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Static equilibrium requires a balance of forces and a balance of moments.

ΣFx = 0

ΣFy = 0 ΣFz = 0

Σ M x = 0 Σ M y = 0 ΣM z = 0

Example 1: A painter stands on a ladder that leans against the wall of a house at an angle of 20o. Assume that the painter is a midheight of the ladder. Calculate the minimum coefficient of friction for static equilibrium.

Static equilibrium: Sum of vertical and horizontal forces must be zero.

ΣFx = μP − P2 = 0 1

P2 = μP 1

**ΣFy = P − (mladder + m person ) + μP2 = 0 1
**

P= 1 (ml + m p ) g 1+ μ P2 = μ (ml + m p ) g 1+ μ

Taking the moment about point O and setting it equals to zero:

L P LSin(20) − P2 LCos (20) − (ml + m p ) g Sin(20) = 0 1 2

μ = 0.1763

Load Analysis – 3-D

Newton First Law: A body at rest tend to remain at rest and a body in motion at constant velocity will tend to maintain that velocity unless acted upon by an external force. Newton Second Law: The time rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the magnitude of applied force and acts in the direction of the force. Newton Third Law: when two particles interact, a pair of equal and opposite reaction forces will exist at their contact point. This force pair will have the same magnitude and act along the same direction line but have opposite sense.

Newton’s second law can be written for a rigid body in two forms, one for linear forces and one for moments or torques

ΣF = ma & ΣM = H

G

**F=Force; m=mass, a= acceleration
**

G

ΣFx = ma x

MG=moment about the center of gravity & H G =time rate of change of the moment or the angular momentum about the CG

ΣFy = ma y

ΣFz = ma z

ˆ ˆ H G = I xω x i + I yω y ˆ + I zω z k j

ΣM x = I xα x − ( I y − I z )ω yω z ΣM y = I yα y − ( I z − I x )ω zω x ΣM z = I zα z − ( I x − I y )ω xω y

If the x, y and z axes are chosen to coincide with the principal axes of inertia of the body. Where Ix, Iy and Iz are the principal centroidal mass moments of inertia (second moments of mass). In 3-D Euler’s Equations

For 2-D: Where αz is the angular acceleration ΣFx = ma x ΣFy = ma y ΣM z = I zα z Moment of a Force about an axis .

Find T and the reaction forces at B. The radius at A = 2. . Assume that bearing at D exerts no axial thrust and neglect weights of sheaves and axle.3-D Equilibrium Example: Two transmission belts pass over sheaves welded to an axle supported by bearings at B and D. D. The axle rotates at constant speed.5” and at C = 2”.

8in 6in 6in .

5lb-in .75lb 67.75lb 33.75lb 202.y x A B 33.75lb D 33.5lb C 33.

z x A 42lb 42lb B 70lb C D 28lb 28lb 336lb-in .

axis A VQ τ= Ib .axis A First Moment of an Area = Q y = ∫ xδA = x ⋅ A with respect to the y .Definitions Centroid of Area (Center of Gravity of an area): Point x. y that defines the geometric center of the area ( ) y= ∫ yδA A A x= ∫ xδA A A First Moment of an Area = Q x = ∫ yδA = y ⋅ A with respect to the x .

Example 2: Calculate the center of gravity of the rectangle: (a)Without a hole (b)With a hole of dimensions c and d a) Without a hole y= ∫ yδA A A y= ∑y 1 n i n i Ai A x= ∫ xδA A A x= ∑x A 1 i A ⎛b⎞ ⎜ ⎟⋅ a ⋅b b ⎝2⎠ y= = a ⋅b 2 ⎛a⎞ ⎜ ⎟⋅ a ⋅b a ⎝2⎠ x= = 2 a ⋅b .

b) With a hole y= ∫ yδA A A y= ∑y 1 n i n i Ai A x= ∫ xδA A A x= ∑x A 1 i A d ⎛b⎞ ⎜ ⎟⋅ a ⋅b − ( f + )⋅c ⋅d 2 2 y=⎝ ⎠ a ⋅b − c ⋅ d c ⎛a⎞ ⋅ a ⋅ b − (e − ) ⋅ c ⋅ d ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 x=⎝ ⎠ a ⋅b − c ⋅ d Second Moment or Moment of Inertia of an Area I x = ∫ y 2δA A I y = ∫ x 2δA A Rectangular moments of inertia Polar moments of inertia J O = ∫ ρ 2δA = I x + I y A .

