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1.what is bus? Specify the function of various buses of microprocessor. 2. Explain the functions of microproceesor?(refer text) 3. Discuss the following: i)Main memory ii)Cache memory iii) Read only memory.(ref:text)
4. What are the three main units of a digital computer? Ans. The three main units of a digital computer are: the central processing unit (CPU), the memory unit and the input/output devices. 5 . How does the microprocessor communicate with the memory and input/output devices? Ans. The microprocessor communicates with the memory and the Input/Output devices via the three buses, viz., data bus, address bus and control bus. 6. What is a mnemonic? Ans. It is very difficult to understand a program if it is written in either binary or hex code. Thus the manufacturers have devised a symbolic code for each instruction, called a mnemonic. Examples of mnemonics are: INR A, ADD M, etc. 7. What is machine language programming? Ans. Programming a computer by utilising hex or binary code is known as machine language programming. 8. What is meant by assembly language programming? Ans. Programming a microcomputer by writing mnemonics is known as assembly language programming. 9. What are meant by low level and high level languages? Ans. Programming languages that are machine dependent are called low level languages. For example, assembly language is a low level language. On the other hand, programming languages that are machine independent are called high level languages. Examples are BASIC, FORTRAN, C, ALGOL, COBOL, etc. 10. What is meant by ‘word length’ of a computer? Ans. The number of bits that a computer recognises and can process at a time is known as its ‘word length’. 11. What is meant by instruction? Ans. An instruction is a command which asks the microprocessor to perform a specific task
or job. 12. How many different instructions mP 8085 has? What is an instruction set? Ans. 8085 microprocessor has a total of 74 different instructions for performing different operations or tasks. The entire different instructions that a particular microprocessor can handle is called its instruction set. 13. What an instruction consists of? Ans. An instruction consists of an operation code (called ‘opcode’) and the address of the data (called ‘operand’), on which the opcode operates. 14. What language a microprocessor understands? Ans. Microprocessor understands only binary language. 15. How the mnemonics written in assembly language are translated into binary? Ans. The translation from assembly language (i.e., mnemonics) into binary is done either manually (known as hand (or manual) assembly) or by a program called an assembler Thus an assembler can be thought of as a program which translates the mnemonics entered by an ASCII keyboard into its equivalent binary code, which is the only one understood by a microprocessor. 16. How an assembler translates programs written in mnemonic form to binary? Ans. An assembler has a ‘translation dictionary’, which is stored in its memory. Mnemonics entered via keyboard is compared with this dictionary, which then retrieves its binary equivalent from the same place (dictionary). 17. What are the types of mnemonics possible? Ans. Mnemonics can be of two types—alphabetical or alphanumerical. Example of first type is ADD D whereas, MVI A, 0F is an example of the second category. 18. What is another name of a microprocessor? Ans. A microprocessor is also called the CPU, the central processing unit. 19. What is a microcomputer? Ans. A microcomputer is a system which is capable of processing a stream of input informations and will generate a stream of output informations taking the help of a program which is stored in the memory of the system. 20. What are the jobs that a microcomputer is capable of doing? How does it do the jobs? Ans. A microcomputer is capable of doing the following jobs: (a) receiving input (in the form of data or instruction). (b) performing computations, both arithmetic and logical. (c) storing data and instructions. (d) displaying the results of any computations. (e) controlling all the devices that perform the above mentioned four tasks, either directly or indirectly.
Ans. A collection of bits is called a word. data processing. Computers are divided into three categories as per the superiority and number of microprocessors used. Mainframe computers are designed to work at very high speed and they have very high storage capacity. while address comes out of the AB and CB controls the activities of the microcomputer system at any instant of time. scientific calculations etc. Data flow through the DB. Mini computers are having more storage capacity and more speed than micro computers. Ans. Their word length is typically 64-bits. The storage capacity and speed requirements of microcomputers are moderate. A bus is a bunch of wires through which data or address or control signals flow. What is meant by the term ‘long word’? Ans. Megabyte. These are used for research. but no value is excluded. Their word length varies between 8 and 32 bits and used in small industrial and process control systems. Distinguish between the three types of computers. That is. etc. a long word means a group consisting of 32-bits. the word length varies. A buffer enhances the current or power driving capability of a pin of an IC. Gigabyte.The first task is done by an input device. Hence. 23. 27. What is meant by the term ‘word’? Ans. whereas the second job is done by the arithmetic logic unit (ALU). GB. The different buses in a microprocessor are the data bus (DB). we can have a 19-bit word or 37-bit word. A microcomputer is a small computer containing only a single central processing unit (CPU). The fifth job is executed by the timing and control (T&C) unit. the word length is 32-bits. A word does not have a fixed number of bits—unlike the case of byte (= 8 byte) or a nibble (= 4 bytes). 21. Terabyte and Petabyte respectively. In how many ways computers are divided? Ans. These are: computers 25. 24. address bus (AB) and the control bus (CB). 1 KB = 1024 bytes = 210 bytes . MB. Distinguish between KB. For example. What are the different buses and what jobs they do in a microprocessor? Ans. the word length is 8-bits while that for 32-bit microprocessors. 28. A word is expressed usually in multiples of 2. Why are the different buses buffered? Ans. data processing. for 8-bit microprocessors. 22. The term ‘long word’ means a group of bits twice the normal length of the microprocessor. 26. graphic applications. For different microprocessors. TB and PB. These stand for Kilobyte. What is a bus? Ans. for a 16-bits microprocessor like 8086. Mini computers are used in research. The third task is done by the memory unit while an output device does the fourth job. etc.
