"Paper folding" redirects here. For other uses, see Paper folding (disambiguation).

For other uses of Origami, see Origami (disambiguation).

Origami cranes

The folding of an Origami crane

Origami (折り紙?, from ori meaning "folding", and kami meaning "paper"; kamichanges to gami due to rendaku) is the traditional Japanese art of paper folding, which started in the 17th century AD at the latest and was popularized outside of Japan in the mid-1900s. It has since then evolved into a modern art form. The goal of this art is to transform a flat sheet of paper into a finished sculpture through folding and sculpting techniques, and as such the use of cuts or glue are not considered to be origami. Paper cutting and gluing is usually considered kirigami. The number of basic origami folds is small, but they can be combined in a variety of ways to make intricate designs. The best known origami model is probably the Japanese paper crane. In general, these designs begin with a square sheet of paper whose sides may be different colors or prints. Traditional Japanese origami, which has been practiced since the Edo era (1603–1867), has often been less strict about these conventions, sometimes cutting the paper or using nonsquare shapes to start with. The principles of origami are also being used in stents, packaging and other engineering structures.

 

1 History 2 Techniques and materials

o o o 

2.1 Techniques 2.2 Origami paper 2.3 Tools

3 Types of origami

o o o o o o 

3.1 Action origami 3.2 Modular origami 3.3 Wet-folding 3.4 Pureland origami 3.5 Origami tessellations 3.6 Kirigami

4 Mathematics and technical origami

o o o      

4.1 Mathematics and practical applications 4.2 Technical origami 4.3 Origami-related computer programs

5 Ethics 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

[edit]History Main article: History of origami

A group of Japanese schoolchildren dedicate their contribution of Thousand origami cranes at the Sadako Sasakimemorial in Hiroshima.

There is much speculation about the origin of Origami. While Japan seems to have had the most extensive tradition, there is evidence of an independent tradition of paperfolding in China, as well as in Germany, Italy and Spain among other places. However, because of the problems associated with preserving origami, there is very little direct evidence of its age or origins, aside from references in published material. In China, traditional funerals include burning folded paper, most often representations of gold nuggets (yuanbao). It is not known when this practice started, but it seems to have become popular during the [2] Sung Dynasty (905–1125 CE). The paper folding has typically been of objects like dishes, hats or boats [3] rather than animals or flowers. The earliest evidence of paperfolding in Europe is a picture of a small paper boat in Tractatusde sphaera [4] mundi from 1490. There is also evidence of a cut and folded paper box from 1440. It is probable that [5] paperfolding in the west originated with the Moors much earlier, it is not known if it was independently discovered or knowledge of origami came along the silk route. In Japan, the earliest unambiguous reference to a paper model is in a short poem by Ihara Saikaku in [6] 1680 which describes paper butterflies in a dream. Origami butterflies were used during the celebration of Shinto weddings to represent the bride and groom, so paperfolding had already become a significant aspect of Japanese ceremony by the Heian period (794–1185) of Japanese history, enough that the reference in this poem would be recognized. Samurai warriors would exchange gifts adorned with noshi, a sort of good luck token made of folded strips of paper. In the early 1900s, Akira Yoshizawa, Kosho Uchiyama, and others began creating and recording original origami works. Akira Yoshizawa in particular was responsible for a number of innovations, such as wetfolding and the Yoshizawa–Randlett diagramming system, and his work inspired a renaissance of the art [7] form. During the 1980s a number of folders started systematically studying the mathematical properties

of folded forms, which led to a steady increase in the complexity of origami models, which continued well [8] into the 1990s, after which some designers started returning to simpler forms.

It may also be spelled saké or saki. .Sake From Wikipedia. the word sake refers to any alcoholic beverage. Dedicated sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine Sake brewery. Takayama Sake ( /ˈsɑːki/ or /ˈsɑːkeɪ/)[1][2] is an alcoholic beverage of Japaneseorigin that is made from fermented rice. while the beverage called sake in English is termed nihonshu (日本酒. see Sake (disambiguation). In the Japanese language. the free encyclopedia For other uses. "Japanese liquor").

2 Three ways to make the starter mash 4.1 Rice 3. the sugar needed to produce alcohol must first be converted from starch.2 Water 3.1 Special-designation sake 4.Contents [hide]    1 Overview 2 History 3 Production o o o o o  3. unlike wine. the alcohol content differs between sake. wine.4 Others 5 Taste and flavor 6 Serving sake 7 Storage 8 Ceremonial use 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links [edit]Overview Sake is sometimes referred to in English-speaking countries as rice wine. sake is produced by means of a brewing process more like that ofbeer. However. To make beer or sake. the conversion from starch to sugar and from sugar to alcohol occurs in two discrete steps. Furthermore. in which alcohol is produced byfermenting sugar that is naturally present in grapes and other fruits. The brewing process for sake differs from the process for beer.3 Different handling after fermentation 4. in that for beer.4 Maturing 3. But when sake is brewed. Wine generally .5 Tōji 4 Varieties o o o o         4. and beer. these conversions occur simultaneously.3 Brewing 3.

D. Powerful daimyo imported various liquors and wine from China.[citation needed] . the technique of distillation was introduced into the Kyushu district from Ryukyu. The brewing of shochu. The earliest reference to the use of alcohol in Japan is recorded in the Book of Wei in the Records of the Three Kingdoms. called "Imo—sake" started. true sake—made from rice.[4] Sake production was a government monopoly for a long time. Japan's first written history.D. water.[3] while most beer contains 3%–9%. and kōji mold (麹. and undiluted sake contains 18%–20% (although this is often lowered to about 15% by diluting with water prior to bottling). and drinking games. Sake is mentioned several times in the Kojiki. [edit]History The origin of sake is unclear. The diary shows that pasteurization and the process of adding ingredients to the main fermentation mash in three stages were established practices by this time. Aspergillus oryzae)—was the dominant alcohol and had a very low content by non-Japanese standards. By the Asuka period.[citation needed] In the 16th century. temples and shrines began to brew sake.). court festivals. The Tamon-in Diary. and was sold at the central market in Kyoto. and they became the main centers of production for the next 500 years. Bamforth (2005) noted that the probable origin of sake was in the Nara period (710–794 A. sake was used for religious ceremonies. but in the 10th century. This 3rd century Chinese text speaks of the Japanese drinking and dancing. which was compiled in 712 A. In the Heian period.contains 9%–16% ABV. records many details of brewing in the temple. A non-Japanese could down much sake and not be inebriated in the least. written by abbots of Tamon-in temple from 1478 to 1618.

In 1781. sales would go up.[7] During the Meiji Restoration.) Although these things are true.[citation needed] When World War II brought rice shortages. The work of both writers was widely disseminated throughout Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. The most successful of these family breweries still operate today. This was the end of the wooden-barrel age of sake and the use of wooden barrels in brewing was completely eliminated.000 breweries sprang up around the country within a year. rather than letting these leftovers go to waste. At the time. However.Isaac Titsingh published Bereiding van Sacki in Batavia. sake-brewing technology grew by leaps and bounds. would ship it to their breweries.[citation needed] During the 20th century. This was the end of home-brewed sake. The government started hailing the use of enamel tanks as easy to clean. Since home-brewed sake is tax-free sake. the logic was that by banning the home brewing of sake. the government levied more and more taxes on the sake industry and slowly the number of breweries dwindled to 8. as using wooden barrels means that a significant amount of sake is lost to evaporation (somewhere around 3%). which was then the main city of the Dutch East Indies. As early as the late 17th century. and the law remains in effect today even though sake sales now make up only 2% of government income. sake still made up an astonishing 30% of Japan's tax revenue. The government opened the sake-brewing research institute in 1904. Around 30. which could have otherwise been taxed. lasting forever. and in 1907 the very first government-run sake tasting/competition was held. In 1898. as the years went by. laws were written that allowed anybody with the money and know-how to construct and operate their own sake breweries. sake has long been taxed by the federal government. the government also wanted more tax money from breweries. and being devoid of bacterial problems. (The government considered wooden barrels to be unhygienic because of the potential bacteria living in the wood.[citation needed] Most of the breweries that grew and survived this period were set up by wealthy landowners.[citation needed] In Japan. it had been . but Titsingh was the first to try to explain and describe the process of sake brewing. the sake-brewing industry was dealt a hefty blow as the government clamped down on the use of rice for brewing. the government banned the home brewing of sake. this tax brought in about 55 million yen out of a total of about 120 million yen. and more tax money would be collected.This is the title page of the earliest explanation of the process of brewing sake to be published in the West. about 46% of the government's total direct tax income. Engelbert Kaempfer[5] and Isaac Titsingh[6] published accounts identifying sake as a popular alcoholic beverage in Japan. Landowners who grew rice crops would have rice left over at the end of the season and. In the 18th century. [8] During the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905.000. Yeast strains specifically selected for their brewing properties were isolated and enamel-coated steel tanks arrived.

