MONOGRAPT]48

E,SSAYS THE,ARCHAE,OLOGY IRAN ON OIT IN FTONOR WII,LIAM M. SLTMNE,R OF
Edited bv Naorni F. Miller and KamvarAbdi

yoktbuL, yokt ^^buL
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The cotsen Institute of Archaeologr,universitr.of california, Los Angeles in published associatjon with The American Institute of Iranian Studiesand The unive'rsig'of Pennsvlr'ania Museum of Archaeologr and Anthropol.g 2003

C I{A P TE R 25

CONTE,XT AND CONTI,NT OF-THE PE,RSE,POLI CRIPTIONS S INS
The Intercltongeof .Wb ond XPct
N,{ICHAEL KOZUH

HE FIRSTRELIABLE COPIESof cuneifbrm inscripXPb and XPd are trr.o of fbur trilingual inscriptions r tions appe.rrcdin Carsten Niebuhr's Aeisebeschreibunll srittcn on the major stairu'avs Persepolis. E.rc neatlv of h ( l77B), noch.4ruhien an,lem und uniliettenJen Ltindent II dirides into three sections, the llrst trvo ofrvhich are idenu'hich contained copies of tu'o sets of three inscriptions tical in both inscriptions and r.rearh'identical the thrcc in lrom Persepolis.T'he first steps tos'ards the clecipherment versions.r The first section begins uith .r declication tr-r of cuneifbrm proceecled lionr thesecopies.Niebuhr himself recognized that three dilferent scripts u'ere used lbr the thrce inscriptions of each set. In 1802 F. N{i,inter correctlv concluded that the three scripts represent three dilferent languages, u'hich he thought to be Zentl, Pehlevi and Farsi. We norv knou. that the langr-rages Old Perare sian, Elanrite, and Babvlonian. Nlore inrportantlr; he alscr postulateclthat uhen the three different languagcsare clisplave<Itogether as a set, each shoulcl sat' the san-re thing (N1iinter 1802:8611.). Thercfirre, deciphering one of the three inscriptions u'oukl prorirle the kel to the otl.rerts'o. Later, Grotelbnd assun.red that of the threc languages,the one clisplavedin the most prominent position u'as that of tl're Achaenrenid kings; the deciphernrellt process continued from these observatrons. After completion of the deciphernrents there u'ere clear exan.rples trilingual inscription sets at Persepolis oI n'here one version of the three displaled togetl-rermakes a significant rhetorical departure from the otl-rertu-o. Here u'e cor.rsicler departures in XPb .-rndXPd. In each c.rsethe Babr-lonianversior.r<lepartsfiom its conrpanion Old Persian and Elamite versions.A close examination reverals that the tu'o Babvlonian versions u'ere interchanged. lhis interchange, I suggest,reflects a greater concern lbr the phvsicaland decorative context of the inscriptions than for their having matching rhetorical content. .{hur.rn-raztla: ,{ great god is .{Iuramazda,rrho crcatedthis earth, lho createdvonder skr, uho createrlnran,s'ho crclbr ateclhappiness man, sho made Xerxesking, one king amongnran\ione lorcl.rmongmanr: The second section names Xerxes and gi'r'es titles: his I .rnrXerresthc greatking, king ofkings,king of t ourrtriescontaining kindsof nren,king in thisgreatearth ;rll lar ancluide, son of King Darius,an Achaemcnian. The thircl and final section ofeach inscription begins *ith the n'ords "thus savsXerxes the king"; rvhat comcs after this statcrr.rt'nt diifi'rs betn'een XPb an<l XPd. Therefbre, u.e shall consider onlv section three, the f)nal section, of these inscriptions. \Pb An Old Persianexenlplar (XPb I ) is in a panel on the *'estcrn end of the inner north stairw'ar'lagacleof the Ap.rdana (uithout a Babvlonian or Elanrite counterpart; sec Schmidt l 9 5 l : P | s . 6 0 , 6 l ; S h a h b a z i1 9 E 5 : P l s l 9 - 2 l ) . A n o t he r Ol d . (XPb 2) is in a panel at the southern end Persian e\emplar

