loose
earth on the berns without purpose protection /
Signages.
Sub standard work zone signages placed in the
work zone area.
Retro refective Curve signs are not present at
some of the Curves.
Guard rails are damaged/broken at most of the
locations.
Edge lane marking is not visible throughout over
certain segments.
Pavement marking is missing even where 3 laning
has been completed
Unevenness of surface is observed in some of
the stretches as smooth transition has not been
provided (between new and old carriageways).
Poor traffc management around construction
sites including lack of measures prohibiting traffc
from using incomplete/ under construction road
segments.
Retro-Refective bollards/ median opening signs
must be provided at appropriate locations.
Truck parking particularly along the outer lane is
seen over the entire stretch (km 42.7- km 220.00),
and this needs to be dealt with seriously.
Reports / Publications
Accident Report
Safety Audit Report (Part I & Part II)
Construction Stage Audit Report (Part I & Part II)
Further information/Copy of report can be obtained
from
The General Manager (Safety), National Highways
Authority of India (Ministry of Road Transport &
Highways), Plot No. 20, Institutional Area,Sector 32,
Gurgaon 122 001 (Haryana)
4. Study on Ambi ent Ai r Qual i ty and i ts
Contribution to Climate Change in Kerala
Date of Start : March 2009
Date of Completion (Targeted/Actual) :
September 2012
National Transportation Planning and Research
Centre (R)
Scope and Objectives
Asses the air quality in Kerala State and develop a model
for change in climatic conditions due to air pollution. Also
formulate further preventive and control measures for
abatement of air pollution.
Methodology
The concentration of air pollutants such as Suspended
Particulate Matter (SPM), Respirable Particutlae Matter
(RSPM/PM10), Sulphur dioxide (SO
2
), Nitrogen dioxide
(NO
2
), and Carbon Monoxide (CO) in the ambient
air is at 55 locations throughout Kerala State as per
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) Guidelines
IS:5182 Part 14; 2000. The meteorological parameters
like wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity and
temperature are included for monitoring at the sampling
stations. The Air Pollution Index and Wind Rose graphs
are prepared and it may indicate the deposition as well
as the dispersion of air pollutants in the ambient air. A
prediction model for change in climatic condition due to
air pollution in the State will be developed.
Interim Conclusions/Conclusions/Supporting Data
The 24 hourly average value of particulate matter
concentration at few sampling stations is exceeding the
prescribed standards of CPCB may be due to heavy
traffc density and other industrial activities.
Signifcance/Utilisation Potential
The air pollution prediction and dispersion model will
bring out the actual requirement of mitigation measures
of air pollution.
Limitations of conclusion/recommendations for
further work/further proposed work
The monitoring will be carried out for 3 years and
the prediction of air pollution will be evaluated. The
correlation of vehicular emission into air pollution will
also be assessed.
Reports/Publications:
1. Interim Report
2. Annual Report
3. Seminar Papers
Prediction of Vehicular pollution on nHs
in Kerala, P.Kalaiarasan & B.G Sreedevi,
National Seminar on Emerging Trends in
Environment and Development (KUNSED),
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 117
8th and 9th Oct. 2009, Thiruvananthapuram,
organized by University of Kerala.
Ambi ent Ai r Qual i ty Moni tori ng and
Eval uati on of Vehi cul ar Emi ssi on i n
Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala,
P.Kalaiarasan & B.G.Sreedevi, National
Seminar on Recent Advances in Civil
Engineering (RACE 2010), 16
th
and 18
th

September 2010, organized by Cochin
University for Science and Technology
(CUSAT), Ernakulam.
Status of Air Quality in Thiruvananthapuram
Di st r i ct , Ker al a , P. Kal ai ar asan &
B.G.Sreedevi, 23
rd
Kerala Science Congress,
Thiruvananthapuram organized by Centre
for Earth Science Studies (CESS), 28
th
and
31
st
January 2011, Thiruvananthapuram.
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Di rector, Nati onal Transportati on Pl anni ng and
Research Centre Sasthra Bhavan, Pattom Palace
P. O., Thiruvananthapuram- 695 004.
5. Distracted Driving in Simulated Environment:
Present Challenges and Mitigation
Date of Start : May 2011
Date of Completion (Targeted /Actual) : July
2011
CSIR-Central Road Research Institute, New
Delhi
Scope and Objectives
The main objective of the study was to compare
the behaviour of drivers risk taking practices in both
distracted driving conditions and driving without
distraction
Methodology
In the present project we are using this experimental
approach to study the distraction effects on driving
performance. In the present project a fxed base driving
simulator installed at CSIR-CRRI has been used to
evaluate the behavior of drivers and the effects of various
in-vehicle distractions on their driving performance under
virtual realistic driving environment.
The variation in their driving performance was compared
under various circumstances involving other road users,
road side assets/infrastructure and static and kinetic
objects. In the present study following sample size was
adopted.
In the present study repetitive test design was used
hence large sample population could not be selected.
Total eleven subjects of different gender, profession
and age group was selected for the present study
which combinations of the various independent variable
characteristic are as follows:
Interim Conclusions/ Conclusions/ Supporting Data
From our study text messaging was found to be
the most distracted behaviour pattern (22 percent)
because participants have done highest number
of errors in this condition. followed by listening
to music (21 percent) and talking in cell phone
(20 percent).
Age-wise analysis highlighted that subjects
pertaining to the age group between 22 years - 24
years committed maximum errors followed by the
younger age group i.e. 18 years to 20 years as
compared to the older age groups.
In profession-wise analysis highlights that
students who are having less driving experience
committed maximum errors.
Gender-wi se anal ysi s al so hi ghl i ghts that
female participants have committed more errors
as compared to the other gender.
Qualifcation-wisefndingsof the study show that
highly qualifed i.e. drivers who have completed
graduation committed maximum errors.
From driving experience-wise analysis it is
evident that up to 2 years experienced drivers
have done maximum errors.
City vs. highway Driving Conditions : this was
highlighted in the present study that in the
City driving environment where the maximum
stimulation were present drivers committed
more errors as compared to the highway driving
situation.
Signifcance /Utilisation Potential
The data of the present study highlights the risk taking
practices among the novice as well as commercial
experienced drivers with and without distracted driving
conditions ,the fndings of this report is useful to create
awareness among the road users and drivers to see the
consequences which are otherwise may prove fatal in
realistic traffc environment.
118 General report on
Limitations of Conclusion/ Recommendation for
further work
Time limit : Due to the limitation in time (i.e. two month
period) administration of the tests on large number of
sample was not possible in this study hence only 11
subjects were randomly selected for the study.
Repeated Test Design: In the study repeated test
measure was selected which was more time consuming
but in depth behaviour performance analysis for each
distracted driving activity was possible hence this type
of test design is more suitable for validation study.
Reports/ Publications
Report has been submitted in CRRI.
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025 .
Phone 011-26312268 Fax 011-26845943;
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
6. Micro Simulation based Driving Cycle in Delhi
City for Sustainable Transportation System
Date of start: August 2010
Date of completion (Targeted): August 2012
CSIR - Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi
Scope and Objectives
The objective of this study is two folds (a) to derive the
driving cycle and compare it with existing regulatory
driving cycle using micro-simulation and real world data
and (b) to estimate the emission based on real world
driving cycle for Delhi.
Methodology
In this study the real world driving cycle is being carried
out in selected seven routes in Delhi City. These routes
represent different types of lane, connectivity, land-
use pattern, etc. to capture the road and travel related
parameters. It covered all most all part of the Delhi city
with variations in route characteristics. The survey will be
carried out using GPS based Performance Box, which is
ftted in different type of vehicles. Questionnaire also has
been developed to capture the driver related parameters.
In frst instance, on pilot basis the survey was carried out
in four routes for car only. In addition, traffc volume data
were also collected in selected locations (mid points) of
these routes.
Signifcance/Utilisation Potential
Delhi Traffc Police,IOCL,CIRT, ICAT
Reports/Publications
1 Ravindra Kumar, B.K. Durai, Wafaa Saleh, Colin
Boswell., "Comparison and Evaluation of Emissions
for Different Driving Cycles of Motorcycles: A note
Published on Line Transportation Research"
Part D 16 (2011) pp 6164.
2 Wafaa Saleh, Ravindra Kumar, Ail Sharma,
"Driving Cycle for Motorcycles in Modern Cities:
Case Studies of Edinburgh and Delhi", World
Journal of Science, Technology & Sustainable
Development, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2010 pp 263-274.
3 Dr. Ravindra Kumar, Dr. Wafaa Saleh Motorcycle
Emission-Effect of Driving Cycle in Urban and
Rural Areas, VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GMBH &
Co., KG, Germany, 2011.
4 Ravindra Kumar, Kamini Gupta, B.K. Durai,
S.Gangopadhyaya "Driving Cucle for Measuring
Vehicle Emissions on Roads at Bus Raid
Transit (BRT) Corridor in Delhi"., World Engineer
Convention 2011 Geneva.
5 i. | -i, il-l nni, i. lni; i-nl
i;ln i li i i ii -
lr ni n - l -i l- (BRT) ii i 2011
NIO Goa Hindi Seminar on Enviornmental Impact
of Changed Life Style, 5-8 June.
Further information/copy of report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Phone 011-26312268 Fax 011-26845943;
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 119
V. RESEARCH PROJECTS RELATED TO THESIS FOR
POST-GRADUATION/Ph.D.
A. PAVEMENT EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE
1. Fi ni t e El ement Anal ysi s of Fl exi bl e
Pavements
Date of Start: November 2009
Date of Completion: November 2010
College of Engineering, Trivandrum (R)
Scope and Objectives
The objectives of the study are:
To analyze and compare the stress-strain
distribution and response of the pavement system
by using asphalt mixes with various additives like
hydrated lime and sulphur;
To analyze a typical 4 layer fexible pavement
structure by means of Finite Element Method;
and
To study the stress - strain distribution of pavement
using linearized elastic theories and compare with
the Finite Element Analysis.
Methodology
The following are the overall steps followed in this
investigation.
The frst step consists of defning the model of the
physical problem. In the present case, the model
consists of a one layered pavement structure.
In the second step, the material properties, the
boundary conditions and the loading details are
given and the numerical problem associated with
the model is solved.
The third and fnal stage consists of processing the
results computed and generate various solutions
for further processing/analysis.
Salient Findings/Conclusions
The vertical stresses at various depths obtained
from one layer axisymmetric analysis for a circular
loading on an elastic half space is comparable to
that of Boussinesqs solution.
The results obtained through stress-strain analysis
of multilayer system are comparable to that of
mechanistic method (Jones table).
When the material is viscoelastic in nature, the
loading pattern and duration of loading affects the
vertical strain distribution.
The typical creep and recovery behavior, a
characteristic behavior of viscoelastic material,
is observed in the pavement response.
When the pavement is modeled as a four layer
system with viscoelastic model of asphalt layer,
the vertical stress and strain in different layers are
less than that of the system with elastic asphalt
layer.
Four layer pavement systems are modeled and the
behavior of systems is studied by using asphalt
mix with hydrated lime and sulphur as additives.
As the mix becomes stiffer, the vertical strains
are reduced and hence the defections at various
points are reduced.
The creep strain decreases as the stiffness of mix
increases.
Further Information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Mr. R. Satheesh Chandran, Dept. of Civil Engineering,
College of Engineering, Trivandrum.
2. Evaluation of IRC Method and Effect of
Bituminous Mixtures on Pavement Performance
UsingM-EPDG
Date of Start : November 2009
Date of Completion : November 2010
College of Engineering, Trivandrum (R)
Scope and Objectives
The specifc objectives of the study included:
Comparison of IRC method of fexible pavement
design and the design procedure as per The New
Mechanistic - Empirical Pavement Design Guide
(2002), in terms of the design concepts and input
requirement.
Evaluation of a pavement section, designed as
per IRC method, using M-EPDG, in terms of its
structural adequacy and performance.
120 General report on
To study the effect of modified binders on
pavement performance using M-EPDG.
Methodology
The soil data, traffc data, axle load data and
laboratory test results for the asphalt mixes and
their respective binders needed for the parametric
analysis were collected from IIT, Madras.
Traffc data and axle load data were analyzed to
fnd out the inputs required for IRC design method
and M-EPDG analysis.
The dynamic modulus for asphalt mixes was
used to fnd out the equivalent dynamic modulus
for two layers. Using these equivalent dynamic
modulus values for each temperature frequency
combination, the dynamic modulus master curve
equation was optimized. This was done for each
mixture combination.
After completing the data analysis, an IRC design
for the section was done.
The IRC design was analyzed using KENLAYER
to check whether the design life requirement is
satisfed, as per IRC 37:2001.
Using the IRC design as the trial design, M-EPDG
analysis was also carried out. The material
properties were assumed as per IRC:37-2001
and MORTH Specifcation.
The results obtained from the above analysis were
used for evaluating IRC design.
Next step was the parametric analysis. The
performance of pavement while using different
asphalt mix combination on the surface course
was studied.
The mix which gave the best pavement performance
was fgured out.
Findings/Conclusions
IRC section was found to be safe according to
damage equations given in IRC:37-2001.
IRC section failed in reliability criteria for
longitudinal cracking as per M-EPDG. The section
was found to pass when the thickness of A.C layer
was increased to 170 mm, which was initially 163
mm.
The increase in thickness from 163 mm to 170 mm
enhanced the performance by bringing about the
following percentage reductions:
o IRI 0.9 percent
o Longitudinal Cracking 45 percent
o Alligator Cracking- 25 percent
o A.C Rutting 9 percent
o Total Rutting 5 percent
From performance evaluation using different
combinations of asphalt mixes on the top two
asphalt layers, it was found that when Bituminous
Concrete Mixture using Polymer Modifed Binder
(BCPMB) or Bituminous Concrete Mixture using
Crumb Rubber Modifed Binder (BCCRMB) were
used as the frst asphalt layer, the pavement
performance improved.
The combination which used BCPMB on top
of Dense Bituminous Macadam mixture using
unmodifed V.G-30 binderhad the greatest effect
on all the distresses and IRI. The percentage
reductions for this layer combination were as
follows.
o IRI reduced by 1.3 percent.
o Longitudinal cracking reduced by 72 percent.
o Alligator cracking reduced by 33 percent.
o Asphalt layer rutting reduced by 8 percent.
o Total rutting reduced by 8.5 percent.
As a result, it was inferred that polymer modifed binder
is more effective in reducing the longitudinal cracking.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Ms. Preethi. P., Dept. of Civil Engineering, College of
Engineering, Trivandrum.
Dr.J.Murali Krishnan, Dept. of Civil Engineering, IIT, Madras.
Publications
Devi Ramachandran & Preethi, P., (2010), Evaluation
of IRC Method of Flexible Pavement Design Using
M-EPDG ; "International Conference on Technological
Trends (ICTT-2010)", November 25-27, 2010, College
of Engineering, Trivandrum, Kerala.
3. Experimental Investigations and Modeling of
Rutting of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures
Date of Start: July 2009
Date of Completion: December 2012
I ndi an I nst i t ut e of Technol ogy Madras,
Chennai
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 121
Scope and Objectives
The overall objective of this study is to develop an
understanding of rutting of asphalt concrete mixes
through laboratory investigations and analytical
modeling. The following are the sub-objectives:
Laboratory Investigations:
o To design laboratory experiments to
differentiate between densification and
shear fow
o To investigate the infuence of confnement
pressure on densifcation and shear fow
Analytical Modelling:
o To develop appropriate pressure dependant
visco-elastic model for predicting the
laboratory experimental data.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
The main intent related to the laboratory investigation is
to understand the factors which infuence densifcation
and shear fow. In order to simulate the mechanical
response related to densifcation, samples of mixtures
will be fabricated at 7 to 8 percent air voids and subjected
to repeated creep and recovery loading. These tests will
be conducted at range of temperatures. While at low
temperature (below 20C), one could expect densifcation
alone, it is expected that samples will exhibit shear fow
also at higher temperature (above 30C). To quantify
the response of shear fow, samples will be fabricated
at air voids close to 2 percent and creep and recovery
tests will be carried out. The total number of cycles will
depend on the temperature, type of mix, confnement
conditions and ratio of deviator to confnement stress. A
proper frame invariant non-linear viscoelastic model will
be identifed and used for validation of the experimental
data. All materials parameters corresponding to this
model will be pressure dependent.
Salient-Findings and Conclusion(s)
Research is on-going.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from:
Neethu Roy, Ph.D. Scholar, Transportation Engineering
Division, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras,
Chennai 600 036
Mobile : 0956616 9941
E-mail ID: neethuroy@yahoo.co.uk
4. ForensicInvestigationsonPre-matureRutting
on a National Highway Pavement
Date of Start : August 2010
Date of Completion: June 2011
I ndi an I nst i t ut e of Technol ogy Madras,
Chennai
Scope and Objectives
Broad objectives of the study include the following:
Field investigations to identify the causes of
rutting.
Laboratory investigations on pavement materials
to identify contribution of bituminous layers
towards rutting.
Design of rut-resistant mix as an alternate
solution.
Laboratory tests to study the performance of rut
resistant mix in comparison to existing pavement
materials.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
Review literature pertaining to investigation
of pavements suffering premature failure and
alternate rut-resistant mixes.
Acquisition of data regarding extent and locations
of permanent deformation.
Acquisition of core samples of various bituminous
layers from site.
Laboratory tests on core samples acquired from
feld for conformation to standards.
Design of gap-graded mix (Stone Matrix Asphalt)
as binder course and wearing course by using
polymer modifed bitumen.
Mix design of conventional mixes as found at site,
but, using polymer modifed bitumen.
Fabrication of samples of SMA, BC and DBM
mixes at laying / field density for laboratory
testing.
Testing the samples fabricated at laying density
for rutting under wheel tester, dynamic modulus,
creep and recovery under cyclic loading for
comparison of performance and their relations to
rutting.
Suitable solution to rutting of the failed highway
pavement section.
122 General report on
Salient-Findings and Conclusion(s)
Higher binder content than designed results in
higher plastic strain.
Excessi ve compacti on wi th hi gher bi nder
content of the bituminous mix causes permanent
deformation in the form of shoving and early
rutting.
High IDT strength does not ensure longer life of
pavement. It can be due to high binder content or
air voids, either of which reduces the pavement
performance.
SMA mixes are more resistant to rutting, due
to stone-on-stone contact of coarse aggregate.
Though it is expensive, it has great applications
in locations subjected to heavy loading.
Addition of fbre in SMA is required to reduce the
drainage of mastic. The cellulose fbre restricted
the drain-down to a maximum of 0.2 percent.
Modifcation to binder does not restrict the drain-
down signifcantly.
Compaction of coarser grade SMA (SMA II) is
easier as compared to fner grade SMA (SMA I)
due to better gradation. SMA I has large proportion
(approximately 50 percent) of aggregates passing
9.5 mm sieve and retained on 4.75 mm sieve.
SMA design by Marshall Method of compaction is
more reliable, since air voids with 100 gyrations
compactive effort results in wide variation in air
voids.
Dynamic modulus of SMA was better than
conventional mix for very low frequencies,
indicating better performance under extreme
heavy loading. However, due to variation in
air void ratio, the results for controlled loading
conditions could not be evaluated.
Cooper wheel tracker simulates feld condition of
pavements subjected to rutting to a great extent
and is a very good test for comparison. However,
the rutting in feld cannot be predicted using the
same results.
Even SMA can fail severely when not compacted
properly. Excessive compaction may lead to
crushing and eventually ravelling. Low compaction
level will make the mix susceptible to rutting
despite stone-on-stone contact.
Recommendations for Dissemination/ Revision of
Codes/Specifcations (if completed)
Samples / Results of construction materials used
in large projects should be maintained / preserved
for future analysis in case required.
SMA mixes should be used in rut prone areas.