Miyamanishiki and Omachi rice are very popular. because it is unpalatable for eating. The grain is larger. The rice has a starch component called shinpaku in the center of the grains. However. new players on the scene—beer. Rigid restrictions are observed for the concentrations of certain chemical substances which can affect the taste and quality of sake. If a grain is small or weak. [10] October 1 is the official Sake Day (日本酒の日) of Japan. breweries slowly began to recover. Sake consumption continued to go down while. More breweries are also turning to older methods of production. Today. and spirits—became very popular in Japan. [edit]Water Water is one of the important ingredients for making sake. stronger. left over from the war years. sake has become a world beverage with a few breweries springing up in China.[citation needed] [edit]Production [edit]Rice The rice used for brewing sake is called shuzō kōtekimai (sake rice). Urban breweries usually import water from other areas. There were even a few breweries producing "sake" that contained no rice at all.[citation needed] After the war. the number had fallen to 1. Since sake made from rice containing only starch has a superior taste. and contains less protein and lipid than the ordinary rice eaten by the Japanese.discovered that small amounts of alcohol could be added to sake before pressing to extract aromas and flavors from the rice solids.229 breweries nationwide in fiscal 1975.[9] The number of sake breweries is also declining. wine. Naturally.845 in 2007. Gohyakumangoku. in contrast. Among these. North America. but during the war. pure alcohol and glucose were added to small quantities of rice mash. the quality of sake steadily improved. There are at least 80 types of sake rice in Japan. increasing the yield by as much as four times. the quality of sake during this time varied greatly. the rice is polished to remove the bran. sake production in Japan has been declining since the mid 1970s. While the rest of the world may be drinking more sake and the quality of sake has been increasing. because of the difficulty of getting water of sufficient quality locally. it will break in the process of polishing. South America. and in the 1960s beer consumption surpassed sake for the first time. Yamadanishiki. and Australia. [edit]Brewing This section does not cite anyreferences or . This rice is used only for making sake. While there were 3. 75% of today's sake is made using this technique. and the quality of sake gradually went up. The water used is almost always groundwater or well water. Southeast Asia.

cerevisiae) (Uno et al. 2009). The main mash then ferments. 2009). the rice is steamed on a conveyor belt. The steamed rice is then cooled and divided into portions for different uses. fermentation is deliberately slowed by lowering the temperature to 10 °C (50 °F) or less.. The degree of cooking must be carefully controlled. . Thorough milling leads to fewer congeners and generally a more desirable product. After this initial fermentation period. Newly polished rice is allowed to "rest" until it has absorbed enough moisture from the air so that it will not crack when immersed in water. the rice is washed clean of the rice powder produced during milling and then steeped in water. With high-grade sake. at approximately 15-20 degree Celsius for 2–3 weeks. The microorganism Aspergillus oryzae is sprinkled onto the steamed rice and allowed to ferment for 5-7 days (Uno et al. overcooked rice will ferment too quickly for flavors to develop well and undercooked rice will only ferment on the outside. After soaking. ranging from several hours or even overnight for an ordinary milling to just minutes for highly polished rice. The length of time depends on the degree to which the rice was polished. the main mash Sake is produced by the multiple parallel fermentation of rice. The addition of A..sources. leaving behind starch. The rice is first polished to remove the protein and oils from the exterior of the rice grains. The mixture is now known as the main mash.. oryzae provides the necessary amylases. rice for sake does not contain the amylase necessary for converting starch to sugar and so it must undergo a process of multiple fermentation. fermentated rice (90 kg) and water (440L) are added to the fermented mixture in three series (Uno et al. Over the next four days.. also written 諸味). Unlike malt for beer. and proteases to hydrolyze the nutrients of the rice to support the growth of the yeast(S. glucoamylases.(January 2011) Moromi. water and the yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae are added to the koji (rice and mold mixture) and allowed to incubate at 4 degree Celsius for about 7 days (Uno et al. pre-incubated mixture of steamed rice (90 kg). 2009). This staggered approach allows time for the yeast to keep up with the increased volume. or moromi (醪. After this resting period.

During the summer and fall most tōji work elsewhere. aldehydes and amino acids. a large amount of brewer’s alcohol might be added to increase the volume of sake produced. For some types of sake. it also develops a rough taste. It is a highly respected job in the Japanese society. The title of tōji was historically passed on from father to son. Mature sake has reached its ideal point of growth. smooth and rich. and are commonly found on farms. so sake is said to be made by multiple parallel fermentation. before finally being bottled. the broad application of external heat. sake is extracted from the solid mixtures through a filtration process. While modern breweries with refrigeration and cooling tanks operate year-round. and the sake is carbon filtered and pasteurized. only periodically returning to the brewery to supervise storage conditions or bottling operations. It is said that Saussureae radix from the Japan cedar material of a barrel containing maturing sake comes to be valued. if it is too mature. [edit]Maturing The process during which the sake grows into a quality product during storage is called maturing. [edit]Tōji Tōji (杜氏?) is the job title of the sake brewer. New sake is not liked because of its rough taste. with tōji being regarded likemusicians or painters. called brewer's alcohol (醸造アルコール). After fermentation. most old-fashioned sake breweries are seasonal. is added before pressing in order to extract flavors and aromas that would otherwise remain behind in the solids. the remaining lees (a fine sediment) are removed.2009). today new tōji are either veteran brewery workers or are trained at universities. Aging is caused by physical and chemical factors such as oxygen supply. The sake is allowed to rest and mature and then usually diluted with water to lower the alcohol content from around 20% to 15% or so. among other unknown factors. whereas mature sake is mild. Next. However. so the barrel is considered indispensable. In cheap sake.[11][unreliable source?] [edit]Varieties . nitrogen oxides. Nine to twelve months are required for sake to mature. a small amount of distilled alcohol. In sake production these two processes take place at the same time rather than in separate steps. operating only in the cool winter months.

special-designation sake). Special Pure rice) Rice. Kōji rice Below 70% Not less than 15% . Special brew) Rice. Very Special brew) Rice.[12] Special Designation Ingredients Rice Polishing Ratio Percentage of Kōji rice Junmai Daiginjō-shu (純米大吟醸酒?. Distilled Below 60% or produced by [note 1] ? alcohol special brewing method . Kōji rice. Distilled Below 60% [note 1] alcohol Not less than 15% Tokubetsu Junmai-shu (特別純米酒?. Futsū-shu is the equivalent of table wine and accounts for the majority of sake produced. Kōji rice. Kōji rice Below 60% Not less than 15% Ginjō-shu (吟醸酒?. Pure rice. Ordinary sake) and Tokutei meishō-shu (特定名称酒?. There are eight varieties of special-designation sake. Distilled Below 50% [note 1] alcohol Not less than 15% Junmai Ginjō-shu (純米吟醸酒?. Kōji rice. Very Special brew) Rice. Tokutei meishō-shu refers to premium sakes distinguished by the degree to which the rice has been polished and the added percentage of brewer's alcohol or the absence of such additives. Pure rice) Rice. Kōji rice Below 60% or produced by special brewing method Not less than 15% Tokubetsu Honjōzō-shu (特別本醸造酒 Rice. Special Genuine brew) Not less than 15% Junmai-shu (純米酒?.Various types of sake offered for sale at a Japanese grocery in the United States [edit]Special-designation sake There are two basic types of sake: Futsū-shu (普通酒?. Kōji rice Below 50% Not less than 15% Daiginjō-shu (大吟醸酒?. Special brew) Rice. Pure rice.

‖ While the yamahai method was originally developed to speed production time. which includes the laborious process of grinding it into a paste. Kōji rice. It requires refrigerated storage and has a shorter shelf-life than pasteurized sake. Most sake is diluted with water after brewing to lower the alcohol content from 18-20% down to 14-16%. or unfiltered sake  Namazake (生酒) is sake that has not been pasteurized.Honjōzō-shu (本醸造酒?. [edit]Three  ways to make the starter mash Kimoto (生酛) is the traditional orthodox method for preparing the starter mash.  Yamahai (山廃) is a simplified version of the kimoto method. ^ a b c d The weight of added alcohol must be below 10% of the weight of the rice (after polishing) used in the brewing process. [edit]Different handling after fermentation Nigori. introduced in the early 1900s.  Genshu (原酒) is undiluted sake. and the full name for yamahai is ―yama-oroshi haishi‖ (山卸廃止). is the modern method of preparing the starter mash. but it is rare today. meaning ―discontinuation of yama-oroshi. "quick fermentation". is added to the starter to inhibit unwanted bacteria. That step of the kimoto method is known as yamaoroshi. This method was the standard for 300 years. . Genuine brew) Rice.  Sokujō (速醸). Yamahai skips the step of making a paste out of the starter mash. Lactic acid. produced naturally in the two slower traditional methods. Distilled Below 70% [note 1] alcohol Not less than 15% 1. Sokujō sake tends to have a lighter flavor than kimoto or yamahai. it is slower than the modern method and is now used only in specialty brews for the earthy flavors it produces. but genshu is not.

 Fukurozuri (袋吊り) is a method of separating sake from the lees without external pressure by hanging the mash in bags and allowing the liquid to drip out under its own weight. but this specially made type can age for decades. Before serving.e. the equivalent of microbrewing beer. Thus nigorizake anddoburoku (see below) are not seishu and therefore are not actually sake under Japanese law.  Seishu (清酒). It is not filtered thereafter and there is much rice sediment in the bottle. Kuroshu (黒酒) is sake made from unpolished rice (i.  Taruzake (樽酒) is sake aged in wooden barrels or bottled in wooden casks.. turning yellow and acquiring a honeyed flavor. teiseihaku-shu has been produced as a specialty sake made with high rice-polishing ratios. sugi).  Shiboritate (搾立て). Teiseihaku-shu (低精白酒) is sake with a deliberately high rice-polishing ratio. It is created by simply addingkōji mold to steamed rice and water and letting the mixture ferment. "greener" sake. meaning "drip sake". Sake casks are often tapped ceremonially for the opening of buildings. leaving clear liquid. [edit]Others   Amazake (甘酒) is a traditional sweet. businesses. parties. low-alcoholic Japanese drink made from fermented rice. but which has been pressed and separated from the lees. premium sake is rarely used for this type. Most sake does not age well. Muroka (無濾過) means unfiltered. etc. thus muroka sake has stronger flavors than filtered varieties. "freshly pressed".  Nigorizake (濁り酒) is cloudy sake. beginning around 2005. The sake is passed through a loose mesh to separate it from the mash.  Tobingakoi (斗瓶囲い) is sake pressed into 18-liter bottles ("tobin") with the brewer selecting the best sake of the batch for shipping. to produce sake with the characteristic flavor of rice itself. The resulting sake is somewhat like a chunkier version of nigorizake. brown rice). the bottle is shaken to mix the sediment and turn the sake white or cloudy.  Koshu (古酒) is "aged sake". Doburoku (濁酒) is the classic home-brew style of sake (although home brewing is illegal in Japan). . The result is usually a more acidic.    Jizake (地酒) is locally brewed sake. and thus is clear. is the Japanese legal definition of sake and refers to sake in which the solids have been strained out. Because the wood imparts a strong flavor. The wood used is Cryptomeria (杉. not cloudy. However. It is generally held that the lower the rice polishing ratio (the percent weight after polishing). usually around 80%. It refers to sake that has not been carbon filtered. refers to sake that has been shipped without the traditional sixmonth aging/maturation period. the better the potential of the sake. However. Sake produced this way is sometimes called shizukazake (雫酒). and is more like Chinese rice wine. nigorizake can receive the seishu status by being strained clear and having the lees put back in afterward. "clear/clean sake". Carbon filtration can remove desirable flavors and odors as well as bad ones. which is also inaccurately known as Japanese cedar.

