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Industrial Waste Recycling Policy: Bangladesh

Marzia Hoque Tania

Overview of


Bangladesh economy has been rapidly growing with around 6% annually for the last decade.


Manufacturing sectors establishment in Bangladesh

Current Situation of Wastes in Bangladesh

Current Situation of Wastes in Bangladesh

Selected sectors for field investigation and inventory survey

Summery of Surveyed Sectors

Sl. Sectors
Waste Water 2007 1 TEXTILE SECTOR Annual Growth: 90% Sludge Generation: -17.14 M3/1000 meter -1.14 Kg./ M3 of waste water generated HOSPITAL & CLINICS Annual Growth: 8.18% Waste Generation: 2.29 kg/patient/day TANNERY Annual Growth: 5% Waste Water Generation: 4 liter/ Sq.ft of hide processed Solid Waste Generation: 350 kg/ton of hide processed PESTICIDES Annual Growth: 5.2% Waste Water Generation: 0.85 M3/MT of Finished product Sold Waste Generation: 30 MT of Finished product 99.75 mil M3/yr 2012 2470.4 mil M3/yr

Sludge 2007 113720 MT/yr 2012 36.39 Mil MT/yr 2007 Solid 2012

12045 MT/yr

*16972 MT/yr
*for 2013

1.3 mil M3/yr

1.66 mil M3/yr

22,500 MT/yr

34212 MT/yr

10.920 M3/yr

17261 M3/yr

53.58 MT/yr

68 MT/yr

Summery of Surveyed Sectors


Waste Water 2007 2012 2007 -

Sludge 2012 2007 277 MT/yr Solid 2012 334 MT/yr

FERTILIZER Annual Growth: 4% Waste Generation: Total 1246 MT of solid waste (spent catalyst) existing today. Every 5-12 years on average it needs to be disposed. Waste Water: 2.66 M3/MT (average rate of waste water (effluent) generation from the surveyed fertilizer (Urea only) manufacturing industries) OIL REFINERY Maximum production capacity: 1.38 million MT/year

7.8 mil M3/yr

0.61 mil M3/yr

No change expected

4000 liters/yr.

No change expected

Summary of Hazardous Waste in Bangladesh 2008

Draft National Urban Policy, 2008 CDM and Recycling has been emphasized in this policy. National Renewable Energy Policy, 2008 This policy is promoting production of biogas and other green energy from waste and also providing incentives for CDM to promote green energy projects. National Agriculture Policy, 1999 According to this policy the government will promote use of compost/organic fertilizer amongst the farmers to improve the soil productivity and food security. National Industrial Policy, 2005 This policy is recommended use of EMS and Cleaner Production practices by the industries.

National Policy for Water Supply and Sanitation, 1998 According to this policy, the government shall take measures for recycling of waste as much as possible and use organic waste materials for compost and biogas production. Urban Management Policy Statement, 1998 Recommend the municipalities for privatization of services as well as giving priority to facilities for slum dwellers including provisions of water supply, sanitation and solid waste disposal. Draft Hazardous Waste Management Policy Of Bangladesh, 1999

Fertilizer Act, 2006 Under this act compost has been promoted and standard of compost has been set by the government on 2008. Bangladesh Environmental Conservation Act (ECA), 1995 Recommends standards for disposal of different types of waste. Biomedical Waste Management Rules, 2008 This rule recommends source separation of hospital waste as well as separate collection, transportation and treatment and disposal of all kinds of hospital and clinical waste. Lead Acid Battery Recycling and Management Rules, 2006 Under this rules collection and recycling has been improved. Draft National Solid Waste Management Handling Rule, 2011 3R principle has been used Bangladesh Environmental Conservation Rules (ECR), 1997 Recommends waste disposal standards for mainly industrial wastes.

National CDM Strategy, 2010 This strategy is promoting pro-poor CDM projects on waste sector by harnessing carbon financing. Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), 2005 Here EMS has been promoted. To improve the solid waste management situation, special focus is given to segregation of waste at source along with the promotion of recycle, reduce and reuse of industrial and other solid waste etc. National Sanitation Strategy, 2005 Its goal is to achieve 100% sanitation coverage by 2010. Here emphasis on resource recovery and recycling has been given as top priority to improve urban sanitation situation instead of disposal.