,llichscl lu'zuh

Elamite

// ll
Old Persian

iHff#l

!\
Babylonian

.'.r..-i--r'-a-r'-i-a .'.r-i-a-,1Xl'b OP :,sjl 9-a-r-i--y : : 9-i-y : t,-:-r-k : t-j- : nt-n-a: k-r-r-nt i-d-a : ; u-t-a: t-7' -m-i -t'a-p-t-r-nt k-r-t-nt.a-t' . l ' i , i-s-m : t,-i-n-a: a-u-r-m-z-d-a-lt : a-ku-u-n-r'-m m-a-m : a-u-r-m-:-d-a; p-a-tu: .' tt-t': h-d-a : b-g-i-b-i-i : u-t-a-nt-i-\'..r-.r'-g-rr (21-30) : u-t-a : t-\'-m-i-1'k-r-t-m
Thrrs declarcsXerxcs d-re great king: \\'hat h.rsbrtn brrilt bv nrc here. and rvhat has bet n built bv me at .r (listan(e. all that br the favor ol.\huranrazda I built. lle nrar Ahuramazclr, togethcruidr the (othcr) gods, protect,.rnrl mv kingdon'r, anrl *'hat has been built lrr me. : nc-tl r-r'i ol S i l -3.-;'-3,1 D l S r!i ,.,:r,r i r- Sci- i r - ra ap -[)a Dtsu h u - ut - t d - ru ASn t a -rtt - r u \l 'h E I \i l

2;. 1 l)esignscf u'rnaol \Pb. Prepoml at .lIlS(1/hnt ruftlnr's drrrft

Babylonian

Old Persian

Elamite

ol\Ptl. Prepon'd .ll.lS('.1Jhnn 25.2 l)esignsclrt'nra rtt tutlnr's drafi

of the inner east stairsav fagrdc of the Aparlana(Schmidt 1 95 3:2 lA;Sl'ra hb az i 1985: 22- 25) An Elam it e ( XPb 0 2 ) a n d . a B.rbvlonian (XPb 002)r counteryart are stacked in one panel at the northern end of the same inner eastern stairu'av laqade,the Elamite above the Babvloni.rn (see Schmidt 1951:Pl.2lB). The inscription fr.rmesare arravedsvmmetricalll on the stairu.rv fagade (fbr a fuil riew of the stainva.r' see Sch midt 1 95 3: Pl.l9) . The arrar.rgementof XPb has troubled some scholars (fbr exanrple.Schmiclt 1953:82).as the "normal" arrangement has the Old Persianin the center. the Elamite to thc left and the Babvlonian to the right. Ho*'e'r'er, Ann Tilia (1972:l9l-208) h.rs shoun that the trvo so-called "Tieasurr'" reliels originallv belonged to the center of the east ancl north outer stairu'ar laEacles ofthe Apadana, and that the center of the stairu-a);as it is preserved todar; is.r later carring made after the Tieasurl relief.sn'ere removed in .rntiquih:+ Therefore, at the time of the engr;ning of the inscriptions, the ccnter of the stainvavs \\'as completeh' filled n'ith a reliel, thus erplaining the lavout. Schematicallr; tl-rearrangement of the inscriptions and Tieasurv relief on the eastern Apad.-rna stairu'ar' faEadeis represente'din figure 25.1. Usuallv u'here r-ersions ol an inscription are displaveclone abole another, the longest version is uppernrost and the shorte'stversion lorrest, and the usual orcler of the inscriptions is Old Persian uppermost, Elanrite in the middle and Babvlonian lo*'est. In XPb the Elamite and Babllonian are clisplaved the usual order, but the Elamite in above is slightll shorter than the Babvlonian belou; both in .rctualsiz.eand in nun.rbero[ lines (18 r's. l9). The llnal section ($3) of each of the inscriptions reads as follou's: .\l)(l

ku- ut- tri ap -pa ^sme-id -me-ra -kor- tii h u-ut -tti ra hu-pi mar-ri-tai:o-u-mi-in du-ra-mas-da-no h u-ut -td DtS d,r-,'u- s-de un rut- i i -ki-i i -tri ri ^o dna-ap-pi -p? h i -ta - ka, ku- ur ASst,-utt-ru nru-rtr' (l )-18\ -ra ku-ut-tdop-pohu-ut-td
SavsXerxes the geat king: What I built here, and u hat in addition (to other things) I built, all that I built br the lavor of ,\hur.rrnazda- Me nr.rv Ahuranrazd.r. together rvith the other gods, protect, and nn'kingsh\; and s'hat I built.