Now +3 is considered neutral.(January 2011) The label on a bottle of sake gives a rough indication of its taste. whereas a higher percentage will taste more like rice. Sake with a high sando value is dry. "+10" is very dry. melons. caramel sauce. sherry. These two constituents are contained in many types of sake. When comparing sake to water.Some other terms commonly used in connection with sake:  Nihonshu-do (日本酒度). and bananas from isoamyl acetate. the percentage of weight remaining after polishing. These are used for making tsukemono pickles. such as apples. and low san-do is sweet. [edit]Taste and flavor This section does not cite anyreferences or sources. bananas. chestnuts. the lower the number. the solids left after pressing and filtering. Generally.  Seimai-buai (精米歩合) is the rice polishing ratio.  Kasu (粕) are pressed sake lees. sake that is heavier[clarification needed] than water is listed as a negative value. the sake tastes more savory.[contradiction] Aminosan-do (アミノ酸度) indicates a taste of umami or savoriness. or SMV SMV = (|1/specific gravity|−1) × 1443 Specific gravity is measured on a scale weighing the same volume of water at 4°C and sake at 15°C. The sweeter the sake. flowers. As the proportion of amino acids rises. which is determined by titration. rice. A lower percentage usually results in a fruitier sake. the lower the number. dry grapes. and as an ingredient in dishes like kasu soup. and "−10" is very sweet. 0 was designated the point between sweet sake and dry sake. such as ginjyoshu (吟醸酒). As examples. and shōchū. The flavor of apples comes from ethyl caproate. and aminosan-do (アミノ酸度). the better the sake's potential. Nihonshu-do (日本酒度) indicates the sugar and acid content[contradiction] of the sake. san-do(酸度). etc. chocolates. and sake that is lighter (drier) than water is given a positive value. [edit]Serving sake Main article: Sake set . herbs. Terms found on the label may include nihonshu-do (日本酒度). spices. When the SMV was first used. also called the Sake Meter Value. San-do (酸度) indicates the concentration of acid. livestock feed. Sake can have many flavor notes.

the server may put a glass inside the masu or put the masu on a saucer and pour until sake overflows and fills both containers. Oct. cylindrical cup). sake can be used as a mixer for cocktails. the traditional Japanese unit for cup size: sake is traditional sold by the gō-sized cup. In general. incidences of spoilage has been known to occur. as a show of generosity. sake stored at relatively high time can lead to formation of dicetopiperazine. In addition. 2011).8 L (one shō. here is a sakazuki (a flat. Sake is usually drunk from small cups called choko. at room temperature. or the sake bomb. a cyclo (Pro-Leu) that makes it bitter as it ages (Lecture Note. However. but is divisible into 4 gō. and a masu (a wooden. hot sake is a winter drink. ten gō) sized flask. In some Japanese restaurants. Today sake is also often sold in 720 mL (four gō) bottles – note that this is almost the same as the 750 mL standard for wine bottles. Another traditional cup is the masu. [edit]Storage Sake is sold in volume units divisible by 180 mL (a gō). Sake has high microbiological stability due to its high content of ethanol. nogasake. In Japan sake is served chilled. Recently. Saucer-like cups called sakazuki are also used. because the flavors and aromas will be lost. Typically. and high-grade sake is not drunk hot. a box usually made of hinoki or sugi. saketinis. or in a 1. such as tamagozake. footed glasses made specifically for premium sake have also come into use. or heated. as prolonged exposure to heat or direct light will lead to spoilage. it is best to keep sake refrigerated in a cool or dark room. One of the microoganisms implicated in this spoilage is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that has grown tolerant . depending on the preference of the drinker. and poured into the choko from ceramic flasks called tokkuri. an ochoko (a small. This masking of flavor is the reason that low-quality and old sake is often served hot. and the season. Aside from being served straight.Sake can be served in a wide variety of cups. which was originally used for measuring rice. most commonly at weddings and other ceremonial occasions. the quality of the sake. saucer-like cup). box-like cup).

How long a sake will remain drinkable depends on the actual product itself. [edit]Ceremonial use A cask of sake before the kagami biraki Decorative sake containers in aNakatsugawa shop .[citation needed] It is possible to store sake in the refrigerator.[citation needed] After opening a bottle of sake. Generally. However. but it is recommended to finish the sake within 2 days.to ethanol and is referred to as hiochi-bacteria (Suzuki et al.. it is best consumed within 2 or 3 hours. which affects the taste. If the sake is kept in the refrigerator for more than 3 days. 2008). This is because once premium sake is opened it begins to oxidize. and whether it is sealed with a wine vacuum top. this does not mean it should be disposed of if not consumed. Sake stored at room temperature is best consumed within a few months after purchase. sake can keep very well and still taste just fine after weeks in the refrigerator. it will lose its "best" flavor.

People drink Omiki with gods to communicate with them and to solicit rich harvests the following year. This sake. and other celebrations. sports and election victories. . is served freely to all to spread good fortune. called iwaizake ("celebration sake").Sake is often consumed as part of Shinto purification rituals (compare with the use of grapewine in the Christian Eucharist). store openings. the first sips of toso are taken in order of age. kamikaze pilots drank sake prior to carrying out their missions. Even children sip a portion. Sakes served to gods as offerings prior to drinking are called Omiki or Miki (お神酒. Toso is a sort of iwai-zake made by soaking tososan. 神 酒). During World War II. from the youngest to the eldest. overnight in sake. weddings. a Chinese powdered medicine. wooden casks of sake are opened with mallets during Shinto festivals. In a ceremony called kagami biraki. In some regions. At the New Year many Japanese people drink a special sake called toso.

Soon. the custom of tea drinking became popular among the warrior (samurai class). It discusses tea's medicinal qualities. and cultivation in Japan began. and improving urinary and brain function. eliminating indigestion. Eisai presented a book he had written to the general. Eisai was also instrumental in introducing tea consumption to the warrior class. the Japanese emperor. tea flowers and tea leaves and covers how to grow tea plants and process tea leaves. curing beriberi disease. alike. The oldest tea specialty book in Japan. though still a privilege enjoyed mostly by the upper classes. Production grew and tea became increasingly accessible. preventing fatigue. Eisai learned that Shogun Minamoto-no-Sanetomo had a habit of drinking too much every night. encouraged the growth of tea plants. Part Two discusses the specific dosage and method required for individual physical ailments. Kissa Yōjōki (How to Stay Healthy by Drinking Tea) was written by Eisai. Some of the seeds given to the priest Myoe Shonin became the basis for Uji tea. The first form of tea brought from China was probably brick tea (磚茶 tancha?). curing blotchiness. The two-volume book was written in 1211 after his second and last visit to China. which include easing the effects of alcohol. In 1214. lauding the health benefits of tea drinking. "Tea is the ultimate mental and medical remedy and has the ability to make one's life more full and complete". The preface describes how drinking tea can have a positive effect on the five vital organs. the famous Zen priest Eisai (1141–1215) brought back tea seeds to Kyoto. [edit]Roasting process introduced to Japan . acting as a stimulant. which rose to political prominence after the Heian Period. especially the heart. After that. Seeds were imported from China. The first sentence states. Tea became a drink of the religious classes in Japan when Japanese priests and envoys sent to China to learn about its culture brought tea to Japan. green tea became a staple among cultured people in Japan—a brew for the gentry and the Buddhist priesthood. quenching thirst. Ancient recordings indicate the first batch of tea seeds were brought by a priest named Saicho in 805 and then by another named Kukai in 806. Contents [hide]       1 Kissa Yōjōki 2 Roasting process introduced to Japan 3 Japan tea culture emerges 4 Modern Japanese green tea 5 Rolling machines 6 Automation [edit]Kissa Yōjōki In 1191. It became a drink of the royal classes whenEmperor Saga.The history of tea in Japan has its earliest known references in a text written by a Buddhist monk in the 9th century. Part One also explains the shapes of tea plants.

