You are on page 1of 16

Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that forbids a defendant from being tried again on the same (or similar)

charges following a legitimate acquittal or conviction. In common law countries, a defendant may enter a peremptory plea of autrefois acquit or autrefois convict (autrefois means "previously" in French), meaning the defendant has been acquitted or convicted of the same offence. If this issue is raised, evidence will be placed before the court, which will normally rule as a preliminary matter whether the plea is substantiated, and if it so finds, the projected trial will be prevented from proceeding. In many countries, the guarantee against being "twice put in jeopardy" is a constitutional right; these include Canada, Mexico and the United States. In other countries, the protection is afforded by statute law. Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. In the year 1923, the British Government established a Public Service Commission to examine the salary structure of the Indian Civil Service. The Commission was composed of four Englishmen and four Indian with Lord Lee of Fareham serving as its Chairman. The Commission also addressed the rate of Indianization of the Indian Civil Service and the Indian Police. It determined a rate which in fifteen years would make the Indian Civil Service with a fifty per cent Indian membership and the same in twenty-five years for the Indian Police. It was left largely to the discretion of provincial Governments to recruit and exercise control over their Services, as they thought proper. As a result of the discretionary powers left to provincial Government, the Government of Madras and Punjab proposed to set up their Public Service Commissions. The Madras Service Commission thus came into being under an Act of the Madras Legislature in 1929. Madras Presidency had the unique honour, of being the only province in India to establish the first Service Commission. The Madras Service Commission started with three Members, including the Chairman. After re-organisation of

States in 1957, several Commissions were constituted. The Madras Service Commission became Madras Public Service Commission with headquarters at Madras in the year 1957. During 1970, when the name of the State was changed into Tamil Nadu, the Madras Public Service Commission automatically became the Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission (TNPSC). In view of its important and impartial function, Public Service Commissions rightly find a place of pride in the Indian Constitution. Articles 16, 234, 315 to 323 deal with various functions and powers of the Public Service Commissions. The working of Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission is also regulated by Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission Regulation, 1954 and the TNPSC Rules of Procedure. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) was established by amending Article 338 and inserting a new Article 338A in the Constitution through the Constitution (89th Amendment) Act, 2003. By this amendment, the erstwhile National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was replaced by two separate Commissions namely- (i) the National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC), and (ii) the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) w.e.f. 19 February, 2004. Detailed background information about the historical evolution of the National Commission has been given in Chapter-1 of the first Report of the Commission for the year 2004-05 and 2005-06. Ultra vires is a Latin phrase meaning literally "beyond the powers". If an act requires legal authority and it is done with such authority, it is characterised in law as intra vires literally "within the powers. If it is done without such authority, it is ultra vires. Acts that are intra vires may equivalently be termed "valid" and those that are ultra vires "invalid". Doctrine of Eclipse is based on the principle that a law which violates fundamental rights, is not nullity or void ab initio but becomes, only unenforceable i.e. remains in a moribund condition. "It is over-shadowed by the fundamental rights and remains dormant, but it is riot dead." Such laws are not wiped out entirely from the statute book. They exist for all post transactions and for the

enforcement of the rights acquired and liabilities incurred before the commencement of the Constitution. It is only against the citizens that they remain in a dormant or moribund condition but they remain in operation as against non-citizens who are not entitled to fundamental rights. Planning Commission has demarcated the geographical area of India into 15 agro-climatic regions. These are further divided into more homogenious 72 sub-zones. The 15 agro-climatic zones are: 1. Western Himalayan Region: J&K, HP, UP, Utranchal 2. Eastern Himalayan Region: Assam Sikkim, W.B & all N-East states 3. Lower Gangetic Plains Region: W.Bangal 4. Middle Gangetic Plains Region: UP, Bihar 5. Upper Gangetic Plains Region: UP 6. Trans-Gangetic Plains Region: Panjab, Haryana, Delhi & Rajasthan 7. Eastern Plateau and Hills Region: Maharastra, UP, Urissa & W.B 8. Central Plateau and Hills Region: MP, Rajasthan, UP 9. Western Plateau and Hills Region: Maharastra, MP & Rajasthan 10. Southern Plateau and Hills Region: AP, Karnatak, Tamil Nadu 11. East Coast Plains and Hills Region: Urissa, AP, TN,& Pondicheri 12. West Coast Plains and Ghat Region : TN, Keral, Goa, Kar, Mah. 13. Gujarat Plains and Hills Region: Gujrat 14. Western Dry Region: Rajasthan 15. The Islands Region: Andman & Nicaobar, Lakshya Deep In 1938, National Planning Commission was set up under the chairmanship of JL Nehru by the Indian National Congress. Its recommendations could not be implemented because of the beginning of the Second World War and changes in the Indian political situation. In 1944, Bombay Plan was presented by 8 leading industrialists of Bombay. In 1944, Gandhian Plan was given by S N Agarwal. In 1945, Peoples Plan was given by M N Roy. In 1950, Sarvodaya Plan was given by J P Narayan. A few points of this plan were accepted by the Government.