XPb Bab S:l m&i-ir-'-cr'-ii r-ucerG^L-tii-qabbi ina cti.tu id'ta-fiu-ru-mq-az-da-'E a-ga-a a-na-ku ae-te-pl t-ti s-su' ta-hu-ru-ma-a:-dd-' na-kuli-is-sur-an-ni a-na ir-li orNctn.vr5 -ri-ti-iau a-na id e-pu-ui-iu ( 14-19) LLT:AL
Xerxes the grcat king decl.rres: In tl.re shados o[ Al.mran-razda built this house. Me mav Aluranr.rzda, I along u'ith the (othcr) gods, pr.rtect, and nx'kingship and xhat I built.

XPd is a trilingu.rl inscriptior.ruith four exemplars: XPcl I (0 I , 00 1) and 2 10u,002) are located in thr- PalaceofXerxes (Hadish), the *'e-stern and easternantaeof the portico re(Schmidt 1953:Pls.175A, B; Shahbazi1985:Pls. spectiYelr' 27, 28), .rnd XPd I (()1, 003) and -1(<l-+, 00-1) are locatecl on respectivelvof the same the nest and east stairnav faEacles palace(Schmidt 1953:Pls.l6lA, B, C, 167A, B; Shahb.rzi 1985:Pls. 2941,12-15). XPd I and 2 are'rvrittenin three veftical panels,uith the Old Persi.rnon top, Elamite in the center and Babrlonian at the bottom, corresponding to height and .rmount of lines (19, 12, and I I the decreasing respectivelv). XPd I and 4 are inscribed exactlv alike on

CONTEXT A1\.DCONTENT OF THE PERSEPOLIS INSCRIPTIONS

both staircases(fbr a full rieu.ofthe rvestern staircase,see Schnridt l95l:Pl. 159; for the eastern staircasesee Plate 166), uith the Babvlonian at the left, the Old Persianin the center, and Elamite to the right. Each version is exactlv the sanre height ancl nearlv identical in uidth, schematicallr' represented in f\gure 25.2. The llnal section of each inscription reads: XPd OP $3 0-a-r-i-r :.x-.f1-a-.-.i-u,.t-.f-r-_r'-0i-y : v-z-r-k: r'-i-n-o : a-u-r-nt-z-d-a-h i-nt : : rh-d-i-i : rt-d-m : a-ku-u-n-+'-m n)-u-m : o-u-r-nt: z-d-a : p-a-tu-u-t , h-rl-a : b-g-i-b-i-i : u-t-m-i-; : r-i-E-m . u-t-d. t-),-nt-i-,\': A-r-r-rn: (Composite text.In XPdOPI and2 : linesl5-19, 3 an d4 :line s 2l- 28) Thus decl.rres Xerxcsthe grcatking: Bv the f.rvorof Ahuramazda built this palace. mar' I N{e Ahuramazda, togetherrvith the (other) gods,protect, .rndmv kingdom,.rndsl.r.rthasbeer.r built bv me. XPrf El |il tn-an-ri Dlsl{'-ie-ir'-idDISesseNn ir'id-ir-ra z(r-u-mi-in du-ra-mas-da-na hi ASul-lrl.uls Drsti hu-ut-td DtSridu-ru-mas-cla un nu- i i -ki - i i -ni dna -ap -p i -p i i - td - ka,, ku- ut -tti AS su-un-mu-me ku-ut-tA ap-pa hu-ut-td-ra (Composite text.In XPdEL0l and02 : 9-12, 03 : l7- 23) an d0 .1 Savs Xerxesthe geat king: Bv the hvor of Ahuramazrla madethis house.N{emat I Ahuramazrla, togethersith the other gods,protect, and mv kingship,and *hat I built. XPd llab os3 p&r-jr- '-ar-.ii luc,qr c'+r-ti i-qabbi id a-na-ku a-kan-na e-pu-ui-iu u ina qaq-qa-ru id-nam-ma e-pu-ui-iu gab-bi ma-la e-pu4ti-iu i-na cri.urs id &-lm-ru-ma-oz-da- ' e-te-pu-u: a-na-ku &t-!u-ru-ma-az-da-' li-suran-ni it-ti DTNGTR.MES u a-na LUcAL-ti-ti-iau a-na id e-pu-tli-iu (Composite text.In XPrlBab00 I and002 : 7-l | , 003 and00,1= I 5-22) Xerxesthe greatking declares: \\that I built lrerc and build at anotherplace,eventhing I built, I har,e built in the shadou'of Ahuramazda. mav Ahuramazda, Me alongnith the (other) gocls, protect,.rndmv kingship and u'hat I built.