Since the steaming (9th century) and the roasting (13th century) methods were brought to Japan during two different periods. as well as for teas of exceptional quality. [edit]Modern Japanese green tea In 1740. Sensor and computer controls were introduced to machine automation so unskilled workers can produce superior tea without compromising quality. and steaming. In fact. Significant merchandise was traded and the roasting method of processing tea became common in Kyushu. the current "Way of Tea" was established. Machines took over the processes of primary drying. [edit]Japan tea culture emerges Japanese tea ceremony The pastimes made popular in China in the 12th and 13th centuries – reading poetry. Eventually. tea leaves are first steam-pressed. southern China and Japan enjoyed much cultural exchange. Soen Nagatani developed Japanese sencha (Japanese: 煎茶). By the end of the 16th century. and discussing philosophy while enjoying tea – eventually became popular in Japan and with samurai society. The historical figure considered most influential in its development was Sen Rikyū (1522–1591). Japan.In the 14th century Ming Dynasty. The modern tea ceremonydeveloped over several centuries. green tea became available to the masses. Certain regions in Japan are known for special types ofgreen tea. To prepare sencha. both the beverage and the ceremony surrounding it played a prominent role in feudal diplomacy. secondary drying. making it the nation's most popular beverage. Uji is still famous for its . The dried leaves are brewed with hot water to yield the final drink. painting. [edit]Automation Automation contributed to improved quality and reduced labour. which is an unfermented form of green tea. [edit]Rolling machines At the end of the Meiji period (1868–1912). final rolling. Many of the most important negotiations among feudal clan leaders were carried out in the austere and serene setting of the tea ceremony. tea rolling. making the leaves themselves a highly valued commodity. writing calligraphy. these teas are completely distinct from each other. Sencha is now one of Japan's mainstay teas. machine manufacturing of green tea was introduced and began replacing handmade tea. then rolled and dried into a loose tea.

see sencha tea ceremony. usually including a full-course kaiseki meal followed by confections.tea. A chakai is a relatively simple course of hospitality that includes confections. primarily sencha. and thin tea. Japanese tea ceremony From Wikipedia. Tea gatherings are classified as chakai (茶会?) or chaji (茶事?). thin tea (薄茶 usucha?). it is called chanoyu (茶 の湯?) or chadō. Zen Buddhism was a primary influence in the development of the tea ceremony. it uses leaf tea. is a Japanese culturalactivity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of matcha. or the art of its performance. Much less commonly. the free encyclopedia Tea ceremony The Japanese tea ceremony. thick tea (濃茶 koicha?). powdered green tea. roasted green tea is not as common in Japan and powdered tea is used in ceremonial fashion. also called the Way of Tea. In Japanese. below. Contents [hide]      1 History 2 Venues 3 Seasons 4 Koicha and usucha 5 Equipment . Today. A chaji is a much more formal gathering. sadō (茶道?). お点前?). Achaji can last up to four hours. The manner in which it is performed. and perhaps a light meal. is called otemae (お手前.

according to legend. a . tea plantations began to be cultivated in the Kinki region of Japan. tea had already been known.2 Hakobi-temae 7.[2] In China. and the resulting ground tea decocted together with various other herbs and/or flavourings. the interest in tea in Japan faded after this. In the early 9th century.[1] However.4 Ryūrei 8 Tea ceremony and calligraphy 9 Tea ceremony and flower arrangement 10 Kaiseki (Cha-kaiseki) 11 Tea ceremony and kimono 12 Tea ceremony and seiza 13 Tea ceremony and tatami 14 Studying the tea ceremony 15 Terminology of 道 (dō) with respect to tea 16 Zen and tea 17 Sencha tea ceremony 18 See also 19 References 20 Further reading 21 External links [edit]History The first documented evidence of tea in Japan dates to the 9th century.  6 Usual sequence of a chaji 7 Types of temae o o o o               7. when it was taken by the Buddhist monk Eichū (永忠) on his return from China. and then largely also for pleasurable reasons. for more than a thousand years.3 O-Bon temae/bonryaku 7. first for medicinal. This then would be ground in a mortar. By imperial order in the year 816. The form of tea popular in China in Eichū's time was "cake tea" (団茶 dancha?)—tea compressed into a nugget in the same manner as Pu-erh. was already widespread throughout China.[3] The custom of drinking tea.1 Chabako temae 7. The entry in the Nihon Kōki states that Eichū personally prepared and served sencha (unground Japanese green tea) to Emperor Saga who was on an excursion in Karasaki (in present Shiga Prefecture) in the year 815. Chinese author Lu Yu wrote The Classic of Tea.

when theKamakura Shogunate ruled the nation and tea and the luxuries associated with it became a kind of status symbol among the warrior class. and Buddhism. This powdered green tea was first used in religious rituals inBuddhist monasteries. and there arose tea-tasting (ja:闘茶tōcha?) parties wherein contestants could win extravagant prizes for guessing the best quality tea—that grown in Kyoto. the style of tea preparation called "tencha" (点茶?). particularly the Zen–Chán school. The next major period in Japanese history was theMuromachi Period.[5][citation needed] An open tea house serving matcha (ippuku issen 一服一銭. His ideas would have a strong influence in the development of the Japanese tea ceremony. was introduced to Japan by Eisai. Ippuku issen's monk clothing depicts the relationship between matcha culture. another monk. right) and a peddler selling decoctants (senjimono-uri ja:煎じ物 売. He also took tea seeds back with him. a copy ofTokyo National Museum reproduced in 1846. This period saw the budding of what is generally regarded as Japanese traditional culture as we know it today. and later during this period. Seventy-one Poetry Matches on the (142) Occupations. left) in Muromachi period illustrated in 24th poem match in Shichiju-ichiban shokunin utaawase (ja:七十一番職人歌合.treatise on tea focusing on its cultivation and preparation. centered around the gorgeous cultural world of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu and his villa in the northern hills of Kyoto (Kinkaku-ji). pointing to the rise of Kitayama Culture(ja:北山文化 Kitayama bunka?). in which powdered matcha was placed into a bowl. Lu Yu's life had been heavily influenced by Buddhism. the rise of Higashiyama Culture. deriving from the seeds that Eisai brought from China. which eventually produced tea that was of the most superb quality in all of Japan. and the tea and hot water whipped together. By the 13th century. on his return from China. centered around the elegant cultural world of Ashikaga Yoshimasa and his retirement villa in the eastern hills of Kyoto (Ginkaku-ji). hot water added. . originally compiled in 1500). tea ceremony.[4] Around the end of the 12th century.

naturalism. Its original meaning indicated quiet or sober refinement. For instance. and this is considered to have influenced his concept of chanoyu. A purpose-built room designed for the wabi style of tea is called a chashitsu. and is ideally 4. A 4. and the full development of "the "way of tea". [edit]Venues Main article: Chashitsu While a purpose-built tatami-floored room is considered the ideal venue. and tranquility (寂 jaku?)—are still central to tea ceremony. and asymmetry" and "emphasizes simple. simplicity. perhaps the most well-known—and still revered—historical figure in tea ceremony. Many schools of Japanese tea ceremony have evolved through the long history of chadō and are active today. imperfection. tea drinking had spread to all levels of society in Japan. while embracing imperfection was honoured as a healthy reminder to cherish our unpolished selves. Sen no Rikyū and his work Southern Record. "Wabi" represents the inner. respect(敬 kei?). just as we are . a hearth built into the floor. He studied Zen under the monkIkkyū. who revitalized Zen in the 15th century. represents the outer. and be surrounded by a tea garden called a roji. or spiritual. here and now. or material side of life. It has a low ceiling.the first step to "satori" or enlightenment. an alcove for hanging scrolls and placing other decorative objects. Originally. Known in English as tea houses." or "decayed." on the other hand. It also has an attached preparation area known as a mizuya. ." [6] "Sabi. but smaller and larger rooms are also used. for it can never be reproduced. and other amenities. in particular that of "wabi-sabi"." Particularly among the nobility.The Japanese tea ceremony developed as a "transformative practice".5 tatami in floor area. profundity. understanding emptiness was considered the most effective means to spiritual awakening.[8] By the 16th century. and began to evolve its own aesthetic. a philosophy that each meeting should be treasured. shoji screens. art. unadorned objects and architectural space. such structures may contain several tea rooms of different sizes and styles. experiences of human lives.5-mat room is considered standard. a tea gathering can be held picnic-style in the outdoors (this is known as nodate (野点?)). dressing and waiting rooms. The principles he set forward— harmony (和 wa?). any place where the necessary implements for the making and serving of the tea can be set out and where the host can make the tea in the presence of the seated guest(s) can be used as a venue for tea. followed his master Takeno Jōō's concept of ichi-go ichi-e. Chashitsucan also refer to free-standing buildings for tea ceremony. and several entrances for host and guests. His teachings perfected many newly developed forms in architecture and gardens. and celebrates the mellow beauty that time and care impart to materials. Building materials and decorations are deliberately simple and rustic in wabi style tea rooms. or subdued taste "characterized by humility.[7] Murata Jukō is known in chanoyu history as an early developer of tea ceremony as a spiritual practice." "weathered. purity (清 sei?). restraint. it meant "worn.

For each season.[9] The first documented appearance of the term koicha is in 1575. constituting the colder months (traditionally November to April). the tea leaves used as packing material for the koicha leaves in the tea urn(茶壺 chatsubo?) would be served as thin tea. koicha is a thick blend of matcha and hot water that requires about three times as much tea to the equivalent amount of water than usucha.5 mat room changes with the season as well. while one bowl of thick tea is shared among several guests. [edit]Koicha and usucha There are two main ways of preparing matcha for tea ceremony: thick (濃茶 koicha?)and thin (薄茶 usucha?). the configuration of the tatami in a 4.[10] . a host rests a bamboo ladle on an iron pot that rests inside the ro). Historically. Traditionally the year is divided by tea practitioners into two main seasons: the sunken hearth (炉 ro?) season. Ideally.[10] As the terms imply. Thin tea is served to each guest in an individual bowl. To prepare usucha. while koichais kneaded with the whisk to smoothly blend the large amount of powdered tea with the water. there are variations in the temae performed and utensils and other equipment used. constituting the warmer months (traditionally May to October). matcha and hot water are whipped using the tea whisk (茶筅 chasen?). Japanese historical documents about tea ceremony that differentiate between usucha and koicha first appear in the Tenmon era (1532–55). with the best quality tea leaves used in preparing thick tea. This style of sharing a bowl of koicha first appeared in historical documents in 1586. and is a method considered to have been invented by Sen no Rikyū. Seasonality and the changing of the seasons are important in tea ceremony.[edit]Seasons The ro season. and the brazier (風炉 furo?) season.