Bus is a bundle of wires. It is also called unidirectional bus. hence it can access 216 = 64KB memory locations. Some of the control bus signals are follows: (I) Memory read (ii) Memory writer (iii) I/O read (iv) I/O writes. The number of data lines used in the data bus is equal to the size of data word being written or read. 1/0 devices. The 8085 microprocessor has 16-bit address bus to access memory. (c) Control Bus: It is bus which is necessary to Control the direction of data flow on the bidirectional data bus and to differentiate between a memory address and an I/O address. It is also called bi-directional bus. data bus and control bud. address and control but also connects microprocessor to memory (RAM or ROM) and I/O devices. Explain the bus architecture with neat diagram. information like data. Bus are divided into three categories like” address bus. Data bus is time multiplexed with lower order address bus. So all these buses are carry information regarding data. information between microprocessor. Ans. I/0 devices and memory. . address and element of microprocessor like memory. Draw the pin configuration and functional pin diagram of P 8085 and explain. (b) Data Bus: It is bus which used to transfer.1 MB = 1 Kilo KB = 220 bytes 1 GB = 1 Kilo MB = 230 bytes 1 TB = 1 Kilo GB = 240 bytes 1 PB = 1 Kilo TB = 250 bytes 29. In 8085 the address bus is 16-bit (A0 — A15). Define memory and explain the classification of memeory. (a) Address Bus: It is bus which carries the address of a memory location or I/O location. It is used to transfer information between different element of microprocessor. 31.(text) 30.
Properties Single + 5V Supply 4 Vectored Interrupts (One is Non Maskable) Serial In/Serial Out Port Decimal.stated during Hold and Halt modes and during RESET.A15(Output . The 8085A uses a multiplexed data bus.tri State) Address Bus.The most significant 8 bits of the memory address or the 8bits of the I/O address. complete 8 bit parallel central processing unit (CPU). Pin Description The following describes the function of each pin: A8 . and Double Precision Arithmetic Direct Addressing Capability to 64K bytes of memory The Intel 8085A is a new generation. AD0 .7 (Input/Output. Figures are at the end of the document. The address is split between the 8bit address bus and the 8bit data bus. 8085 Pin description.3. Tri. tri state) . Binary.
will relinquish the use of buses as soon as the completion of the current machine cycle. and IO/M lines are 3stated. ALE (Output) Address Latch Enable: It occurs during the first clock cycle of a machine state and enables the address to get latched into the on chip latch of peripherals. HOLD (Input) HOLD. indicates that another Master is requesting the use of the Address and Data Buses. It then becomes the data bus during the second and third clock cycles. The processor can regain the buses only after the Hold is removed. indicates the data on the Data Bus is to be written into the selected memory or 1/0 location. the Address. HLDA goes low after the Hold request is removed. READY (Input) If Ready is high during a read or write cycle.Multiplexed Address/Data Bus. Lower 8 bits of the memory address (or I/0 address) appear on the bus during the first clock cycle of a machine state. When the Hold is acknowledged.tristate) WRITE. Data is set up at the trailing edge of WR. upon receiving the Hold request. HLDA (Output) HOLD ACKNOWLEDGE. the CPU will wait for Ready to go high before completing the read or write cycle. tri stated during Hold and Halt modes. If Ready is low. Internal processing can continue. ALE can also be used to strobe the status information. The CPU. WR (Output.tristate) READ. The CPU takes the buses one half clock cycle after HLDA goes low. 3stated during Hold and Halt modes. SO. RD (Output. indicates that the CPU has received the Hold request and that it will relinquish the buses in the next clock cycle. Encoded status of the bus cycle: S1 S0 O O HALT 0 1 WRITE 1 0 READ 1 1 FETCH S1 can be used as an advanced R/W status. INTR (Input) . Data. RD. WR. ALE is never tri stated. indicates the selected memory or 1/0 device is to be read and that the Data Bus is available for the data transfer. S1 (Output) Data Bus Status. it indicates that the memory or peripheral is ready to send or receive data. The falling edge of ALE is set to guarantee setup and hold times for the address information.