y = r ⋅ Sinφ x = r ⋅ Cosφ Area = 2 ⋅ r ⋅ Cosφ ⋅ δy δy = r ⋅ Cosφ ⋅ δφ I x = 2 ⋅ r 4 ⋅ ∫ π2 Sin 2φ ⋅ Cos 2φ ⋅ δφ = − 2 π π ⋅r4 4 Iy = π ⋅r4 4 Jz = Ix + Iy = π ⋅r4 2 . the polar moment of inertia and the radius of gyration about the x and y axes.Radius of Gyration I x = rx2 A I y = ry2 A 2 J O = rO A 2 rO = rx2 + ry2 Example 3: Find the moment of inertia of the circular area about the x and y axes.

25 ⋅ π ⋅ r 4 .Parallel-Axis Theorem I x' = I x + A ⋅ d Example 4: 2 y Ix = π ⋅r4 4 π ⋅r4 2 2 2 I x' = I x + A ⋅ d y = + π ⋅ r ⋅ (4 ⋅ r ) 4 I x ' = 16.

My σ =− I .

.

I mx = ∫ y 2 + z 2 ⋅ δma I my I mz 2 2 a a 2 2 ( = ∫ (x = ∫ (x ) + z )⋅ δm + y )⋅ δm .Mass Moment of Inertia It is the product of the element’s mass and the square of the element’s distance from the axis.

Load Classification and Sign Convention Classification with respect to the method of application: (a)Normal tensile (b)Normal compressive (c)Shear (d)Bending (e)Torsion (f) Combined .

δ 2υ >0 2 δx υ = deflection The sign convention that will be used here is as follows: .

.

Shear Force and Bending Moment in Beams .Distributed loads.

δ 2υ M δ 2υ = ⇒ M = EI 2 2 δx EI δx 3 δM δυ = V ⇒ V = EI 3 δx δx δV δ 4υ = −q ⇒ -q = EI 4 δx δx .

Successive Integration Method δV = −q δx V ( x) = − ∫ q ( x)δx V ( x) = − ∫ 600 xδx + C1 x2 V ( x) = −600 + C1 2 For __ 0 < x < 1 x V ( x) = −600 + C1 2 For __ x = 0 __ C1 = 650 2 2/3m 0 < x <1 =650N 1050N= x2 V ( x) = −600 + 650 2 For __ x = 1m ___ then __ V (1) = 350 N .

For __ 1 < x < 2 x2 V ( x) = −600 + C2 2 For __ x = 1 __ V (1) = 350 − 500 = −150 __ C2 = 150 x2 V ( x) = −600 + 150 2 For __ x = 2m ___ then __ V (2) = 1050 N For __ 0 < x < 1 x2 V ( x) = −600 + 650 2 ⎛ ⎞ x2 ⎜ − 600 + 650 ⎟δx M ( x) = ∫ V ( x)δx = ∫ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ M ( x) = −100 x 3 + 650 x + C3 For __ x = 0 __ then __ M (0) = 0 __ C3 = 0 For __ x = 1 __ then __ M (1) = 550 .

For __ 1 < x < 2 x2 V ( x) = −600 + 150 2 ⎛ ⎞ x2 M ( x) = ∫ V ( x)δx = ∫ ⎜ − 600 + 150 ⎟δx ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ M ( x) = −100 x 3 + 150 x + C4 For __ x = 1 __ then __ M (1) = 550 __ C4 = 500 For __ x = 2 __ then __ M (2) = 0 MMax=550N-m .

m-2. 1GPa=109Pa Normal strain or tensile strain or Axial strain l − l0 Δl ε= = l0 l0 . A0: original cross-sectional area F σ= A0 1Pa = 1 N. normal to the cross-sectional area.Normal Stress and Strain: Where F: force. 1MPa = 106Pa.