The Planning Commission was set up on March 15, 1950 under the chairmanship of JL Nehru, by a resolution of Union Cabinet. It is an extra constitutional, non statutory body. It consists of Prime Minister as the ex officio Chairman, one Deputy Chairman appointed by the PM and some full time members. The tenure of its members and deputy chairman is not fixed. There is no definite definition of its members also. They are appointed by the Government on its own discretion. The number of members can also change according to the wishes of the Government. functions Assessment of material, capital and human resources of the country. Formulation of plans for the most effective and balanced utilization of countrys resources. To determine the various stages of planning and to propose the allocation of resources on the priority basis. To act as an advisory body to the Union Government. To evaluate from time to time the progress achieved in every stage of the plan and also to suggest remedial measures. To advise the Centre and the State Governments from time to time on special matters referred to the Commission. National Development Council India - All the plans made by the Planning Commission have to be approved by National Development Council first. It was constituted to build co operation between the States and the Planning Commission for economic planning. It is an extra constitutional and extra legal body. It was set up on August 6, 1952, by a proposal of the Government. The PM is the ex officio chairman of NDC. Other members are Union Cabinet Ministers, Chief Ministers and Finance Ministers of all States, Lt. Governors of Union Territories and Governors of Centrally ruled States. State Planning Board India Apex planning body at State level is generally a State Planning Body comprising the Chief Minister as Chairman, Finance and Planning Ministers of that State and some technical experts. District Planning Committee is also there comprising both official and non official members.

carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or co2 equivalent (CO2-e) A permit that allows the holder to emit one ton of carbon dioxide. Credits are awarded to countries or groups that have reduced their greenhouse gases below their emission quota. Carbon credits can be traded in the international market at their current market price. The carbon credit system was ratified in conjunction with the Kyoto Protocol. Its goal is to stop the increase of carbon dioxide emissions. For eg, if an environmentalist group plants enough trees to reduce emissions by one ton, the group will be awarded a credit. If a steel producer has an emissions quota of 10 tons, but is expecting to produce 11 tons, it could purchase this carbon credit from the environmental group. The carbon credit system looks to reduce emissions by having countries honour their emission quotas and offer incentives for being below them. Cloud computing is the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet). Cloud computing provides computation, software applications, data access,data management and storage resources without requiring cloud users to know the location and other details of the computing infrastructure. End users access cloud based applications through a web browser or a light weight desktop or mobile app while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. Cloud application providers strive to give the same or better service and performance than if the software programs were installed locally on end-user computers. At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. This type of data centre environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.

Chargaff's rules state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine is equal to thymine. This pattern is found in both strands of the DNA. They were discovered by Austrian chemist Erwin Chargaff. 1. Palekar Tribunal:-Journalists Pay reforms 2. U.C. Banerjee Commission:- Enquiry into Godhra carnage (railways) 3. Sarkaria Commission: Centre-State relations 4. Srikrishna Commission: 1992 Bombay riots 5. Thakkar Commission: Indira Gandhi assassination case 6. Phukan Commission & Saharya Committee: Tehelka tapes 7. Malimath Commission: Criminal Justice 8. Upendra Commission: Inquiry on rape and murder Thangjam Manorama Devi 9. Malhotra Committee: Insurance Reforms 10. Janaki Ram Committee: Security scam 11. Ajay Vikram Singh Committee: Faster promotions in army 12. Rajinder Sachar Committee {1}: Companies and MRPT Act 13. Rajindar Sachar Committee {2}: Report on the social, economic and educational status of the Muslims of India 14. Jyoti Basu Committee: Report on Octroi abolition 15 Balwant Rai Mehta Committee:Rec on decentralization system 16. Sawant Committee: Enquiry on corruption, charges against ministers & Anna Hazare 17. Chelliah Committee: Eradicating black money 18. Kothari Commission: Educational reforms 19. Wanchoo Committee: Tax enquiry 20. Bhanu Pratap Singh Committee: Agriculture 21. Aggarwal Committee: Nepotism in granting petrol pump, LPG connections 22. Rangarajan Committee: Reforms in private sector 23. Naresh Chandra Committee: Corporate governance 24. Chakravarti Committee: Banking sector reforms 25. Rekhi Committee: Structure of indirect taxation