A chakai may involve only the preparation and serving of thin tea (and accompanying confections). A wide range of chadōgu is available and different styles and motifs are used for different events and in different seasons. and some are handled only with gloved hands. finishing portion of a chaji. A 16th century black Raku ware style chawan. All the tools for tea ceremony are handled with exquisite care. representing the more relaxed. used for thick tea (Tokyo National Museum) . [edit]Equipment Main article: List of Japanese tea ceremony equipment Tea equipment is called chadōgu (茶道具?).The most important part of a chaji is the preparation and drinking of koicha. They are scrupulously cleaned before and after each use and before storing. The following are a few of the essential components:  Chakin (茶巾?). which is followed by usucha. The "chakin" is a small rectangular white linen or hemp cloth mainly used to wipe the tea bowl.

The following is a general description of a noon chaji held in the cool weather season at a purpose-built tea house. Irregularities and imperfections are prized: they are often featured prominently as the "front" of the bowl. Tea whisks quickly become worn and damaged with use. which allow the tea to cool rapidly. are used in summer. and some bowls are extremely valuable. The best bowls are thrown by hand. and other considerations. Bamboo tea scoops in the most casual style have a nodule in the approximate center. . Shallow bowls. [御]手前 [o]temae?). Bowls over four hundred years old are in use today. and the host should use a new one when holding a chakai or chaji. They are used to scoop tea from the tea caddy into the tea bowl. Tea bowls are available in a wide range of sizes and styles. There are various types. This is the implement used to mix the powdered tea with the hot water. although they may also be made of ivory or wood. Tea whisks are carved from a single piece of bamboo.  Tea scoop (茶杓 chashaku?). but these are not seen by guests. and different styles are used for thick and thin tea. Bowls are frequently named by their creators or owners. or by a tea master. venue.Two modern "thin tea" bowls  Tea bowl (茶碗 chawan?). The noon tea gathering of one host and a maximum of five guests is considered the most formal chaji. The small lidded container in which the powdered tea is placed for use in the tea-making procedure ([お]手前. and with the time of year. [edit]Usual sequence of a chaji Procedures vary from school to school. Tea scoops generally are carved from a single piece of bamboo. Different styles and colours are used in various tea traditions.  Tea caddy (棗 Natsume?). Larger scoops are used to transfer tea into the tea caddy in the mizuya (preparation area). [お]点前.  Tea whisk (茶筅 chasen?). but only on unusually special occasions. time of day. deep bowls are used in winter.

When the preparation of the utensils is complete. or some other appropriate theme. and make preparations for serving the tea. they proceed to the outdoor waiting bench in the roji. ritually cleanses each utensil——including the tea bowl. the waiting room has a tatami floor and an alcove (tokonoma). roasted barley tea. The procedure is repeated until all guests have taken tea from the same bowl. and are then seated seiza-style on the tatami in order of prestige. often in a decorative wallet or tucked into the breast of the kimono. They remove their footwear and enter the tea room through a small "crawling-in" door (nijiri-guchi). The guest rotates the bowl to avoid drinking from its front. and then answers questions posed by the first guest about the scroll and other items. takes a sip. each guest then has an opportunity to admire the bowl before it is returned to the host. or sakurayu. take down the scroll and replace it with a flower arrangement. which each guest carries. whisk. where they remain until summoned by the host. When all the guests have arrived and finished their preparations. open the tea room's shutters. guests are served a meal in several courses accompanied by sake and followed by a small sweet (wagashi) eaten from special paper called kaishi (懐紙?). When the last guest has taken their place. the host prepares thick tea. kombu tea. the theme of the chaji. and compliments the host on the tea. the guests proceed in order to a stone basin where they ritually purify themselves by washing their hands and rinsing their mouths with water at tsukubai. who then cleanses the equipment and leaves the tea room.[11] After the meal. and then continue along the roji to the tea house. Following this. there is a break called a nakadachi. who uses the break to sweep the tea room. (中立ち) during which the guests return to the waiting shelter until summoned again by the host. the guests again purify themselves and examine the items placed in the tea room. the guest wipes clean the rim of the bowl and passes it to the second guest. The guests are served a cup of the hot water. and raises the bowl in a gesture of respect to the host. they close the door with an audible sound to alert the host. . The host then enters. and proceed to view the items placed in thetokonoma and any tea equipment placed ready in the room. Bows are exchanged between the host and the guest receiving the tea. and put on fresh tabi. The guest then bows to the second guest.The guests arrive a little before the appointed time and enter an interior waiting room. and places them in an exact arrangement according to the particular temae procedure being performed. and tea scoop——in the presence of the guests in a precise order and using prescribed motions. where they store unneeded items such as coats. After taking a few sips. Ideally. Following a silent bow between host and guests. Having been summoned back to the tea room by the sound of a bell or gong rung in prescribed ways. The chaji begins in the cool months with the laying of the charcoal fire which is used to heat the water. in which is displayed ahanging scroll which may allude to the season. who enters the tea room and welcomes each guest.

and possibly cushions for the guests' comfort. The procedures performed in sadō are called. as well as a container for little candy-like sweets. how a teacup is examined. general list of common types of temae. the guests may engage in casual conversation. and the ceremony is over. irreplaceable. how tea is scooped into a cup— is performed in a very specific way. A tea ceremony can last up to four hours. to accompany the thin tea. There are many styles of temae. . occasion. The host bows from the door. temae. usually higashi. lit. depending upon the school. [edit]Chabako temae Chabako temae (茶箱手前?) is so called because the equipment is removed from and then replaced into a special box known as a"chabako" (茶箱?. collectively. equipment. tea whisk (kept in a special container). The basic equipment contained in the chabako are the tea bowl. handmade antiques. and guests often use a special brocaded cloth to handle them. Chabako developed as a convenient way to prepare the necessary equipment for making tea outdoors. the number of guests. the host cleans the utensils in preparation for putting them away. Many of the items are smaller than usual.The host then rekindles the fire and adds more charcoal. After all the guests have taken tea. The following is a short. tea scoop and tea caddy. and countless other possible factors. to fit in the box. The act of performing these procedures during a chaji is called "doing temae". The guest of honour will request that the host allow the guests to examine some of the utensils. The host then collects the utensils. and linen wiping cloth in a special container. setting. after a similar ritual exchange. This signifies a change from the more formal portion of the gathering to the more casual portion. and each guest in turn examines each item. and the host will return to the tea room to bring in a smoking set (タ バコ盆 tabako-bon?) and more confections. The items are treated with extreme care and reverence as they may be priceless. and the types of meal and tea served. including the tea caddy and the tea scoop. [edit]Types of temae Each action in sadō— how a kettle is used. in the usucha portion. season. While in earlier portions of the gathering conversation is limited to a few formal comments exchanged between the first guest and the host. and the guests leave the tea house. and may be thought of as a procedure or technique. This ceremony takes approximately 35–40 minutes. The host will then proceed with the preparation of an individual bowl of thin tea to be served to each guest. "tea box"). depending on the type of ceremony performed.

bon temae (盆手前?). In the ryūrei (立礼?) style. tea whisk. are placed in the tea room before the guests enter. tea scoop. the tea bowl. the iron pot and the ladle (resting on the pot). including even the fresh water container. requiring neither much specialized equipment nor a lot of time to complete. therefore. the tea whisk. or bonryaku temae (盆略手前?) is a simple procedure for making usucha (thin tea). [edit]O-Bon temae/bonryaku o-bon temae (お盆手前?). In other temae. which is heated on a brazier. except for the hot water kettle (and brazier if a sunken hearth is not being used). and the hot water is prepared in a kettle called a tetsubin. even . the water jar and perhaps other items. the tea is prepared with the host seated at a special table. the essential items for the tea-making. and is the easiest to perform. using a thermos pot in place of thetetsubin and portable hearth. This is usually the first temae learned. depending upon the style of temae. [edit]Ryūrei A woman holding a natsume performs a ryūrei style ceremony. are carried into the tea room by the host as a part of thetemae. It is possible. chakin and tea caddy are placed on a tray. for ryūrei-style temae to be conducted nearly anywhere. and the guests are also seated at tables. It may easily be done sitting at a table. Visible from far left to right are the red fresh water container (its lid is on the tana).[edit]Hakobi-temae Hakobi-demae (運び手前?) is so called because. or outdoors. The tea bowl.