is used as a general purpose interrupt.(Inputs) RST 7. The INTR is enabled and disabled by software. is used instead of (and has the same timing as) RD during the Instruction cycle after an INTR is accepted.5 o Lowest Priority The priority of these interrupts is ordered as shown above. RST 7. Can be used as a system RESET.5 RESTART INTERRUPTS. These interrupts have a higher priority than the INTR. It is recognized at the same time as INTR. IO/M (Output) IO/M indicates whether the Read/Write is to memory or l/O Tristated during Hold and Halt modes. The period of CLK is twice the X1. X2 (Input) Crystal or R/C network connections to set the internal clock generator X1 can also be an external clock input instead of a crystal. It is disabled by Reset and immediately after an interrupt is accepted. RESET IN (Input) Reset sets the Program Counter to zero and resets the Interrupt Enable and HLDA flipflops. . RST 5. It has the highest priority of any interrupt. These three inputs have the same timing as I NTR except they cause an internal RESTART to be automatically inserted. CLK (Output) Clock Output for use as a system clock when a crystal or R/ C network is used as an input to the CPU. During this cycle a RESTART or CALL instruction can be inserted to jump to the interrupt service routine. The signal is synchronized to the processor clock.5 ~~ Highest Priority RST 6. the Program Counter (PC) will be inhibited from incrementing and an INTA will be issued. RESET OUT (Output) Indicates CPlJ is being reset. The input frequency is divided by 2 to give the internal operating frequency.5 RST 6. If it is active. TRAP (Input) Trap interrupt is a nonmaskable restart interrupt. INTA (Output) INTERRUPT ACKNOWLEDGE. It is sampled only during the next to the last clock cycle of the instruction.5 RST 5. It can be used to activate the 8259 Interrupt chip or some other interrupt port. It is unaffected by any mask or Interrupt Enable.5 . X1.INTERRUPT REQUEST. None of the other flags or registers (except the instruction register) are affected The CPU is held in the reset condition as long as Reset is applied. X2 input period.
Draw the internal architecture of 8085 and mention its various functional blocks and explain. Vss Ground Reference. Or With the functional block diagram explain the 8085 microprocessor. Vcc +5 volt supply. Arithmetic Logic Unit . In reality causes certain connections between blocks of the uP to be opened or closed. and so that ALU operations occur.SID (Input) Serial input data line The data on this line is loaded into accumulator bit 7 whenever a RIM instruction is executed. Control Unit Generates signals within uP to carry out the instruction. which has been decoded. SOD (output) Serial output data line. The output SOD is set or reset as specified by the SIM instruction. 32. so that data goes where it is required.
The flags are stored in the 8-bit register so that the programmer can examine these flags (data conditions) by accessing the register through an instruction. the program counter is incremented by one to point to the next memory location Stack Pointer (SP) .BC. the flip-flop called the Zero(Z) flag is set to one. it is not used as a register. This register is used to store 8-bit data and to perform arithmetic and logical operations. The conditions (set or reset) of the flags are tested through the software instructions. Always stores result of operation in Accumulator. Registers The 8085/8080A-programming model includes six registers. ‘subtract’. They are called Zero(Z). if the sum in the accumulator id larger than eight bits. Carry. Flags The ALU includes five flip-flops.to perform some 16-bit operations. and Auxiliary Carry (AC) flags. and that is why this is a 16-bit register. The microprocessor uses this register to sequence the execution of the instructions. and one flag register. and HL . as shown in Figure. When a byte (machine code) is being fetched. ‘OR’. The microprocessor uses these flags to test data conditions. Program Counter (PC) This 16-bit register deals with sequencing the execution of instructions. The first Figure shows an 8-bit register.H.E. They can be combined as register pairs . these are identified as B. Carry (CY). the instruction JC (Jump on Carry) is implemented to change the sequence of a program when CY flag is set. For example.The ALU performs the actual numerical and logic operation such as ‘add’.D. The programmer can use these registers to store or copy data into the registers by using data copy instructions. The 8085/8080A has six general-purpose registers to store 8-bit data. They are described briefly as follows. and Sign. These flags have critical importance in the decision-making process of the microprocessor. When an arithmetic operation results in zero. The thorough understanding of flag is essential in writing assembly language programs. five bit positions out of eight are used to store the outputs of the five flip-flops. Uses data from memory and from Accumulator to perform arithmetic. For example. they are listed in the Table and their bit positions in the flag register are shown in the Figure below. Sign (S). the flip-flop uses to indicate a carry -. DE. adjacent to the accumulator. called the flag register. it has two 16-bit registers: the stack pointer and the program counter. Parity (P). The function of the program counter is to point to the memory address from which the next byte is to be fetched. Accumulator The accumulator is an 8-bit register that is a part of arithmetic/logic unit (ALU). etc. one accumulator. ‘AND’. and L as shown in the figure. However.C. which are set or reset after an operation according to data conditions of the result in the accumulator and other registers. Memory locations have 16-bit addresses.called the Carry flag (CY) – is set to one. The result of an operation is stored in the accumulator. The accumulator is also identified as register A. after an addition of two numbers. This register is a memory pointer. In addition. The most commonly used flags are Zero.