Test tracks i n rut prone areas shoul d be
constructed using SMA and studied for their
performance.
Compaction of SMA is diffcult. Methodology to
compact it to fabricate 150 mm size samples for
testing on SPT needs to be devised.
Modulus values of various mixes at 4 percent
air void ratio are known and a databank can
be created. However, modulus values at 6-7
percent air voids are not readily available. This
density is critical since all pavements are initially
compacted to this density. These values may also
be evaluated in future.
Further information/Copy of the report can be
obtained from
Lt. Col. Girish Kumar, VSM, ADG (D&C), Khadki,
Pune 411 003
Mobile : 9271922619 / 9677164353
E-mail ID : girishkumar203@gmail.com
B. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION
1. Studies on Safety Performance of Two-lane
RuralHighwaysunderMixedTraffc
Date of Start and Duration : Aug 2005
Date of Completion : Dec 2011
IndianInstituteofTechnology,Madras,Chennai(R)
Scope and Objectives
The scope of the study is limited to two-lane undivided
rural highways in India, which operate under mixed
traffc. The objectives of the study include:
Identifying explanatory factors related to traffc,
road geometry and land-use, which infuence
occurrence of road crashes
Developing road crash prediction models and road
crash modifcation factors using mixed effects
count data modeling
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
The methodology adopted for the study include collection
of road crash, traffc, road geometry and land-use data
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 123
for selected segments and intersections of two-lane
undivided highways and development of mixed effects
count data models for road crash prediction, through
simulation assisted parameter estimation. These models
are then reduced to base models with minimum of
explanatory variables, related to traffc, segment length,
etc. The engineering variables, such as variables related
to road geometry and land-use were then converted to
multiplicative factors, called road crash modifcation
factors.
Salient-Findings and Conclusion(s)
Traditional Poisson and negative binomial models
were found to be insuffcient to model road crashes
on Indian two-lane undivided rural highways, due
to the heterogeneity observed in the data.
Mixed effects models with corridor level and
individual level random parameters, which allow
the model coeffcients to vary across locations,
were found to model these road crashes more
accurately.
Traffic levels and traffic composition, density
of access, horizontal curvature, gradient and
presence of signs and markings were found to
signifcantly infuence the occurrence of these
road crashes.
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
Mixed effects models, with corridor level and individual
level random parameters, are recommended for
modeling road crashes with heterogeneity, as is in the
case of Indian highways.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Dinu R. R., Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Civil
Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai - 600 036.
Mobile : +91 9945 8750 65, Phone : +91 4422 5752 92,
E-mail : rrdinu@gmail.com
2. Study of Heterogeneous Traffi c-Fl ow
Characteristics on Urban Arterials in the Light
of Energy Consumption and Environmental
Impact
Date of Start and Duration : 10 Aug 2010 Ten
months
Date of Completion : 17 June 2011
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras(R)
Scope and Objectives
The following are the specifc objectives of the study:
To develop appropriate data base on the effect of
traffc fow characteristics on fuel consumption of
different categories of road vehicles.
To develop data base on the effect of traffic
flow characteristics on emission rate of road
vehicles.
To quantify traffc fow characteristics on urban
arterials for a wide range of volume (with typical
composition of traffc) using micro simulation
technique.
To develop relationships between heterogeneous
traffc fow characteristics and fuel consumption
and emission rate to serve as additional guidelines
for traffc regulation on urban arterials.
To understand the optimum V/C ratio, at which
the emission rate of major pollutants and fuel
consumption, will be minimum under Indian
conditions.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
This research work is mainly concerned with the study
of traffc fow characteristics i.e., V/C ratio with due
consideration to the emission rate of major pollutants
like Co
2
, CO, NO
x
, HC along with the fuel consumption
rate for different categories of vehicles present in
heterogeneous traffc (Indian traffc condition) like
Buses, Cars, Two-wheelers, Three-wheelers, Trucks,
Light Commercial Vehicles. To study the impact of
traffc fow characteristics and emission rate and fuel
consumption, reliable data on these two aspects are
required.To address this problem, a new on-road mobile
source emissions model designed for use in developing
countries termed as the International Vehicle Emissions
(IVE) model has been deployed. In this study, the on-
road vehicle data was collected in Chennai in 2009
for different categories of vehicles like buses, cars,
two-wheelers, three-wheelers, trucks and LCV. The
IVE model has been used to collect the emission rates
of various pollutants like CO
2
, CO, NO
x
, HC, PM, VOC
and CH
4
at a speed range of 25 kmph-40 kmph, with
an average trip length of 11 km. In order to estimate the
capacity of a road by simulation traffc composition is an
essential parameter and this should be a replica of the
real traffc system. For this classifed traffc counts for
the considered study section is required.By simulating
heterogeneous traffc fow at different volume levels,
124 General report on
starting from 2000 to 9700 (capacity-fow) vehicles/
hr the average speeds of the different categories of
vehicles were estimated for each fow level. For these
speeds the emission rate of different pollutants like CO
2
,
CO, NO
x
, HC were estimated based on the data base
prepared from the literature.By simulating traffc fow
at different (V/C) ratios, the speeds of the individual
vehicles were obtained. From the available data-base
for all the individual speed emission rates as well as fuel
consumption rate were estimated. By summing up of the
emission rates of all the individual vehicles at a particular
V/C ratio say 1.0 the total quantity of emission of the four
major pollutants and the total quantity of fuel consumed
were estimated. Based on the results, the optimal traffc
volume expressed in terms of volume - capacity ratio for
minimizing total fuel consumption and emission of the
pollutants was determined.
Salient-Findings and Conclusion(s)
The following are the important conclusions drawn based
on this study:
It has been found through the study that for the
observed traffc composition, the capacity fow
in one direction on a 14.5 m wide road is 8650
vehicles/hour and the resultant stream speed is
16.75 kmph.
The variation of emission rate of CO
2
with respect
to volume-to-capacity ratio is parabolic with
convexity downwards. As the (V/C) ratio increases,
the emission rate of CO
2
increases moderately up
to a (V/C) ratio of 0.7 (with almost constant slope)
and then, it shows a steep increasing trend.
The variation of emission rate of CO with respect
to V/C ratio is parabolic with convexity downwards.
As the V/C ratio increases, the emission rate of
CO increases moderately up to a ratio of 0.7 (with
almost constant slope) and then it shows a steep
increasing trend.
The variation of emission rate of NO
x
with respect
to V/C ratio is parabolic with convexity upwards.
As the V/C ratio increases the emission rate of
no
x
decreases moderately up to a V/C ratio of 0.7
(with almost constant slope) and then it decreases
steeply.
The variation of emission rate of HC with respect
to V/C ratio is parabolic with convexity downwards.
As the V/C ratio increases the emission rate of HC
increases gradually up to a V/C ratio of 0.7 (with
almost constant slope) and then it shows a steep
increasing trend.
The Fuel consumption increases linearly with
increase in V/C ratio. The increase is moderate up
to a V/C ratio of 0.7 (with almost constant slope)
and then it shows a steep increasing trend.
For the roadway and traffc conditions considered
the optimal V/C ratio which will result in minimum
emission rate of CO
2
, CO and minimum fuel
consumption is 0.7 at which the average stream
speed is 45.86 kmph.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Mobile :09441843966,
E-mail ID: keerthi.bayyavarapu@gmail.com
3. Study on the Effect of Geometric Design
ConsistencyonLevelofSafetyonInter-City
Roads
Date of Start and Duration : 23 July 2010,
3 years
Date of Completion : On-going Research
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai
Scope and Objectives
The scope of the study is limited to intercity roads.
The study mainly focuses on the geometric design
consistency at mid-block section and curves. Efforts will
be made to correlate the results with the existing traffc
and road crash data pertaining to a study stretch for the
safety effectiveness of intercity roads. To incorporate the
real world problem of the intercity roads, microscopic
simulation will be performed.
Develop acceleration and deceleration models to
study the impact of road geometry on mixed traffc
fow
Evaluate the geometric variables which affect
speed and to develop speed profle model along
inter-city roads
Study the relationship between alignment indices
and road safety
Check the safety aspects of intercity roads under
heterogeneous traffc condition using microscopic
simulation and develop models relating highway
geometrics, heterogeneous traffic and road
crashes
Validation of the models using Road crash Data
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 125
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
The study stretch will be identifed in such a way that it
is a combination of both straight stretches and curves
and is not affected by intersections. Using GPS data,
centre line alignment of a selected highway section will
be created for the analysis.
Proposed methodology for the study is :
Identify the stretch of road that satisfies the
requirement for the study
Carry out design consistency evaluation on the
selected stretch of road
Carry out traffc studies to determine the traffc
fow characteristics
Collect the GPS data pertaining to the study to
get alignment of study stretch
Collect the road crash data pertaining to the
identifed stretch of road
Carry out microscopic simulation
Develop a relation between alignment indices and
road safety
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Transportation Engineering Division, Department of
Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai - 36
Mobile : 09445515414, E-mail ID:pv.iitm@gmail.com
4. ReliabilityBasedOptimalRoutingandTraffc
Assignment in Stochastic Transportation
Networks
Date of Start and Duration : 21 July 2006
Date of Completion : On-going Research
(Expected to be completed by June 2012)
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai(R)
Scope and Objectives
Most Reliable Shortest Paths : To characterize
the different measures of reliability at the link/path
level, and
Formulate the most reliable travel time path
(ORP) problem on a network with random
and correlated link travel times, and develop
an algorithm to solve this ORP problem;
examine computational performance of
proposed algorithm on synthetic networks.
Application: To model, calibrate and quantify
the distribution of travel times, and apply the
developed ORP algorithm to the Chennai
road network.
Robust Shortest paths
To formulate the optimal robust cost
path problem (MRCP) on a network with
random and correlated link travel times and
propose/implement solution algorithms to
compute the optimal robust cost path under
various correlation structures; to examine
computational performance of proposed
algorithms on synthetic networks.
Application: To model & calibrate the fow
dependent distribution of link travel times,
and apply the developed optimal robust path
algorithms to the Chennai road network.
Robust(ReliabilityBased)TraffcAssignment
To propose a robust traffic assignment
algorithm to compute the link traffc volumes
on the network resulting from individual
travelers choice of his/her optimal most
robust/reliable path.
To calibrate and validate the robust traffc
assignment model for Chennai City.
Proposed Methodology
To address the first two objectives the various
measures of reliability are frst identifed from the
literature and their pros/cons are examined. Based
on the suitability of the different measures for the
present context, two measures of reliability, namely
probability of on time arrival (travel time reliability)
and robust cost (weighted combination of mean and
variance of path travel time) are selected. Next, the
most reliable path problem (ORP) and optimal robust
cost path (MRCP) problem are formulated as integer
non-linear programming problems. Optimality criteria
are subsequently established for the formulated
ORP/MRCP problems, based on which, first, an
effcient algorithm combining simulation and network
optimization is developed to compute the ORP on
networks with stochastic correlated link travel times.
The algorithm is illustrated for the case of multivariate
normal and multivariate log normal link travel times.
Next, an algorithm that applies a label correcting
procedure for the multi criteria SP problem is proposed
126 General report on
and implemented to compute the MRCP on networks
with stochastic link travel times under certain correlation
structures. In addition, a pruning strategy within a label
correcting procedure is proposed/ implemented to
relax the previously imposed restrictions on correlation
structure. Finally, it is shown that for certain classes of
distributions, optimization of commonly used reliability
measures such as buffer time, buffer index, planning
time index reduces to the robust cost objective with
suitable weights. After implementation of the solution
algorithms, computational experiments are conducted
to study their performance under different network
conditions and user risk preferences. In addition, the
impact of distributions, variability, correlations and
risk attitudes for different metrics is investigated by
studying their infuence on the MRP at varying input
levels.
With regard to the tasks involved under third the
objective the robust traffc assignment problem is
frst formulated as an equilibrium problem. A solution
scheme will then be proposed that iteratively uses
the MRCP algorithm developed under the second
objective. The developed algorithm is then applied to
the Chennai network and calibrated suitably using, (a)
Secondary travel time and volume data (b) Primary
data from a questionnaire based stated/revealed
preference survey. Suitable performance measures
are to be then identifed and the calibrated model is
compared with existing static assignment models on
suitable real world networks.
Salient Findings and Conclusion
The salient fndings from the study are briefy summarized
below:
MostReliableShortestPaths(Objective1):
For the optimal reliability path problem it is shown
that the sub-path optimality property does not hold,
thus making conventional shortest path algorithms
inapplicable. A new reliability-bounds based optimality
criterion is proposed and an algorithm developed that
combines bounding and MC based path generation. The
algorithm models correlations in link travel times (to the
best of our knowledge all existing approaches assume
independence).
The proposed algorithm for the optimal reliability path
problem is found to be practically effcient limited path
enumeration. The algorithm is accurate even for a very
small of value of enumerated paths and Monte Carlo
simulation draws. Computational time reasonable
(59s for 1000 node, 3000 link network) for real world
networks (Chennai Road Network). The number of
network links is found to have a more signifcant effect
than number of network nodes. In addition, the proposed
algorithm is computationally faster than both a bounding
heuristic (K doubling) and a pure Monte Carlo draw
based simulation procedure.
Empirical experiments on the Chennai Road Network
indicate that using travel time reliability instead of the
expected travel time (current practice) can yield signifcant
improvements in reliability (of up to 35 percent) without
adversely compromising on mean travel times (less than
10 percent).Further, neglecting correlations between
link travel times (assuming independence) can result
in choice of seriously sub-optimal paths. The study
also underscores the role of risk attitudes (refected by
reliability threshold) on benefts obtained from using
reliability as a route choice criterion.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from:
Ravi Seshadri, Flat No 5/1 RAMS Apartment, Third Main
Road, Gandhinagar, Adyar, Chennai - 600 020
Mobile : 9884517532, Phone: (044) 24413524,
E-mail ID: ravi0.seshadri@gmail.com
5. Evaluation of Turn Lanes at Signalized
Intersection in Heterogeneous Traffc using
Microscopic Simulation Model
Date of Start and Duration : 03 Aug 2004,
7 years
Date of Completion : 16 March 2011
I ndi an I nst i t ut e of Technol ogy Madras,
Chennai (R)
Scope and Objectives
The scope of thi s research study i s l i mi ted to
evaluation of the two types of turn lanes through
simulation approach using a study intersection
in Chennai city, India. The broad objective of this
research work is to study the effectiveness of right
turn lane and unconventional channelized left turn
lane at intersections in heterogeneous traffc with
unique traffic and driver behaviour. The specific
objectives are:
To study the characteristics of traffic flow at
signalized intersections under heterogeneous
traffc conditions.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 127
To develop a microscopic traffc simulation model
for a signalized intersection under heterogeneous
traffic conditions using C++ adopting Object
Oriented Programming methodology.
To apply the above simulation model to study the
traffc fow using a case study intersection with
and without (a) Right Turn Lane (RTL) and (b)
Channelized Left Turn Lane (CLTL).
To evaluate the effcacy of RTL and CLTL through
sensitivity analysis.
To determine optimal lengths of RTL and CLTL for
various scenarios of infuencing variables.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
A microscopic traffc simulation model for intersection fow
under heterogeneous traffc conditions was specifcally
developed for this study. The simulation model was
programmed in C++ using Object Oriented Programming
(OOP). The modeling of traffc fow at intersections
consists of the following fve major sequential steps: (i)
vehicle generation, (ii) vehicle placement, (iii) vehicle
movement, (iv) vehicle accumulation, and (v) vehicle
dissipation. The model was validated considering the
queue density, dissipation of vehicles and control delay
at the intersection. Accordingly, the feld observed and
simulated values were compared to verify for the validity
of the model.
The developed simulation model was then used to
study the effcacy of RTL and CLTL on control delay of
vehicles through a case study intersection in Chennai
city, India. A sensitivity analysis was performed by
varying the approach volumes, turn proportions and
turn lane lengths. For this purpose, control delays for
the two major approaches without and with turn lanes
were determined from simulation model. Each scenario
was examined in two sets of simulation modeling runs:
one with and one without a turn lane. Simulation runs
were performed for 640 scenarios with a turn lane and
128 scenarios without it (total of 768 runs).
Salient Findings and Conclusion
A microscopic traffc simulation model was developed
for heterogeneous traffc fow at signalized intersections
and implemented in C++ language using Object Oriented
Programming (OOP) concepts. This model, specifcally
developed for evaluation of turn lanes, has yielded
valuable insights on such an application. Scenario
analysis was conducted for various combinations of
related factors. It is also useful in determining the optimal
lengths of turn lanes. The key conclusions arising out
of this research based on the case study intersection
are:
In general, RTL is found to be advantageous only
up to certain approach volumes and right-turn
proportions, beyond which it is counter-productive.
This study pinpoints the break-even points for
various scenarios. RTL is disadvantageous for
higher turn proportions (40 percent for 3000-
3500 veh/h (for shorter turn lane lengths), and 35
percent and 40 percent for 4000 veh/h). Optimal
RTL lengths are found (10-30 m for 500-1500
veh/h and 30-50 m for 2000-4000 veh/h) for
combinations of considered values for the different
parameters.
CLTL is found to be advantageous for lower
approach volumes at all turn proportions,
signifying the benefts of CLTL. It is counter-
productive for higher approach volume and lower
turn proportions. CLTL is disadvantageous for
lower left turn proportions (5 percent for 2000
veh/h, 10 percent and lesser for 2500 veh/h and
20 percent and lesser for 3000-4000 veh/h). The
optimal lengths of CLTL (10 m for 500 veh/h,
30 m for1000 veh/h, 40-50 m for 1500 veh/h
and 50 m for 2000-4000 veh/h) are obtained for
combinations of considered values for the different
parameters.
The above fndings demonstrate that turn lanes can be
considered for application as an appropriate intersection
lane control tool for enhancing the effciency of fow
at signalized intersections in heterogeneous traffic
conditions. Such an analysis can serve as a valuable
tool in deciding whether to adopt turn lanes, and if so in
determining the optimal lengths of turn lanes for various
conditions.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Transportation Engineering Division, Department of Civil
Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036
Mobile : 9486640274 Phone : 044-22575292
E-mail ID : gowri_iitm@yahoo.co.in
6. To Assess the I mpact of I nformati on
Communication and Technology on Travel
for Shopping Purpose
Date of start & Duration : 11 Jan 2011
Date of completion : 07 May 2011
128 General report on
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi
Scope and Objectives
To understand the concept and component of
e-shopping.
To review impact of e-shopping and appraise its
best practices.
To assess the shopping behavior on the basis of
residential socio economy and demographical
characteristics in case study.
To assess the impact of e-shopping on travel
behavior of shopper in case study.
To evolve the policies for Travel Demand
Management adopting the demand of e shopper
The Scope of the study is to understand the
various components of Information communication
and technology and its impact on shopping travel
pattern.
Keeping in view the diverse nature of online
shopping, the detailed analysis will be focused on
the travel behavior pattern of online shoppers.
Proposed Methodology
The methodology consists of four steps Literature
review, Need of study, Aim and Objective of study.
Data collection was done which comprises of Primary
and Secondary Data collection for which questioner for
survey and checklists for data collection was prepared.
Data Analysis majorly was divided into two parts
(i) Shopper characteristics in which personal and trip
information of shopper will be collected, and (ii) Type
of shopper which identifed the factors for E shopping.
During the modeling stage, Binary Logistic Model was
formulated to correlate the behavior of shopper with
some of the societal parameters. Sensitivity analysis
was carried out by increasing the societal parameters
to understand the probability of shopper to increase as
online shopper.
Salient Findings and Conclusions from Primary
Survey
It has been also observed that Online buyers
predominantly are male and between the age
groups of 20 to 40 years having income group
between ` 20,000 to ` 40,000 and shoppers
booked tickets online, purchase electronic item,
grocery and food through telephone.