26. G.V.Ramakrishna Committee: Disinvestment in PSU shares 27. Kelkar Committee: First committee on backward castes 28. P.C.Hotha Committee: Restructuring of civil services 29. Justice B.N.Kirpal Committee: 1st chairman National Forest Commission 30. Godbole Committee :Enron Power Project 31. J.C.Kumarappa Committee: Congress agrarian Reforms Committee 32. Swaminathan Committee: Population policy 33. Rangarajan Committee: Statistics 34. Wardha Committee: Inquiry on murder of Graham Staines 35. N.N. Vohra Committee: Criminalization of politics 36. Kelkar Committee {2}: Direct-Indirect Taxes 37. Alagh Committee: Civil Service Examinations 38. Abid Hussain Committee: Recommendations on Small scale industries 39. Narasimham Committee: Banking sector reforms 40. Chelliah Committee:Tax reforms 41. Mashelkar Committee: National Auto Fuel Policy 42. Boothalingam Committee : Recommendations on integrated wages, income and price policy 43. Omkar Goswami Committee: Industrial sickness 44. Yashpal Committee: Review of School Education system 45. Ram Nandan Prasad Committee: Constitution of creamy layers among Backward Castes 46. Kelkar Committee{3} :Enquiry on Kargil defense deals. 47. M.M. Punchhi Commission: Centre-State Relations [note- this committee has been set up recently- after the sad demise of Justice (Retd.) Sarkaria] 48. Thorat Committee: Caste-based discrimination against students in AIIMS 49. R.K.Raghavan Committee: Ragging in colleges 51. James Lyngdoh Committee- Student politics and student-body elections in colleges. 52. E.M.S. Nachiappan Committee: Reforms in the higher judiciary

53. Soli Sorabjee Committee: Police Reforms [it was constituted after the Judgement of the Supreme Court in Parkash Singh vs Union of India (2006)] 54. Ganguli Committee: Review of health facility planning and healthcare engineering and management 55. Percy Mistry Committee: Making Mumbai an IFC (International Financial Centre) 56. K.T. Thomas Committee- to look into ways of enhancing the effectives of the Prevention of Damage to Public Property Act 57. Fali S. Nariman Committee- Accountability and damages with regard to destruction of public property 58. Satwant Reddy Committee- review of laws relating to registration of pharmaceutical drugs and clinical trials 59. Raghuram C. Rajan Committee- financial sector reforms 60. Shah Commission (1966)- reorganisation of States 61. Tarkunde Committee- composition of the Election Commission and other electoral reforms 62. Dinesh Goswami Committee- electoral reforms 63. G.V.K. Rao Committee (1985) - set up by the planning commission in 1985, to look into the Administrative Arrangement for Rural Development and poverty Alleviation Programmes. 64. Butler Committee: Relation between Indian states & paramount power (the Queen of Britain) 65. Hurtog Committee: Growth of British India education-its effects 66. Muddiman Committee: Working of Diarchy as in Montague Chelmsford reforms CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The convention was opened for signature in 1973, and CITES entered into force on July 1, 1975. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the

survival of the species in the wild, and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants. In order to ensure that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was not violated, the Secretariat of GATT was consulted during the drafting process. NATIONAL WATER MISSION India is already a water-stressed country and the growing demand for water across all sectors coupled with an increased incidence of droughts, floods and declining groundwater4 are emerging as significant water security challenges. One sixth of the countrys geographical area is drought prone and, on average, floods affect almost 7.5 million hectares of land area per year2. The National Water Mission - one of the key missions of the National Action Plan on Climate Change, aims at the conservation of water, minimizing wastage and ensuring its more equitable distribution both across and within states through integrated water resources development and management. Coordinated by the Ministry of Water Resources, the Mission receives an additional funding requirement of Rs 28, 651 crores (USD 6.14 billion), divided between the Centre and States. The mission has five goals: Comprehensive water database in public domain and assessment of impact of climate change on water resources - Collect comprehensive data on water resources, develop water resources information system by 2011, make information available in the public domain, assess the impacts of climate change on the countrys water resources by 2012. Scientific data collection includes additional hydrometeorological data, wetland inventory, reassessment of basinwise water situations, and finally, using this data to predict the impacts Promote citizen and state action for water conservation, augmentation and preservation includes expeditious implementation of irrigation projects, minor irrigation schemes, groundwater development, mapping flood-affected areas, capacity-building and awareness

