# Wave Nature of Radiation and Matter

By

Prince_ganai@yahoo.co.uk
Room No:326 Top Floor- Main Block Department Of Physics – NIT Srinagar

Hello: 9797085181

01/21/09

Department of Physics-NIT Srinagar

Scientific Method
Includes several interdependent steps:
* Observations * Controlled Experiments * Qualitative and Quantitative Reasoning • Mathematical Modeling * Predictions

Verification/Falsification of Theories Speculation and conjecture also have a place in science; but ultimately, an acceptable scientific theory must be verified by relevant observations and experiments.

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Physics: Theory Experiment

“Physics is a systematic attempt to understand natural phenomena in as much depth and detail as possible, and use this knowledge to predict, modify and control phenomena.” Theories are constructed to explain experimental facts… Trying to answer the question ‘HOW’ (and not ‘WHY’) things happen in nature…
Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

01/21/09

Evolution of Physics
Physics has a history of synthesizing many phenomena into a few theories:
Motion Heat Sound Light

Newton
Electricity Magnetism

Maxwell
Gravity

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Recap: Classical Mechanics Newton’s laws of Motion:
Second Law Measures The Force F=ma Equation of motion:

M d2x/dt2 = Force
F=Mg [Gravitational Force] F=Q[E+VxB] { Lorentz

Force} Job:  x(t), given x(0). Deterministic

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Relativity
Theory of how physics will appear to different observers who are moving at some uniform velocity with respect to one another.
01/21/09 Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

What is Light?
Newton: Light was made up of particles (“corpuscles”)

He was right, but the reasoning that he used to come to that decision was erroneous.

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Wave Theory Of Light
     

01/21/09

Huygens Concept of Light Waves. Maxwell's Equations Interference Diffraction Polarization Light waves part of Electromagnetic Spectrum. Now we use light for communication Physics -NIT Department Of
Srinagar

Particle Effect
Einstein (1905): The photoelectric effect was thought to be the most direct and convincing evidence of the existence of photons and the 'corpuscular' nature of light and electromagnetic radiation.

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921
“for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”.

Einstein (1879 – 1955)
Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

01/21/09

Other Experiments
Compton Effect.  X-ray Production.  Pair-Production.

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

What is Light? Waves!
“Partial Reflection”  4% of the photons are reflected by the front surface of a glass slab while the other 96% are transmitted into. Difficulty: How does a single photon “know” which of the two possible paths it should take when it hits the glass surface? How does it “make up its mind”? DEEP MYSTERY!!
01/21/09 Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

What is Light??

Newton’s corpuscular theory was not satisfactory. Partial Reflection could be explained by a theory of waves, but the wave theory could not explain Photoelectric Effect.

So there was a period in which one had to know which experiment one was analyzing in order to tell if light was waves or particles. This state of confusion was called the “Wave-Particle Duality” of light !
Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

01/21/09

Quantum Optics

“Light was waves on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays; it was particles on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays; and on Sundays, we think about it!” Quantum Optics reconciles the particle properties of light with the wave nature.

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Wave Properties of Particles
 

In 1924, Louis de Broglie postulated that because photons have wave and particle characteristics, perhaps all forms of matter have both properties For instance, for a photon:

hc E  hf  

thus

E hc h p   c c 

or

h  p

De Broglie suggested that this formula is true for any particle! Thus, the frequency and wavelength of matter waves can be determined. I.e. de Broglie wavelength of a particle is
Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

h  mv

01/21/09

Wave Properties of Particles

The frequency of matter waves can also be determined

E  hf

E ƒ h

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

The Davisson-Germer Experiment

They scattered low-energy electrons from a nickel target They followed this with extensive diffraction measurements from various materials The wavelength of the electrons calculated from the diffraction data agreed with the expected de Broglie wavelength This confirmed the wave nature of electrons Other experimenters have confirmed the wave nature of other particles
Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

01/21/09

The Electron Microscope

01/21/09

The electron microscope depends on the wave characteristics of electrons Microscopes can only resolve details that are slightly smaller than the wavelength of the radiation used to illuminate the object The electrons can be accelerated to high energies and have small wavelengths Department Of Physics -NIT
Srinagar

Birth of Quantum Mechanics

Electron Theory of Matter (1900):
Electrons + Nucleus  Failure of Classical Laws

Quantum Mechanics (1926-27 Schroedinger, Heisenberg, Born):
Nonrelativistic

Invented to explain the strange and classically inexplicable behavior of atoms and molecules  the spectrum of light they emitted…
01/21/09 Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

The Wave Function

In 1926 Schrödinger proposed a wave equation that describes the manner in which matter waves change in space and time Schrödinger’s wave equation is a key  element in quantum mechanics

i

t

 H

Schrödinger’s wave equation is generally solved for the wave function, Ψ The wave function depends on the particle’s position and the time
Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

01/21/09

The Wave Function

The value of |Ψ|2 at some location at a given time is proportional to the probability of finding the particle at that location at that time

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Quantum Mechanics
1.

The question – how a photon chooses its path given some alternative – is operationally meaningless. All we can predict from theory is that out of 100 photons that come down, an average of 4 will be reflected by the front surface.

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

The Uncertainty Principle

When measurements are made, the experimenter is always faced with experimental uncertainties in the measurements

Classical mechanics offers no fundamental barrier to ultimate refinements in measurements Classical mechanics would allow for measurements with arbitrarily small uncertainties

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

The Uncertainty Principle

Quantum mechanics predicts that a barrier to measurements with ultimately small uncertainties does exist In 1927 Heisenberg introduced the uncertainty principle

If a measurement of position of a particle is made with precision Δx and a simultaneous measurement of linear momentum is made with precision Δp, then the product of the two uncertainties can never be smaller than h/4π

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

The Uncertainty Principle

Mathematically,
h ∆∆ x ≥ x p 4π

It is physically impossible to measure simultaneously the exact position and the exact linear momentum of a particle Another form of the principle deals h with energy and time: t ≥ ∆ ∆ E 4π

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Thought Experiment – the Uncertainty Principle

A thought experiment for viewing an electron with a powerful microscope In order to see the electron, at least one photon must bounce off it During this interaction, momentum is transferred from the photon to the electron Therefore, the light that allows you to accurately locate the electron changes the momentum of the electron
Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

01/21/09

Quantum Mechanics…
QM demanded a whole change in philosophy:
Determinism of classical physics  QM predictability which can at best be probabilistic, with an intrinsic indeterminacy (Uncertainty Principle) – Conceptual Problems...

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Quantum Mechanics…
 Physics has been “reduced” to calculating only the probability of an event, and not predicting exactly what will happen!! Nature permits us to calculate only probabilities.

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Quantum Mechanics…
This crazy model of the world can explain all the simple properties of light -Light goes in straight lines; When light reflects off a mirror, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection; Refraction; Interference; Diffraction; and so on...

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Where to?
Superposition principle  Schroedinger’s cat paradox… Against “common sense”… but has no experimental doubt about it. Use the “superposition state” to build a Quantum Computer?! Immense parallel-processing machine…
01/21/09 Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Where to?
Atomic Physics. Interaction between matter /radiation Super fluids Superconductors Semiconductor Physics Condensed matter Physics Nuclear and particle Physics Nano-Physics Computational Physics
01/21/09 Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Our Group:

 

 

Testing Quantum Mechanics at Low Energy . Studying Nuclear Structure. Extreme case of neutron and proton rich light nuclei. Our Recent Contribution Phys Rev C 77 –014303 APS

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Moral of the story…
Theory Experiment  Applications Scientific Methods continue!

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar

Than ks

01/21/09

Department Of Physics -NIT Srinagar