Majority of shoppers opinion for online shopping
is time saver and convenience and 50 percent of
offine shopper does not prefer online shopping
as they do not have much schemes and sale on
online products as well there is lack of assurance
of quality of product.
The average travel length, average travel time
and average travel cost of the shopper surveyed
is 8 km, 17 minutes and ` 35 respectively.
It has been observed through establishment survey
of market that only 37 percent of establishment in
these six markets are having the home delivery
facility and the average delivery travel length is
2.5 km in the establishment which provides free
home delivery.
The present level of e-shopping in case market
is quite low 70 percent users shopped through
online or telephonic medium once or twice per
month.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Ruchi ka Mattoo,191 C, Regent Shi pra Sunci ty
Indrapuram, Ghaziabad.
Mobile : +919999958635,
E mail ID : ruchika.mattoo@gmail.com
7. Transport Strategies and Development
Measures for a Green City of Baruipur, West
Bengal
Date of Start and Duration : 11 Jan 2010
Date of Completion : 18 May 2010
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
To review the relevant literature relating to green
city planning with respect to transport system.
To study the urban form and urban structure of a
green city.
To analyze and appreciate various transport
planning parameters under different transport
scenarios, by using land use transport model.
To evaluate various alternative transport plans
based on the green city concept.
To select the appropriate transport strategies and
policies to assist the development of transport
systems for a green city.
To evolve planning and design guidelines with
respect to policies, evaluation, implementation
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 129
and monitoring framework which will be a part of
green modules.
Study will be confned to review of planning and
design concepts of green cities based on relevant
national and international literatures.
A case study of a new town with a population
of 1 lakh is been selected. Relevant information
from the secondary source is used to conduct the
study.
Methodology
As per the objectives, various literature studies have
been done to understand the stages through which
the thesis can be achieved. It has been done at three
different levels. Literature studies were done at Macro
level planning, Micro level planning and Selection of
green technologies. Baruipur, the city with population
of 1,10,000 is located at a distance of approximately
5 km. It has been envisaged to be developed as a
green town. This town has been taken as a case
study.
Analysis was at a macro level where the city form was
decided by using the Lowry Garins Landuse Transport
Model. Three urban forms were considered: ring-
radial, grid and linear grid. In linear grid urban form,
the linear stretch was considered as the main artery
which was counteracted by perpendicular sub arteries
which were the part of grid. These urban forms were
analyzed as per the mono centric urban structure.
Under every urban form, four technological scenarios
were consi dered: pedestri an scenari o, bi cycl e
scenario, electric car scenario and the combination
of the three modes. The basic data of projected
employment and population were considered for
di stri buti on of densi ti es at di fferent zones and
accordingly the travel demand was estimated in the
network. The data of vehicle km, passenger km,
average trip length and average trip time were the
outcomes which were compared for different urban
form to establish the most effcient urban form. Here
linear- grid form was found out to be most effcient
and strategies are framed accordingly.
At strategy level, the proposals at macro level
considered the hierarchy setting of the network, modal
split, NMT hierarchy etc. Whereas at the micro level
strategy formation, the landuse and density distribution
at neighborhood level, NMT hierarchy, etc were framed
along with some minute level design strategies for barrier
free movement.
Salient Findings and Proposals
The vehicle km governs the emission in a city.
Lower the vehicle km., less distance will be
travelled and thus less emissions.
The vehicle-km is lowest in grid-linear pattern
urban form as the dominant share is pedestrian
followed by bicycle and electric auto rickshaw
scenario i.e., 38,945.
The average trip length is also lowest in grid
linear with 0.59 km (viz. three modes of transport
are considered- Pedestrian, Bicycle and Electric
car).
Again if we check another scenario e.g., electric
auto rickshaw scenario, the passenger km is
lowest in linear grid system i.e., 43205 and vehicle
km of 10700 and vehicle hours of 536.
The average trip length in electric auto rickshaw
scenario is 0.63 km in linear grid urban form which
is least in compare to the grid iron for with average
trip length of 0.68 km and ring radial urban form
with average trip length of 0.74 km.
Thus grid-linear urban form is the best and is
greener as compared to the other urban form as
it is with the least emission due to least vehicle
km which is due to least average trip length and
trip time.
Recommendations of Dissertation
Study reveals that urban form with linear grid
form exhibits comparatively better distribution of
population and service employment with respect
to basic employment. Analysis also demonstrates
that the travel demand generated on account
of home to work journey experiments optional
relationship between homes to work in terms of
various physical parameters (average. Trip time,
average Trip length)
Study fnally concludes that the design strategies
in order to make the environment friendly not
only at city level but also at neighborhood level.
The designed elements considered at city level
envisaged the development of 60 m ROW as the
main SPINE of the network coupled with sub-
arterial, collector and local distributor.
The design consideration for neighborhood level is
the surrounding network of collector road followed
by local access penetrating into neighborhood
level with a provision of various transportation
130 General report on
infrastructure facilities namely cycle rickshaw
stand, sidewalks etc.
Design also emphasizes the provision of facilities
for disabled people in terms of ramps, curves at
appropriate location like road links and junctions.
The network, also was envisaged the provision
of NMT facilities including pedestrian, bicycles
and cycle rickshaws in most of the areas of the
town.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Pianka Bhattacharya, Institute of Urban Transport,
Ministry of Urban Development, Ground Floor, Behind
Axis Bank, N.B.O Building, Nirman Bhawan, Maulana
Azad Road, New Delhi-110 011.
Mobile : 09871908187, E mail ID : buntybhattacharya20@
gmail.com, pia.tpark@gmail.com
8. Impact of Metro on Mobility Patterns in
MetropolitanCity-CaseStudy:Delhi
Date of Start and Duration : Jan 2011, 5 months
Date of Completion : May 2011
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
In this research study, an attempt has been made to
assess the mobility patterns of metro users in Delhi and
how the people of Delhi are adapting to the expanding
system and alsoto assesswhether the metro network is
providing suffcient and equitable service to population
or not.
To appreciate the role and importance of Metro in
Urban Mobility.
To st udy i nt ernat i onal experi ences and
identification of factors which affects metro
ridership.
To study the personal and travel characteristics
of metro passengers in Delhi and across all lines
and station typologies.
To assess the accessibility levels of various metro
stations and their impact on ridership.
To appreciate the concept of equity in metro
service.
To evolve and propose planning guidelines
for future expansi on for enhanci ng metro
ridership.
Proposed Methodology
To accomplish the stated objectives, a systematic
methodology was prepared. The first stage was
identifcation of need, objectives, scope and limitations
of the study. Next stage included detailed literature
review, which consisted of Delhis city profle, MRTS
around the world, various papers related to the
topic and then a detailed appraisal of Delhi Metro
system.
After this, various parameters were identifed which
had direct impact on ridership like location of station,
personal and travel characteristics of the passengers
etc, accordi ng to whi ch the metro system was
categorized and then stations were selected for sample
collection. Numerous surveys were conducted across
the metro stations and various offcial departments
were contacted for relevant information. After the
completion of data collection, this data was analyzed
in a detailed manner, which in turn provides numerous
important fndings. The issues and problems emerging
from the analysis were addressed in the fnal part of
the study.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
The study concluded with the establishment of metro
passenger characteristics throughout the metro
network. The study also brought out the variation in the
passengers characteristics with respect to the system
location parameters, estimation of metro ridership by the
end of third phase. The inequality and the accessibility
parameters were also explored and solutions were
suggested accordingly.
Recommendations of Dissertation
As the study was limited to Delhi only, the guidelines
proposed are for general metro station, which may be
modifed as per requirement. Such studies should be
carried out at regular intervals so as to map the changes
in mobility of people and then plan for newer and effcient
services accordingly, which suit the requirement of
people.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Pawan Dwivedi,14/878, Lodhi Colony, New Delhi
Mobile : 09654484847,
E mail ID : mepawandwivedi1@gmail.com
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 131
9. Role of PPP in Urban Transport Infrastructure
Development of Gurgaon
Date of Start and Duration: 11 Jan 2011
Date of Completion : 07 May 2011
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
To develop a Public Private Partnership Structure to
attract the private investors for fnancing the transport
infrastructure projects in Gurgaon. The study is done on
the 5.4 km stretch of Golf Course Link Road, which is
the main arterial in Gurgaon. The PPP Structure created
for the development of urban transport infrastructure of
this stretch would be used as a model for the whole of
Gurgaon.
Proposed Methodology
The research project involved intensive literature study.
Various PPP models adopted for various infrastructure
facilities were covered. The problems which are
generally faced in implementing a PPP project were
critically examined. In the second stage, the study area
characteristics were defned. The existing scenario of the
Gurgaon Urban Transport was studied. The demand and
supply characteristics of the Gurgaon Transport were
examined. In the stage 3 of the research, the potential
investors which can be involved in the PPP structure
were identifed. In the subsequent stages the estimation
of the cost required to heal the existing issues was
identifed and the IRR calculations for the project were
carried out in a way to prove its sustainability. In the last
stage of the project, PPP arrangement was proposed in
order to explain the responsibilities of each party.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
An Integrated PPP approach can be more effective
as the development is interlinked and no one sector is
oversupplied with facilities. The Private Players can be
involved in non proftable business like street lighting
maintenance and improving bus sheds by offering
them greater IRR in an integrated PPP model for the
infrastructure development.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Shashwat Shrivastava, D-308, Sector 5, Tagore Nagar,
Raipur, C.G.
Mobile : +919893255854,
E mail ID : sky.shashwat@gmail.com
10. Mobility Strategies for Inclusive Development
of Urban Poor: A Case Study of Faridabad
Date of Start and Duration : 11 Jan 2011
Date of Completion : 16 May 2011
School of Planning and Architecture,
New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
The study is to understand the mobility patterns of the
urban poor (economically disadvantages) in the study
area and prepare strategies to minimize their need of
travel with respect to their work structures and their
spatial locations to achieve social equity for the transport
in the society.
Objectives
Understanding & assessing the scenario of urban
poor in the mega cities in the country and compare
with the condition of study area.
Examine the condition of mobility patterns of the
urban poor with respect to their destinations (i.e.
work, education etc.)
Including them in the equity process with
income, transport mobility, social status etc as
parameters.
Understanding the strengths & limitations of the
urban poor in their mobility.
Analyzing the defciencies and problems relating
to the transport availability.
Preparation of Policies & Strategies to relocate the
urban poor with respect to their major destinations
in the study area.
Proposed Methodology
The study overlooks the scenario of the urban poor
from the past subjects and experiences around the
world to understand their basic structure of mobility.
Many studies have been done by the institute in the
past years concentrating on their travel patterns of the
poor in urban areas and their part in the economy. This
study includes the data collected through a sample of
household survey with respect to their trip information
and the modes of transport available in the study area.
Strategies and recommendations have been outlaid to
overcome the travel defciencies of the poor and improve
their economic status.
132 General report on
Salient Findings and Conclusions
When compared, Faridabad has high trip length
of almost double than the other cities but having
less travel cost due to availability of good public
transport than other cities.
City's geography decides the type of public
transport, and the average income of the city.
Consideration for NMT has to be overlooked due
to high amount of trips performed under the 2 km
of radius which are also includes non-work trips.
The concept of UID can be built in every city
where it has a defciency of public transport,
trying to elevate poverty and their ineffciency
of mobility.
Unique Identifcation System is a system in which
every citizen of a country will have a unique
Identifcation for each individual in the country.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Swati Kiran ,# 303, Ganesha Enclaves, Tirumala Nagar,
Vadlapudi, VSP 46.
Mobile : 9717981808, 9392624777,
E mail ID : swatikiran.sistla@gmail.com
11. Transit Oriented Development along an Urban
Arterial-ACaseStudyofDelhi(Indraprastha
Estate, ITO)
Date of Start and Duration : 10 Jan 2011
Date of Completion : 07 May 2011
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
To develop alternative scenarios for preparing
transport strategies for the Commercial Transit
Oriented Development.
Redeveloping adjacent land along the metro
corridor near Pragati Maidan metro Station
which results in the increase in Public Transport
Ridership.
Formulation of Strategies which will reduce the
trip length (by providing a choice of close-by
destination), for e.g. high commercial TOD along
the Public Transport Corridor.
Accessibility improvement for the Pedestrian.
The scope of the study is limited to 0.5 km radius
of Pragati Maidan Metro Station.
Proposed Methodology
The study starts by identifying the statement of the
problem and need of the study followed by literature
study. The study overlooks the scenario from the past
studies and experiences around the world to understand
the different concepts and tools for transit oriented
development. After going through on different studies
related to transit oriented development my main focus
is on commercial mixed land use development in ITO
area. The study includes the data collected through a
sample of establishment survey withrespect to their
trip information and the modes of transport available in
the study area. Different models have been prepared
on the basis of the survey data. Strategies and
recommendations have been outlaid to increase the
use of public transport, increase FAR to accommodate
more service holders, to promote high occupancy
vehicle in the HOV lane in the peak hour, increasing
pedestrian facilities so that they can easily access the
public transport and can direct access to every offces
with the help of elevated pedestrian bridges as a result
of which the level of economic status of the area can
be increased.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
To meet the growing demand of commercial activities
and to overcome the shortfall of available commercial
space there is a need for the provision of mixed use
commercial development in Indraprastha Estate (ITO)
area along the metro line which has been adopted
while achieving better synergy between workplace and
transportation. This research topic is about creating
compact walk able commercial mixed use development
around high quality metro system. By creating the TOD
model we can achieve high density with less vehicular
traffc in the Indraprastha Estate (ITO).TOD is the trick/
approach to combat traffc congestion and protect the
environment.
Recommendations of Dissertation
The research contains recommendations which
contain two aspects which suggest action which could
be taken right now in relation to a particular issue of
the topic for e.g. reducing traffc by promoting public
transport, van pooling etc. At the later stage the fnal
strategies for the TOD can be implemented with
the help of the local government and other stake
holders.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 133
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Rajesh Kumar Sahoo,N1/187, IRC Village, Nayapalli,
Bhubaneswar-751015, Orissa
Mobile : +91-9861129398,
E-mail ID : rajeshkumar.archi@hotmail.com
12. Impact of Mobility Hub on Urban Arterial Road
Network, Case study, Kochi
Date of Start and Duration : 11 Jan 2010
Date of Completion : 18 May 2010
School of Planning and Architecture,
New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
To appreciate the importance of a Mobility Hub in
a metropolitan city.
To appreciate the inter-relationship between
Mobility Hub and travel characteristics of the
city
To study the present network pattern in the city.
To study how the network pattern will change with
the implementation of Mobility Hub, keeping all
other parameters like constant.
To study on the relationship between speed and
V/C ratio on different corridors of the network in the
pre and post development of the Mobility Hub.
To evaluate the city as per the LOS for Arterial
and Sub-arterial networks.
Proposed Methodology
Detailed literature study was done taking into account
two domestic and eight international case studies with
the aim to appreciate the importance of Mobility hub,
evaluation and benefts of Mobility Hub. Secondary data
was collected from different sources with the help of
which, study of existing travel network and travel pattern
of Kochi city was done. Data was then forecasted for
the future year. Site for the proposed mobility hub was
studied in detail. Stretch wise analysis of the network and
a comparative study was done in both the pre and post
condition of a Mobility hub such that from the analysis
the difference in intercity and intra-city travel pattern
and network pattern was studied in detail with respect
to travel time, distance and LOS and connectivity.
Drawing of travel network pattern on both the pre and
post development of Mobility hub was done.
Salient Findings and Proposals
Through secondary data collection traffic volume,
OD survey, Outer cordon survey, trip passenger
characteristics, network characteristics, proposed metro
route etc are collected. From these data, the growth rate
on every infuence zones of the Outer Cordon locations
was found out and distributed to obtain OD matrix for
2011. Using TRIPS software OD matrix of 2011 was
assigned and shortest path is found out. Time matrix
is also calculated using the software throughout the
network. Twelve hour traffc volume and passenger
volume is assigned on major travel corridors in Kochi
City. Desire line diagrams are made for the whole traffc;
trip assignment for the intercity traffc and speed fow on
different corridors are also calculated using the TRIPS
software for both the pre and post development of the
hub.
Eight main corridors are identified and regression
analysis is done between V/C ratio and Speed. From
the analysis on eight corridors it is found that after the
implementation of Mobility hub the LOS has become
better except at corridor number 8 which is the NH-47
passing through the vicinity of the proposed site. Before
the development of the hub, NH-47 was under LOS B
and after the implementation of the hub it has come
under LOS C. Proposals are made to improve the LOS
for the NH-47.
Conceptual drawing of the Mobility hub is proposed
with Inter and Intra city bus terminal, Metro Station,
Boat jetty. Within the catchment area of 800m from
the hub a regional railway station is also proposed.
Road network to connect through the Mobility hub
with different modes of transportation are made. New
network connecting all these modes and connecting
other roadways and traffc movements are also done.
Simulation of the proposed road network is done using
VISSIM software.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Ammu Gopalakrishnan,Kambisseril, Pratheeksha
Nagar House No: 14, Ki l i kol l oor (PO), Kol l am,
Kerala 691 004
Mobile : 09871908187,
E mail ID : ammu_2108@yahoo.co.in
13. Development of Road User Cost Equations for
High Speed Corridors
Date of Start and Duration : 11 Jan 2010
Date of Completion : 18 July 2010
134 General report on
i. National Institute of Technology, Warangal
(R)
ii. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (I)
Scope and Objectives
To build database for quantifying Road User Costs
considering the spectrum of vehicles plying on
high speed corridors.
To determine statistical relationships between the
VOC components (such as fuel, lubricants, tyre,
spare parts, maintenance, labor, depreciation
cost etc.) and the various factors namely age
of the vehicle, road parameters on high speed
corridors.
To develop relation between Travel Time Cost
models and Rate of Flow.
To develop relation between fuel consumption and
speed of the vehicles.
Methodology
Develop VOC equations for high speed corridors
considering only four-lane divided carriageways
for different variable costs namely fuel, spare
parts, engine oil, repair & maintenance and tyre
life.
Develop VOC equations for different vehicle types
namely cars, heavy vehicles namely Bus, LCV,
HCV and MAV.
To carry out User Cost Surveys covering two
cities (namely Hyderabad and Vijayawada)
involving limited study of selected vehicles based
on actual vehicle operations on homogeneous
routes encompassing mainly the high speed
intercity highway corridors.
Gather primary data for the new generation of
the vehicle through limited feld studies for free
speed, speed-fow, vehicle interaction, and user
cost surveys including quantifcation of road user
costs, which would be adequate to establish the
user cost relationships for each vehicle classes.
Salient Findings and Proposals
In the present study, an attempt has been made to
identify the need to develop or update the equations of
VOC components for specifc vehicle types operating on
high speed corridors in varied conditions. Also another
attempt has been made to develop the travel time cost
models for different vehicle types plying on high speed
corridors. The vehicle types considered in the present
study include two wheeler, small car, big car, Bus, HCV
and MAV. The data used in the present study were based
on VOC and VOT data obtained during the road user
cost study data collection from vehicle owners/operators
and from value of time survey. Using the above data,
VOC equations and also time cost models for different
vehicles were developed. The relationship between
the fuel consumption and speed of the vehicles was
also examined under steady state and congested state
conditions.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Traffc Engineering and Transportation Planning Area,
CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi - 25.
E mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
14. Speed-Flow Characteristics and Roadway
CapacityofMulti-LaneHighways
Date of Start and Duration : 11 Jan 2010
Date of Completion : 18 July 2010
i. National Institute of Technology, Warangal
(R)
ii. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (I)
Scope and Objectives
To establish realistic profle of free speeds on high
speed corridors for different vehicle types.
To evolve speed-fow relationships for High Speed
Corridors for different vehicle types and thus
estimate the capacity of High Speed Corridors for
different carriageway widths.
To fnd the design service volume.