The width of DB and AB of 8085 are 8-bits (1 byte) and 16-bits (2 bytes) respectively. Register Selector This block controls the use of the register stack in the example. What is the operating frequency of 8085? Ans. Feeds the address bus with addresses of location of the program under execution. called the stack. 8085 operates at a frequency of 3 MHz. hence DB is bidirectional.e. These are: (1) Power supply and frequency signals (2) Data and Address buses (3) Control bus (4) Interrupt signals (5) Serial I/O signals (6) DMA signals (7) Reset signals. Memory Address Register Holds address.The stack pointer is also a 16-bit register used as a memory pointer. Can be used to store additional data during a program. The signals of 8085 can be classified into seven groups according to their functions. In reality causes certain connections between blocks of the uP to be opened or closed. What is the distinguishing feature of DB and AB? Ans.. so that data goes where it is required. More complex processors may have a variety of differently named registers. Again the microprocessor . It points to a memory location in R/W memory. can input or output data from within it. of next program instruction. In how many groups can the signals of 8085 be classified? Ans. What are the widths of data bus (DB) and address bus (AB) of 8085? Ans. Decoder then takes instruction and ‘decodes’ or interprets the instruction. an 8-bit microprocessor like 8085 can handle 8-bits of data at a time. Control Generator Generates signals within uP to carry out the instruction which has been decoded. The version 8085 A-2 operates at a maximum frequency of 5 MHz. Hence. General Purpose uP requires extra registers for versatility. 35." Instruction Register/Decoder Temporary store for the current instruction of a program. and the minimum frequency of operation is 500 kHz. Decoded instruction then passed to next stage. 33. 37. The stack concept is explained in the chapter "Stack and Subroutines. Just a logic circuit which switches between different registers in the set will receive instructions from Control Unit. and so that ALU operations occur. 36. What is meant by the statement that 8085 is a 8-bit microprocessor? Ans. the width of the data bus determines the size of the microprocessor. 34. Latest instruction sent here from memory prior to execution. The beginning of the stack is defined by loading 16bit address in the stack pointer. A microprocessor which has n data lines is called an n-bit microprocessor i. received from PC.
41. t shift operation. The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) of 8085 can perform the following jobs: -bit binary addition with or without carry. Explain. But because of multiplexing. EXOR. 42. -bit binary subtraction with or without borrow. RST 7. Again each address (memory location) can hold 1 byte of data/instruction. external hardware is required to demultiplex the lower byte address cum data bus. Ans. Microprocessor 8085 communicates via its address bus of 2-bytes width – the lower byte AD0 – AD7 (pins 12-19) and upper byte D8 – D15 (pins 21–28). Ans. Hence the maximum address capability of 8085 is = 216 × 1 Byte = 65. What jobs ALU of 8085 can perform? Ans. their respective quantities and capacities are tabulated below: .5. Thus it can access 28 = 256 I/O ports. How many instructions 8085 can support? Ans. The various registers of 8085. This is done to reduce the number of pins of 8085. RST 5. Thus it can address a maximum of 216 different address locations.addresses/communicates with peripheral ICs through the address bus. 43. List the various registers of 8085. hence it is unidirectional. 44. 37. Why the lower byte address bus (A0 – A7) and data bus (D0 – D7) are multiplexed? Ans. 8085 has serial I/O control via its SOD and SID pins (pins 4 and 5) which allows it to communicate serially with external devices.5 and INTR. AND. complement (NOT function). which otherwise would have been a 48 pin chip. It provides 8-bit I/O addresses. 40. -digit BCD addition.5. 39. It supports five (5) hardware interrupts—TRAP. RST 6. -bit logical OR. The address capability of 8085 is 64 KB. Does 8085 have serial I/O control? Ans. How many hardware interrupts 8085 supports? Ans. -bit binary addition. How many I/O ports can 8085 access? Ans. 8085 supports 74 different instructions. 536 × 1 Byte = 64 KB (where 1 K = 1024 bytes) 38.