Chabana arrangements typically comprise few items. which itself has roots in Shinto and Buddhism. The assistant also serves the tea and sweets to the guests. or words or phrases associated with tea ceremony. [edit]Tea ceremony and flower arrangement Chabana (茶花?) is the simple style of flower arrangement used in tea ceremony. in summer. 風 (kaze. Haga points out that Rikyū preferred to hang bokuseki (lit. in nature. the calligraphy of Zen Buddhist priests. as well as metal or ceramic. lit. In ryūreithere is usually an assistant who sits near the host and moves the host's seat out of the way as needed for standing or sitting. and "tranquility"). to have been either developed or championed by Sen no Rikyū. The name refers to the host's practice of performing the first and last bows while standing. in the tea room. "respect". He is said to have taught that chabana should give the viewer the same impression that those flowers naturally would give if they were [still] growing outdoors. plays a central role in tea ceremony. Scrolls. including the season and the theme of the particular gettogether. They are selected for their appropriateness for the occasion. Chabana has its roots in ikebana. when many flowering grasses are in season in Japan. descriptions of famous places.. or a combination of both. lit. but rarely glass. "harmony". Chabana is said. literally "throw (it) in". props and other devices are not used. it is seasonally appropriate to arrange a number of such flowering grasses in an airy basket-type container. and little or no filler material. . wide dishes). expressing the four key principles of the Way of Tea. The containers for the flowers used in tea rooms are typically made from natural materials such as bamboo. Some contain only a single character. Also. it was thought. The containers in which chabanaare arranged are referred to generically as hanaire (花入れ ? ). Unlike ikebana (which often uses shallow. are hung in the tokonoma (scroll alcove) of the tea room. Chabana evolved from the "free-form" style of ikebana called nageire (投げ入れ?). Hanging scrolls that feature a painting instead of calligraphy. "purity". mainly in the form of hanging scrolls.outdoors. however. initially for serving non-Japanese guests who. particularly those associated with Buddhism. Historian and author Haga Kōshirō points out that it is clear from the teachings of Sen no Rikyū recorded in the Nampō roku that the suitability of any particular scroll for a tea gathering depends not only on the subject of the writing itself but also on the virtue of the writer. narrowhanaire are frequently used in chabana. Scrolls are sometimes placed in the waiting room as well. which was used by early tea masters. Further. depending upon the source. Unnatural and/or out-of-season materials are never used. "ink traces"). tall. often written by famous calligraphers or Buddhist monks. [edit]Tea ceremony and calligraphy Calligraphy. "wind") would be appropriate. are also used. This procedure originated in the Urasenke school. In the summer. poems. would be more comfortable sitting on chairs. Calligraphic scrolls may feature well-known sayings.[12] A typical example of a hanging scroll in a tea room might have the kanji 和敬清寂 (wa-kei-sei-jaku. an older style of Japanese flower arranging.

Chabana arrangements are so simple that frequently no more than a single blossom is used. . served in individual lidded bowls. only fresh seasonal ingredients are used. and these attend further rounds of sake. Dishes are intricately arranged and garnished. which is why it is called mukōzuke(lit. Great care is taken in selecting ingredients and types of food. they are also referred to as azukebachi (預鉢?. The one soup referred to here is usually miso soup.[13] [edit]Kaiseki (Cha-kaiseki) Main article: Kaiseki Kaiseki (懐石?) or cha-kaiseki (茶懐石?) is a meal served in the context of a formal tea function. three side dishes". and the finished dishes are carefully presented on serving ware that is chosen to enhance the appearance and seasonal theme of the meal. Extra items that may be added to the menu are generally referred to as shiizakana (強い肴?). and the basic three side dishes are the following:  mukōzuke (向こう付け?): foods in a dish arranged on the far side of the meal tray for each guest.  suimono (吸い物?): clear soup served in a small lacquered and lidded bowl.   yutō (湯桶?): pitcher of hot water having slightly browned rice in it. and the rice. hassun. yutō.   nimono (煮物?): simmered foods. "bowl left in another's care"). both in lacquered lidded bowls.. lit. this blossom will invariably lean towards or face the guests. Also referred to as kozuimono (小吸い物 ? ) or hashiarai (箸洗い?). to cleanse the palate before the exchange of saké (rice wine) between host and guests. yakimono (焼き物?): grilled foods (usually some kind of fish). "set to the far side"). prepared in ways that aim to enhance their flavour. some might argue that the aesthetic experience of seeing the food is even more important than the physical experience of eating it. The basic constituents of a cha-kaiseki meal are the ichijū sansai (一汁三菜?) or "one soup. and kōnomono. often with real edible leaves and flowers that are to help enhance the flavour of the food. Often this might be some kind of sashimi. The name derives from the size of the tray. On the near side of the meal tray are arranged the rice and the soup. brought out in a serving dish for the guests to serve themselves. In cha-kaiseki. plus the following: suimono. which the guests serve to themselves. Because the host leaves them with the first guest.  hassun (八寸?): a tray of titbits from mountain and sea that the guests serve themselves to and accompanies the round of saké (rice wine) shared by host and guests. Serving ware and garnishes are as much a part of the kaiseki experience as the food. kōnomono (香の物?): pickles that accompany the yutō.

lacquered table or several small tables. so as not to be distracting. When Western clothes are worn. and do not gain the right to wear a jittoku. montsuki kimono (紋付着物?) (kimono with three to five family crests on the sleeves and back) are worn. and used kaishi are folded and placed into them. when no obi is worn. certain movements are designed with long kimono sleeves in mind. The silk fukusa cloths are designed to be folded and tucked into the obi (sash). Lined kimono are worn by both men and women in the winter months. very important people may be provided their own low. Proper attire for guests is kimono or western formal wear. certain motions are intended to move sleeves out of the way or to prevent them from becoming dirtied in the process of making. Men may wear kimono only. the attire worn at a tea ceremony—whether traditional kimono or other clothing—is usually subdued and conservative. Kaishi and smaller silk cloths known as kobukusa (小袱紗?) are tucked into the breast of the kimono. Both men and women wear white tabi(divided-toe socks). Most practitioners own at least one kimono suitable for wearing when hosting or participating in tea ceremonies. or (for more formal occasions) a combination of kimono and hakama (a long divided or undivided skirt worn over the kimono). For formal occasions. most will practice in kimono at least some of the time. For both men and women. the wearer must find other places to keep these objects. On formal occasions the host—male or female—always wears a kimono. for this is essential to learn the prescribed motions properly. meat dishes are rare. and unlined ones in the summer. Because cha-kaiseki generally follows traditional eating habits in Japan.Courses are served in small servings in individual dishes. The sleeves of the kimono also function as pockets. Each diner has a small lacquered tray to him. a regular belt must be substituted or the motions cannot be performed properly. although it is not uncommon for students nowadays to wear western clothes for practice. For example. Other motions are designed to allow for the straightening of the kimono and hakama. Women wear various styles of kimono depending on the season and the event. [edit]Tea ceremony and kimono See also: Kimono Many of the movements and components of tea ceremony evolved from the wearing of kimono and. fans are tucked into the obi. Those who have earned the right may wear a kimono with a jittoku or juttoku (十徳?) jacket instead of hakama.or herself. women generally do not wear hakama for tea ceremony. serving or partaking of tea. [edit]Tea ceremony and seiza .

hearth. and may also vary by season (where it is possible to rearrange the mats). both the host and guests sit in seiza throughout. it is also a function of wearing kimono. guests and host. tea students are taught to step over such joins when walking in the tea room. The placement of tatami in tea rooms differs slightly from the normal placement in regular Japanese-style rooms. In a 4. to maintain erect posture. and to walk quietly. which employs chairs and tables. showing position of tatami. Therefore. when walking on tatami it is customary to shuffle. and the different seating positions. mizuya dōkō. the mats are placed in a circular pattern around a centre mat. Unless it is the ryūrei style of tea ceremony. Purpose-built tea rooms have a sunken hearth in the floor .5 mat tearoom. and helps one to maintain balance as the combination of tabi and tatami makes for a slippery surface.In that the Japanese tea ceremony is conventionally conducted sitting on tatami. The use of tatami flooring has influenced the development of tea ceremony. Tatami are used in various ways in tea ceremony. for example. one practical reason being that that would tend to damage the tatami. determines how a person walks through the tea room. For instance. One must avoid walking on the joins between mats. tokonoma.5 mat room. Their placement. to avoid causing disturbance. differing mainly in depth of bow and position of the hands) performed during tea ceremony originate in the seiza position. Shuffling forces one to slow down. which restricts stride length. All the bows (there are three basic variations. [edit]Tea ceremony and tatami See also: Chashitsu Typical winter tearoom layout in a 4. seiza is integral to it.

those who wish to study the tea ceremony typically join what is known in Japanese as a "circle". the placement of utensils will vary infinitesimally from ceremony to ceremony. There are dozens of real and imaginary lines that crisscross any tearoom. [edit]Studying the tea ceremony In Japan. In summer. as well as to avoid placing the hands palm-down on it. Except when walking. totally hiding the hearth. as it functions as a kind of table: tea utensils are placed on it for viewing. . The lines in tatami mats (畳目 tatami-me?) are used as one guide for placement. To avoid stepping on it people may walk around it on the other mats. and the joins serve as a demarcation indicating where people should sit. Tatami provide a more comfortable surface for sitting seiza-style. which is a generic term for a group that meets regularly to participate in a given activity. Interior view of a large tea room with tatamiand tokonoma. when moving about on the tatami one places one's closed fists on the mats and uses them to pull oneself forward or push backwards while maintaining a seiza position. and incense burner.which is used in winter. and prepared bowls of tea are placed on it for serving to the guests. A special tatami is used which has a cut-out section providing access to the hearth. colleges anduniversities. It is customary to avoid stepping on this centre mat whenever possible. Seen in the tokonoma is a hanging scroll. There are also tea clubs at many junior and high schools. These are used to determine the exact placement of utensils and myriad other details. the hearth tatami is replaced with a full mat. At certain times of year (primarily during the new year's festivities) the portions of the tatami where guests sit may be covered with a red felt cloth. or shuffle on the hands and knees. flower arrangement (not chabana style). the hearth is covered either with a small square of extra tatami. more commonly. or. when performed by skilled practitioners.