The High Speed Corridors referred in this report
implies the four-lane to eight-Lane carriageways.
The scope of the study is to mainly consider Four-
Lane, Six-Lane and Eight-lane carriageways and
develop the Speed-Flow.
Methodology
Data collection is the frst and foremost requirement for
understanding free speed and speed-fow characteristics
on high speed corridors. To determine the free speeds
for different vehicle types on these high speed corridors,
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 135
Radar Gun method has been adopted for data collection.
From this data, speed profles were analyzed using
normal distribution and free speeds for different vehicles.
In the case of Speed - Flow studies, Registration Plate
method was used for the determination of journey
speeds and classifed traffc volume count studies were
conducted in a synchronized fashion. Based on the
collected data, previous speed - fow relationships were
refned for four-lane divided carriageway namely linear
and non-linear (BPR and linear methods) formulations,
linear method was adopted to develop speed-flow
equations for six-lane and eight-lane divided carriageway
and accordingly capacity of the candidate road sections
was determined. Subsequently, the constants derived
from speed-fow equations are compared with free
speed values to check the consistency of the results.
Finally design service volume for four-lane, six-lane
and eight-lane divided carriageways were determined.
In the present study, free speed and speed-fow data
were conducted covering different NHs spread across
the length and breadth of the country which included
22 test sections encompassing straight and horizontal
curved sections.
Salient Findings and Proposals
In the present study, non-linear and linear models are
proposed to develop speed-fow equations and along
with the assessment of the free speeds of different
vehicles on selected road sections of high speed
corridors. The study results shows that the mean free
speed of cars is more or less same in four-lane and
six-lane divided carriageways, however it is slightly less
in the case of heavy vehicles on six-lane as compared
to four-lane divided carriageways. Obviously, the mean
free speed of all vehicle types is relatively high for all
the vehicle types on eight lane divided carriageways as
compared to four-lane divided carriageways and six-lane
divided carriageways. Subsequently the speed-fow
models are used to estimate roadway capacity and the
design service volume. From this study, the estimated
capacity of the four-lane divided carriageways is
6050 PCU/h/direction; six-lane divided carriageway is
6400 PCU/h/direction, whereas the capacity of eight-
lane divided carriageway is 10800 PCU/h/direction.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Traffc Engineering and Transportation Planning Area,
CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi - 25.
E mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
15. Probabilistic Models for Prediction of Road
Crash Occurrence and Crash Severity on High
Speed Corridors
Date of Start and Duration : June 2010, one year
Date of Completion : May 2011
i. MaharajaSayajiraoUniversityofVadodara,
Baroda (R)
ii. CSIR- Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (I)
Scope and Objectives
Collection and analysis of the timeseriesdata of
road crashes on selected high speed corridors.
Developmentof the road crash occurrence
predi cti on model and road crash severi ty
prediction on selected high speed corridors.
To identify road crash prone locations (Black-spot) by
employing different method and developed model.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
Collection and analysis of road Crashdata of selected
National Highways of Golden Quadrilateral, Identifying
Black- spot and developing occurrenceprediction and
severity prediction models using PASW -18.0 Software.
Salient Findings and Conclusion
Binary Logit modelforprediction of crash occurrence
has yielded good result as average 98 to 99 percent
prediction accuracy has been obtained when considering
NH wise data for model formulation.
Multinomial Logit model for severity prediction has
yielded encouraging results concerning the prediction of
the grievous injury and non injury type road crashes.
Further information/copy of the report canbe
obtained from
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology
& Engineering at Kalabhavn, Vadodara, (or) Traffc
Engineering and Transportation Planning Area, CSIR-
CRRI, New Delhi - 25.
E mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
16. Development of Steady State Fuel Consumption
Models for Different Vehicle Types on High
Speed Corridors
Date of Start : 11 Sep. 2010
Date of Completion : 14 April 2011
136 General report on
i. National Institute of Technology, Surathkal
(R)
ii. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (I)
Scope and Objectives
To study fuel consumption pattern on varying
carriageway widths of multi-lane highways and
subsequently develop fuel consumption inter-
relationship for various vehicles under steady
state condition.
To determine statistical relationships between
the Fuel, speed, road surface condition and
vertical profle parameters and on high speed
corridors.
Methodology
To facilitate in developing fuel consumption model,
experiments were conducted under controlled steady
state speed condition on different vehicles types
(Bharat Stage-II compliant Maruti Van, Tata Sumo and
Tata Truck) at selected test sections encompassing
Delhi - Gurgaon Expressway (Eight Lane Divided
Carriageway), Greater Noida Expressway and NH-1
(both Six Lane Divided Carriageway sections) and
NH-2 (Four Lane Divided Carriageway). The steady
speed fuel consumption experiments were carried
out by maintaining constant speeds ranging from
20 km/h to 70 km/h (at increments of 10 km/h) for each
unit kilometre on the selected test sections. Care was
exercised to maintain the appropriate speeds without
entailing to undue acceleration or deceleration of
the vehicle coupled with proper gear position for the
selected speed of travel. The V-Box fuel fow data
acquisition system was installed in each of the above
vehicle integrating with the fuel fow detector which
is capable of measuring at an accuracy of 0.1ml and
the distance measurement accuracy is to the tune
of 1 min.
The data obtained from the above experimental studies
was subjected to preliminary analysis in V-Box Tools
software environment and the processed data was
subsequently analyzed using SPSS 18.0 software to
arrive at the fuel consumption model under steady
state conditions. For this purpose, roughness data,
vertical profle and P/W ratio (Trucks only) of the test
sections were used as the independent variables aimed
at developing non-linear fuel consumption model for
different vehicle types. The predicted values from
the developed model have been compared with the
observed values collected for validation purpose and
thereby the validity of the model was established.
Salient Findings and Proposals
In the present study, an attempt has been made to
identify the need to develop the fuel consumption
models with respect to vertical profile, speed and
surface condition which is a major component of VOC for
specifc vehicle types operating on high speed corridors
under steady state operating condition. The vehicle
types considered in the present study include Bharat
Stage II compliant Petrol Car (Maruti Van), Diesel
Car (Tata Sumo) and Tata Truck under varying loading
conditions. The data used in the present study were
based on fuel consumption experiments conducted on
selected road sections (presented in Chapter 3) and
the data has been analyzed using VBox Tools Software
as described in Chapter 4. Using the above data,
Fuel Consumption models for different vehicles were
developed (presented in Chapter 5) and the models
have been validated by performing appropriate statistical
tests as well.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Traffc Engineering and Transportation Planning Area,
CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi - 25.
E mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
17. Development of Congestion Cost Equations
for High Speed Corridors
Date of Start : 11 Sep. 2010
Date of Completion : 14 April 2011
i. National Institute of Technology, Surathkal
(R)
ii. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (I)
Scope and Objectives
To quantify the effect of roadway congestion on
cost of vehicle operation.
To estimate the travel time cost and fuel consumption
equations under varying flow conditions for
different vehicle types considering varying widths
of multi-lane divided carriageways.
To develop time related and distance related
congestion cost equations for different vehicle
types.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 137
Methodology
For the determination of the time related congestion cost,
the value of time and value of commodity data collected
from the commuters located on high speed national
highways in the vicinity of Hyderabad, Vijayawada,
Warangal and Mumbai was deployed. Time related
congestion factor has been evolved by comparing the
Travel time under congested state to that at free speed.
Based on the collected data, the travel time cost has
been evolved and subsequently, time related congestion
factor has been developed.
In the case of distance related congestion cost, fuel
consumption data was collected was collected using
the sophisticated V-BOX instrumentation on Delhi -
Panipat section of NH-1 in the case of two axle heavy
commercial vehicles whereas the fuel consumption data
was collected on Eight Lane divided carriageway section
of Delhi - Gurgaon expressway in the case of petrol and
diesel driven small and big cars respectively. It has been
assumed that the above fuel consumption pattern would
be prevalent under congested conditions of travel on the
Indian roads and hence the distance related congestion
factor has been estimated.
Both Congestion factor and Uncongestion factor was
developed in the case of Distance related VOC component,
indicating the lower (congested) and upper (uncongested)
areas of the speed-fow curve. As the fuel consumption
increases at both lower speeds and higher speeds
compared to optimum speed, the fuel consumption for
different vehicle types on different carriageway types are
estimated both under uncongested area and congested
area of vehicle manoeuvres respectively. The former
one is termed as fuel consumption due to high speeds
/ free speeds whereas the latter one is termed as fuel
consumption due to congestion. The ratio between fuel
consumption due to congestion and steady state fuel
consumption is called Congestion Factor (CF) whereas
the ratio between fuel consumption due to free speeds
and steady state fuel consumption is called free-fow or
Uncongested Factor (UCF). The relationship between
these factors and V-C ratios for these conditions are
separately determined for each of the vehicle types
on varying widths of multi-lane highways. The results
obtained have been critically examined by conducting the
appropriate statistical validity tests in the case of distance
and time related congestion cost equations.
Salient Findings and Proposals
To demonstrate the suitability of the congestion cost
equations developed in this study, 1 km test stretch
of Ashram - Badarpur Border section of NH-2 falling
in the suburbs of Delhi has been considered. The
fuel consumption and time cost has been estimated
for the observed classifed traffc fow from 6 A.M. to
10 P.M. using the appropriate equations evolved in this
study. Thereafter, the fuel cost and travel time cost per
vehicle across all the vehicle types has been worked
out. It has been estimated from this analysis that about
` 1.3 lakhs and ` 2.9 lahks is spent on extra fuel and
time cost in a day for one kilometre of stretch due to
congestion. Hence, the congestion cost equations
developed in this study are very useful and would play
an important role in estimating vehicle operating costs
namely fuel and time costs in carrying out economic
analysis of highway projects.
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
The resul t s can be used i n t he Updat i on of
IRC:SP-30 especially for four-lane to eight-lane divided
carriageways.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from:
Traffc Engineering and Transportation Planning Area,
CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi - 25
E mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
18. Impact of Lane Change Behaviour on Capacity
of Multi-Lane Highways using Microscopic
Simulation
Date of Start : 11 Jan 2010
Date of Completion : 14 Sep 2010
i. S.V.NationalInstituteofTechnology,Surat(R)
ii. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (I)
Scope and Objectives
To develop a microscopic traffc simulation system
to simulate vehicular movements on multi-lane
highway considering lane change behaviour
To develop speed fow relationships and estimate
capacity of multi lane highway
To fnd out the impact of lane change behaviour
on capacity of multi-lane highway
To demonstrate the suitability of the developed
simulation system by comparing the capacity
estimated through macroscopic approaches
138 General report on
The scope of the study is to mainly consider four-lane
divided carriageways and use VISSIM 4.10 software to
simulate vehicular movements and fnd out the impact
of lane change behaviour on capacity of the multi-lane
highways.
Methodology
To determine impact of lane change behavior on capacity
on these high speed corridors which is a primary
objective of the present study, videography method has
been adopted for data collection. Classifed traffc volume
count studies, space mean speed studies and lane
change behaviour were conducted in a synchronized
fashion. From this data, model is developed in VISSIM
4.10, a microscopic simulation software. Then the model
is appropriately calibrated and validated using the
observed data considering volume, speed and number
lane changes. Using this validated simulation model,
speed - fow relationships were developed under lane
change and no lane change conditions. The capacity
under these two scenarios is further estimated to assess
the impact of lane change.
The calibration and validation was successfully carried
out by trial and error method by running simulation
number of times till the desired accuracy achieved.
Thereafter, the developed simulation model is applied
to estimate speeds for given traffc volume conditions
on four-lane divided carriageway. Subsequently same
simulation model is applied for six-lane and eight-lane
divided carriageway and simulation results are obtained
to estimate capacities of these carriageways.
Salient Findings and Proposals
The results derived from this study are summarized
below:
From this study, the estimated capacity of the
Four-Lane divided carriageways is 5574 PCU/h/
direction, Six-Lane divided carriageway is
7733 PCU/h/direction, whereas the capacity of Eight-
Lane divided carriageway is 9796 PCU/h/direction.
From this study, without lane change consideration,
the estimated capacity of the Four-Lane divided
carriageways is 5408 PCU/h/direction, Six-Lane
divided carriageway is 7508 PCU/h/direction,
whereas the capacity of Eight-Lane divided
carriageway is 8741 PCU/h/direction.
The restriction of lane change behaviour has
marginal impact on the capacity (about 3 percent
reduction) on four-lane divided carriageway and
six-lane divided carriageway whereas its impact
is slightly high (9 percent reduction) in the case
of eight-lane divided carriageway.
The Design Service Volume (DSV) under LOS - B
and LOS - C of four-lane divided carriageway is
ranging from 22,296 to 47,777 PCUs/day/direction
for different peak hour ratios of 7 to 10 percent. In
case of six-lane divided carriageway it is ranging
from 30,932 to 66,283 PCUs/day/direction and for
eight lane divided carriageway, it is ranging from
39,184 to 83,966 PCUs/day/direction for different
peak hour ratios of 7 to 10 percent.
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
The results can be used in the Updation of IRC:SP:30
especi al l y f or f our-l ane t o ei ght -l ane di vi ded
carriageways.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Traffc Engineering and Transportation Planning Area,
CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi - 25.
E mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
19. EvaluationofRoadwayCapacityofMulti-Lane
Highways Under Varying Terrain and Lane
Change Behavior Using Microscopic Traffc
Simulation
Date of Start : 11 Sep. 2010
Date of Completion : 14 May 2011
i. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of
Vadodara,Baroda(R)
ii. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (I)
Scope and Objectives
To develop speed fow relationships and estimate
the roadway capacity multi-lane highway and
expressways on plain terrain
To find out the impact of terrain, geometry
condition along with the lane change behavior
on roadway capacity of multi-lane highway and
expressways.
The scope of the study is to mainly consider multi-lane
highways namely four and six lane divided carriageways
on plain terrain. The expressway of six lane divided
carriageway is considered to study the roadway capacity
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 139
on plain and hilly terrains with horizontal curve. In the
present study, VISSIM 5.30 software has been utilized
to simulate vehicular movements and subsequently
applied to fnd out the impact of lane change behavior
on roadway capacity of the multi-lane highways
namely four and six lane on plain terrain and six lane
divided expressways on both plain and hilly terrain with
horizontal curve.
Methodology
To determine impact of lane change behavior on capacity
on these high speed corridors which is a primary
objective of the present study, video graphic method
has been adopted for data collection. Classifed traffc
volume count studies, space mean speed studies and
lane change behaviour were conducted in a synchronized
fashion. From this data, model is developed in VISSIM
5.30. Then the model has been appropriately calibrated
and validated using the observed data considering
volume, speed and number lane changes. Using the
validated simulation model, speed - fow relationships
were developed under lane change and no lane change
conditions. The capacity under these two scenarios is
further estimated to assess the impact of lane change.
Thereafter, the observed data on classifed volume
count, average speed and number of lane changes of
each vehicle category was extracted using the video
data and thereafter the microscopic simulation model
was developed in VISSIM. The calibration and validation
was successfully carried out by trial and error method
by running simulation number of times till the desired
accuracy achieved. Now the developed simulation model
is applied to estimate speeds for given traffc volume
conditions on varying widths of multilane highways
covering plain and hilly terrain.
Salient Findings and Proposals
The speeds on the hilly terrain with curve have reduced
by about 40 percent compared to straight section
on plain terrain on six-lane divided expressways.
The roadway capacity estimated on four-lane
divided highway is 5574 PCU/h/direction where
as it is 7950 PCU/h/direction for six-lane divided
expressway. The roadway capacity estimated
on curve section on hilly terrain is 6194 PCU/h/
direction for six-lane divided expressway.
The roadway capacity under without lane change
condition is 5408, 6238 and 8102 PCU/h/direction
for four-lane divided highways, six-lane divided
expressway on hilly terrain and plain terrain
respectively.
It was also found from this study that terrain (hilly)
and geometric conditions (horizontal curve) have
reduced roadway by about 22 percent.
Interestingly, it has been found that roadway
capacity with lane change restrictions has
marginally increased about 1.9 percent on six-lane
expressways on plain terrain and hilly terrain with
curve.
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes
The results can be used in the Updation of IRC:SP:30
especi al l y f or f our-l ane t o ei ght -l ane di vi ded
carriageways.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Traffc Engineering and Transportation Planning Area,
CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi - 25.
E mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
20. Critical Evaluation of Free Speed Characteristics
and Development of Vehicle Operating Cost
Models for High Speed Corridors in India
Date of Start : 11 July 2010
Date of Completion : 14 April 2011
i. The Maharaja Sayajirao University of
Vadodara,Baroda(R)
ii. CSIR-Central Road Research Institute,
New Delhi (I)
Scope and Objectives
To develop the free speed equations for different
vehicle types on varying multi lane highway (i.e.
four lane to eight lane divided carriageways
widths) based on the road geometry conditions.
To develop the VOC equations oriented towards
high speed corridors covering different types of
vehicle types
To evaluate the effect of the rain on the free speed
of the vehicles by considering the dry and wet
road surface conditions on four-lane and six-lane
divided carriageways.
To assess the effect of the different geographical
terrain namely mild rolling, steep rolling and
hilly terrain on the free speed of varying vehicle
types plying on four lane and six lane divided
carriageways.
140 General report on
To distinguish the cause of adverse weather
conditions on the free speed of the vehicles by
considering the foggy and normal conditions
on eight lane divided urban corridors. Further,
the quantum of speed reduction in urban areas
has been critically compared with typical inter-
city segment in the case of eight lane divided
expressway corridor.
To carry out User Cost Surveys covering
six major metropolitan cities involving limited
study of selected vehicles based on actual
vehicle operations on homogeneous routes
encompassing mainly the high speed intercity
highway corridors.
Salient Findings and Proposals
In the present study, an attempt has been made to
identify the need to develop or update the equations of
VOC components for specifc vehicle types operating on
high speed corridors in varied conditions. The vehicle
types considered in the present study include small car,
big car, Bus, LCV, HCV and MCV.
The main conclusions drawn from this study are given
below:
Increase in the speed from wet conditions to dry
condition on four-lane divided carriageway is
ranging from 1.2 percent to 5.2 percent, for LCV,
Big cars and HCV.
Reduction in the free speed from Plain terrain to
Mild Rolling terrain is ranging from 10.11 percent
to 21.29 percent, while reductions in free speed
from Mild rolling terrain to Steep rolling terrain is
varying between 4.40 percent to 12.48 percent.
It is found that the decrease in the average free
speed for six-lane divided carriageway is hovering
from 0.38 percent to 13.12 percent across different
vehicle types except in the case of LCV and HCV.
Reduction of free speed was drastic from plain
terrain to hilly terrain is in the range of 36.7 percent
to 46.2 percent in the case of six-lane divided
carriageways.
The speed equations developed for the four-lane
and six-lane is quite acceptable because the error
between the observed free speed and estimated
free speed is below 9.43 percent.
It is observed that reduction of speed due to
the urban traffc across different vehicles types
on eight lane divided urban high speed corridor
is understandably quite high ranging between
18.08 percent to 32.29 percent.
Free speed equation for the eight-lane divided
urban high speed corridor is also more realistic
because the error between the observed speed
and estimated speed is below 5.98 percent.
Recommendations for Dissemination/ Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
The resul t s can be used i n t he Updat i on of
IRC:SP-30 especially for four-lane to eight-lane divided
carriageways.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Traffc Engineering and Transportation Planning Area,
CSIR-CRRI, New Delhi - 25
E mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
21. Evaluation of Relationships Between Pavement
Distress Parameters
Date of Start and Duration : August 2010
Date of Completion : June 2011
i. CSIR-CRRI New Delhi (R)
ii. IIT Roorkee, Roorkee
Scope and Objectives
To develop the Present Serviceability Rating
(PSR) from the roadway data collected through
Network Survey Vehicle (NSV) for the selected
study area.