r.ersion, ancl the Old Persian and Elamite versions of XPd $3 also correspond closelv to each other but not to the Babvlonian. The Babvlonian versions of the tw'o inscriptions appear to have been interchanged. That is, XPb Babvlonian $ 3 corresponds to XPd Old Persi:rn and Elanrite $ 3, u hile XPd Babvlonian $ 3 corresponds to XPb Old Persian and Elamite $1. In fact, XPb Babvlonian $ 3 corresponds rvord for u'ord sith XPd Old Persianar.rd Elamite $3. There is no need tcr clocument the Babvlonian translation i na silli sa.4hurantazda ibr OP roino,4ura ntazdma a or Elamite zaunti n Urantazd n h ana, nor the translationof OP o&unoranr Elarniteiumo with ancl Babvlonian epe-su, these are common throughout the trias lingual Achaemenid inscriptions. The vrord order of each version lblkxvs in lockstep. N{oreover, *e flnd OP h.i,Ji.l, Elamite Asl/-li.MES ancl Bab birr equated in the fbllo*'ing sources:DSt (OP broken, El 4 : r/.fti.MES,Bab 5 : bii r ) ; X P c ( O P 1 1 , E l 1 0 , B a b 9 ) , ; . r n d X S a ( O P 2 , E l l , Ba b 2); note also DSf (OP 22 : ha[di!], Bab l6 = t rl .CRl-, t = Thus, it is clear that XPb Babvlonianis an [ASrr/].ftl.MES). exact translation of XPd Old Persian and Elamite On the other hand, the corresponclencesbetu'een XPd Babr'lonian $3 and XPb Old Persian and Elamite $3 are more complicated. The icleais clear: Xerxes built both here and elseuhere, anc.lhe built everrthing bv the li'r'or of Ahuranr.rzrla.Each version, ho*'ever, diff-ers in thc s.rv it expresses this idea. ln the first trr.o clauses,the Old Persian uses the passiveparticiple kartan, agreeing rvith the pronoun ror',r,6 n'here.rsthe Babr'lonian usesan active verb ir-r a subordinate clause.The svntax olthe Elanite phrase is still debatecl (Paper 1955:47; Hallock 1959:7; Grillot-Susini 1987: 5). In the first clausethe Elar.nite u'orrl md-dt-tdren3 ders Old Persianid; and Babr'lonian akanna,the latter tn o 'rvorclsclearlv meaning "here." In the second clause Olcl Persian dpdraron renders Babvlonian ina qaqqarujan.rnrnr.l and the Elamite hap.rxme-.ii-n'te-ro-ka.,-t,1, Old Persian The ach'erbaparoranhas the clear meaning of "farther off," and this is its onh'kno*n usageoutsicle ofthe phrase dporaranl haca Parsi 7 "lar off from Persia."Thus, although the equation of apdtaramto ina Etqqant ianamma is not n'ord lbr rvord, both mean "at another place." In the final clause, Old Persi.rnava vis<tnt "all that" is embellished in the Babvlonian gabbi ntalo epuiu "evervthing I built." The Elamite follor.r.s thc Old Persian. Clearlr; then, the Babvlonian version of XPb transl.rtes XPd Old Persianand Elamite, and the Babvlonian rersion of XPd translatesXPb Old Persian ancl Elamite. But u'hat r v a s t h e r e a s o n b e h i n d t h i s i n t e r c h a n g e ? Cl a r i ssc H e r r e n s c h m i d t ( 1 9 8 1 : 6 9 ) p o s t u l a t e s t w o s t a g e si n th c making of the inscription: in the first, a scribe composerl