how to drink tea and eat sweets.Classes may be held at community centres. According to the school. a group for older or younger students. As they master the basics. if the teacher is in the higher rank of tradition. how to handle bowls. store and care for the various equipment. New students may be taught mostly by more advanced students. especially an iemoto. The first things new students learn are how to correctly open and close sliding doors. to the student. and how to wash and fold chakin. and many teachers discourage the practice of note-taking. as well as their own wallet in which to place these items. Tea schools often have widely varied groups that all study in the same school but at different times. and the sweets that students serve and eat at every class. or "tea name". Acquiring such certificates is often very costly. As they master these essential steps. students are also taught how to behave as a guest at tea ceremonies: the correct words to say. fan. kaishi paper. Once these basic steps have been mastered. how to measure the tea and water and whisk it to the proper consistency. Only when the first ceremony has been mastered will students move on. the student typically must not only pay for the preparation of the certificate itself and for participating in the ceremony during which it is bestowed. Study is through observation and hands on practice. how to walk on tatami. and occasionally other objects as well) and the sweets that have been . how to use paper and sweet-picks. how to ritually clean tea equipment. but is also expected to thank the teacher by presenting him or her with a gift of money. or may give the student permission to begin studying a given temae. which typically features a hanging scroll (usually with calligraphy). the tea itself. wearing kimono is still considered essential. how to wash. Students must be equipped with their own fukusa. each class ends with the whole group being given brief instruction by the main teacher. especially for women. there may be a women's group. The cost of acquiring certificates increases as the student's level increases. how to fold the fukusa. typically beginning with O-bon temae (see above). usually concerning the contents of thetokonoma (the scroll alcove. and myriad other details. dedicated tea schools. how to fill the tea caddy. how to bow and to whom and when to do so. a flower arrangement. In some cases. and kobukusa. Students normally pay a monthly fee which covers tuition and the use of the school's (or teacher's) bowls and other equipment. how to enter and exit the tea room. As they master each ceremony. students begin to practice the simplest temae. and finally. For example. This permission usually accompanies the granting of a chamei. some schools and teachers present students with certificates at a formal ceremony. advanced students may be given permission to wear the school's mark in place of the usual family crests on formal montsukikimono. or at private homes. Though western clothing is very common today. the most advanced students are taught exclusively by the teacher. Typically. students will be instructed on how to prepare the powdered tea for use. this certificate may warrant that the student has mastered a given temae. New students typically begin by observing more advanced students as they practice. and so on. students do not often take notes.

Similar terms are "tea arts" and "tea culture". While "Tea ceremony" is the most commonly used translation. yet some only associate this with Japanese tea. . [edit]Terminology of 道 (dō) with respect to tea Translating the term 茶道 (chadō?) into English is a difficult translation task. native suffix -ism. the word is tea and the second is Chinese loanword tao/dao/道. It remains associated with the Ōbaku school. the founder of the Ōbaku school of Zen Buddhism. which is distinguished as senchadō (煎茶道?. another possible translation is "tea lore".[14] While the term "lore" is usually not used in this context.served that day. there is a formal art surrounding sencha. Generally it involves the high-grade gyokuro class of sencha. Related topics include incense and kimono. and enjoying tea in a formal and informal setting. and the head temple of Manpuku-ji hosts regular sencha tea ceremony conventions. The term "chadao" has two words. Another term is "Teaism". which is in general more Chinese in style than earlier schools. more Chinese in style. A literal translation would be "the way of tea" or "the dao of tea". it is disliked by many practitioners. or comments on seasonal variations in equipment or ceremony. [edit]Sencha tea ceremony Like the formal art surrounding matcha. This ceremony. the term can be written as teaism. [edit]Zen and tea Zen Buddhism has been an influence in the development of the tea ceremony. the way of sencha). The elements of the Japanese tea ceremony is the harmony of nature and self cultivation. was introduced to Japan in the 17th century by Ingen.

Switzerland) . the free encyclopedia For other uses.Bonsai From Wikipedia. Not to be confused with Banzai. Bonsai at the National Bonsai & Penjing Museum at the United States National Arboretum Bonsai group planting at the "Foire du Valais" (Martigny. see Bonsai (disambiguation).

from bon. Bonsai uses cultivation techniques like pruning. Bonsai can be created from nearly any perennial woodystemmed tree or shrub species[4] that produces true branches and can be cultivated to remain small through pot confinement with crown and root pruning. The practice of bonsai is sometimes confused with dwarfing. Similar practices exist in other cultures. the bonsai is shaped to limit growth. for medicine. that make them appropriate for the compact visual scope of bonsai. bonsai is not intended for production of food. usually one designed for bonsai display in one of a few accepted shapes and proportions.Sequoia sempervirens (California redwood) "Informal Upright" style bonsai tree from the Brooklyn Botanic Garden Bonsai (盆栽?. and the miniature living landscapes of Vietnamese hòn non bộ. bonsai practice focuses on long-term cultivation and shaping of one or more small trees growing in a container. a tray or low-sided pot and sai. A "bon" is a tray-like pot typically used in bonsai culture. or creation of plant cultivars that are permanent. including the Chinese tradition of penjingfrom which the art originated.[3] By contrast with other plant cultivation practices. When the candidate bonsai nears its planned final size it is planted in a display pot. genetic miniatures of existing species. . lit. defoliation. pronunciation (help·info))[1] is a Japanese art form using miniature trees grown in containers. discovery. Throughout the year. A bonsai is created beginning with a specimen of source material. From that point forward. This may be a cutting. its growth is restricted by the pot environment. The source specimen is shaped to be relatively small and to meet the aesthetic standards of bonsai. redistribute foliar vigor to areas requiring further development. a planting or plantings. Somespecies are popular as bonsai material because they have characteristics. "Bonsai" is a Japanese pronunciation of the earlier Chinese term penzai. but rather depends on growing small trees from regular stock and seeds. or for creating yard-size or park-size gardens or landscapes. potting. and grafting to produce small trees that mimic the shape and style of mature. and has its own aesthetics and terminology.[2] The word bonsai is often used in English as an umbrella term for all miniature trees in containers or pots. or small tree of a species suitable for bonsai development. Instead. but this article focuses on bonsai as defined in the Japanese tradition. full-size trees. The Japanese tradition dates back over a thousand years. plantings in tray. root reduction. seedling. such as small leaves or needles. and meet the artist's detailed design. The purposes of bonsai are primarily contemplation (for the viewer) and the pleasant exercise of effort and ingenuity (for the grower). Bonsai does not require genetically dwarfed trees. but dwarfing generally refers to research.

C. the free encyclopedia The Jefferson Memorial during the 2010 National Cherry Blossom Festival The National Cherry Blossom Festival (Japanese: 全米桜祭り) is a spring celebration in Washington.3 Cherry Blossom Festival 2 Organization and events of the Festival 3 Types of cherry trees 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External links . commemorating the March 27.[1] Contents [hide]  1 History o o o       1. gift of Japanese cherry trees from Mayor Yukio Ozaki ofTokyo City to the city of Washington.National Cherry Blossom Festival From Wikipedia. D.1 Early initiatives 1. 1912.2 Japanese gift planted 1.. Mayor Ozaki donated the trees in an effort to enhance the growing friendship between the United States and Japan and also celebrate the continued close relationship between the two nations.

Maryland. On September 26. David Fairchild imported 1000 cherry trees from the Yokohama Nursery Company in Japan and planted them on his own property in Chevy Chase.[edit]History [edit]Early initiatives Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore was an early proponent of planting Japanese flowering cherry trees along the Potomac River. Fairchild proposed that the "Speedway" (a now non-existing route around the D. Fairchild donated cherry saplings to every D. In 1885. Among the guests was prominent botanist David Fairchild and his fiance Marian. Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore returned from her first trip to Japan and approached the U. school to plant on its school grounds in observance of Arbor Day. Tidal Basin) be turned into a "Field of Cherries.[2] Several cherry trees were brought to the region by individuals in this period. who would go on to become the first female board member of the National Geographic Society. Army Superintendent of the Office of Public Buildings and Grounds with the idea of planting cherry trees along the reclaimed waterfront of the Potomac River. though she would continue proposing the idea to every Superintendent for the next 24 years. the daughter of inventor Alexander Graham Bell. with the help of the Fairchilds' friends. Scidmore.[3] In 1906. was rebuffed. The effort to bring cherry trees to Washington.. D.S. The Fairchilds were pleased with the results of their planting and in 1907 began promoting Japanese flowering cherry trees as an ideal tree to plant around avenues in the Washington area.C.C. preceded the official planting by several decades.C. the Chevy Chase Land Company ordered 300 Oriental cherry trees for the Chevy Chase area.C."[2] . In 1908. including one that was the location of a 1905 cherry blossom viewing and tea party hosted by Scidmore in northwest D. At an Arbor Day speech that Eliza Scidmore attended.

