Study Guide Test 1 Think about the impact of Telecommunication Act of 1996

Impact of the Telecommunication Act of 1996 o Eliminated ownership restrictions on radio networks and other medias  Signed by Bill Clinton

Think about Sequoia‟s/George Guess‟ influence

Taught and developed Cherokee written code or something

Think about what the big 5 media companies own

Big 5 companies

1. 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Disney:
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Walt Disney News Corp. Time Warner CBS/Viacom NBC Universal (GE/Comcast

ABC, Pixar, Disney Studios, Buena Vista, Touchstone, Miramax, ESPN, Disney Channel, ABC Family, Toon Disney, SoapNet, Classic Sports Network, pieces of Lifetime, A&E, History Channel, Disneyland, Disneyworld, ESPN magazine , 62 radio stations

New Corp:
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Fox, My Network TV, 20 th Century Fox, FX, Fox News Channel, Fox Movie Channel, Fox Sports, The SPEED Channel, DIRECTV, National Geographic Channel, Madison Square Garden Network, Newspapers, satellite TV, HarperCollins, Wall Street Journal

Time Warner:
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CW (50%), Warner Brothers, Hanna-Barbera, HBO, Cinemax, CNN, Headline News, TNT, Turner Classic Movies, TBS, Cartoon Network, AOL, Time, Sports Illustrated, People, Fortune, Mad

Magazine, Atlanta Braves, New Line Cinema, Cartoon Network, DC Comics, Castle Rock Entertainment, TMZ, Flixster CBS/Viacom:
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CBS, CW (50% ownership with Time Warner), 16 CBS, 18 UPN, Paramount Studios, CBS Productions, King World Productions, Showtime, Spike TV, MTV, MTV2, Noggin, VH-1, Nickelodeon, BET, Comedy Central, TV Land, CMT, Flix, Sundance Channel, Blockbuster, Simon & Schuster, Infinity (184 radio stations)

NBC Universal:
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NBC Universal: NBC, Telemundo, part of PAX, 14 NBC O & Os, 15 Telemundo O & Os, NBC Universal Studios, MSNBC, CNBC, Bravo, Trio, USA, Sci-Fi, 5 theme parks

Think about Steve Jobs and R. Murdoch‟s influences and power
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The Power of Steve Jobs:  Founded Apple Inc.; in 1977, the Apple II began the PC era; the graphical user interface launched in 1984 revolutionary  Gave us “desktop publishing,” the laser printer, & pioneered personal computer networks

So the five industries that Jobs influenced:
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Computers Hollywood Music Retail Wireless phones  *** Figured out a way for people to pay for media

Rupert Murdoch
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Chairman & CEO, News Corp.; Fortune named him the #2 most powerful person in business.  In Britain, he owns the biggest tabloid, the Sun; in the U.S., the New York Post, Fox News Network, 20th Century Fox, etc.

Bought Myspace for 580 Million dollars

Think about the early writing systems such as cuneiform

The Sumerians invented o Cuneiform  The Egyptians invented o Hieroglyphs  Pheocians developed first syllable alphabet o The Greeks perfected it

Think about what culture is and its relation to media
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Think about the early cable stations Think about the Rosetta stone Think about the geographic epicenter of American television

New York and Los Angeles??

Think about media conglomeration

Conglomeration: o Media bought by non-media companies

Think about media convergence

Convergence: o Erosion of traditional distinctions among media

Think about the media theory of “jumping on the bandwagon” Think about the importance of the 6 revolutions

Writing Revolution

Began w/ the convergence of the Phoenician alphabet to the east and the Egyptian papyrus to the south

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Ramifications of the 1 st Revolution: ****  Memory no longer crucial  Knowledge Boundless  Elders no longer revered  Cultures divided

Printing Revolution

Began with paper originally from china and Jonathan Gutenberg‟s Printing Press Marked the beginning of the Modern World!
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Ramifications of the 2 nd Revolution:  Information spread  Royalty and Church no longer contain all the power  Period called the reformation; end of feudalism

Mass Media Revolution:

Began w/the convergence of advances in paper production & printing press methods & the invention of the telegraph
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Ramification of the 3 rd Revolution: st  1 time Newspaper were available to the common man  Photography became popular ***

Entertainment Revolution: Began toward the end of the 19th century with such technologies as stored sound, affordable cameras, and motion photography.

Communication Toolshed Revolution

Began during the middle of the 20th century, transforming the home into the central location for receiving information and entertainment

Includes telephone, broadcasting, recording, improvements in print technologies, and cheap, universal mail services.
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Ramifications of the 5 th Revolution:  Radio keeps families entertained (foreshadows fascination with programming for television).  Birth of television changes all other media; radio loses programs & becomes a juke box; general magazines lose prominence.  Home entertainment will never be the same.

Think about significance dates in the history of Television Dates in the History of Television:
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Television reaches maturity in 1963. HBO goes on satellite in 1975. WTBS, 1 st basic cable service, debuts 1976. Fox television network debuts in 1987. Telecommunications Act triggers merger wave in 1996. Broadcast news networks lose dominance in 1998.