Describe the accumulator register of 8085.45. What are the temporary registers of 8085? Ans. These registers are also known as scratch pad registers. In what other way HL pair can be used? Ans. but is used internally for execution of most of the arithmetic and logical operations. HL register pair can be used as a data pointer or memory pointer. Describe W and Z registers of 8085. The temporary data register of 8085 is an 8-bit register. E. but 8085 uses them internally to hold temporary data during execution of some instructions. They are all 8-bit registers but can also be used as 16-bit register pairs—BC. store and rotate operations. It is generally used for temporary storage of data and for the placement of final result of arithmetic/logical operations. The temporary registers of 8085 are temporary data register and W and Z registers. 49. W and Z registers are used for temporary storage of such data. The result is stored in the accumulator. Ans. 47. Again. 50. C. 48. . These registers are not available to the programmer. D. which is not available to the programmer. Ans. W and Z are two 8-bit temporary registers. CALL-RET instructions are used in subroutine operations. The address of the first memory location of the subroutine is temporarily stored in W and Z registers. ADD D instruction adds the contents of accumulator with the content of D. 46. Describe the general purpose registers of 8085? Ans. used to hold 8-bit data/address during execution of some instructions. Thus the two inputs to the ALU are—one from the accumulator and the other from the temporary data register. On getting a CALL in the main program. Ans. This 8-bit register is the most important one amongst all the registers of 8085. H and L. Accumulator (ACC or A) register is extensively used for arithmetic. the current program counter content is pushed into the stack and loads the PC with the first memory location of the subroutine. The general purpose registers of 8085 are: B. The content of D is temporarily brought into the temporary data register. Any data input/output to/from the microprocessor takes place via the accumulator (register). DE and HL. XCHG instruction exchanges the contents H and L with D and E respectively. Describe the temporary data register of 8085. logical.
the more is flexibility in programming—so a microprocessor having more such registers is always advantageous. General purpose registers store temporary data during program execution. the stack top may run into the memory area where program has been written. 53. the processor increments PC by three address locations. PC acts as a address pointer (also known as memory pointer) to the next instruction. 54. the PC is incremented—the number by which the PC increments depends on the nature of the instruction. Stack Pointer (SP) and Incrementer/Decrementer address latch register. PC is incremented by one. This is shown in Fig. the program should be written at one end and stack should be initialised at the other end of the map—this is done to avoid crashing of program. which can also be stored in different accessible memory locations. If sufficient gap is not maintained between program memory location and stack. Program counter (PC) is a sixteen bit register which contains the address of the instruction to be executed just next. Mention the utility of the general purpose registers. memory address. Describe the instruction register of 8085. But storing temporary data in memory requires bus access—hence more time is needed to store. The stack is an area in the R/W memory where temporary data or return addresses (in cases of subroutine CALL) are stored. Ans. while for a 3-byte instruction. The more the number of general purpose registers. As the processor executes instructions one after another. for a 1-byte instruction. then when the stack gets filled up by PUSH or subroutine calls.51.5. For example. Which are the sixteen bit registers of 8085. 52. The stack top is initialised by the SP by using the instruction LXI SP. Ans. Thus it is always advisable to store data in general purpose registers. 8085 has three (3) sixteen bit registers—Program Counter (PC). In the memory map. . Stack pointer (SP) is a sixteen bit register which points to the ‘stack’. 2. Discuss the two registers program counter and stack pointer. Stack is a autodecrement facility provided in the system. Ans.
This includes accumulator. —each of one bit. Zero (Z) flag:– If the result of an instruction is zero. Describe the (status) flag register of 8085. 59. Ans. DMA signals as . It is an 8-bit register in which five bit positions contain the status of five condition flags which are Zero (Z). Carry (CY). The ALU functions as a part which includes arithmetic logic group of circuits.6: Sign (S) flag: – If the MSB of the result of an operation is 1. otherwise reset. The width of the internal data bus is 8-bit and carries instructions/data between the CPU registers. I/O. The following are the characteristics of flag register: -bit register. otherwise reset. then this flag is set. The T&C section is a part of CPU and generates timing and control signals for execution of instructions. the opcode of the instruction is fetched from the memory and stored in the instruction register. Mention the blocks on which ALU operates? Ans. Ans. State the characteristics of the flag register. 56. This 16-bit register increments/decrements the contents of PC or SP when instructions related to them are executed. Describe in brief the timing and control circuitry of 8085. Each of these five flags is a 1 bit F/F. Control signals. Parity (P) flag:– This flag is set when the result of an operation contains an even number of 1’s and is reset otherwise. What is the function of the internal data bus? Ans. this flag is set. Auxiliary Carry (AC ) flag:– If there is a carry out of bit 3 and into bit 4 resulting from the execution of an arithmetic operation. 60. flags F/Fs and temporary register blocks. 55. Ans. Sign (S). The internal and external data bus are connected together by a logic called a bidirectional bus (transreceiver).Ans. Program written by the programmer resides in the R/W memory. This section includes Clock signals. Status signals. Carry (CY) flag:– If an instruction results in a carry (for addition operation) or borrow (for subtraction or comparison) out of bit D7. this flag is set. The opcode is loaded into the instruction register during opcode fetch cycle. Parity (P) and Auxiliary carry (AC). This is totally separate from the external data bus which is connected to memory chips. it is set otherwise reset. otherwise it is reset. 2. 58. This flag is used for BCD operation and is not available to the programmer to change the sequence of an instruction. into. What is the purpose of incrementer/decrementer address latch register? Ans. It is then sent to the instruction decoder. The flag register format is shown in Fig. When an instruction is being executed by the system. etc. 57.