The Old Persianand Elanrite versions of XPb {i 3 correspond closeh'to each other but not to the Babvlonian

llithtel

Kozuh

the Babvlonian version on a disposableobject-perhaps a clav or 11.21 talyle1-from rvhich it u.as to be copied; in stage t\vo, an illiterate copvist made the actual engraring. In h er vierv th e s c r ibe and t he c opv is t m is t a k e n l v interch.rnged the fir'o versions in the transition. She is undoubtedlY correct in separating the process into t$'o stages, hints of rvhich can be seenin an ur-rfinishecl mplar exe of XPh (seeKer.rt1953:PI. III). The copvistabandonccl the inscription in the nriddlc ol'a line, but hc u'as cop\ing the line from right to left, opposite the rvav it lras to be read. This, it seems to me, can onlv indicate that the displar' (o p\ \\as n rad c lronr anot her . . "nr plr r . lr r . r c opr i s t n o l concerned u'ith (or perhaps unaware of) the actual sequenceofthc script. Ho*'ereq I do not agree th.rt the interchange of the Babvlonian version of XPb and XPcl u'asthe result of some sort of crror in transition. On the contrar\', a close look at the phr sical setting of each inscription revealstl.ratthe interchange u'as deliberate. The scribcs and coprists at Persepolis macle a conscious el'fbrt to prescnt the trilingual inscriptions in a swrmetric u.ar';monunrental n.riting at Persepoliswas not onlv a rneans to conlev a message but also an element of architectural desigr, in much the samc rein as, fbr ex.rmple, monurnental ,&abic calligraphv (for example, see Ettinghauscn 197.1). presenting thc In inscriptions, holvever, the scribes and coprists had to deal with tht' idiosrrrcrasies of each languagc and script. Okl Persianis uritten in a quasi-alphabeticscript and ven'fe*' logoganrs l'ere user.l, rvhereasElamite and Babvlonian arc uritten in a svllabic script u'ith manl' logograms. \Vhen the three versions corresponcl closerlr;that is, *'hen the Elamite and Babvlonian are exact translations of the Okl Persian,tl.reBabvlonian usesmuch less spacethan thc Old Persian,.rnclthe Elamite usesless spacethan the Old Persian but more than the Babr.lonian. Therefbre, u'hen attempting to clisplavthe same thought in the threc languages,the amount of space used per languagevarierl. To maintain srrrrmetr\; the scribesand coptists dealt u.ith the spatial char.rcteristicsofeach languageand script br, controlling cither the height or the w'idth of each version. When thc three inscriptions \l'ere arranged side bv side each version had cqual height but varving u.idth, and the Okl Persianversion alu'avstook pride of placc.8 When the inscripticrns\l'ere arranged verticallv the Old Persian*'as ahvavson top (again in the most prominent position), thc' Elamite in the mirldle, and thc Babvlonian at the bottom, each version having varl'ing height but equ.rlsidth.' The arrangcnrent of the panels on the stainr-avfagade ofthe Palaceof Xerxes gavt-the scribes a fixcd amount of spacervith rvhich to u'ork. With each version in a panel of exacth' the same size, the alrilitl to con)pensate fbr the