most of materials are linear elastic.Hooke’s Law When strains are small. Young’s modulus Normal: σ = Ε ε F ⋅ lo Δl = Ao ⋅ E Springs: the spring rate σ E F Ao ⋅ E k= = lo Δl ε .

z T ⋅ ro T ⋅r τ Max ≅ ≅ J J Angular spring rate: J ⋅G ka = = θ l T .Z Loading resulting from the twist of a shaft.z = G ⋅ γ θ . z ⋅ δA = A l ∫ A rθ2.z δθ G ⋅ r ⋅θ = G⋅r ⋅ ≅ δz l G = Shear Modulus of Elasticity Twist Moment or Torque G ⋅θ T = ∫ r ⋅τ θ . Shear strain δθ r ⋅θ = r⋅ ≅ δz l τθ .Torsion γ θ . z ⋅ δA Area Polar Moment J = r 2 ⋅ δA A of Inertia Thus: ∫ G ⋅θ ⋅ J T= l or T ⋅l θ= G⋅J τθ .

V is the shear force. τ is the shear stress at any point in the cross section. y is the distance from the neutral axis and I is the moment of inertia of the cross sectional area with respect to the neutral axis. σ =− VQ τ= Ib . M is the bending moment.Maximum Stresses in Beams We can obtain the normal and shear stresses from flexure and shear formulas My I Where: σ is the normal stress acting on the cross section. and b is the width of the cross section. Q is the first moment of the cross sectional area outside of the point in the cross section where the stress is being found.

The normal stresses obtained from the flexure formula have their maximum values at the farthest distance from the neutral axis. In most circumstances. The shear stress obtained from the shear formula usually have their highest value at the neutral axis. these are the only stresses that are needed for design purposes. The normal stresses are calculated at the cross section of maximum bending moment. However to obtain a more complete picture of the stresses. we will need to determine the principal stresses and maximum shear stresses at various points in the beam. The shear stresses are calculated at the cross section of maximum shear force. .

. If Hooke’s law applies (linear elasticity). Points A and E are at the top and bottom of the beam.Beams of Rectangular Cross Section Consider a simple rectangular beam below. Point C is in the midheight of the beam and points B and D are in between. because there is no stresses acting perpendicular to the plane of the figure. the normal and shear stresses at each of these five points can be readily calculated from the flexure and shear formulas. and a cross section to the left of the load. are in plane stress. All the elements of vertical and horizontal faces.

D. and (d) maximum shear stresses. C. (c) principal stress. .Points A and E elements are in uniaxial compressive and tensile stresses respectively. Points B and D elements have both normal and shear stresses. (b) normal and shear stresses acting on stress elements at points A. C. and E on the side of the beam. B. B. and E. D. Stresses in a beam of rectangular cross section: (a) simple beam with points A. Point C (neutral axis) element is in pure shear.

Stress trajectory: Gives the directions of the principal stresses. and (b) simple beam. Stress Contours: Curves connecting points of equal principal stress Principal-stress trajectories for beams of rectangular cross section: (a) cantilever beam. By investigating the stresses at many cross sections of the beam. we can determine how the principal stresses vary throughout the beam. (Solid lines represent tensile principal stresses and dashed lines represent compressive principal stresses.) .We may use either the transformation equations of plane stress or the Mohr’s circle to find the stresses at each point along the height of the beam or to describe how the principal stresses changes as we go from to top to the bottom of the beam.

The beam is made of steel and has a rectangular cross section (width b=2in and height h = 6in).Example 8-3: A simple beam AB with a span length L = 6ft supports a concentrated load P = 10800lb acting a distance c = 2ft from the righthand support (see figure below). Investigate the principal stresses and maximum shear stresses at cross section mn located at a distance x = 9in from the end A of the beam. (Consider only the in-plane stresses) Point y (in) A 3 B 2 C 1 D 0 E -1 F -2 G -3 .