[2] By chance. These trees arrived in Washington. I have taken the matter up and am promised the trees. It was subsequently discovered that the trees were of the cultivar Shirofugen. informed the U. 1910. These trees had largely disappeared by the 21st century.C. Takamine responded to the news with . informing her of her plans. as the other part is still too rough to do any planting. Spencer Cosby. Let me know what you think about this. Takamine asked if Mrs. but I thought perhaps it would be best to make an avenue of them. purchased ninety cherry trees (Prunus serrulata) that were planted along the Potomac River from the Lincoln Memorial south toward East Potomac Park. However. Of course. the Embassy of Japan in Washington. As a matter largely of form. Knox wrote a letter expressing the regret of all involved to the Japanese Ambassador. the Japanese consul to New York City. Superintendent of the Office of Public Buildings and Grounds. the Japanese chemist who discovered adrenaline. while Midzuno suggested that the trees be given in the name of Tokyo. Department of State that the city of Tokyo intended to donate 2000 cherry trees to theUnited States to be planted along the Potomac. 1909. wife of newly elected president Howard Taft. they could not reflect in the water.S. who accepted the offer of 2000 trees. on April 5 she wrote a letter to First Lady Helen Herron Taft.C. concluding that the trees had to be destroyed to protect local growers. on April 8.[2] On August 30. Midzuno. the inspection team from the Department of Agriculture (led byFlora Wambaugh Patterson) found that the trees were infested with insects and nematodes. rather than the ordered Fugenzo.In 1909. extending down to the turn in the road. Informed of a plan to plant Japanese cherry trees along the Speedway. Jokichi Takamine. but the effect would be very lovely of the long avenue. Takamine and Midzuo subsequently met with the First Lady. D. D. Scidmore decided to raise the money to buy cherry trees and donate them to the District.[2] Secretary of State Philander C.[2] The original 1910 gift of 2000 cherry trees from Tokyo had to be burned after they were discovered to be infested withagricultural pests and disease On April 13. Taft would accept an additional 2000 trees. was in Washington with Mr... on January 6. Two days later. President Taft gave the order to burn the trees on January 28. the First Lady responded: Thank you very much for your suggestion about the cherry trees.

a group of American school children re-enacted the initial planting. At the end of the ceremony. were planted in East Potomac Park. which comprised 1800 of the gift. Hyogo Prefecture. of a lineage taken from a famous group of trees along the Arakawa River in Tokyo and grafted onto stock from Itami. [2] By 1915. planted the first two of these trees on the north bank of the Tidal Basin in West Potomac Park. marked by a large plaque.C.another donation for more trees. and the remaining Yoshinos. 3020 in all. These two trees still stand at the terminus of 17th Street Southwest. In 1934. wife of the Japanese ambassador. 3020 cherry trees of twelve cultivars were shipped on board the Awa Maru and arrived in D. Trees of the other 11 cultivars. First Lady Helen Herron Taft and Viscountess Chinda. the District of Columbia Commissioners sponsored a three-day celebration of the flowering cherry trees. 1920 In a ceremony on March 27.[2] [edit]Japanese gift planted Photographers and painters along theTidal Basin under blossoming cherry trees. were planted around the Tidal Basin. On February 14. 1912. 1912. the First Lady presented Viscountess Chinda with a bouquet of 'American Beauty' roses. In 1927. via rail car from Seattle on March 26. trees of the Somei-Yoshino variety. . the United States government had responded with a gift of flowering dogwood trees to the people of Japan.[4] From 1913 to 1920.

A compromise was reached where more trees would be planted along the south side of the Basin to frame the Memorial. four trees were cut down.C. The cherry trees had by this point became an established part of the nation's capitol. In response. In 1938.S. trees but had diminished during the war. the president of the pearl . Perry. the Cherry Blossom Princess and U.[2] The Japanese ambassador gave a 300-year old stone lantern to the city of Washington to commemorate the signing of the 1854 Japan-US Treaty of Amity and Friendship by Commodore Matthew C. the lighting of this lantern formally opened the Festival. Commissioners. Three years later. with a queen chosen to reign over the festival. the National Park Service sent budwood back to Tokyo.[citation needed] In 1948. they were referred to as "Oriental" flowering cherry trees for the war's duration. becoming an annual event. plans to cut down trees to clear ground for the Jefferson Memorialprompted a group of women to chain themselves together at the site in protest. 1941. In hopes of dissuading people from further attacks upon the trees during the war.[edit]Cherry Blossom Festival The Washington Monument. which was the parent stock of the D.C. though this was never confirmed. In 1952. A Princess was selected from each state and federal territory. Japan requested help restoring the cherry tree grove at Adachi. D.[2] On December 11. It is suspected that this was retaliation for theattack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan four days earlier.[2] Suspended during World War II.. A Cherry Blossom Pageant was begun in 1940. Cherry Blossom Queen program were started by theNational Conference of State Societies.C. as seen from West Potomac Parkacross the Tidal Basin The first "Cherry Blossom Festival" was held in 1935 under joint sponsorship by numerous civic groups. For a number of years. Board of Trade and the D. Tokyo along the Arakawa River. the festival resumed in 1947 with the support of the Washington.

D.[2] . 400 trees propagated from the surviving 1912 trees were planted to ensure the genetic heritage of the original donation is maintained. The next year."[2] Lady Bird Johnson plants a cherry tree along the Tidal Basinduring the 1965 National Cherry Blossom Festival. The Japanese gave 3.[2] In 1994. these trees were first planted by Emperor Keitai in the 6th century and were designated a National Treasure of Japan in 1922. 676 cherry trees were planted using US$101.[2] From 2002 to 2006. wife of the Japanese ambassador. Japanese horticulturalists took cuttings from Yoshino trees in Washington. For the occasion. In 1999.[5] Two years later. 1854.company started by Mikimoto Kōkichi donated the Mikimoto Pearl Crown. These trees were grown in the United States and many were planted on the grounds of theWashington Monument. the Potomac and Arakawa became sister rivers. From 1986 to 1988.. were planted in West Potomac Park. the Festival was expanded to two weeks to accommodate the many activities that happen during the trees' blooming.800 more Yoshino trees in 1965. which were accepted by First Lady Lady Bird Johnson. the First Lady and Ryuji Takeuchi. Amity and Commerce signed at Yokohama on March 31. reenacted the 1912 planting. the Mayor of Yokohama gifted a stone pagoda to the City to "symbolize the spirit of friendship between the United States of America manifested in the Treaty of Peace. Containing more than five pounds of gold and 1. to replace cherry trees that had been destroyed in a flood in Japan.C. Gifu.585 pearls.000 in private funds donated to the National Park Service to restore the trees to the number at the time of the original gift. fifty trees of the Usuzumi variety fromMotosu. In 1982. According to legend. the crown is used at the coronation of the Festival Queen at the Grand Ball. Cuttings were taken from the documented 1912 trees in 1997 to be used in replacement plantings and thus preserve the genetic heritage of the grove.

and governmental organizations. an umbrella organization consisting of representatives of business. civic. More than 700. 2009 [edit]Organization and events of the Festival Gordon Peterson as master of ceremonies for the 2006 Cherry Blossom Festival Today the National Cherry Blossom Festival is coordinated by the National Cherry Blossom Festival. .000 people visit Washington each year to admire the blossoming cherry trees that herald the beginning of spring in the nation's capital.Visitors in a cherry grove on the National Mall. April 5.. Inc.

[6][7] An array of activities and cultural events takes place on the following days.[10] The next morning. and a rugby union tournament. fashion and DJs that took place in an empty (but festively decorated) Anacostia warehouse. singing. the National Cherry Blossom Festival introduced an alternative event to its lineup. kimono fashion shows. the Sakura Matsuri-Japanese Street Festival (Japanese: さくらまつり). classes about cherry blossoms.[17] during and after the festival's nearby fireworks show. Northwest. Cherry Blast II—the creation of artist Philippa P. Other events include art exhibits (photography. In 2009. Every day there is a sushi/sake celebration. a three-stage festival takes place on theSouthwest Waterfront.The two-week festival begins on the last Saturday of March with a Family Day and an official opening ceremony in the National Building Museum. Hughes of the Pink Line Project—moved to a storage warehouse in Adams Morgan.[15] Because the festival must be planned long in advance. (Most of the crowd was shuttle-bussed in from Dupont Circle. live music. and a bike tour of the Tidal Basin. sculpture. merchant-sponsored events.[14] the largest Japanese Cultural Festival in the United States. cultural performances.[9] When the festival ends. takes place at 12th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue.[10] [edit]Types of cherry trees . See also Japanese festivals. dance. rakugo.[11] Later in the day.[12] On the last Saturday of the festival. the Cherry Blossom 10-Mile Run begins on the grounds of the Washington Monument.[13] During and after the parade.) In 2010. an underground-ish mix of projected art. but still featured an eclectic group of local artists and musicians. a fireworks show begins on the nearbyWashington Channel. martial arts. dignitaries gather at the Tidal Basin to participate in a ceremonial lighting of the 360-year old Japanese stone lantern. animation).[16] Cherry Blast III took place indoors near the Southwest Waterfront in the evening of the 2011 festival's second Saturday. dance performances. On the second Saturday of the celebration.[8] The Blossom Kite Festival (formerly the Smithsonian Kite Festival) usually takes place during the festival's first weekend. with the debut of Cherry Blast. the National Cherry Blossom Festival Parade takes place along Constitution Avenue. it sometimes fails to be celebrated during the peak of the cherry blooms.

[18][19][20] [edit]Gallery  Cherry blossom Festival at the Tidal Basin  Cherry Blossoms near theWashington Monument . which produces white double blossoms that age to pink.C. East Potomac Park also has Fugenzo. and Takesimensis. Sargent Cherry (single. Other cultivars that can be found are the Autumn Cherry (semi-double. Intermingled with the Yoshino are a small number of Akebono cherry trees. which produces rosy pink double blossoms. pale-pink blossoms. and can be found encircling the Tidal Basin Of the initial gift of 12 varieties of 3. which produces a variety of single and double blossoms of colors ranging from dark pink to white about a week before the Yoshino. which bloom at the same time as the Yoshino and produce single. two—the Yoshino and Kwanzan—now dominate. [18][20] Interspersed among all the trees are the Weeping Cherry.[18] The Yoshino produces single white blossoms that create an effect of white clouds around the Tidal Basin and north onto the grounds of the Washington Monument.The Yoshino cultivar is the most common in D. It produces clusters of clear pink double blossoms. and Shirofugen.[18][19] The Kwanzan grows primarily in East Potomac Park and comes into bloom two weeks after the Yoshino. deep pink). Usuzumi (white-grey). pink).020 trees.

Washington DC . Cherry Blossom Festival.

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