disparitv of length among the r.ersionsbv nranipul.rting the rvidth or height was lost. Hou. could the scribes keep the svnlmL-tr\. of the inBabr-lonian scriptions and vet corlpensate lor the hct that .-r translation of XPd $3 rvas shorter than the othcr vcrsions, in fact, too short to fill the space prcpare<l fbr it? Thcr I solved the problem rvith the interchange of 5S ol the Babrlonianrersion of XPb and XPd. Forthe Palace o1'Xerxes inscriptions, the Old Persian and Elamite versions of XP<l savsirnplr; "l built this palace" whereas the Babvlonirn sars "\\rhat I built here, .rnd u'hat I built in another pl.rcc, .-rtl.r.rt err.thing I built, I built in the shaclou.of Ahuranraz.<la"t is, the Babvlonian version not onlv differs, it is also lonqcr. The expected Babvlonian version "I built this house" n'as placeclon the Apadana stainvav along rvith the longcr Old Pcrsian ancl Elamite versions-because the Balrr-lonian sharesa panel sith the Elarnite version thcre rras no necrl to lengthen the Babvlonian inscription. That the scribesand copvists sacriflcedmatching tontent in favor olphl'sical context can be seen in one other example. XPc, like XI'd, is u.ritten on three panels ol the sarnesizeon the southern stairn'avfagadeof thc Palaceof Darius; the Old Persianis in the center, the Elamite to the right and the Babvlonian to the left (see Schmidt 195l:Pl. l l I l 0 ; S h a h b a z i1 9 8 5 : P l s . 6 - 1 8 ) . I t i s i n s c r i b e c i n t l . r e su a l u orcler on vertical panels ofthe east and uest antae ofthe p o r t i c o o f t h e p a l a c c o f D a r i u s ( s e e S c h m i d t 1 9 5 3 :PIs. I 3 l B , C ; S h a h b a z i1 9 8 S : P l sI. l - 1 5 ) . I n t h i s c a s e ,t h e l i n e s lbllouing "thus savsXerxes the king" are similar in all three versions: Xerxes claims that he completed thc rl'ork that Darius had begun. Hou'ever, a close reading of the roval appellatires rereals a crrrious embellishment in the Babvlonian. The Old Persianr') read: and Elamiteil passages one kirrganlongman\', one lord anrongn)alry u,herels the Babrlonian reads: king of man'r' alonerules over all the lanrls kings,r'r'ho The Babylonian embellishment is curious becausean e\act Babrlonian translation exists of "one king among man\; ()nc prince among manr;" n'hich is used everl other time at (XPa, b, tl, f, and h): Persepolis ma-du-fi-tu ii-ten mu-teii-ten i-na LUGAL.MES '-e- ' ma-du-it-tu longer: Ho*'ever, u'e seethat the XPc rersion is consiclerablv LUGAL LLTGAL.LUGAL.wpS .fd ma-du-fi-tu., id ega di i -i i -i ii a - na nap - ha -dr KUR.KUR.MTS -a b -bi it-ta-'-a-nta ( X P c0 0 1 a n d 0 0 2 = l i n e s . l - 5 , 0 0 1 : 6 - 8 )

IN.SCRIPTIONS CONI.EX"I.,\ND CONTLNT OF THE PERSEPOLIS

-l'hus, s'e see that the scribes and copvists of XPc realized that the common u'ord for u.ord Babvlonian counterpart of the Old Persian and Elamite phrases l'ould not fill the space intended for it. As a result, thev composed a some11'h11 fs1sn1-but most importantlr' longer-Babvlonian dlf text to fill that space. Thken at faceralue, these interchangesand enlargements mav seenl tririal; indeecl, thev concern onh' a f'erv lines among hundreds. Yet thev l.raveimportant implications. First, thev reveal that the content ofroval inscriptions clevelopeclfrom conclitions other than roval ideokrg': If these inscriptions u,ere clictated bv the king, thev *'ere edited and arraved bvthe scribesand copvists. Seconcl, *'hen need s.ere u'illing to sacrillce matchbe, the scribesat Persepolis ing content in orcler to preserve phvsical srrnmetrr', thus subordinating the messageto its exhibition. This subordination implies something significant: uriting as an ob;er /'a11-1111 is,'rrriting to be vieu'ed, n61 1s2d-c6n'l'eved a messageirrespective of u'hat the actual u'ords said; a tacit message the scribes at Persepolistook great care to present aestheticallr:Hort'ever,both the explicit and tacit messages u'ere lost orer time. Hou'the fbrmer u-asrediscovered has been described manv times; perhaps a glin.rpse this tacit of nessage can be caught in the s-ritings of thc carh'pioneers of assrriolog': Once scholarsof the late eightet-nthar.rd earlv nineteenth centuries.rgreedthat the site of Thkht-i Jamshid u'as intleed Persepolisand that the inscriptions liom there r.nustbe attributed to the famous Achaemenid kings, ther' used this tacit messageto guide them in their initial steps tou'ard translations. In other n'ords, their original assumptions-11'ru1 the inscriptions \\'ere boastful; that the native languageof the Achacmcnids must havepride of place; that the inscriptions must havethe king's name, the uorcls "great king" and give roval gcnealog'.;that three scripts displaverl together must sav thc same thing in three different languages-should coalesceat sorne level uith the intended tacit messageof the Persepolisinscriptions. Incleecl,their observations mav provide a hint as to the nressage these of inscriptions to their illiterate rieu'ers of antiquitr: llibhogophic rrole. Srnoptic rersions and translations of the Persepolisinscriptions are online at ulrr-oi.uchicago.edV O I/"RO/AR/ARI. html. Older, sonretinrcs incomplcte, slnoptic rersions are alsofbund in Herzfbld ( 1938)and \!'eissb.rch ( l 9 I 1). Le co q ( 1997) pr ov ides us elul t r ans la t i o n s o f Achaemenicl inscriptions,including rariants.
9. 1. 8. 5. 6. l. .+.