Action Plan:
Dhaka Environment Management Plan, 2005 Waste recycling has been promoted, less land filling encouraged, EMS promoted among industries. Solid Waste Management Action Plan for Eight Secondary Towns in Bangladesh, 2005 Under the Secondary Towns Integrated Flood Protection (Phase-2) Project of Local Government Engineering Department, GoB. This action plan is based on 4 R principle i.e. reduce, reuse, recycle and recover of the waste. National Environmental Management Action Plan (NEMAP), 1995 This is a plan of the Government of Bangladesh (GoB), prepared by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) in consultation with people from all walks of life. 3R is being promoted under the Sustainable Environment Management Programme (SEMP) of NEMAP.

Circular to Promote Compost by the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), 2008, on 23 April 2008 Ministry of agriculture issued a circular to promote use of compost amongtthe farmers. Private Sector Infrastructure Guideline, 2004 This guideline of the GOB has recommended private sector investment in waste management sector which includes all types of waste. It has also identified waste sector as one of the priority sector for private investment. Private Sector Housing Development Guideline, 2005 This guideline recommends to space in new housing areas

Key Issues
Inadequate National Policy
Absence of Strategy

Lack of Institutional Capacity

Lack of Public Cooperation

Financing and Cost Recovery

Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) 2010

The key messages and recommendations that emerged from the CSD-18 include: A zero waste economy, recognizing waste as a resource and waste prevention and minimization should be considered as valuable concepts to guide action on waste Waste management needs to be addressed through integrated approaches

Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) 2010

Reducing waste production, recycling waste and reusing materials should form the basis for sustainable waste management, and further, implementation of extended producer responsibility (EPR) should be considered; Emerging new waste streams such as electronic waste, plastics in the marine environment, oil and lubricants require special international and national action aiming at a high rate of recovery worldwide, and these streams need to be addressed through appropriate programs and environmentally sound technologies to promote material and energy recovery;

Department of Environment Ministry of Environment and Forests December, 2010


National 3R Strategy for Waste Management



National 3R Goal
The national 3R goal for waste management is achieve complete elimination of waste disposal on open dumps, flood plains by 2012 and promote recycling of waste through mandatory segregation of waste at source as well as create a market for recycled products and provide incentives for recycling waste.

Waste Separation
In general waste can be separated at three levels: a) Household and community level b) In the process of collection and transportation by municipal workers c) At the waste disposal site by workers and waste pickers from informal sector.

Waste Separation
Absence of recycling industries or buyers for the segregated wastes, the sorted wastes end up discarded and mixed with unsorted wastes in open spaces or at disposal sites.

At least 80-90% of the total waste can be recycled, which now goes to dump sites or landfills in the absence of the practice of segregation of waste at source.
The quality and efficiency of the recycling plants highly depend on the quality of the segregated wastes. Especially the composting of organic wastes purely depends on quality of waste separation.

Waste Hierarchy

Sectors considered in 3R
Industrial Waste (hazardous & E-waste) Institutional & Commercial Waste

Agricultural Waste

Municipal Solid Waste


Biomedical Waste

Guiding Principle
Selection of Appropriate and Affordable Technology Technology should be Emission Reducing Cleaner Production Product-Life Extension Industrial Symbiosis and By-product Exchange Polluters Pay Principle and Take-Back Provisions Green Purchasing Environmental Management System (EMS) Public- Private Partnership Collaboration with Scientific Research Bodies Gender Sensitive Approach

Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing Industry: Inventory of hazardous waste generation

Report changes/additions in hazardous waste generation Steps taken to reduce generation of waste per unit of production. Store hazardous waste for a period not exceeding 90 days and shall maintain a record including recycling and reprocessing of such wastes. Waste could either be recycled /reused or disposed of in captive or common Treatment, Storage and Disposed Facilities (TSDF) available in the country, or be incinerated. Inventories of end of life consumer products such as ewaste are also required to be made.

Reuse, recovery and recycling of hazardous waste

Industrial associations/industries should explore options/ opportunities of reusing, recovery and recycling of hazardous waste in an environmentally sound manner. Establishment of Waste Exchange Banks/ Centers should be encouraged to provide information on wastes and promote reuse, recovery and recycling technologies which upscale the quality of resource recovery. Introduce payback scheme as part of extended corporate responsibility in case of lead-acid batteries. Develop a system for channeling of wastes containing toxic metals for recovery, such as mercury from thermometers and fluorescent tube lights, cadmium from batteries etc.

Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing Industry:

Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing Industry: E-Waste

The recycling of e-waste is required to be regulated due to presence of hazardous constituents in the components of waste electrical and electronic assemblies. Governments should encourage e-waste recycling projects under public-private partnership mode.

Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing Industry: Transportation of hazardous waste

DoE will develop on-line tracking system for movement of hazardous waste from generation to the disposal/ recovery/ recycle stage. Industries have to pay for collection and transportation of waste for treatment and disposal out side the industries own premises.

