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CONTENTS

CHAPTER-1
1. 1
1. 1
1. 2
1. 3
1. 4
1. 5
1. 6
1. 7
1. 8
1. 9
1. 10
1. 12
1. 13
1. 14
1. 15
1. 16
1. 17

MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF CONTROL SYSTEM

Control system..................................................................................................
1.1
Examples of control systems..............................................................................
1. 3
Mathematical models of control systems............................................................
1. 6
Mechanical translational systems......................................................................
1. 7
Mechanical rotational systems.......................................................................... 1. 17
Electrical systems.............................................................................................
1. 22
Transfer function of armature controlled DC motor............................................. 1. 25
Transfer function of field controlled DC motor.................................................... 1. 27
Electrical analogous of mechanical translational systems..................................... 1. 29
Electrical analogous of mechanical rotational systems......................................... 1. 46
1. 11 Block diagrams................................................................................................
Signal flow graph.............................................................................................
1. 81
Thermal system...............................................................................................
1.101
Hydraulic system.............................................................................................
1.104
Pneumatic system............................................................................................
1.109
Short questions and answers.............................................................................
1.113
Exercises.........................................................................................................
1.119

CHAPTER-2 COMPONENTS OF CONTROL SYSTEM


2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 4
2. 5
2. 6
2. 7
2. 8
2. 9
2. 10
2. 11
2. 12
2. 13
2. 14
2. 15

Components of automatic control system...........................................................


Potentiometers.................................................................................................
Synchros..........................................................................................................
Controllers........................................................................................................
Servomotors.....................................................................................................
DC Servomotors................................................................................................
AC Servomotors................................................................................................
Stepper motors.................................................................................................
Tachogenerator................................................................................................
Modulator and Demodulator..............................................................................
Gear trains.......................................................................................................
Gyroscope........................................................................................................
Solved problems...............................................................................................
Short questions and answers.............................................................................
Exercises.........................................................................................................

1. 55

2. 1
2. 1
2. 2
2. 5
2. 10
2. 22
2. 23
2. 25
2. 30
2. 36
2. 38
2. 42
2. 45
2. 47
2. 54
2. 60

CHAPTER-3 TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS


3. 1
3. 1
3. 2
3. 3
3. 4
3. 5
3. 6
3. 7
3. 8
3. 9
3. 10
3. 11
3. 12
3. 13
3. 14
3. 15
3. 16
3. 17
3. 18
3. 19
3. 20

Time response..................................................................................................
Test signals.....................................................................................................
Order of a system............................................................................................
Review of partial fraction expansion..................................................................
Response of first order system for unit step input...............................................
Second order system........................................................................................
Time domain specifications...............................................................................
Response with P, PI, PD and PID controllers.....................................................
Type number of control systems........................................................................
Steady state error............................................................................................
Static error constants........................................................................................
Steady state error when the input is unit step signal.............................................
Steady state error when the input is unit ramp signal...........................................
Steady state error when the input is unit parabolic signal.....................................
Generalized error coefficient.............................................................................
Evaluation of Generalized error coefficients.......................................................
Correlation between static and dynamic error coefficients...................................
Alternate method for generalized error coefficients............................................
Short questions and answers.............................................................................
Exercises.........................................................................................................

3. 1
3. 2
3. 4
3. 5
3. 8
3. 9
3. 16
3. 21
3. 37
3. 37
3. 38
3. 38
3. 39
3. 40
3. 41
3. 43
3. 44
3. 44
3. 54
3. 60

CHAPTER-4 FREQUENCY RESPONSE ANALYSIS


4. 1
4. 2
4. 3
4. 4
4. 5
4. 6
4. 7
4. 8
4. 9
4. 10
4. 11
4. 12
4. 13

Sinusoidal transfer function and frequency response........................................... 4.


Frequency domain specifications.......................................................................4. 3
Frequency domain specifications of second order system.................................... 4.
Correlation between time and Frequency Response............................................ 4.
Frequency Response plots.................................................................................
4.
Bode plot.........................................................................................................
4.
Polar plot.........................................................................................................
4.
Nichols plot.....................................................................................................
4.
Closed loop response from open loop response..................................................
4.
M and N circles ...............................................................................................
4.
Nichols chart.................................................................................................
4.
Short questions and answers............................................................................
4.
Exercises.......................................................................................................
4.

4. 1
1
4
7
9
9
39
64
67
67
73
86
90

CHAPTER-5 CONCEPTS OF STABILITY AND ROOT LOCUS


5. 1
5. 2
5. 3
5. 4
5. 5
5. 6
5. 7
5. 8
5. 9
5. 10

5. 1

Impulse response and stability...........................................................................


Location of poles on s-plane for stability...........................................................
Routh Hurwitz criterion...................................................................................
Mathematical preliminaries for Nyquist stability criterion...................................
Nyquist stability criterion..................................................................................
Relative stability..............................................................................................
Gain margin and phase margin.........................................................................
Root locus......................................................................................................
Short questions and answers............................................................................
Exercises........................................................................................................

5. 1
5. 3
5. 9
5. 27
5. 30
5. 57
5. 58
5. 63
5. 99
5.103

CHAPTER-6 LINEAR SYSTEM DESIGN

6. 1

6.
6.
6.
6.
6.
6.
6.
6.

6. 1
6. 4
6. 28
6. 53
6. 69
6. 88
6.102
6.109

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Introduction to design using compensators.........................................................


Lag compensator.............................................................................................
Lead compensator...........................................................................................
Lag-lead compensator.....................................................................................
PI, PD and PID controllers..............................................................................
Feedback compensation...................................................................................
Short questions and answers............................................................................
Exercises.......................................................................................................

APPENDIX
Appendix-I
Appendix-II
INDEX

A. 1

Laplace transform pairs and properties .................................................

A. 1

Roots of algebraic equation by Lins method..........................................

A. 3
I.