What is the function of ALE and how does it function? Ans. Ans.5. 62. Serial I/O signals are SID and SOD DMA signals are HOLD and HLDA Reset signals are RESET IN and RESET OUT. INTA is an interrupt acknowledgement signal indicating that the processor has acknowledged an INTR interrupt. DMA mode of data transfer is fastest and pins 39 and 38 (HOLD and HLDA) become active only in this mode. . Now ALE signal goes high at the beginning of T1 of each machine cycle and goes low at the end of T1 and remains low during the rest of the machine cycle. Lower byte of address (A0 – A7) are available from AD0 – AD7 (pins 12 to 19) during T1 of machine cycle. RST 6. It also generates appropriate control signals for instruction execution as also the signals required to interface external devices. The interrupt signals are TRAP.also the Reset section. ALE signal is used to demultiplex the lower order address bus (AD0 – AD7). Pins 12 to 19 of 8085 are AD0 – AD7 which is the multiplexed address-data bus. The control and status signals are ALE. RST 5. Ans. RD . Pin 30 of 8085 is the ALE pin which stands for ‘Address Latch Enable’. S0. WR. 61. This high to low transition of ALE signal at the end of T1 is used to latch the lower order address byte (A0 – A7) by the latch IC 74LS373. But the lower byte of address (A0 – A7). S1 and READY. IO/M. Multiplexing is done to reduce the number of pins of 8085. INTR. RST 7. along with the upper byte A8 – A15 (pins 21 to 28) must be available during T2 and rest of the machine cycle to access memory location or I/O ports. The situation is explained in the following figure: 63. so that the lower byte A0 – A7 is continued to be available till the end of the machine cycle. Mention the following: (a) Control and Status signals (b) Interrupt signals (c) Serial I/O signals (d) DMA signals (e) Reset signals.5. Explain the function of the two DMA signals HOLD and HLDA. This section controls fetching and decoding operations.5.
This will thus put considerable overhead on the microprocessor. Write the advantages/disadvantages of having more number of general purpose registers in a microprocessor. For proper resetting to take place. At the end of the current instruction cycle of the microprocessor it issues a1 to pin 38 of the controller. This would reduce the number of operations that can be provided by the microprocessor. What happens when RESET IN signal goes low? Ans. When this pin is low. Ans. while the roles of 8085 and 8257 are reversed when 8085 is idle and 8257 becomes active. 65. the DMA controller IC (8257) sends a 1 to pin 39 of 8085. In programs involving subroutine CALL. then the former is MASTER and the latter is SLAVE. S0 and S1 indicate the type of machine cycle in progress. 67. After this the bus control is totally taken over by the controller. Ans. they are to be restored from the stack. RESET IN is an input signal which is active when its status is low. A high on this signal indicates I/O operation while a low indicates memory operation. the processor is being reset. 69.When DMA is required. . Discuss the three signals IO/ M . But there are certain disadvantages of having more GPRs. 68. then their status are to be saved in stack and on return from the subroutine. Explain the instruction cycle of a microprocessor. the following occurs: -stated. S0 and S1. These are as follows: The more the number of GPRs in a microprocessor. if more GPRs are involved. IO/ M signal indicates whether I/O or memory operation is being carried out. When 8085 is active and 8257 is idle. If more number of GPRs are used in a microprocessor. Thus there may be some problem in implementing other functions on the chip. considerable area of the chip is used up in accommodating the GPRs. Indicate the function of RESET OUT signal. 66. the reset signal RESET IN must be held low for at least 3 clock cycles. Ans. This signal is synchronised to the processor clock and is used to reset other devices which need resetting. Is there any minimum time required for the effective RESET IN signal? Ans. more number of bits would be required to identify individual registers. Writing of a program becomes more convenient and flexible by having more number of general purpose registers. 64. When this signal is high.