Solution The reaction of the beam at support A is RA = P/3 = 3600lb. Shear stresses on cross section mn The shear stresses are given by the shear formula VQ τ= Ib in which the first moment Q for a rectangular cross section is . as expected. and therefore the bending moment and shear force at the section mn are M = RA x = (3600lb)(9in) = 32400lb-in V = RA = 3600lb Normal stress on cross section mn My My 12 (32400 lb − in ) y σ X = − = − = − = − 900 y 3 3 I bh (2 in )(6 in ) 12 ( ) Where y has units in inches and σx has units in psi. The stresses calculated are positive when in tension. Note that a positive value of y (upper half of the beam) gives a negative stress.

the shear formula becomes 2 ⎜ ⎟ Q = b⎜ − y ⎟⎜ y + ⎟ ⎟ 2⎜ 4 2 ⎟ ⎠⎜ ⎝2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ VQ 12V ⎛ b ⎞⎛ h 2 6V ⎛ h 2 2⎞ ⎜ − y ⎟ = 3 ⎜ − y2 ⎟ = τ= ⎜ ⎟⎜ 3 ⎟ bh ⎜ 4 ⎟ Ib bh (b ) ⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 4 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) τ Max 3V = 2A .Qx = ∫ yδA = A ∫ h/ 2 y b y ⋅ b ⋅ δy = 2 ⎛ h2 2⎞ ⎜ −y ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ h − y⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎛h ⎞⎜ ⎟ = b ⎛ h − y 2 ⎞ thus.

whereas the actual shear stresses τ act downward.The shear stresses τxy acting on the x face of the stress element are positive upwards. Therefore VQ 6V ⎛ h 2 2⎞ τ= =− 3⎜ −y ⎟ ⎟ Ib bh ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎠ Substituting the numerical values into this equation gives In which y has units of inches and τxy has units of psi Note: The maximum shear stress that occurs at the neutral axis in a rectangular section can be simplified by using the following equation: 2 ⎞ 6 (3600 lb ) ⎛ (6 in ) 2 ⎜ − y ⎟ = − 50 9 − y 2 τ XY = − ⎟ (2in )(6in )3 ⎜ 4 ⎝ ⎠ ( ) τ Max 3V = 2A .

.Calculation of stresses on cross section mn We divide the height of the beam into six equal intervals and label the corresponding points from A to G. The shear stresses have a parabolic distribution with a maximum stress at the neutral axis (point D). Point A B C D E F G y (in) 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 σx (psi) -2700 -1800 -900 0 900 1800 2700 τxy (psi) 0 -250 -400 -450 -400 -250 0 The normal stresses vary linearly from a compressive stress of -2700psi at the top of the beam (point A) to a tensile stress of 2700psi at the bottom of the beam (point G).

2 Principal Stresses and Maximum σ x +σ y ⎞ σ x −σ y ⎞ ⎛ ⎛ ⎟± ⎜ ⎟ + (τ xy )2 σ 1. 2 = ⎜ Shear Stresses ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ The principal stresses and maximum 2 shear stresses at each of the seven σ x −σ y ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ + ( xy )2 τ MAX = ⎜ τ points A through G may be ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ determined from the following equations .

⎛σ x ⎞ 2 2 Point A B C D E F G y (in) 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 σx (psi) -2700 -1800 -900 0 900 1800 2700 τxy (psi) 0 -250 -400 -450 -400 -250 0 σ1 (psi) 0 34 152 450 1052 1834 2700 σ2 (psi) -2700 -1834 -1052 -450 -152 -34 0 τmax (psi) 1350 934 602 450 602 934 1350 .Since there is no normal stress in the y direction. 2 = ⎜ x ⎟ ± ⎜ x ⎟ + (τ xy )2 τ MAX = ⎜ τ 2 ⎟ + ( xy ) ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ Thus. by substituting the values of σx and τxy. this equation simplifies to: ⎛σ ⎞ ⎛σ ⎞ σ 1. we can calculate the principal stresses σ1 and σ2 and the maximum shear stress τmax.

The largest shear stress occurs to the right of the load P (V = RB = 7200lb).The largest tensile stress anywhere in the beam is the normal stress at the bottom of the beam at the cross section of maximum bending moment (σtens)max = 14400psi). the largest value that occurs at the neutral axis is (τxy)max = 900psi The largest shear stress anywhere in the beam occurs at 45o planes at either the top or bottom (τxy)max = 14400 / 2 = 7200psi . Therefore.

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