To develop the relationship between International
Roughness Index (IRI) and Present Serviceability
Rating (PSR) based on statistical criteria.
To develop the relationship between IRI and
pavement distress parameters such as rutting,
cracking, potholes, patching, raveling of the
fexible pavement data for the selected corridor.
To make comparative evaluation between traditional
statistical models and ANN models for studying
the relationship between distresses and IRI.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
The proposed methodology mainly consists of collection
of primary data of Network Survey Vehicle (NSV),
processing of pavement view camera data with the help
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 141
of Hawkaye software tools and modelling the parameters
using traditional statistical techniques and advanced
modeling techniques such as Artifcial Neural Network
(ANN). This has been briefy explained below:
Primary Data Collection: Primary data of NSV
such as road rutting data (left and right rutting),
roughness data (left and right roughness), road
geometric data and GPS (latitude and longitude)
data are collected for the study area. In this
study four study stretches have been identifed for
collecting NSV primary data. These are National
Highway number 49 , 205, 6 and 15 .
PavementVideoDataProcessing: The automatic
evaluation of distress parameter is not available
at present in the literature. The Australian Road
Research Board developed Hawkaye processing
software tool kit for processing the pavement video
camera data collected by NSV. Determination
of pavement distress type and counting its
corresponding distress for the entire study area
are calculated with the help of this software.
Developing Relationship between distress
parameters: Identifcations of model variables for
evaluating the relationship between pavement
distresses parameters as well as distress and
pavement performance indicator such as IRI using
statistical methods and ANN models.
Salient Findings and Conclusion
Six different forms of relations are attempted
between PSR and IRI. The best two relations are
exponential and logarithmic with R
2
value 0.891
and 0.89 respectively. The ANN model is still better
with r
2
value of 0.89.
The limitations of traditional regression models
can be overcome by latest tools such as neural
network models. It has been identifes that neural
network models are superior to other statistical
models.
The relations between pavement distress data and
roughness are developed considering the linear
and non-linear regression models.
Relative importance of input parameters were
estimated using synaptic weights of developed
ANN model. It has been observed that raveling,
potholes and total crack signifcantly contribute to
the road roughness.
Three types of relations are developed between
IRI and distress parameters. These are linear non-
linear with fxed power and non-linear with variable
power. Out of these three non-linear relations
(with variable power) is better than the other two
relation based on R
2
, Root Mean Square Error
and (RMSE) and Mean absolute error (MARE)
value.
Further information/copy of Report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Phone 011-26312268 Fax 011-26845943
e-mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
22. Modeling Travel Time Variations of Urban
Corridors
Date of Start and Duration : August 2010
Date of Completion : March 2011
i. Anna University, Chennai (R)
ii. CSIR-CRRI New Delhi
Scope and Objectives
To study the necessity of travel time reliability/
vari abi l i ty for Indi an road network and a
detailed review on various travel time reliability
measurements.
Examining the fundamental characteristics of
travel time reliability measures for urban corridors
of the National Highway.
To identify the factors (Source of Uncertainties)
that will affect on travel time variation and
development of simulation for modeling travel
time distribution under multiple causes in travel
time variability.
To analyze travel time variation using microscopic
simulation tool such as VISSIM under the infuence
of uncertainties as a system of transportation
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
Identifcation of demand side factor and supply
side factor which affect the travel time variation
and Preparation of framework for modeling travel
time variation
Selection of study Area
Data collection: Traffc surveys were conducted
for the study area of urban corridors at Chennai
and Delhi.
Estimation of travel time reliability indices:
142 General report on
o Modeling Travel time variation
o Modeling Demand side variation (Traffc
Volume) and supply side variation (Capacity
variation) has been carried out by using
Probabilistic modeling techniques
o Modeling Demand side variation (Traffc
Volume) and supply side variation (Due
traffc Incidents ) has been carried out by
using Microscopic simulation techniques
such as VISSIM software
Evaluating the Travel Time Reliability for various
scenarios
Salient Findings and Conclusion
This study identifed the requirement of travel
time reliability measurements for measuring
performance of transportation network than the
traditional measures.
Travel time reliability measures such as buffer
time index is more useful to commercial vehicle/
business trip users. Whereas planning time and
planning time index is more suitable to normal
traffc and working trips.
On Anna Salai section during morning peak
hours PTI values are about 5.0 for vehicles enter
after 9 AM. Similarly BTI values become larger
for the vehicles enter after 9 AM and before
10 AM in the morning peak hour. Whereas on
non working days during morning peak hours
PTI values are very low about 2.0 compared to
working days.
On NH-2 section during morning peak hours
PTI values are about 3.5 for vehicles enter after
9 AM. Similarly BTI values become high for
the vehicles enter after 9.15AM and before
10.15 AM in the morning peak hour. Whereas
on non working days during morning peak
hours PTI values are low about 1.5 compared
to working days.
SRSM technique was found to be an effcient
method of uncertainty analysis for determining
the travel time variation under the uncertainty of
traffc fuctuation as demand side variation and
capacity variation as supply side factor.
The percentage of change in reliability measures,
with and without accident is 20 percent. The
percentage of change of reliability measures when
the traffc signal is failure is about 23 percent.
Further information/copy of Report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Phone 011-26312268 Fax 011-26845943
e-mail ID : director.crri@nic.in
23. Accessing Road Compaction Impact on Life
CycleCostofRoadProjectsUsingHDM-4
Date of Start and Duration : May 2010
Date of Completion : March 2011
i. NIT Suratkal (R)
ii. CSIR-CRRI New Delhi
Scope and Objectives
Literature review of the road compaction and its
consequences
To evaluate the road compaction impact on life
cycle cost of roads using HDM-4.
To gain insight of implementation and suitability
of HDM-4 to Indian road system
Quantifcation of losses for quality of compaction
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
Literature review includes the study of identifcation
of technology options for road construction, study
of compaction and life cycle cost analysis of road
works.
National Highways segments selection for study
and its pavement inventory and distress data
collection.
Identification and collection of other relevant
data required for HDM-4 inputs from secondary
sources.
Analysis of life cycle cost using HDM-4 and
estimate performance outcomes.
Analysis of the results.
report preparation
Salient Findings and Conclusion
In this study two sections of National Highways
(one on NH-69 and another on NH-11) passing
through Rajasthan comprising 100 km of each
NHs and a total length of 200 km was considered,
these are existing two lane roads.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 143
An attempt has been made to see the impact
of compaction by doing sensitivity analysis on
base layers as well as surface layers and its
consequences on life cycle cost of roads using
HDM-4 version 2, while widening these sections
in to four lanes.
This study clearly quantified the impact of
compaction on road works deterioration such
as roughness progression, long and short term
maintenance etc. and increase in life cycle cost if
the compaction quality of road is not maintained
to standard level, while construction of roads.
The results are showing for 200 km length of
National Highways if the relative compaction
is compromised to 5 percent, 10 percent and
20 percent less than the desired level, the
increase in life cycle cost is 0.34 percent,
1.41 percent and 2.27 percent respectively in
terms of life cycle cost.
Further information/copy of Report can be obtained
from
Director, CSIR- CRRI, Mathura Road, New Delhi-110 025
Phone 011-26312268 Fax 011-26845943
e-mail ID: director.crri@nic.in
24. Evaluation of Turn Lanes at Signalized
Intersection in Heterogeneous Traffc using
Microscopic Simulation Model
Date of Start and Duration : 03 Aug 2004,
7 years
Date of Completion : 16 March 2011
Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai
(R)
Scope and Objectives
The scope of this research study is limited to evaluation
of the two types of turn lanes through simulation
approach using a study intersection in Chennai city,
India. The broad objective of this research work
is to study the effectiveness of right turn lane and
unconventional channelized left turn lane at intersections
in heterogeneous traffc with unique traffc and driver
behaviour. The specifc objectives are:
to study the characteristics of traffic flow at
signalized intersections under heterogeneous
traffc conditions.
To develop a microscopic traffc simulation model
for a signalized intersection under heterogeneous
traffic conditions using C++ adopting Object
Oriented Programming methodology.
To apply the above simulation model to study the
traffc fow using a case study intersection with
and without (a) Right Turn Lane (RTL) and (b)
Channelized Left Turn Lane (CLTL).
To evaluate the effcacy of RTL and CLTL through
sensitivity analysis.
To determine optimal lengths of RTL and CLTL for
various scenarios of infuencing variables.
Proposed Methodology
A microscopic traffc simulation model for intersection fow
under heterogeneous traffc conditions was specifcally
developed for this study. The simulation model was
programmed in C++ using Object Oriented Programming
(OOP). The modeling of traffc fow at intersections
consists of the following fve major sequential steps:
(i) vehicle generation, (ii) vehicle placement, (iii) vehicle
movement, (iv) vehicle accumulation, and (v) vehicle
dissipation. The model was validated considering the
queue density, dissipation of vehicles and control delay
at the intersection. Accordingly, the feld observed and
simulated values were compared to verify for the validity
of the model.
The developed simulation model was then used to
study the effcacy of RTL and CLTL on control delay of
vehicles through a case study intersection in Chennai
city, India. A sensitivity analysis was performed by
varying the approach volumes, turn proportions and
turn lane lengths. For this purpose, control delays for
the two major approaches without and with turn lanes
were determined from simulation model. Each scenario
was examined in two sets of simulation modeling runs:
one with and one without a turn lane. Simulation runs
were performed for 640 scenarios with a turn lane and
128 scenarios without it (total of 768 runs).
Salient Findings and Conclusions
A microscopic traffc simulation model was developed
for heterogeneous traffc fow at signalized intersections
and implemented in C++ language using Object Oriented
Programming (OOP) concepts. This model, specifcally
developed for evaluation of turn lanes, has yielded
valuable insights on such an application. Scenario
analysis was conducted for various combinations of
related factors. It is also useful in determining the optimal
144 General report on
lengths of turn lanes. The key conclusions arising out of
this research based on the case study intersection are:
In general, RTL is found to be advantageous
only up to certain approach volumes and right-
turn proportions, beyond which it is counter-
productive. This study pinpoints the break-
even points for various scenarios. RTL is
disadvantageous for higher turn proportions
(40 percent for 3000-3500 veh/h (for shorter
turn lane lengths), and 35 percent and 40
percent for 4000 veh/h). Optimal RTL lengths
are found (10-30 m for 500-1500 veh/h and
30-50 m for 2000-4000 veh/h) for combinations of
considered values for the different parameters.
CLTL is found to be advantageous for lower
approach volumes at all turn proportions,
signifying the benefts of CLTL. It is counter-
productive for higher approach volume and lower
turn proportions. CLTL is disadvantageous for
lower left turn proportions (5 percent for 2000
veh/h, 10 percent and lesser for 2500 veh/h and
20 percent and lesser for 3000-4000 veh/h). The
optimal lengths of CLTL (10 m for 500 veh/h,
30 m for1000 veh/h, 40-50 m for 1500 veh/h
and 50 m for 2000-4000 veh/h) are obtained for
combinations of considered values for the different
parameters.
The above fndings demonstrate that turn lanes can be
considered for application as an appropriate intersection
lane control tool for enhancing the effciency of fow
at signalized intersections in heterogeneous traffic
conditions. Such an analysis can serve as a valuable
tool in deciding whether to adopt turn lanes, and if so in
determining the optimal lengths of turn lanes for various
conditions.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Transportation Engineering Division, Department of Civil
Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai 600 036
Mobile : 9486640274 Phone: 044-22575292
e-mail ID: gowri_iitm@yahoo.co.in
25. StudyofMergingatUrbanUncontrolledMajor-
Minor Road Intersections under Heterogeneous
TraffcConditions
Date of Start and Duration : 03 Feb 2005,
6 years
Date of Completion : 13 Feb 2011
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai
Scope and Objectives
In urban areas, a large number of minor roads join or
cross arterials/sub-arterials at close intervals. At these
intersections, vehicles merge to enter the main traffc
stream. In congested situations, acceptable gaps in
main traffic are often not available, leading to more
complex merging phenomena. This affects the main
road traffc in terms of speed, fow and safety. Due to
complex driver behaviour, vehicular interactions and
their manoeuvresunder heterogeneous traffc conditions,
developing merging models that reflect high degree
of realism has been challenging. The study of such
merging processes is, however, important for operational
analysis and in devising traffc control measures. The
broader objective of this research work is to model the
vehicular merging at major-minor road intersections under
heterogeneous traffc conditions. The specifc objectives are:
To identify and study the various types of
mergi ng and parameters i nfl uenci ng the
merging characteristics of vehicles at urban
uncontrolled major-minor road intersections under
heterogeneous traffc conditions.
To develop models for the following types of
merging at these intersections: (a) Normal, (b)
Forced, (c) Group, and (d) Vehicle Cover.
To develop a microscopic traffic simulation
framework incorporating the above merging
models and provide an abstract illustration of the
same.
Proposed Methodology
In congested situations in heterogeneous traffc, the
merging vehicle attempts complex merging manoeuvre
to enter the main traffc stream. Under these situations,
four different types of merging phenomena can occur:
(i) normal merging, (ii) forced merging, (iii) group
merging, and (iv) vehicle cover merging. These refect
the different types of driver behaviour - merging normally,
aggressively, in groups, and by taking cover of another
vehicle. Group merging and vehicle cover merging are
unique merging processes under heterogeneous traffc
conditions as found in India.
Separate probabilistic models for normal and forced
merging are developed that capture drivers' merging
behaviour under congested situations. The minor road
vehicles join the main road traffc stream if the available
gap (spacing between the back of lead vehicle and
front of lag vehicle on the main road) is greater than the
acceptable gap (critical gap) (normal merging). When the
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 145
level of congestion on the main road increases, drivers
attempting to enter the main road get more impatient
and aggressive. In such situations, the lag vehicles are
forced to slow down or change lane, thereby creating
a gap for the entering vehicle (forced merging). In the
combined merging model, both normal and forced
merging is combined in a unifed modeling framework.
This integrated merging model closely refects realistic
behaviour and is superior to single merging behaviour
models. A separate merging model for two-wheelers
was also developed due to their unique merging
characteristics. Two unique merging processes are
commonly observed in heterogeneous traffc: group and
vehicle cover merging. These refect the different types
of driver behavior - merging in groups, and by taking
cover of another vehicle. Probabilistic models for group
and vehicle cover merging are developed that capture
this unique merging behaviour.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
Separate probabilistic models for normal and
forced merging were developed that capture
drivers' merging behavior under congested
situations. This is a signifcant improvement over
the existing deterministic lane changing models
under heterogeneous traffc conditions.
A forced merging model was developed that
captures merging in heavily congested traffc by
gap creation through forced yielding.
In the combined merging model, both normal
and forced merging is combined. The integrated
model s sequenti al l y consi der normal and
forced merging behaviour in a unifed modeling
framework. Integrated merging model closely
resembles the feld conditions compared to single
merging behaviour models.
Two uni que mergi ng behavi our prevai l i n
heterogeneous traffc: group and vehicle cover
merging. Probabilistic models for these merging were
developed that capture the drivers' unique merging
behavior under heterogeneous traffc conditions.
A separate merging model for two-wheeler was
developed due to its unique characteristics and
driver behaviour.
Detailed microscopic data collection and extraction
were carried out to study the merging process
under congested conditions
Finally, a simulation framework of major-minor
road intersections for heterogeneous traffc was
presented.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Transportation Engineering Division, Department of Civil
Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
Chennai - 600 036
Mobile: 9444328429 Phone: 044-22575292
e-mail ID: venkatesankanagaraj@yahoo.co.in
26. Travel Time and Congestion Analysis under
HeterogeneousTraffcConditions
Date of Start and Duration : July 2008; 4 years
Date of Completion : July 2012
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai(R)
Scope and Objectives
The broad objective is to analyze and model traffc
state (which includes travel time) and congestion under
heterogeneous traffc conditions as prevailing in urban
areas in India. The following specifc objectives have
been identifed:
To collect and analyze traffc and travel time data
under heterogeneous traffc conditions that will
specifcally suit the requirements of the present
study.
To develop and validate models for representing
the complex heterogeneous traffc state by a
suitable macroscopic traffc fow model.
To predict the travel times and other fundamental
parameters like fow, speed and density by using
the above developed models via model based
techniques (Kalman filtering) and popularly
adopted field methods and to validate the
prediction accuracy under heterogeneous traffc
conditions.
To develop model to predict the travel time of other
personal vehicles from public transit vehicles and
to validate the same.
To quantify congestion under heterogeneous
traffc conditions using the predicted travel time
values.
The scope of the present thesis work is restricted to urban
arterials under heterogeneous traffc conditions. The
traffc state estimation (density, speed and travel time)
requires only the location based data from videos. The
prediction of travel time of private vehicles uses only the
Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) data from GPS ftted
public transit vehicles due to privacy issues with private
146 General report on
vehicle operators. Also, the congestion quantifcation will
be based on travel time based measures.
Proposed Methodology
The data collection will involve the videotaping of the
traffc conditions at selected study route to get the
required data on fow, density and travel time. The GPS
ftted private and public transit vehicles will be used to get
the required AVL data under different traffc conditions
which includes the dwell time at bus stops, signal delays,
etc. The collected data will undergo data cleaning and
grouping during the data synthesis step. The next and
most important step is the identifcation/modifcation/
development of macroscopic traffc fow model to be
used for estimation and short term prediction of travel
time and other fundamental traffc parameters. The
existing macroscopic models like LWR will be analyzed
for its suitability under heterogeneous traffc conditions
and if necessary suitable modifcations will be done
so that it can be used under the heterogeneous traffc
conditions. The model has to be validated with the help
of real world data.
The next step is to identify the various patterns of
bus travel time, namely the weekly, daily and trip-
wise patterns to identify the most signifcant inputs for
bus travel time/arrival time prediction. Only the most
signifcant inputs identifed in the previous step, will be
used while developing the prediction models for bus
travel time prediction using model based approach
(Kalman fltering) and data driven techniques (time
series, regression) and combined data driven and
model based techniques. The idea of bus travel time
prediction will be extended to predict the travel time
of other personal vehicles using AVL data from GPS
ftted public transit buses, which will be followed by the
validation of results.
The fnal phase of the work will be to quantify congestion
based on the estimated traffc stream travel times. The
various congestion indices will be examined in detail
and suitable modifcation/adaptation will be carried out
for use in better characterizing the congestion levels in
heterogeneous traffc.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
It is found that the macroscopic traffc fow model
developed in this study can use the location based
data available from the decoding of videography
collected on the road network to provide a complete
set of spatial parameters such as density and travel
time estimates, which are diffcult to measure or
estimate on an urban arterial particularly under
heterogeneous traffc conditions. Further, the model
based approach using the macroscopic traffc fow
model proposed in this study can likely be used
to represent heterogeneous traffic conditions at
macroscopic level. It is found that, for the estimation
of density and travel time, an exponential speed-
density relation or the traffc stream model specifc to
that particular corridor may be considered rather than
a simple Greenshields linear model. Also the use of
linear interpolation of input fow values is found to be
performing better than cubic spline interpolation.
The pattern identifcation of bus travel time reveals that
under heterogeneous traffc conditions, there exists a
strong weekly and trip-wise pattern which demonstrates
that the most significant inputs for predicting the
current bus trip travel time can be from the previous
two weeks same time trip and the previous two trips
of the same day. The classical time series methods
like multiplicative decomposition and exponential
smoothing which are popular in fnancial forecasts
and never been tried for bus travel time prediction
were explored in the present thesis work and found to
be performing well for the problem of bus travel time/
arrival time prediction.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from:
S. Vasant ha Kumar, Ph. D Research Schol ar,
Transportation Engineering Division, Dept. of Civil
Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai - 36
Mobile : 094440 50435 e-mail ID: vasanth_research@
yahoo.co.in
27. TraffcModelingunderHeterogeneousTraffc
Conditions
Date of Start and Duration : 17 July 2009,
3 years
Date of Completion : July 2012 (Expected)
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai(R)
Scope and Objectives
To develop suitable traffc stream models relating
fundamental traffc fow variables namely speed,
fow, and density under Indian traffc conditions
that will be essential for the development of a
continuum macroscopic model.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 147
To develop and validate a Dynamic macroscopic
traffc fow model incorporating heterogeneity in
to account for better modelling of Indian traffc.