Hazardous Waste from Manufacturing Industry

Waste avoidance and waste minimization at source Encourage cleaner production and eco-design practice Encourage the use of Environmental Product Labeling Encourage the implementation of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) Safe disposal of hazardous waste Setting up of Common Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs) Use of cement kilns for hazardous waste incineration Illegal dump sites and remediation Strengthening the infrastructure of regulatory bodies Disposal of date expired drugs & pesticides Handling and management of hazardous waste during ship dismantling

Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide

Case Study






Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide

Case Study: China

- 661 cities produce 155 million tons of waste per year (2005 figures). - 52% of this waste is treated via storage, incineration or composting. - 48% remains untreated. - 30% of waste is picked up by the individual recyclers (garbage diggers)

Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide Case Study: China

4-in-1 Recycling System for Regulated General Waste Items

Contributors by sector to Chinas GHG mission (2002)

GHS Emissions by Source Types in China (2005)

Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide

Case Study: Thailand

Industrial Waste
Non Hazardous Waste 5 million tons/year

Hazardous Waste 1.7 million tons/ year


Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide Case Study: Thailand Thai law contains 3 Acts on managing and recycling waste generated from industries or industrial waste, namely the National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535, the Factory Act B.E.2535, and the Hazardous Substance Act B.E.2535. Each Act identifies the scope and guidelines or procedures for managing and recycling industrial waste.

Legal Structure for Resource Recycling Promotion

Basic Environmental Law
Environmental Master Plan Natural environment Mobilization Material circulation in society
Full enforcement: Aug. 1996

Full enforcement: January 2001

Basic Law for Establishing Resource Recycling Society (Framework law)

Basic rules, Liability of central & local governments, business enterprises, residents Policy of the national government Master Plan for Establishing Resource Recycling Society : Fundamental plan for other plans Appropriate disposal of waste
Full enforcement: April 2001

Establishing sustainable material cycle in human society Saving natural resources Reduction of environmental impact

Promotion of recycle
Full enforcement: April 2001

Establishing general framework

Solid waste act

1)Waste reduction 2)Appropriate disposal (including recycle) 3)Regulation for waste treatment facility 4)Regulation for waste disposal companies 5)Regulation standard of waste disposal

Law for promotion of efficient resource utilization

1)Recycling waste as resources 2)Materials & structure of considering recycle 3)Marks for segregation and recovery 4) Promotion of efficient utilization of by-products

Expansion & Reinforcement Countermeasure for inappropriate waste disposal Establishment of waste disposal facility by public sectors

Expansion & Reinforcement 1R 3R

Regulation according to specific materials

Containers and Packaging Recycling Law
Partly enforcement: April 1997 Full enforcement: April 2000
Collection of containers and packaging by municipalities Recycling by manufactures of containers and packages

Home Appliance Recycling Law

Construction waste Recycling Law

Full enforcement: May, 2002

Food waste Recycling Law

Full enforcement: April, 2001
Manufactures, food processing and retailers in food industry shall recycle food waste

Automobiles Recycling Law

Partly enforcement: January 2003 Full enforcement: January 2005
Manufactures, importers, take-over companies shall take over waste cars, recover CFCs, and dismantle and crushing cars Manufactures shall recycle airbag and shredder dusts and decompose CFCs

Full enforcement: April, 2001

Green Purchasing Law (Promotion of procurement of

recycled products by governmental initiative)

Demolition work order recipients shall Waste electric appliances at households are collected by retailers Segregate demolished objects etc Recycling by manufactures Recycle demolished construction waste

Full enforcement: April 2001

Source: Compiled by Kitakyushu Environment Bureau with Shigen Junkangata shakai hakusho (Resource Recycling Society White Book 2004)

Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide

Case Study: Japan

Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), now, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) initiated some policies in the field of promoting recycling in early 1970s.