Think about the Greeks contributions to the evolution of media Think about the writing surfaces used by the Egyptians

Writing surfaces of the Egyptians o 1. Papyrus o 2. Parchment  Skins of goat and sheep

Think about different types Communication styles and how they differ from each other

Interpersonal Communication: o Communication between oneself  Intrapersonal Communication o Communication  Mass Communicatoin o When messages are sent through technology, the possibility arises that large numbers will have access to the messages. o The principles of this kind of communication, at their most basic, are similar to interpersonal communication; however, it‟s much more difficult than the other types.

Think about milestones in digital music and video
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1982: CD, 1st digital music recording medium, introduced The first CD to be manufactured was “The Visitors” by ABBA.

Think about the impact of innovations such as fiber optics and how they interrelate to the media Think about user statistics on social and media platforms: Ebay:
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Online selling site begun by Pierre Omidyar in ‟95 Originally AuctionWeb, 1 st sold broken laser pointer for $14.83


Begun by Craig Newmark as e-mail list for friends; later, job & apartment listings added; now has everything!  Most postings free; expenses covered through job postings; 1 million jobs posted each month  Now more than 50 million users; recently received a lot of negative press. o Craigslist Killers **** Facebook:
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Now has close to 600 million users. In a single day, about a billion new pieces of content are posted. The site is now the connective tissue for close to a tenth of the planet. Facebook is now the 3rd largest country on earth, and it knows more info on its citizens than any other government.

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Begun by Greenspan, DeWolfe & Anderson in ‟03 to promote bands Bought by Rupert Murdoch in 2005 for $580 million By 2006, it was the #1 social networking website.

Google: Computer science grad students Larry Page & Sergey Brin at Stanford in „95; founded in „98  Wanted to find a way to retrieve information from the web

Began the search engine BackRub that later became Google

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Average viewer watches 15 minutes a day Would take two centuries to watch all of the videos Gets two million views a day, double the number of viewers watching network television in primetime, combined  70% of traffic comes from outside the U.S.

Think about the characteristics of early cultures.

Early Cultures: o Oral cultures were the cultures that passed information from one generation to the next without benefit of writing. o Such cultures were extremely close, and the elders were considered the wisest. o These storytellers were the first important communicators. o Myth & history were intertwined.

Think about media theories that dealt with media violence and their influence

Research on the Violence in Media Falls under two types o 1. Media Violence lessens the likelihood that children will want to commit violence o 2. Media Violence increases the drive for children to participate in violent behavior

Catharis Theory: ***
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Claims media can ease childrens‟ urges to participate in violent behavior Viewing violence in media helps aggressive people address their anger vicariously and lessens aggressive behavior  Dates back to Aristotle

Cultivation Theory:


Late 1960s, tried to correlate amount of violence in primetime television to perceptions television viewers hold about real life  This, causual link to watching television and how we perceive reality ; television cultivates or shapes the way we see the world

Mean World Syndrome:
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So much television violence leads people to think that the world is far more dangerous than it really is. Basically TV shapes the way we see the world  The more TV watched the more distorted our perception is

Think about theories dealing with how we receive media messages and how we perceive others receive media messages

During the early stages of the 1900‟s (1900-1946), some thought media a force that affected views and behavior of public

Hypodermic Needle/Direct Effects:
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Suggested media “inject” public with thoughts and opinions media manipulators wanted Direct access media had were new and unfamiliar: now messages in homes and workplaces, unfiltered by human interaction

Think about the pioneering researcher in communication and his impact.

CHARLES HORTON COOLEY o 2 views:  1. Media encourage individuality  2. Media limits distribution of new ideas, thus leads to assimilation

Individuality encouraged: o Persons with unpopular political views can find like minded individuals and find validation through media  Limit New Ideas:

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Language in media could become the universal dialect of a people; replacing their own New media give people info on how others talk, dress, and feel

Cooley‟s Two Kinds of People:
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1. One that is embraces isolation 2. One that is drawn to choice o Overtime media will eliminate what makes us inique as indivduals, communities, races, and nations

Positive and Negative Effects of Media: o Positive:  Information about alternative lifestyles, races, can lead to tolerance and acceptance o Negative:  Audiences develop superficial understanding and concern  No detail about important issues  Overloaded with information

Think about the significance of the Payne Fund Research

Payne Fund Studies o Established in 1928, a series of 13 studies conducted to examine potential effects of motion pictures on people; practically children

Questions studied by Payne:
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What content? Who was exposed? How much information retained? Could retained ideas create emotional response? Do films cause children to act on increased emotions? Does frequent film attendance lead to unsophisticated behavior or do unsophisticated children often attend? o Payne‟s study results:  Did make groundbreaking discovery that adults/children learn from media  Did discover that what audiences learn affects how they live their lives; changed the way academics views communication and media ***

Think about the significance of communication theories dealing with voting and politics

Paul Lazarfield looked at mass media and changing views in politics

Selective Perception Theory:
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Individuals respond and perceive messages selectively, based on their own personal needs Recall in place to satisfy individual needs for audience

Uses and Gratifications Theories:
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Lazarfield and researcher Elihu Katz develop uses and gratifications theory with selective perception theory  Individuals respond, perceive and use media messages differently  People remember media messages on the way they select to retain Selective recall *

Two Step Flow and Opinion Leadership o 2 steps:


1. Lazarfield and Katz suggest that media messages first influence economic and political power elites or opinion leaders who put their own spin on messages 2. Then later pass them on through interpersonal contact or by using media messages
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**** Popular in the 1950s and 1960s

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