Proposed Methodology
Traffc data collection through videographic technique
from feld and extraction of speed, density and fow
manually from the collected videos in laboratory.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
A steady state traffc stream model was developed for
the heterogeneous traffc in urban arterials.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Research Scholar, Dept. of Civil Engineering,
Transportation Engineering Division, IIT Madras
Mobile : 9444973563 e-mail ID: tajitha98@gmail.com
28. Influence of Cross Roads and Fringe
Conditions on Travel Time
Date of Start and Duration : 05 August 2010,
9 Months
Date of Completion : 01 May 2011
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai
Scope and Objectives
The scope of this project work was limited to analyzing
the infuence of cross roads and fringe conditions on
travel times and a selected congestion index through two
case study corridors in Chennai. The overall objective of
this study was to develop relationships between travel
times and various infuencing factors. Specifc objectives
of the study were:
To develop a methodology for the study and
identify appropriate data collection techniques
and case study corridors.
To evaluate travel times of test vehicles for various
scenarios of cross roads and fringe conditions.
To model the relationships between travel time and
related infuencing parameters through regression
analysis.
Proposed Methodology
In this study, travel time data was collected using GPS
ftted to test vehicles (cars and two wheelers). Data on
cross roads and fringe conditions data was collected
manually by travelling along the corridor. Analysis
was done using Map Source, Visual C++ and SPSS
software.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
Causal relationships could be established
between the two dependent variables (travel time
and congestion index) and selected independent
variables. The developed relationships were
logical and the goodness of ft of many models
was reasonable.
The coeffcient values and signs are also generally
logical and reasonable, indicating the validity of
the models.
Signalized crossing roads, signalized joining roads
and (v/c) were the variables which were signifcant
in most of the cases.
Non-signalized crossing roads and joining
roads have almost no impact on travel time and
congestion index (they did not enter the model in
most cases).
In the combined model (including corridors I and
II, all time periods and vehicle types), most of the
selected independent variables were found to be
signifcant.
Considering the various scenarios of Corridor
I, II and combined cases, vehicle type (car/two-
wheeler) enters in most of the models with positive
coefficient for car as vehicle type, indicating
higher travel times and congestion index for cars
(as compared to two-wheelers). This is logical in
heterogeneous traffc conditions as prevailing in
India, since two-wheelers travel faster due to their
greater maneuverability and the drivers behavior
of utilizing gaps between larger vehicles to get
ahead.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from:
Shivprasad B. Khedkar, At Post: Chaklamba,
Tq: Gevrai, Dist: Beed - 431127 (Maharashtra)
Mobile : 08015817276
e-mail ID: shiv_k9051@yahoo.co.in
29. Departure Time and Route Choice Modelling
for Work Trips
Date of Start and Duration : July 2010- May 2011
Date of Completion : May 2011
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai(R)
148 General report on
Scope and Objectives
Develop and implement suitable departure time
choice model for work trips
Analyze key factors infuencing route choice of
workers in mixed traffc
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
Travel Data survey and analysis
Salient Findings and Conclusions
Departure time decisions for work trips of individuals
are primarily infuenced by their schedule delays with
reference to their anchor points. The anchor points, or
where there is a maximum gain on arrival, vary across
population groups. While some have preferred arrival
times as their anchors, others have work start times.
The non-linearity effect of travel time and infuence of
schedule delay on route choice have been studied.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Meenu Francis, Transportation Engineering Division,
Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras,
Chennai-600 036
Mobile : 09043633095 or 099847111035
e-mail ID: meenufrancis@gmail.com
30. Study of Arterial Congestion Using Global
Positioning System and Geographical
Information System
Date of Start and Duration : August 2010,
10 Months
Date of Completion : May 2011
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai)R)
Scope and Objectives
To evaluate the Land use structure (density and mix),
density of cross roads (signalized and Unsignalized) on
Arterial Travel Times
Proposed Methodology
The following methodology was followed to realize the
study objectives:
Reconnaissance Survey and Identification of
Study Corridors based on Google Earth images,
feld visits, trial probe vehicle runs.
Data collection: conducting probe vehicle runs
with GPS devices to measure the travel times on
both the arterials. This was followed by collection
of volume data using video cameras and manual
counts at select locations.
Building the land use data and in ArcGISTM using
GoogleTM Earth and CMDA land use map. Land
uses are classifed into 5 types namely, residential,
commercial, industrial, institutional, open-space
or recreational. An area of infuence of 500 m on
either side of the corridors was considered.
Measuring cross roads density. This was divided
into two types viz. Signalized, Unsignalized.
Data extraction and analysis. The travel time
values were extracted for each 500 m segments.
The volumes were extracted in terms of PCUs per
hour and subsequently volume capacity ration was
obtained. Travel Time Index (TTI) was calculated
for each of the segments which are given by ratio
of actual travel time to free fow travel time. Land
use values were obtained from ArcGIS in terms of
density, which is nothing but the area of the land
use divided by the total area.
Model building: A congestion Index model was
built using linear regression analysis. TTI was
considered as the dependent variable along with
8 independent variables
Salient Findings and Conclusions
Density of Signalized cross roads was found to be the
commonly infuencing variable. The land use density or mix
did not have any signifcant infuence on the travel times.
Recommendations for Dissemination/ Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
Land use structure of larger area (beyond the area of
study) has to be considered in decision making process
in transportation planning. A localized study of land use
has not shown any signifcant effect on the travel.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Pratyasha Shetty, Transportation Engineering Division,
IIT Madras
31. Planning for Safe Movement along Linear
Intercity Corridor
Date of Start & Duration : 11 Jan 2011
Date of Completion : 08 June 2011
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 149
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi
Scope and Objectives
To identify the major planning and design parameters
influencing the safe movements along an Intercity
Corridor. This aim has been achieved by following the
further mentioned activities.
To study the selected inter-city corridor with
respect to:
o History of Corridor (Pre & Post Freeway)
o Road Crash Characteristics post conversion
to Expressway
o Traffc Characteristics
o Geometric Characteristics
o Facilities provided for access control on
corridor.
To identify the corridors safety issues and relate
them with the Design & Planning parameters by
conduction of reconnaissance surveys, primary
surveys & secondary surveys and thus typical
improvement proposals for typical corridors.
The limitations of this dissertation are listed as
under:
o Case study is confned to Delhi-Gurgaon
Expressway (28 km stretch).
o For Planning & Design methodology factors
like Pavement design, Environmental
effects, Land use impact, Tolling operations
etc has not been considered
Proposed Methodology
Surveys like reconnaissance survey, traffc volume
survey, speed surveys etc were conducted. And
recommendations for the case study stretch were
evolved based on the above traffc studies wherein a
planning methodology was prepared for any upcoming
intercity corridor.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
Based on t he vari ous st udi es, t he f ol l owi ng
recommendations have been proposed for the study
corridor:
The speed profle on the corridor revealed that
change in speed occurs gradually over a distance
of 2 km and this speed is observed to reduce near
the exit points which are located within 2 km.
Hence during planning stage, to achieve uniform
speed on an access controlled intercity corridor
the intersection spacing should be made more
than 2 km.
From Weaving analysis, it can be recommended
for an upcoming corridor, having a speed range of
90-95 kmph with a fow of 5100 PCU/h, minimum
4-lanes should be provided for weaving & weaving
length shall be more than 200 m.
the analysis of road Crash data illustrates that rear
end road crashes occur because of two wheeler
interference, which ply on expressway because
proper service lane width is not provided. Hence
it is recommended that a dedicated two-wheeler
lane be provided for safe movement. Further, the
road crash depicts that the increased incidence
of head on collision involving goods vehicles and
car near industrial area, main reason for this being
wrong side driving warranting for the provision of
dedicated freight lane.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Sandeep Shanbhag, Row House No. C-1-14,
Sector-4, Airoli, Navi Mumbai-400 708, Maharashtra.
Mobile : 9650019947 e-mail ID: sushan19@gmail.
com, sin_d_19@yahoo.co.in
32. Safety Along Urban Arterial Roads: Case Study
-Delhi
Date of Start & Duration : 11 Jan 2011
Date of Completion : 07 May 2011
School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi (R)
Scope and Objectives
To study the Planning Consideration, Functional
Characteristics of an Urban Arterial Road.
To study Issues, causative factors of trends of
Road crashes on urban roads of Delhi with &
without system Interventions (BRT / Metro).
To derive appropriate strategies relevant to
Planning, Engineering & Management Transport
System to maximize Urban Road safety.
Proposed Methodology
To start with, the various aspects were studied from
different Literature Reviews of International Case studies
on this topic. Followed by this a detailed description
150 General report on
of an Arterial road with Defnition, Standards, factors
in Consideration were described. It is continued with
an Arterial road Description with / without system
Intervention of Delhi roads with the Road crash Profle
on Delhi Roads for past three years & their causal
Factors. Case study areas for Road, BRT & Metro Based
Systems showing their Characteristics, Road crash
Profle & Surveys were conducted on different Stretches.
Analysis of different system followed by comparative
analysis between all the three systems has been done.
Finally various Strategies and recommendation for the
analysis followed by Conclusion drawn from the entire
study has been presented.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
The study work is divided into three parts (Road Based
System, BRT Based System, Metro Based System) of
Delhi. All the Three Systems were comparable on the
Basis of their Geometric behavior, Right of Way & Land
use. Road crash Data along the Corridor is collected to
analyze the Road crash Spots, Time Interval, Type of
Road crash and Vehicle at Fault vs Victim on the study
corridor. Various surveys were conducted like Traffc
Composition, Speed & Delay, Videography Survey,
etc. along the Road crash Areas of different corridors. It
leads us to major Causative factors & Issues related to
System Intervention along the Corridors. Various Issues
which are analyzed are in the form of Human Behavior,
Geometric Factor and Vehicular Factors (insuffcient
Sight Distance, waiting time at median, Gap Occurrence,
Access Spacing etc.).
Recommendations of Dissertation
In the last various Appropriate Strategies are provided
relevant to Planning, Engineering & Management
Transport System to maximize Urban Road safety.
Recommendations are interlinked with Safety issues
along all the three systems. In BRT Corridor, there
could be provision of the pedestrian underpass
through the cross section of the road enabling easier
access to the subways for pedestrians, An alternative
option of raising the carriage way by a height of
2.0 m enabling easier access to stops for all user
groups. Similarly, Large Median refuge islands
provided reducing pedestrian-vehicle collisions by
50 percent., Span of Metro Pillars should be more
between the Intervals helping in proper visibility &
Sight Distance, Provision of Service Roads & there
should be proper planning consideration at time of
placing systems for arterial Roads.
Further information /copy of report can be obtained
from
Sharad Kumar Sharma,58, Basant Nagar, P.O:
VasantVihar, New Delhi-110 057
Mobile : +919650747891
e-mail ID : sharmasharadkumar@gmail.com
33. Estimation of Travel Time and Delay in Urban
ArterialsUnderIndianTraffcConditions
Date of Start and Duration : August 2010
Date of Completion : May 2011
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,
Chennai (R)
Scope and Objectives
A large proportion of research studies focus on travel
time estimation and forecasting for freeways than
on urban roads. However, majority of the models
developed for freeways cannot be applied directly on
urban networks without further calibration due to the
difference in behaviour of traffc on the freeway and
urban facilities. The situation is more challenging for
Indian conditions because of the additional issues
related to heterogeneity, lack of lane discipline and
minimal data availability. The present study looks into
the need to estimate travel time in an Indian urban
roadway by a method which is straight-forward to use
and can be driven with existing and cost effective data
sources. The specifc objectives of the study presented
in this project are the following:
Identifcation of viable methods of travel time and
delay estimation for an urban link under Indian
conditions, on a real-time basis that requires as
minimal calibration as possible.
Identifcation of the specifc issues in applying
the above methods under Indian conditions and
modifying them for better performance.
Development of an analytical model for the
estimation of travel time in an Indian urban
roadway based on the above methods, taking into
account varying traffc fow conditions.
Validation of the travel time and delay estimation
models with feld data collected using GPS probes
and simulated data using VISSIM simulation
package.
Checking the performance of the developed
method for longer sections using simulation.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 151
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
Field study and Simulation using VISSIM
Salient Findings and Conclusions
The current work takes in to account the travel time
estimation for a signalized urban arterial having all the
constraints of heterogeneous and less lane disciplined
road conditions by employing a hybrid method, where
the total travel time of the link is obtained by summing
up the segment travel time and delay incurred at the
bounding intersection.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Deepa L,TC 9/1199-2, Sreeranjanam, Mangalam Lane,
Sasthamangalam P.O., Thiruvanathapuram-695 010
Mobile :9445874314 Phone: 0471- 2725533
e-mail ID: archideeps79@gmail.com
34. Crowd Behaviour of Pedestrians Arriving at
Railway Station
Date of Start and Duration : August 2010,
10 months
Date of Completion : June 2011
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai(R)
Scope and Objectives
this research is restricted only to pedestrians without
considering vehicular pedestrian interaction. The
videos of uncongested pedestrian flow at Central
Railway Station, Chennai is used for the purpose of
the analyzing the pedestrian fow characteristics. No
lane discipline is followed and only the unidirectional
pedestrian fow is observed.
The main objective of this work is to study the pedestrian
fow at a typical railway station at both the macroscopic
level and microscopic level encompassing the following:
To identify the factors infuencing the pedestrian
fow at railway station.
To extract macroscopic parameters from the video
recordings of pedestrian fow at selected location
namely the Central Railway Station, Chennai.
To draw the fundamental diagrams from the
extracted macroscopic parameters.
To compare the speeds of the pedestrians with
respect to different characteristics.
To understand and analyze the pattern of the
pedestrian behaviour.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
Data collection of pedestrian fow, data extraction and
analysis of the extracted data.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
It was found that pedestrian characteristics have effect
of pedestrian speeds. Average speed of the pedestrian
on railway platform is found to be 1.07 m/s.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
H.No. 1-4-63/8/104, Sri Sai Nest Apts, Street No.
8, Habsiguda, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500 044
Mobile :09502196997 e-mail ID: pruthvigo@gmail.com
35. DevelopmentofMethodologyforJustifcation
for Provision of Exclusive Bus Lanes on Urban
Roads
Date of Start and Duration : June 2009
Date of Completion : June 2011
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai(R)
Scope and Objectives
The specifc objectives of this study are:
To study the general impact of provision of
exclusive bus lanes on traffc fow characteristics
under heterogeneous traffc conditions.
To develop social criteria to justify provision of
exclusive bus lanes on urban roads based on the
proportion of travellers using different modes for
a range of roadway and traffc conditions.
To develop economic criteria to justify the provision
of exclusive bus lanes on urban roads based on
the money value of time of travellers using the
different modes for a range of roadway and traffc
conditions.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
The methodology adopted to carry out the project work
consists of the following major sections:
Problem Definition: Problem definition phase
gives the brief background of the study and
152 General report on
its signifcance in the Indian context, and the
objectives and scope of the present research
work.
Literature Review: This helps to get a clear
understanding about the current state of the
procedures and techniques related to the provision
of exclusive bus lane. This section mainly contains
review of literature on exclusive bus lanes, value of
travel time and micro-simulation of heterogeneous
traffc fow.
The Frame Work: The general procedural
framework to be followed for justification of
provision of exclusive bus lanes under Indian
traffc conditions is frst formulated.
Data Collection: Collection of data on traffc
flow to estimate the represent traffic volume
and composition at the chosen study section.
Data was collected using video camera and the
data then transferred to a computer. Vehicle
occupancy survey was also carried out at two
major intersections in Chennai city, Tamilnadu.
Winshield method was used for the occupancy
survey. The data on vehicular characteristics were
adopted from the available literature.
Social Justifcation: Justifcation of provision of
exclusive bus lane on urban roads by giving equal
priority to all the users without considering the
mode of transport. The occupancy, road width
allotted and composition of different modes of
transport were used for this justifcation. This was
done by comparing the road width consumed by
one bus traveller and the road width consumed
by one passenger of other vehicle.
EconomicJustifcation: This justifcation is based
on the money value of travellers time savings due
to provision of exclusive bus lane on urban roads.
For this purpose, different monetary values have
been given to travel time of each mode user based
on the wage rate of travellers. A questionnaire
survey was carried out at different locations
in Chennai to estimate the monthly income of
travellers of different modes.
Findings and Conclusion: The main findings
and conclusion of the study on justifcation for
provision of exclusive bus lanes on 11 m and 14.5
m wide urban roads under highly heterogeneous
traffc conditions were presented.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
The following are the important conclusions drawn based
on this study:
It has been found through the study that for
the observed traffc composition, without any
exclusive bus lane, the capacities of the 11.0 m
wide and 14.5 m wide road spaces considered for
analysis, are about 6794 and 9044 vehicles per
hour respectively for one-way movement of traffc.
In the case of three lane roadway (11 m) in one
direction, when an exclusive bus lane is provided,
the bus travellers, constituting 57 percent of
the total of the travellers (using all the available
modes), will use only 38 percent of the road
space, whereas, the users of all the other modes
(excluding buses) constituting 43 percent of
the total of the travellers, will use 62 percent of
the road space. This shows that the provision of
exclusive bus lane on 11 m urban arterial road is
justifable based on the proportion of travellers
using different types of road vehicles.
The least bus fow required for justifcation of
provision of exclusive bus lane on 11 m urban
road, at capacity and at LOS C conditions were
estimated as, 151 buses/hour and 106 buses/
hour respectively. The minimum frequency of
bus service determined was one bus at every
24 seconds at capacity flow and one bus at
every 38 seconds at LOS C. The corresponding
minimum percentage of bus composition required
for the justifcation was 2.23 percent.
In the case of four lane roadway (14.5 m) in one
direction, when an exclusive bus lane is provided,
the bus travellers, constituting 57 percent of
the total of the travellers (using all the available
modes), will use only 28 percent of the road
space, whereas, the users of all the other modes
(excluding buses), constituting 43 percent of
the total of the travellers, will use 72 percent of
the road space. This shows that the provision of
exclusive bus lane on a 14.5 m urban arterial road
is justifable, if we give equal priority to all the users.
The least bus fow required for justifcation of
provision of exclusive bus lane on 14.5 m urban
road, at capacity and at LOS C conditions were
estimated as, 148 buses/hour and 104 buses/
hour respectively. The minimum frequency of
bus service determined was one bus at every
24 seconds at capacity flow and one bus at
every 35 seconds at LOS C. The corresponding
minimum percentage of bus composition required
for the justifcation was 1.71 percent.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 153
The money value of total travellers time savings/
loss in one hour, due to the provision of exclusive
bus lane on 11 m wide and 10 km long urban road
stretch was estimated as ` 53475 (loss) at LOS
C and `169213 (gain) at capacity-fow condition.
The corresponding monetary savings in one day
for the assumed traffc condition was estimated
as ` 4.8 lakhs.
The money value of total travellers time savings/
loss in one hour, due to the provision of exclusive
bus lane on 14.5 m wide and 10 km long urban
road stretch was estimated as ` 6914 (gain) at
LOS C and ` 254612 (gain) at capacity-fow
conditions. The corresponding monetary savings
in one day for the assumed traffc condition was
estimated as ` 15.96 lakhs.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Noor Mahal (H.O), Meppayyur, Kozhikode, Kerala
Mobile : 9790860543 Phone: 0496-2775004
e-mail ID: shabeebhassan@gmail.com
36. Application of Dynamic Traffc Assignment
(DTA)underIndianTraffcConditions
Date of Start and Duration : August 2010
Date of Completion: On-going Ph.D. Work
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai
Scope and Objectives
There are several applications for DTA which
will save great quantum of time and energy
consumption and experiencing peaceful and
tension free ride by road users. The main domain
of application of DTA is Intelligent Transportation
System (ITS).