Waste Intensity of Industrial Production :

Selected Industrial Association for Recycling in Japan

Name of Association Plastic Waste Management Institute Steel Can Association Aluminum Association Recycling Can Recycling Year of Est. 1971 1973 1973 1974 1974 Examples of Activities R & D on plastic recycling, study on recycling in foreign countries, data collection for LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) Promoting recycling of steel can, data collection for LCA, campaign against scattering garbage Pilot collection program in 1974, creating recycling mark of aluminum can, data collection on recycling of aluminum can Guarantees for member company, activities to improve quality of used paper, data collection Technological development of recycling home appliances, designated organization for Home Appliance Recycling Law since 2000. Industry data collection and management, negotiation on behalf of industry, improving business practices in the industry Supporting industrial information exchange program in 1980s, study on recycling technology, information dissemination on 3R Research on quality and technologies for iron and steel slag product, investigate and collect information on production, supply and demand of iron and steel slag products

PaperRecyclingPromotion Center Associationof Electronic Home Appliances (original name: Center for Promotion of Recycling Home appliances) Iron and Steel Recycling Institute (original name: Japan Iron and Steel Scrap Industry Association) Clean Japan Center Nippon Slag Association


1975 1978

Categories and Obligation in Law for the Promotion of Utilization of Recyclable Resources

Categories and Obligation in Law for the Promotion of Utilization of Recyclable Resources

Role Model: Integration of recycling policy into industrial policy 1980s: Industrial Structure Council made the first Guideline for Waste Treatment and Recycling. 2006: 9th Guideline published. The nine guideline targets 35 items and 18 industries, which covers 70% of municipal solid waste and 40% of industrial waste. Although the punishment for non-compliance companies is not strong, the law defines responsibilities of implementing 3Rs on manufacturers.

Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide

Case Study: Singapore

Encouraging the setting up of recycling schemes for domestic and trade waste, and conduct extensive public education programmes to promote recycling. Promoting the re-use and recycling of particular categories of waste (e.g. scrap tyres, wood waste) where economically feasible. Encouraging the setting up of recycling plants for wood waste and plastic waste. Considering tax incentives and financial assistance schemes for the setting up of plants. Encouraging industries to adopt waste minimisation audit as part of good operating practice. Promoting waste minimisation in office buildings and industries.

Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide

Case Study: Europe

Waste (management) Policy in EU countries: defined at European level However: scarcely any environmental policy field where national differences could be greater, than in the waste sector. Due to strong cultural differences on how to deal with waste waste issues are strongly associated with consumption behaviours and life-styles.

Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide Case Study: Europe o Waste Framework Directive (WFD):
prevention preparing for re-use recycling other recovery (for example, energy recovery) disposal

Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide Case Study: Europe

o Environmental Action Programme (EAP): Waste prevention and recycling: Sustainable use of natural resources:
Communication 2005 o EU strategy for sustainable development adopted in 2001, revised in 2006 Communication 2005

Case Study: Europe

SWITZERLAND Swiss do not recycle just because they care about the environment. There is a strong financial incentive. Recycling is free, but in most parts of Switzerland throwing away rubbish costs money - each rubbish bag has to have a sticker on it, and each sticker costs at least one euro ENGLAND Waste and Resources Action Programme stated that Great Britain's recycling efforts reduce CO2 emissions by 10 15 million tonnes a year. A total of 47.9 million tonnes of commercial and Industrial waste were generated in England in 2009 < 67.9 million tonnes in 2002-3.

Industrial Waste Recycling Worldwide Case Study: England

Barriers for Bangladesh

Lack of fiscal as well as financial incentives to private sector to bring and utilize 3R related projects; No suitable pricing policy of green products exists; Workers from informal sector needs to improve their working and living conditions; Need for media to promote 3R and for awareness campaign; Need for public, private and community partnership for bringing investment in 3R projects; Need for mobilizing international supports for technology transfer and financial assistance is improving waste management infrastructure; Lack of awareness and understanding of 3Rs issues.

Way Forward
Sufficient sector-wise baseline information and regular update of inventory Existing policies and regulations needs to focus more on fiscal and financial incentives to encourage and inspire private sectors to promote 3Rs technology Properly implemented Inter-ministerial committee to minimize communication gap between ministries;

Way Forward
Massive awareness to promote the concept of 3Rs among the citizen, manufacturers & producers, policy makers and other relevant stakeholders; More capacity building and training programs needed; Promotion of cleaner technologies including R & D; Include existing informal sector operators;

Way Forward
Mobilization of resources (CDM, GoB and others); Target setting for increased recycling and green jobs; The way forward for the government is to take more of a facilitating role and promote publicprivate and community partnerships, innovative finance and 3R initiatives.

Waste Inventory

Country Inventory for Waste Management

Identity of hazardous waste and their classification (as per Basel, US EPA and WHO categories) Mapping of the locations and their projection growth by 2012 Projection of waste water, sludge, solid waste and hazardous waste generation for 2012 and 2017

Bangladesh New Policy related to 3R

Industrial Development and Innovation Act 2012 (Draft 2)

GDP growth (annual %)

EPI: Bangladesh

Thank You!