The content of the addressed memory (i. and one flag register. Most microprocessors have provision of wait cycles to cope with slow memories. while in the third T-state this opcode is sent via the data bus to the instruction register (IR).e. The 8085 programming model includes six registers. They are described briefly as follows. Explain a typical fetch cycle (FC). The same information is repeated here briefly to provide the continuity and the context to the instruction set and to enable the readers who prefer to focus initially on the programming aspect of the microprocessor. Ans.19. The time taken by the processor to complete one instruction is called the Instruction Cycle (IC). as shown in Figure.Ans.. . For slow memories. A typical FC may look like the following: 71. one accumulator. In addition. it may take more time in which case the processor goes into ‘wait cycles’. 2. the opcode residing in that memory location) is read in the second T-state. An IC consists of Fetch Cycle (FC) and an Execute Cycle (EC). It is shown in Fig. it has two 16-bit registers: the stack pointer and the program counter. In the first T-state. the instructions (1 or 2 or 3 bytes in length) are executed sequentially by the system. Depending on the type of instruction. Explain the 8085 Programming Model In the previous tutorial we described the 8085 microprocessor registers in reference to the internal data operations. Thus IC = FC + EC. IC time varies 70. the memory address. is sent to the memory. A typical FC may consist of 3T states. The time required to fetch an opcode from a memory location is called Fetch Cycle. residing in the PC. When a processor executes a program.
adjacent to the accumulator. if the sum in the accumulator id larger than eight bits. these are identified as B. the flip-flop uses to indicate a carry -. For example. Parity (P). They are called Zero(Z). DE. This register is used to store 8-bit data and to perform arithmetic and logical operations.BC. The most commonly used flags are Zero. However. their bit positions in the flag register are shown in the Figure below. which are set or reset after an operation according to data conditions of the result in the accumulator and other registers.H. Flags The ALU includes five flip-flops. The first Figure shows an 8-bit register. The accumulator is also identified as register A.Registers The 8085 has six general-purpose registers to store 8-bit data.D. and L as shown in the figure.C. The microprocessor uses these flags to test data conditions.E. Accumulator The accumulator is an 8-bit register that is a part of arithmetic/logic unit (ALU). the flip-flop called the Zero(Z) flag is set to one. and Auxiliary Carry (AC) flags. When an arithmetic operation results in zero.called the Carry flag (CY) – is set to one. five bit . Sign (S). after an addition of two numbers.to perform some 16-bit operations. called the flag register. and Sign. and HL . The programmer can use these registers to store or copy data into the registers by using data copy instructions. it is not used as a register. Carry. They can be combined as register pairs . Carry (CY). The result of an operation is stored in the accumulator.
For example. Before address disappears ALE = 0.positions out of eight are used to store the outputs of the five flip-flops. and that is why this is a 16-bit register. This will make latch disable. 72. the instruction JC (Jump on Carry) is implemented to change the sequence of a program when CY flag is set. the program counter is incremented by one to point to the next memory location Stack Pointer (SP) The stack pointer is also a 16-bit register used as a memory pointer. The microprocessor uses this register to sequence the execution of the instructions. . This register is a memory pointer. The conditions (set or reset) of the flags are tested through the software instructions. Ans. The function of the program counter is to point to the memory address from which the next byte is to be fetched. The flags are stored in the 8-bit register so that the programmer can examine these flags (data conditions) by accessing the register through an instruction. Working : The address will appear on AD0 AD7 lines. The 8085 microprocessor is used IC 74LS373 to latch the address of 8085. It points to a memory location in R/W memory. Basically latch is consists of 8 flip flops. Program Counter (PC) This 16-bit register deals with sequencing the execution of instructions. This will make latch enable and ready to work. called the stack. AD0 — AD7 (low order) address bus of the 8085 microprocessor is multiplexed (timeshared) with the data bus. When a byte (machine code) is being fetched. AD0 — AD7 will now be used as data bus. These flags have critical importance in the decision-making process of the microprocessor. Generally we used D-flip flops (Delay). The ALE will go high and forcing Enable = 1. Memory locations have 16-bit addresses. The beginning of the stack is defined by loading 16bit address in the stack pointer. Hence. The buses need to be demultiplexed. The thorough understanding of flag is essential in writing assembly language programs. The clock of these flip flops are connected together and available as a output pin called enable. Draw a schematic to demultiplex bus AD7 — AD0 using any octal latch. This programming model will be used in subsequent tutorials to examine how these registers are affected after the execution of an instruction.
8085 microprocessor when connected with the input device. (EPROM and R/W memory) an input device. output device and memory forms a microcomputer system.73. We have studied the architecture of a 8085 microprocessor. The memory is used to store the data and the output device like seven segment display or CRT is used to display the results. It consists of two types of memory. data bus and a few control signals connected to the peripherals (memory and I/O devices) and the microprocessor. an output device and address bus. shows the block diagram of a 8085 based micro computer system. Fig. How does 8085 based single board microcomputer works? Ans. . The input device like keyboard is used to enter the data and instructions.