The Dynamic Traffc Assignment (DTA) models
aim to describe time varying network and demand
interaction using a behaviorally sound approach.
DTA models differ in the implementation of
three components: they are network loading,
path update, and path adjustment or traffic
assignment.
Most DTA applications have been developed
for homogenous traffc conditions. Indian traffc
conditions are heterogeneous. Therefore the
traffc fow modeling in network loading step of
DTA needs to be suitably calibrated for Indian
traffc conditions. Calibrating the network loading
step accounting for mixed traffc conditions will be
the primary objective of the proposed research
work.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
Laboratory experiments
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Parvathy.V.S, Lakshmi Bhavan, Kadayilmudumpu,
kodunganoor.P.O, Thiruvanathapuram-695 013
Mobile : 9444401423
e-mail ID: parvathy.vino@gmail.com
37. Traffic Data Fusion under Indian Traffic
Conditions
Date of Start and Duration : July 2009
Date of Completion : On-going
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai(R)
Scope and Objectives
The overall objective of the work is to develop a
data fusion model for estimating the parameters of
heterogeneous traffc. The specifc objectives include:
To compare the data fusion model with another
model which uses only one type of data source
and recommend the one performing better.
To estimate traffc density using the recommended
model. This can be used as an input to many
I nt el l i gent Transport at i on Syst ems (I TS)
appl i cat i ons such as Advanced Travel er
Information Systems (ATIS).
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
The following are the different tasks carried out in the
present study:
Literature review : A detailed literature review
was carried out on various traffc data fusion
approaches.
Data collection and extraction : the location
data (flow and Space Mean Speed) and spatial
data (travel time) were collected using video
cameras and GPS equipped test vehicles
respectively from the selected road stretch in
Chennai.
154 General report on
Model Development and corroboration : two
models have been developed for comparison
one using data fusion approach and the other one
using data from only one type source. The data
fusion model uses fow from video data and travel
time from GPS data to estimate density. Whereas
the second model estimates density using the
fow and Space Mean Speed (SMS) from video
data. The density estimation is carried out using
Kalman flter technique.
Evaluation of Alternatives : The performance
of both models was evaluated using a suitable
performance index.
Recommendation : From the comparison, it was
found that the data fusion model was performing
better than the second model.
Salient Findings and Conclusions
The following are the specifc fndings from the present
study:
The data fusion model was performing better than
the model which used only one data source.
The result shows that though the travel time
from GPS is sparse and less in number, it is
more reliable and accurate than the SMS from
video.
The results indicates data fusion as a technique
that can be adopted to capture the variations
in traffic in a better way, with limited data
sources.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Asha Anand R., Room No. 332, Sarayu Hostel,
IIT Madras, Chennai-600 036
Mobile : 09962246274
e-mail ID : asha.iitm09@gmail.com
38. Analysis of Interrelated Activity and Travel
Patterns
Date of Start and Duration : July 2010
Date of Completion : On-going
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,
Chennai (R)
Scope and Objectives
Episode level analysis of activity tours.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
Being Formulated.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
House No. 42, East Mada Street, Velachery,
Chennai 600042
Mobile : 8124550180
e-mail ID : kparthan86@gmail.com
39. EstimationofOrigin-DestinationMatricesfor
DynamicTraffcAssignmentModels
Date of Start and Duration :16 Dec 2010
Date of Completion : On-going research
IndianInstituteofTechnology,Madras(R)
Scope and Objectives
To develop an integrated model for estimating and
predicting real-time origin-destination matrices per time
slice.
Most of the approaches are developed for closed
networks. Estimation and prediction of dynamic O-D
demand from time-varying link volumes in networks
with multiple routes is relatively under explored. Also,
the traffc conditions in a network are largely infuenced
by travel times. By incorporating the effect of the travel
times in addition to the link counts, the reliability of
estimation and prediction of dynamic O-D matrices may
be improved. In addition, the possibility of collecting data
with the help of Bluetooth technology embedded in cell
phones needs to be investigated.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
On-going Research
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Room No. 117, Sarayu Hostel, IIT Madras
Mobile :8608651677
e-mail ID: karthikarnair@yahoo.com
40. Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) under
Multiple Vehicle Classes
Date of Start and Duration : 23 July 2010
Date of Completion : On-going
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 155
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai(R)
Scope and Objectives
Most of the DTA models present today assume
homogeneous traffc condition. Even for the homogeneous
traffc, accurate modeling of fow phenomena is diffcult
because of the complexity in driver-vehicle-environment
interaction. Thus, in order to replicate the Indian
heterogeneous traffc more realistically, there is a need
to develop a DTA algorithm incorporating an appropriate
multi vehicle traffc fow model which is attempted in
this study.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
On-going Research
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Ph. D. Scholar, Transportation Engineering Division,
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of
Technology Madras, Chennai - 36
Mobile : 9884992976
e-mail ID: sasthamgmrm@gmail.com
41. Routing Algorithms on Stochastic and Time
Dependent Networks
Date of Start and Duration : 23 July 2010
Date of Completion : On-going Research
IndianInstituteofTechnologyMadras,Chennai
Scope and Objectives
To quantify uncertainty in travel times on stochastic
time dependent urban road networks using
empirical data
To develop appropriate algorithms based on
uncertainty quantifcation to determine the robust
optimal path with link correlations.
Generalize the algorithm in objective 2 to capture
fow-dependence and network interactions
Appl y the proposed al gori thms for traffi c
assignment and ITS applications such as
advanced traveller information systems.
Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/
Field)
Develop algorithms to determine optimal paths on
STD networks with reliability as the objective.
Determine relationship between the uncertainty
of the travel times and traffc characteristics using
feld data.
Dynamic traffc assignment using the relationships
and algorithms developed above and qualitatively
anal yze i ts appl i cati on to the real urban
transportation network.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Arun Prakash, Transportation Research Lab,
Transportation Division, Building Sciences Block,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai - 36
Mobile : +919884446773
e-mail ID: runakkin@gmail.com
42. Analysis of Delays Along Signalized Urban
Corridor
Date of Start : November 2009
Date of Completion : November 2010
College of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram (R)
Scope and Objectives
Delays at signalized intersections are becoming the main
subject area for many of the researchers and scientists.
This is because the delays when calculated in monitory
terms give an indication of the losses that incurred. To
minimize these losses proper remedial measures are
to be found via proper designing and planning of the
intersection. This requires the collection of the delay
data in real time, in a reliable and cost effective manner.
By this study a method is found to determine the delay
values accurately in a second by second basis, using
GPS equipped probe vehicle. This study consists of
the analysis of 13 signalized intersections along a
signalized corridor in Thiruvananthapuram city. The
vehicle trajectories are plotted during each test run and
the delay values were obtained. The weighted average
segment delays were found by assigning weights for
the number of stops and for the trip delay values. The
results were compared and the method which assigns
weights based on the trip delays was found giving more
accurate results. Based on the measured delay data,
the Level of Service for the segments under study were
evaluated and compared with the LOS given by the
traditional criteria based on speed. The present study
was undertaken with the following objectives:
To develop a method to fnd out the overall delay
along a corridor using second-by-second GPS
(Global Position System) data.
156 General report on
To estimate the delays along different segments
in the signalized corridor.
To fnd the infuence of the length of segment on
delays.
To establish LOS based on delay.
Methodology
Identify the study corridor and divide the corridor
into segments.
Collect the road inventory, traffic and signal
data.
Data collection to be done with multiple runs
along the corridor with the GPS instrument,
along with trip logging followed by corridor level
analysis.
Draw the Time-Space diagram and estimate
average delay values for the whole segments.
Assign weights based on number of stops and
based on average trip delay and compare both
methods.
Interpretation of results.
Findings/Conclusions
Two methods for computing the delay from
GPS data were developed and the results were
compared
Method in which the weights assigned for delays
was found more realistic.
Using this method delay for the segments were
found
West gate of Secretariat-VJT segment had the
highest delay in route A (107 sec)
Pulimoodu - Over bridge segment has the highest
delay in Route B (91.93 sec)(longest segment in
that route)
Method analyses each segment separately giving
more reliable delay values
In some cases, shorter segments experience
higher values of delays. Hence, volume of traffc,
speed, mix of traffc and position in queue should
also be taken for delay estimation.
Negative value of delays were observed (as the
free fow was not estimated from feld)
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Dr.R.Padmakumar, Dept. of Civil Engineering, College
of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram.
43. Modelling Overtaking Sight Distance and Risk
AssessmentonTwo-WayHighwayMidblock
Date of Start : November 2009
Date of Completion : November 2010
College of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram (R)
Scope and Objectives
This present study was undertaken with the following
objectives:
To study overtaking methods of different types of
vehicles on different sections of a two way two
lane Highway road.
To select the model parameters for calculating OSD
and to compare it with the existing standards.
To develop OSD models and to validate it.
To calculate the risk index for different OSD
lengths at certain designspeeds.
Methodology
the route selected for the present study was the
stretch of road on NH-47 and the MC road.
The study was concentrated on mid block sections
with two way traffc.
Parameters which affect the overtaking sight
distance were extracted from the video taken at
the study areas for 1 hour.
The collected data was used for calculating
overtaking sight distance and it was compared
with the IRC standards (IRC: 66-1976).
The collected data were statistically analyzed to
evaluate the effect of the selected parameters on
overtaking sight distance.
A unique microscopic simulation using C program
for replicating passing manoeuvres on two-lane
two-way roads was devised.
Passing attempts were simulated for each OSD
length, and a weighed risk index was obtained.
Using the simulation results, risk of various
OSD lengths for different design speeds can be
assessed.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 157
Findings/Conclusions
The overtaking methods of different types of
vehicles on different sections of a two way two
lane Highway roads was studied.
Overtaking sight distance was calculated using
the data collected from the feld and the effect of
different parameters on OSD was found.
The comparison of calculated OSD with the IRC
standards (IRC: 66-1976) showed that the OSD
values obtained by calculation and IRC standards
lies in the same range.
Models were developed for NH Road and MC
Road and models were validated.
Risk Index was calculated for each OSD length
at the end of the simulation runs.
From the simulation it was found that a 100 m
OSD length will end up in a crash and an OSD
length of 300 m to 400 m will be suffcient for a safe
overtaking maneuver at 40, 50 and 60 kmph speeds.
Further Information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Ms. Salini S, Dept. of Civil Engineering, College of
Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram.
44. Modelling Driver Behaviour at Signalized
Intersection
Date of Start : November 2009
Date of Completion : November 2010
College of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram (R)
Scope and Objectives
Safety at signalized intersection depends on a number
of factors among which are the layout of the site,
the traffc volumes at the approaches, the phasing
and the time settings of the traffc signal and human
behaviours of both drivers and pedestrians. Of this,
human behaviour is the sole signifcant factor that is
unpredictable, as it varies continuously. The driving
behaviour varies with the different factors which include
intrapersonal and interpersonal psychological attributes
as well as social demographic factors. An individuals
speed choice can be conceptualised as a behavioural
manifestation of their cognitive, social, attitudinal and
motivational characteristics. These characteristics not
only determine choice of speed, but also more general
driving behaviour. When the driver encounters a signal
change from green to yellow, he is required to make a
stop or go decision based on the speed and distance to
the stop bar. This dilemma is usually characterized by
a physical zone in advance of the intersection termed
as dilemma zone, within which an individual driver can
neither safely clear the intersection nor make a stop. The
yellow phase dilemma is one of the major contributing
factors to intersection related crashes particularly the
rear end and right angle crashes. Driving behaviour is
signifcantly affected by the actions of the neighbouring
vehicles and can differ signifcantly if there are non-
motorized vehicles or high pedestrian activities. On
top of that, driver characteristics like aggressiveness,
driver education and adherence to traffc rules can
signifcantly affect driving behaviour models and pose
challenge to transferability of driving behaviour models
across networks. During red phase, vehicles occupy the
position in a queue considering factors like the length of
queue, type of vehicles in the queue, the position to be
taken etc. and the preferences of these factors varies
with person to person as it depends on the psychological
attributes of an individual.
To model the driver behaviour towards the onset
of yellow phase considering various factors that
includes vehicle approaching speed, distance
from stop-line, vehicle type and age of driver.
To study the accumulation pattern of vehicles at
intersection approach during the red phase.
To model the lane changing behaviour of vehicles
approaching in the green phase.
To analyze the effect of lane changing on
saturation fow at the intersection area.
Methodology
Identify the location of study and data collection
by video and manual methods and extract the
required data.
Plotting vehicle trajectory data for the yellow phase
vehicles and determination of type-I dilemma
zone and determination of type-II dilemma zone
by regression method.
Determination of vehicle accumulation pattern in
the red phase by developing a model considering
contributing factors.
Developing lane change model in the green phase
with the affecting factors.
Determining the effect on saturation fow with
the vehicular interactions that occurs in the
158 General report on
intersection area when the queue is dissipated
by calculating the dynamic PCU.
Findings/Conclusions
Dilemma zone moves away from the stop-line as
the speed increases. Type I dilemma zone can be
eliminated if signal is designed with proper change
intervals according to ITE recommendations.
Countdown timers were found to reduce the type-II
dilemma zone.
A Multinomial Logit Model explains the probability
of a vehicle accumulating in a section with respect
to section 1.
A binomial Logit Model is developed which explains
the lane changing behaviour of the vehicles.
There is signifcant reduction in Dynamic PCU
value with the interaction between the vehicles.
With the reduction of PCU values, the Saturation
Flow also decreases.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
College of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.
45. IdentifcationofMissingLinksBasedonTravel
Demand for Calicut Using TransCAD
Date of Start : November 2009
Date of Completion : November 2010
College of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram (R)
Scope and Objectives
The transportati on pl anni ng process i s a key
component for urban planning and development. In
this work the application of TransCAD software in
estimation of Origin Destination (O-D) matrix from link
volume counts and preparation of desire line diagrams
for the identifcation of missing links in selected areas
of Calicut city network was taken in to account. For
the identifcation of Missing links, desire line diagram
was required. The preparation of desire line diagram
can be done with the help of estimated O-D matrix.
In the transportation planning process, one of the key
input elements is the transport demand. The demand
represented in the form of a matrix called O-D matrix
is essential to identify the infrastructure requirements.
The cell entries of an O-D matrix give the number
of trips between an O-D pair. Scope of the study is
limited to the estimation of O-D matrix from link volume
counts and identifcation of missing links in selected
areas of Calicut city.
The present study was undertaken with the following
objectives:
To review available techniques for estimation of
O-D matrix from link volume counts
To solve a hypothetical network and to apply the
methodology in real network for the estimation of
O-D matrix
To identify congested links based on volume to
capacity ratio
To prepare desire lines for estimated O-D matrix
and to identify the missing links in the network by
superimposing over the existing network
Methodology
Selection of network and preparation of network
Collection of the directional peak hour link volume
counts, link length, width of the road, travel time
and capacity, for selected networks
Preparation of input fle and Estimation of O-D
matrix
Preparation of desire line diagrams
Superimposing the desire line diagram with
existing network
Identifcation of the missing links
Findings/Conclusions
Revi ew of vari ous O-D matri x esti mati on
techniques was done.
Hypothetical network and real network was
solved and estimated O-D matrix was obtained
as output.
Congested links were identifed and it was found
that out of 30 links three links were congested.
Desire line diagram for estimated O-D matrix was
prepared.
Five missing links were identifed.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Ms. Leema Peter, Dept. of Civil Engineering, College of
Engineering Thiruvananthapuram.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 159
46. SchoolBusRoutingUsingTransCAD-ACase
Study
Date of Start : November 2009
Date of Completion : November 2010
College of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram (R)
Scope and Objectives
While providing primary and secondary level educational
services, it is important to provide transportation for
students to and from their respective schools. In urban
areas, due to high population density of students, school
bus routes tend to be relatively short because bus
capacity is reached after a small number of stops are
visited. Buses are over loaded and hence school bus
routing need attention. So it is necessary to distribute
students to various routes such that their walking
distance from home to bus stops and the travel time
of each student should be within the permissible limit
and the route length and load on buses should be
approximately same. The school bus transportation
services provided must be evaluated by both effciency
and equity measures. Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP)
can be conducted using TransCAD. School Bus Routing
Problem (SBRP) is similar to VRP. Hence it has to be
studied whether the vehicle routing procedure can be
adapted for solving the SBRP. TransCAD provides a
powerful set of tools for creating, displaying, and using
the route system. TransCAD is the most capable and
effective system for transportation demand modeling.
This is a package that fully integrates a Geographic
Information System (GIS) for transportation with
transportation modeling and logistics applications.
Reallocation of existing stops was done using the
data collected from St. Thomas High School and St.
Thomas Central School, in Thiruvanathapuram city.
Bus stop allocation and bus route generation was done
for St. Thomas High School, in Thiruvanathapuram city.
The present study was undertaken with the following
objectives:
To identify whether the existing routes satisfy
the performance criteria for school bus transport
service
To reallocate the existing routes without changing
the existing bus stop allocation while satisfying the
performance criteria
To generate a set of routes by assigning the
students to potential bus stops so that the
performance criteria is satisfed
Methodology
The vehicle routing procedure in TransCAD is
used for solving the SBRP.
The goal of vehicle routing procedure is to obtain
a set of routes that minimizes the total time or
distance travelled by the entire feet of vehicles.
The steps to solve vehicle routing problem include
o Preparing the depot and stop data
o Creating the vehicle routing matrix
o Creating the vehicle table
o Solving the vehicle routing problem
Reallocation of existing routes was done for St.
Thomas High School and St. Thomas Central
School.
The weighted average distances of students for
existing and reallocated routes were calculated
and the savings in distance for students was
calculated.
Bus stop allocation and bus route generation was
done for St. Thomas High School.
In bus stop allocation, each student was assigned
to a bus stop and in bus route generation step; the
routes combining these stops were generated.
Students were assigned to stops in such a way
that the capacity of the vehicles was not violated
and students walk from home to their bus stops
should be 0.5 km or less as far as possible.
Physical stops were combined such that the route
lengths, and travel times of students should be
same and load on buses should be within the
permissible limit.
Findings/Conclusions
The vehicle routing problem in TransCAD can be
effectively used for solving the SBRP.
Reallocation of existing routes using TransCAD
provided 28 routes instead of the existing 21
routes for carrying students of St. Thomas High
School and St. Thomas Central School.
Reallocation of routes by TransCAD showed that
there was savings in travel time and distance for
students.
11 percent savings in distance was obtained for
students in the reallocated routes
160 General report on
Route generation using TransCAD provided 12
routes for carrying students from St. Thomas High
School.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Ms. Manju.V.S, Dept. of Civil Engineering , College of
Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram
47. TraffcMonitoringUsingGSMTechnology:An
Emerging Opportunity for ATIS
Date of Start : November 2009
Date of Completion : November 2010
College of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram (R)
Scope and Objectives
Thi s study was l i mi ted to a si ngl e corri dor i n
Thiruvanathapuram city. The East-Fort to Sreekaryam
route of 10.2 km was selected for the study. Only public
transit vehicles were tracked and only real-time travel
time data were collected. The travel time data were
collected for one representative day from 0800 hours to
1900 hours which is divided into three spells viz,
0800 hours to 1100 hours, 1300 hours to 1500 hours and
1600 hours to 1900 hours. Monday to Friday morning
peak hour travel time data were also collected to develop
a model to predict arrival time of public buses.