.lcknou,leclEn eril. A r ersion of this chapter *as presented at the 208th meeting of thc American Oriental Socieb' on 5 April 1998. I w'ould especiallvlike to thank Professor tr{attheu'Stolper ibr his manv insightful comments and criticisms; also thanks to Profi:ssor Martha Roth, David Testen, and Jennifer Joos lbr aclclitionalcomments and to Prof'essorFred Donner lor bibliogaphic information. Inscriptions are identified *ith tle siglaof Kent I 953:4 and I 07- I I 5. Versionsarc identified as OP ( = Old Persian), Bab ( : Babvlonian), and El ( : Old PersiancxemElutt-t'ae). Follou'ing Stere 1987:5'1, Elamiteexemplars 02, 03...;and 0I, plarsarelabeled1, 2, 3,...; Babvlonianexemplarsbr' 001, 002, 003, and so otr. \O I'F,S are: I. The other tuo trilingualinscriptions XPc on the southst.rir(Thchara; p. 269)andAlPaon the see s'.1'of the Palace Darius of H, Schmidt northueststainrav Palace *hich isfiagmentarr'(see of I 953 : 2 0 f) . 8 . in 2. See lrcoq (1997 )5)ll.) for the slightrariant-sthe Babvlonian
\erstons. Thcre i s no X P bE l 0l orX P bB ab 001. Root (1979:Fig. I l) is an illustratedreconstructionofthe north stair*av *idr the centralreliefin its originalposition.Tilia ( I 978) clates removalofthe "Tieasurr'" reliefsto the reign ofArLlxerres the III. Houever, on stvlisticgrounds, Roaf (1981:l'{'{f.) clatesthe re-carring of the Apadana reliefs, and therefbre dre renroval of the "'licasurr"' reliefi, to the reign ofArtaxerxes I. Line numbcrs fbllorv XPc 1, 01, ancl001 respectirch: That is, the OId Persianusesthe periphrastic perfbct, lhich commonlv is used *ith dre senseofan actirc perfect. D tu i n D N a 171., S e l 5l , and X P h l .+1. For ex.rnple, DP.i, a short, lbur-line n-ilingualinscription (seeKent I 95 3:I 35; trcoq I 997:2261),the three rcrsi<nsol u hich are inscribed side tn'side exactlvalike trrice in the main hall ofthe Palace of Darius, both on cloor jambs connecting the portico to thc rnain hall. On the eastdooruar; the Old Prrsim is on tle right, the Elamite on in the center, anclBabvlonian the left (seeSchmidt 195l: I 38A); on tle scst doorrval the C)lclPersianand Babrlonian are reversed (seeSchmidt I 95 3: 139A). Each inscription is abore a reliel depicting the king and trt'o attenclants.In cach case,dre Old Persianis above the ligure ofthe king, as he leadsthe procession either into (eastjamb) or out of (uest jamb) the main hall, and the Elarnitean<l Babvlonianlbllon respectirelr;eachrcrsi<n har.ingeclualheight but rarring in uidth. For erample, XPd 1 and 2 (seeabore p. .{1.) 10. a-i -t'-m : p-nt-u-n-a-m : X S -z : a-i -t'-m : p-t u-u-n -o-m ; 9) f-r-m-a1-a-r-nl (X P c OP I and 2 : l i nes'1-5, ) :7 1I . -ik-ki-ip-inta orS.Ar-l' orS.r)..ie ki-ip-in-na p[r-ra-ma-td-ra-um 0l :6-9) oIs.EssANA Dls.,tr-r)'orS.ir.ie-rt(lPc El 01 ard 02 : Iines4-5,