input and. The second control signal. The data from the microprocessor is transferred to the output device. the microprocessor can send data to the output device. Memory Read is connected to the EPROM memory and R/W memory to read the data from these memories. When this signal is active. input device and output device. The four control signals generated by the microprocessor (Memory Read). The data can flow. Then the microprocessor place the address of the input device on the address bus and the data from the input device is placed on the data bus and it is read by the microprocessor through its data bus. the 8085 microprocessor generates a low control signal so that input device is enabled.from the microprocessor to the peripherals (memory and input/output devices) and also from peripherals to the microprocessor. R/W memory. (I/O Read) and (I/O write) are also connected to different peripherals. First control signal. These lines are connected to the EPROM memory. (Memory Write). The fourth control signal input/output write is connected to the output device and when this signal is active. The O5 microprocessor are used to carry the addresses of the memory. The address lines 15. Similarly to read data. These are bidirectional lines. R/W memory. AD0 is required’ Ans: Basically. memory write is connected to the R/W memory so that the data may be written in the R/W memory. These bidirectional data lines are also connected to the EPROM memory. data from the memory (whose address is placed) is’ read by the microprocessor through the data bus. data on the data bus and enables the output device by generating a control signal low. the microprocessor places the address of the output device on the address bus. To read the data from the R/W memory. the microprocessor places the address of memory on the address bus. ALE signal give us the information that which of the bus data bus or address bus we are using . the 8085 microprocessor sends a low signal. Why demultiplexing of AD7. The data lines of 8085 microprocessor D are used to carry the data. To send the data to the output device. The third control signal input/output read signal is connected to the input device. from the input device. The 8085 microprocessor communicates with only one peripheral (memory or I/O device) at a time by enabling the peripheral through its control signal. input device and output devices. 74. When is low the memory section is enabled. the 8085 microprocessor can read data from the input device. output device.
PSW (Program Status Word) : It stands for program status word. Discuss PSW in detail for 8085 TR (PTU. ALE signal is used to demultiplexing the bus The bus AD7 — AD0 is connected as the input to latch 74LS373 ALE signal is attached to enable pin of the latch (4) CC — output control ALE when high — latch is transparent output changes according to input data To reduce the number of pins to make it compact one and easy to use data bus a” address bus is demultiplexed Data bus — 8 bits Address bus —* 16 bits So 8 bits of address bus and data bus are multiplex and them ALE (Address I enable) is used to demultiplexed them 75. May 2008) Ans. example. explain the generation of control signals with diagram. Flag is a flop flop. The rent flags of 8085 are: . the zero flag (ZF) will set if the result of execution of an instruction is zero.(ref:text) 76. It indicates some condition produced by the execution of an instruction. It is a 8 bit register which includes five status flags and the rest three bits are undefined.
ZF (Zero Flag) : This flag is activated or set only if the result of ALU is equal to zero. whenever there has been a carry out of lower nibble into the higher nibble or a borrow from hiher nibble into the lower nibble of 8 bit quantity. otherwise it is reset. SF (Sign Flag) The flag is set when MSB bit of the result is 1. when the result of operation is zero. AC (Auxiliary Carry Flag) : This flag is set.1. 1. ZF = 1 = ALU result is zero ZF = 0 ALU result is non-zero. . Otherwise the flag is SF=1 =MSBis1 SF=0 =MSBis0. otherwise AF is reset. 1. For example. this flag is set. the other hand.
(iii) The size of program counter depends upon the number of address bits. (iv) In Jump and call instructions. Functions of stack pointer: (i) It is used to keep the track of data stored on stack. Functions of the stack pointer: (i) It is used ‘for holding the address of program memory counter? (ii) It isaiways points to the next instruction to be fetched. the address followed by the jump and call instructions is placed in the program counter. It is always points at the top of the stack. (ii) Stack pointer is a reserved• portion of memory where information can be stored. What are the functions of stack pointer and program Ans.4 PF (Parity Flag) Basically parity is of two type one is even parity and second one is odd parity Parity is checked with just counting the number of is in given data This flag is set when the result has even parity an even number of 1 bits If parity is odd PF is reset PF = even parity PF = 0 odd parity 5 CY (Carry Flag) This flag is set whenever there has been a carry out of or a borrow into the higher order bit of the result (8 or 16 bit) For example: 78. (iii) Stack pointer is a 16-bit register used for defining the stack starting address. This memory area is referred to as a stack area. .
to control the level of liquid in the tank (iv) They are used in computers for railway reservations. (v) The stack pointer is loaded with an initial value by the means of a transfer type instruction. the speed of an electric motor the pressure of a boiler.(iv) Stack pointer is decremented after each stack write operation and it is incremented after each stack read operation. output and other devices of a computer (ii) Used for controlling appliances video games and automobiles (iii) They are used to measuring and controlling the temperature of a ‘furnace and oven. photograph processing general administration (v) They are used in office automation data acquisition systems and associated interfaces . Initial value must be the highest address of an assigned stack in the memory. 79 Give microprocessor applications Ans Following are the applications of microprocessor (i) It is used as CPU of a computer used for controlling input. smart camera energy meters.
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