This work examines the emerging opportunities to collect
network wide traffc information using mobile phones
as traffc probes. By measuring the time of travel and
speed of mobile phone movement, the associated traffc
data can be determined. The specifc objectives of this
study are:
Studying the possibilities of a new method for the
estimation of real-time travel time and speed using
Resources Tracking and Management System
(RTMS) of BSNL
Mapping real-time urban mobility to identify
congestion using real time data
Developing and comparing ANN Model and
Kalman Filter Algorithm for forecasting arrival
pattern of public transit units
Outcome: Accurate bus arrival information at bus
stops will help to reduce the waiting time for buses,
make the service more reliable and thus attract more
people to use the same, thereby reducing congestion
on the road. Forecasted arrival pattern can be utilized
for disseminating information on the transit arrival.
Information on congestion level will help the road users
to select less congested route. The following information
on congestion can be extracted from the real-time traffc
fow measurements:
Spatial location of the congestion in the city area:
Information on which roads are experiencing the
congestion and where exactly the starting and
ending points of the congestion are can be clearly
obtained from the real-time vehicle movement
data.
Temporal characteristics of the congestion: Ideas
on, at what times of the day the congestion is
experienced most and in what days of the week,
can be understood through the analysis of real-
time traffc data.
Unusual congestion: occurrence of road crashes
may be easily identifed by an unusual congestion
experienced in a route through an unusual
increase in travel time in that particular stretch
and real-time travel time data provides such
information easily.
To detect events such as road crashes, jams or any
incident that may alter the normal traffc stream, it is
possible to use historical measures of travel times
during different similar time periods. Abrupt variation in
travel time along different sections with regard to typical
values will represent the occurrence or non-occurrence
of congestion. From the travel time data of each section,
the exact location and time period of congestion can be
identifed in real-time. These congestion levels obtained
through the travel time variation trend may be mapped,
which may become the most attractive application of
ATIS. This congestion information can be used for
representing trend in traffc density also.
Methodology
LBS data provided by BSNL is used in this study. 14
RTMS activated SIMs were subscribed from BSNL. The
Resource Tracking and Management Service (RTMS)
of BSNL, tracks its mobile phones at every 5 minutes
interval and gives the location details in longitude and
latitude along with the time stamp with respect to pre-
defned positions/landmarks along the roadway.
The RTMS activated SIMs were tracked continuously
and the location details of these SIMs were updated at
5 minute interval. The report generated in the RTMS
web portal is extracted to get the longitude and latitude
of the locations where the mobile phones where tracked.
The report also gives the time of arrival of the tracked
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 161
mobile phones at these locations. With the help of
Google Map these locations where identifed and the
entire study route was divided into 6 stretches taking
some of the identifed locations as end points. Time of
travel between these end points was calculated from
the time of arrival details at these locations and average
journey speed of public buses was obtained. Tracking
has been done for 4 consecutive days of a week and
ANN Model and Kalman Filter Algorithm were developed
to predict the travel time for the ffth day taking 4 days
tracking details as history.
Findings/Conclusions
The increasing traffc mobility emerged in recent years
requires more complex mechanisms and techniques
to properly manage and plan the road network.
Unfortunately, the traditional sensor systems are
sometime expensive and so it is almost impossible to
install and maintain sensors for entire road network. So,
new alternatives are required to monitor traffc in a fast,
accurate, economic and continuous manner. Vehicle
detection technologies coupled with information and
communication technologies provide a good means
to collect real time traffc data. With rapid spread
of communication technologies, their use by transit
operators could be an attractive proposition leading to
operational effciencies. A new alternative resides in
mobile systems. The new-generation mobile phone
system architecture provides an effcient approach
of transforming mobile phone location into vehicular
location, through the use of LBS.
The methodology experimented in this study works
well for measuring travel time for a given corridor. It
can be observed that the cell-phone-based systems
have potential large sample size, are more economic
and require minimal man power than the traditional
methods. Moreover, the results obtained are more
reliable as they require minimum human intervention
and hence reduce the chance of errors in data collection
and analysis.
To make a Public Transportation System (PTS) more
effcient, it is essential that the ridership of the PTS
should increase, for that the services should be reliable
and should provide better service to the users. One of
the methods for making the PTS attractive is to provide
bus arrival time information in advance. If buses can be
utilized as potential probes for collection of traffc data in
general, the cost of infrastructure facilities and quantity
of data collection can be reduced. In this study, travel
times and speed of the buses on the study route are
determined using the real-time data obtained from the
RTMS facility of BSNL. The data helped in analyzing
the speed of the buses along various sections of the
route and in identifying the bottlenecks and congested
links of the route. This study has demonstrated a new
methodology that will be valuable to transit operators
in identifying delays along the bus routes and in better
management of their feet.
In addition to this, in this study, innovative models
like ANN Model and a Kalman Filter Algorithm were
developed for dynamic bus arrival time prediction.
Both the models performed very well in the prediction
process. The data analysis shows that the results
were statistically signifcant and the error was within
acceptable limits. It was also observed that ANN Model
outperforms in prediction the Kalman Filter Algorithm.
But due to ease of implementation, dynamic Kalman
Filter may be more suitable.
These type of prediction models, in general, provide
continuous information on the expected arrival time
of buses at downstream stops and hence information
on the expected deviations from the actual schedule.
This facility enables the authorities to assess in real-
time transit stop-based control actions to avoid such
deviations before their occurrence, hence allowing for
proactive control, as opposed to the traditional reactive
control which attempts to recover the schedule after
deviations occur. The model developed here was based
on data from one bus route in Thiruvanathapuram City.
However, the same modeling approach may be applied
to other routes also. Importance of such prediction
models can be enlisted as:
Travel time prediction models make it possible to
keep track of the buses and thus calculate whether
a bus is running early or late with respect to the
schedule.
It helps initiation of dynamic control actions such
as bus holding, bus expressing etc., if found buses
are deviating from their schedules.
Real-time comparison of congestion levels along
different alternate routes and diverting the traffc to
a comparatively lesser congested route if situation
demands.
The fndings in this study can be summarized as follows:
Real-time traffic situations can be obtained
through tracking of mobile phones in a vehicle.
Abnormal variations in the schedule/travel time
of public buses can be viewed in real-time and
precaution can be initiated.
162 General report on
Exact location, time and duration of congestion
may be made available in real-time through the
tracking of in-vehicle mobile phones.
Real-time, street/route wise mobility pattern/
information is available through tracking of mobile
phones in vehicles.
This study is concluded with the following fndings:
GSM Mobile tracking technology is one of the best
methods for real-time traffc data collection.
Mobile tracking technology can be used for getting
real-time urban mobility pattern.
Both ANN Model and Kalman Filter Algorithm
predict travel time of public buses satisfactorily
with MAPE less than 15 percent.
Recommendations for Dissemination/Revision of
Codes/Specifcations
There are several challenges that need to be overcome
such as determination of the number of probes required
to achieve a desired level of reliability, suitable probe
sampling frequency and identifcation of the phones that
are in-vehicle or not in-vehicle. Some of the limitations of
the technology used in this study for the vehicle tracking
are as follows:
Five minute minimum tracking time interval: In
the existing system the minimum possible tracking
time interval is only 5 minutes. Within this time
interval the prevailing traffc scenario along a
stretch may change. So there is a chance of
information being missed.
Pre-defnedlandmarks: At present the system has
predefned landmarks only. Provisions should be
provided to defne landmarks by the user himself.
If so, locations of bus stops can be defined
accurately.
Low accuracy of location estimation: Existing
system has an accuracy of 200-250 m only. But
for an urban scenario it is necessary to have an
accuracy of about 5 m or less. Otherwise, in a
junction it will be diffcult to identify the exact road,
on which the vehicle is.
Privacy is an aspect to be mentioned in the use of data
from cellular networks systems. The phone location
data would be received and handled in aggregate
and anonymous manner, in accordance with current
regulations, so that the use of cell phone data does not
break the law on private data protection.
The data used for this study were relatively limited.
The results and the models predictive ability will
certainly improve when data of greater quantity and
quality are available. In the future, it may be possible
to generate models for trips grouped by day, time of
the day, etc. Furthermore, as the ITS deployment
continues, the models could be expanded to include
traffc condition variables, such as congestion and
incidents, that can be automatically generated by
these systems.
Further information/copy of the report can be
obtained from
Mr. Anil. R., Dr. M. Satya Kumar, Dept. of Civil Engineering,
College of Engineering, Thiruvananthapuram.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 163
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The Highway Research Board (HRB) of the Indian Roads Congress (IRC) expresses thanks to
Dr. S. Gangopadhyay, Director, Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi for preparation
of the General Report on Road Research Work Done in India during 2010-2011. The report
was prepared, compiled and edited by Shri T.K. Amla (Head, Information, Liaison & Training),
S/Shri R.C. Agarwal (Sr. Technical Offcer (3)) and M.K. Meena (Scientist), Information, Liaison &
Training Division, CRRI with inputs from the scientists of the various R&D Divisions of CRRI viz.
Dr. P.K. Jain, Chief Scientist & Head (FPD), Dr. Renu Mathur, Senior Principal Scientist & Head
(RPD), Shri S.P. Pokhriyal, Senior Principal Scientist (PED), Dr. P. Lakshmy, Senior Principal Scientist
& Head (BAS), Shri R.K. Swami, Principal Scientist (GTE), Dr. S. Velmurugan, Principal Scientist
(TES) and Dr. K. Ravinder, Senior Scientist (TPE).
The useful suggestions received from the scientists of R&D Divisions in compilation and editing of the
report are gratefully acknowledged. The Board also expresses its gratitude to the various research
organizations and Institutes for providing research progress reports.
164 General report on
LIST OF ORGANISATIONS
1. ASI Solutions Plc, Milton Keynes
2. Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), New Delhi
3. CRAPHTS Consultants (I) Pvt. Ltd., Faridabad
4. Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai
5. Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee
6. India PolyRoads Pvt. Ltd. (IPPL), Gurgaon
7. Karnataka Engineering Research Station, Krishnarajasagara, Karnataka
8. Larsen & Toubro Construction Research and Testing Centre, Chennai
9. M.S. University, Baroda, Vadodara
10. National Institute of Technology, Warangal
11. National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC), Thiruvananthapuram
12. PRS Mediterranean Ltd., Israel
13. RITES Limited, Gurgaon
14. School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi
15. Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai
16. Zydex Industries, Vadodara
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 165
IRC HIGHWAY RESEARCH BOARD
GENERAL REPORT ON ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA
PROFORMA SHEET FOR REPORTING R&D WORK FOR THE GENERAL REPORT
1. Please furnish the report in the specifed proformae (specimen copies enclosed), using separate proforma for
each Project, appropriate to the Project Status, viz.:
Proforma A: Projects Reported for the First Time Annexure 1
Proforma A: Projects Reported for the First Time Annexure 1
Proforma B: On-going/Completed Projects Annexure 2
Proforma C: Research Projects Related to Thesis for Annexure 3
Post Graduation/Ph.D.
Proforma D: R&D Activity Report by Consultancy Firms/Contractors/ Annexure 4
Concessionaires
2. Please furnish report, in Proforma A or B, only on those projects which have led to some signifcant conclusions,
or are expected to make R&D contribution of overall general interest.
3. Precise and concise information may be provided for EACH ITEM of the Proformae, in NOT MORE THAN 100
WORDS. Additional important information, if any, may be appended separately.
4. The following codes may be used for indicating the Section and Sub-Section Codes on Each Project
Proforma:
Section Section
Code
Sub-Section Sub-Section
Code
Highway Planning, Design,
Management,
Performance Evaluation
and Instrumentation
Highway Planning,
Design and Management
1100 Design 10
Road Transportation Management 20
Road Pavement Management 30
Maintenance Management 31
Construction Management 32
test track research 40
Software Development 50
Pavement Evaluation 1200 Surface Characteristics
Riding Quality 10
Skid Resistance 20
Structural Evaluation 30
Pavement Performance 1300 Pavement Performance 10
Traffc Characteristics & Effects 20
Material Characteristics 30
Instrumentation and Micro-Processor
applications
1400 Instrumentation Development 10
Micro-Processor/Applications 20
Appendix
166 General report on
Section Section
Code
Sub-Section Sub-Section
Code
Pavement Engg. and
Paving Materials
Soil Stabilisation, Low
Grade Materials and
Low Volume Roads
2100 Soil Stabilisation 10
Low Grade Materials 20
Low Volume Roads 30
Flexible Pavements 2200 Binders and Binder Improvement 10
Materials and Mixes 20
Pavement Design 30
Construction Techniques 40
Maintenance Aspects 50
Rigid Pavement 2300 As i n case of Fl exi bl e Pavements
Division
Geotechnical Engineering 3000 landslides 10
Ground Improvement Techniques 20
Embankments and Slope Stability 30
Roads and Embankments in Clay Areas 40
Bridge Engineering 4000 Structural Field Investigations 10
Laboratory Investigations 20
Foundation Investigations 30
Structural Design 40
Traffc & Transportation
Planning & Management 5100 Traffc Management Studies 10
Travel Demand Forecasting 20
Transportation Planning 30
Transportation Economics 40
Public Transport Planning 50
Intelligent Transport System 60
Safety & Environment 5200 Accidents and Safety 10
Traffc Environment 20
5. PROJECT TITLE
(1) In case of Proformae A and B, please indicate the same title as reported earlier.
(2) In case of sponsored projects, please indicate the name of the sponsoring organisation and Research
Scheme number (e.g., MORT&H Research Scheme R-19), immediately after the project title.
6. DATE OF START/DATE OF COMPLETION: Please indicate month and year, e.g., May, 1988. In case of
sponsored Research Scheme, only the Sponsoring Organisation should report completion of the project, and
not the implementing Organisation(s).
7. LAST REPORT : Indicate the year of the last General Report on Road Research in India (GRRRI) in which the
project was reported, e.g., for GRRRI 1988-89, indicate 1988-89.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 167
8. ORGANISATION (S) : Please indicate the name of all involved organizations, in the case of multi-organisation
project, using the following code to indicate the status of the organization with regard to the project:
Reporting Organisation (R)
Sponsoring Organisation (S)
Coordinating Organisation (C)
Implementing Organisation (I)
If an organization has multiple status, the appropriate codes may be used together, e.g., (R,C), (R,S).
9. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE : Please give a concise statement. In case of multiple objective projects, indicate
each objective separately.
10. PRESENT STATUS AND PROGRESS : For Proforma B, if the project is on-going, please include a brief report
on progress since the last report, and if the project is complete, please provide brief progress report for the
project as a whole.
11. SUPPORTING DATA : Please indicate selected important supporting data or illustrations of special interest.
Any correlations or charts developed may specifcally be included. Please list the items enclosed.
12. CONCLUSIONS : Please indicate signifcant conclusions/interim conclusion.
13. SIGNIFICANCE / UTILISATION POTENTIAL : Please highlight only special aspects. Under Utilisation Potential,
also specifcally indicate whenever the development(s) / conclusion(s) are regarded appropriate for consideration
by the IRC.
14. LIMITATIONS OF CONCLUSIONS / RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER WORK / FURTHER PROPOSED
WORK : The limitations, if any, may be specifcally indicated. Other aspects may be indicated wherever
applicable.
15. REPORTS / PUBLICATIONS : Only reports/publications since last reporting may be included, alongwith
bibliographical details, in the following order:
Author(s) (Surname, followed by initial, in all capitals). Title of Paper/Article/Report/Book, Nature of Report (e.g.,
M.E./Ph.D. Dissertation, Interim/Final Report), Journal or Periodical (alongwith Vol. and No.) / Conference or
Seminar Proceedings (alongwith the place where held) / Publishing Organisation, Month and Year of Publication.
The report may be provided in not more than 500-600 WORDS.
16. Copies of publications, if published through a source other than IRC, may please be enclosed.
17. Wherever more than one sub-items are to be reported (e.g., in case of items No. 8, 9, 13, 15, etc. above, please
number the sub-items 1, 2, 3, and list them one below the other.
18. In addition to 3 typed/computer print out copies, the report may also be supplied on foppy/CD to enable
expeditious editing and compiling. Cooperation in this regard will be specially appreciated. The Window MS
Word Software may please be used for the purpose.
______
168 General report on
Annexure 1
I R C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H B O A R D
PROFORMA - A
P R O J E C T S R E P O R T E D F O R T H E F I R S T T I M E
Section Code
REPORTING ORGANISATION:
1. Project Title Sub-Section Code
1.1 Date of Start
1.2 Date of Completion (Targeted/Actual)
2 Organisation(s)*
3 Scope and Objectives
4 Methodology
5 Interim Conclusions/Conclusions/Supporting Data
5.1 Signifcance/Utilisation Potential
5.2 Limitations of Conclusions/Recommendations
for further work/further proposed work
6 Reports/Publications
7 Further information/Copy of report
can be obtained from:
7.1 Address
7.2 Mobile _______________ Phone ____________ Fax _________
7.3 e-mail ID:
* Please indicate the appropriate organization code (R), (S), (C), (I), (R,S), (R,C), etc. after each organization
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 169
Annexure 2
I R C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H B O A R D
PROFORMA - B
O N G O I N G / C O M P L E T E D P R O J E C T S
Section Code
REPORTING ORGANISATION:
1. Project Title Sub-Section Code
1.1 Date of Start
1.2 Date of Completion (Targeted/Actual)
2 Present Status and Progress
2.1 Status: Ongoing/Completed
2.2 Year of Last Report
2.3 Progress
3 Further Findings/Conclusions/Supporting Data
4 Limitations of Conclusions or Interim Conclusions
5 Recommendations for further Work (if completed)
6 Reports / Publications
7 Recommendations for Dissemination/
Revision of Codes/Specifcations (if completed)
8 Further information/Copy of report
can be obtained from:
8.1 Address
8.2 Mobile _______________ Phone ____________ Fax _________
8.3 E-mail ID
(Presentation Material may be e-mailed to secretarygen@irc.org.in / hrb@irc.org.in )
170 General report on
Annexure 3
I R C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H B O A R D
PROFORMA - C
R E S E A R C H P R O J E C T S R E L A T E D T O T H E S I S
F O R P O S T - G R A D U A T I O N / Ph. D.
Section Code
REPORTING ORGANISATION:
1. Project Title Sub-Section Code
1.1 Date of Start and Duration
1.2 Date of Completion
2 Institution*
3 Scope and Objectives
4 Proposed Methodology (Type of Study, Laboratory/Field)
5 Salient-Findings and Conclusion(s)
6 Recommendations for Dissemination/
Revision of Codes/Specifcations (if completed)
7 Further information/Copy of the report
can be obtained from:
7.1 Address
7.2 Mobile _______________ Phone ____________ Fax _________
7.3 E-mail ID
(Presentation Material may be e-mailed to secretarygen@irc.org.in / hrb@irc.org.in )
* Please indicate the appropriate organization code (R), (S), (C), (I), (R,S), (R,C), etc. after each organization.
ROAD RESEARCH IN INDIA 2010-11 171
Annexure 4
I R C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H B O A R D
PROFORMA - D
R & D AC T I V I T Y R E P O R T B Y C O N S U L T A N C Y F I R M S /
C O N T R A C T O R S / C O N C E S S I O N A I R E S
Section Code
REPORTING ORGANISATION:
1. Project / Activity Title Sub-Section Code
1.1 Date of Start and Duration
1.2 Date of Completion (Actual/ Targeted)
2 Organisation(s)*
3 Special Situations/ Problems faced During Investigations/ Constructions:
4 Methodology / Procedure adopted for solving the Problems:
5 Any New Materials/ New Technologies if Adopted:
6 Performance of such New Materials/ Technology:
7 Additional R&D / Work required in this area:
8 Further details can be obtained from:
8.1 Address
8.2 Mobile _______________ Phone ____________ Fax _________
8.3 e-mail ID:
* Please indicate the appropriate organization code (R), (S), (C), (I), (R,S), (R,C), etc. after each organization.