Focused attention on over-exploited areas intensive rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharge programmes, pursuing enactment of groundwater regulation and management bill Increasing water use efficiency by 20 percent both on the demand side and the supply side, particularly in the agriculture and commercial sectors. Guidelines for incentivizing recycled water, water neutral and water-positive technologies, improving efficiency of urban water supply systems, benchmark studies for urban water use, water efficiency indices for urban areas, manuals for mandatory water audits in drinking water, irrigation and urban systems , promoting water-efficient techniques including sprinkler and drip irrigation systems Promote basin-level integrated water resources management basin-level management strategies, review of National Water Policy in order to ensure integrated water resources management, appropriate entitlement and appropriate pricing. Review of State Water Policy Mission goals including collecting and reviewing data for an integrated information system have been in the pipeline ever since the National Water Policy (NWP) was revised in 2002. Water being a State subject under the Indian Constitution, the NWP and the policies under the Water Mission will have to address policy and project implementation at the state level. The mission hopes to revisit the NWP in consultation with States, in order to ensure basin-level management strategies that can deal with changes in rainfall and river flows due to climate change. On June 30, 2008, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh released Indias first National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) outlining existing and future policies and programs addressing climate mitigation and adaptation. The plan identifies eight core national missions running through 2017 and directs ministries to submit detailed implementation plans to the Prime Ministers Council on Climate Change by December 2008.

Emphasizing the overriding priority of maintaining high economic growth rates to raise living standards, the plan identifies measures that promote our development objectives while also yielding cobenefits for addressing climate change effectively. It says these national measures would be more successful with assistance from developed countries, and pledges that Indias per capita greenhouse gas emissions will at no point exceed that of developed countries even as we pursue our development objectives. National Missions National Solar Mission: The NAPCC aims to promote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses with the ultimate objective of making solar competitive with fossil-based energy options. The plan includes: Specific goals for increasing use of solar thermal technologies in urban areas, industry, and commercial establishments; A goal of increasing production of photovoltaics to 1000 MW/year; and A goal of deploying at least 1000 MW of solar thermal power generation. Other objectives include the establishment of a solar research center, increased international collaboration on technology development, strengthening of domestic manufacturing capacity, and increased government funding and international support. National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency: Current initiatives are expected to yield savings of 10,000 MW by 2012. Building on the Energy Conservation Act 2001, the plan recommends: Mandating specific energy consumption decreases in large energyconsuming industries, with a system for companies to trade energysavings certificates; Energy incentives, including reduced taxes on energy-efficient appliances; and Financing for public-private partnerships to reduce energy consumption through demand-side management programs in the municipal, buildings and agricultural sectors.

National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: To promote energy efficiency as a core component of urban planning, the plan calls for: Extending the existing Energy Conservation Building Code; A greater emphasis on urban waste management and recycling, including power production from waste; Strengthening the enforcement of automotive fuel economy standards and using pricing measures to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles; and Incentives for the use of public transportation. National Water Mission: With water scarcity projected to worsen as a result of climate change, the plan sets a goal of a 20% improvement in water use efficiency through pricing and other measures. National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem: The plan aims to conserve biodiversity, forest cover, and other ecological values in the Himalayan region, where glaciers that are a major source of Indias water supply are projected to recede as a result of global warming. National Mission for a Green India: Goals include the afforestation of 6 million hectares of degraded forest lands and expanding forest cover from 23% to 33% of Indias territory. National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture: The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change: To gain a better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges, the plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modeling, and increased international collaboration. It also encourage private sector initiatives to develop adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds. Other Programs The NAPCC also describes other ongoing initiatives, including:

Power Generation: The government is mandating the retirement of inefficient coal-fired power plants and supporting the research and development of IGCC and supercritical technologies. Renewable Energy: Under the Electricity Act 2003 and the National Tariff Policy 2006, the central and the state electricity regulatory commissions must purchase a certain percentage of gridbased power from renewable sources. Energy Efficiency: Under the Energy Conservation Act 2001, large energy-consuming industries are required to undertake energy audits and an energy labeling program for appliances has been introduced. Implementation Ministries with lead responsibility for each of the missions are directed to develop objectives, implementation strategies, timelines, and monitoring and evaluation criteria, to be submitted to the Prime Ministers Council on Climate Change. The Council will also be responsible for periodically reviewing and reporting on each missions progress. To be able to quantify progress, appropriate indicators and methodologies will be developed to assess both avoided emissions and adaptation benefits. Two Indians -Nileema Mishra, a lender to the poor in Maharashtra and US-trained Indian engineer Harish Hande who revolutionized the use of solar lights were among six people to have received the Ramon Magsaysay Award for 2011. The two Indians were honoured for their effort to harness technologies to empower their countrymen and create waves of progressive change across Asia. Bangalore-based energy engineer and entrepreneur, Harish Hande runs a solar electricity firm that has lit up over 125000 households to emerge as India's leading solar technology firm. He is a graduate from IIT Kharagpur and a PhD from the University of Massachusetts in the US. During his graduation, he visited the Dominican Republic, a leader in energy initiatives in the Caribbean. The experience he gathered there and in Sri Lanka inspired him to put up smallscale, standalone solar installations. He established the

company SELCO India in Bangalore in 1995. His company provides affordable renewable energy services to poor villagers along with doorstep financing and services. Nileema Mishra was recognized for her purpose-driven zeal to work tirelessly with villagers in Maharashtra. She stove to address both aspirations and adversities of the villagers through collective action and heightened confidence. She founded the Bhagini Nivedita Gramin Vigyan Niketan in Maharashtra's Bahadarpur village which has a population of around 10000. Mishra's gramin vigyan niketan provides rotating interest- free loans to farmers. The principal objectives of fiscal policy in a developing economy are. To mobilize resources for economic growth, especially for the public sector. To promote economic growth in the private sector by providing incentives to save and invest. To restrain inflationary forces in the economic in order to ensure price stability. To ensure equitable distribution of income and wealth so that fruits of economic growth are fairly distributed. Provisions of FRBMA The 2004-05 budget is claimed to have adequate provisions to achieve fiscal correction mandated in the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act 2003 (FRBM) through enhancement of revenue and reduction of revenue expenditure. The main provisions of the FRBM Act in its original form were: Revenue deficit as a ratio of GDP should be brought down by 0.5 per cent every year and eliminated by 2007-08; The fiscal deficit as a ratio of GDP should be reduced by 0.3 per cent every year and brought down to 3 per cent by 2007-08; The total liabilities of the Union Government should not rise by more than 9 per cent a year;

The Union Government shall not give guarantee to loans raised by PSUs and State governments for more than 0.5 per cent of GDP in the aggregate; Further, the Union Government should place three documents along with the budget, namely, the Macroeconomic Framework Statement, the Medium Term Fiscal Policy Statement and the Fiscal Policy Strategy Statement. In addition, the Finance Minister will have to make a statement at the end of the second quarter on the trend of fiscal indicators and corrective measures if they deviate from the budget estimates beyond the extent stipulated in the FRBM. Revenue Deficit and Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act (FRBMA) Revenue deficit is the difference between the revenue expenditure and the revenue receipts (the recurring income for the government). When a country runs a revenue deficit it means that the government is unable to meet its running expenses from its recurring income. The FRBMA was notified on July 2, 2004 and came into force on July 5, 2004. This Act requires the reduction of fiscal deficit and elimination of revenue deficit by March 31, 2009. The idea seems to be that deficit, if any, should be used to finance capital expenditure that leads to asset formation and not on revenue expenditure, the benefits of which do not go beyond that particular year. For the year 2005-06, Finance Minister P Chidambaram has chosen to overlook the requirements of FRBMA. The fiscal deficit for the year has been budgeted at 4.5 per cent of the estimated GDP, this will be 0.1 per cent less than the required reduction. The revenue deficit target for the year 2005-06, if FRBMA requirements were followed, it had to be at 1.8 per cent of the GDP. But it has been budgeted at 2.7 per cent of the GDP. Given the strong growth experienced by the Indian economy better progress could have been made on this front. One reason for ignoring FRBMA for this year is the fact that the government has increased grants to the states in line with the recommendations of the Twelfth Finance Commission.

The government might miss its revenue deficit target of 2.7 per cent of the GDP in the coming year on account of a likely undershooting of tax revenue collections, as highly optimistic assumptions of tax revenue growth have been made. This would lead to the budgeted fiscal deficit also shooting up.