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Mc lc

Mng my tnh v mng Internet(Computer Networks and the Internet)

1. Internet l g? .. 2. Giao thc l g? .. 3. Bin mng .. 4. Li mng . Cc chng trnh tng tc vch ra cc l trnh trong mng Internet Java Applet: Chuyn mch thng bo v Chuyn mch gi 5. Cc mng truy nhp v Phng tin vt l . 6. Tr v Mt trong cc mng chuyn mch gi . 7. Cc tng giao thc v cc kiu dch v ca chng . 8. Xng sng ca mng Internet, NAPs v ISPs .. 9. S lc lch s ca Mng my tnh v Mng Internet 10.ATM . 11.Tm tt . 12.Bi tp v nh v cc cu hi tho lun ...

2 10 14 19

43 55 63 74 79 90 94 96

1.1 Internet l g?
Trong cun sch ny chng ta s dng Internet cng cng, mt mng my tnh c trng(v c l l ci m hu ht ngi c u tng s dng), nh mt phng tin c bn tho lun v cc giao thc mng my tnh.Nhng Internet l g? Chng ti mun a cho cc bn mt nh ngha v Internet,mt nh ngha m bn c th gi ly hoc chia s vi gia nh hoc bn b. Mng Internet l rt phc tp, bao gm c cc thnh phn phn cng, phn mm cng nh cc dch v m n cung cp.

M t c bn.
Thay v a ra mt nh ngha c th,chng ta hy th mt phng php tip cn din t hn.C hai cch lm iu .Cch th nht l m t cc chi tit c bn ca Internet, l, cc thnh phn phn cng v phn mm c s to nn mng Internet. Cch khc l miu t Internet theo quan im mt h tng mng cung cp dch v cho cc ng dng phn tn.Chng ta s bt u vi vic m t c bn, s dng Hnh 1.1-1 minh ha cho tho lun ca chng ta.

Hnh 1.1-1: Mt s mnh ca mng Internet Internet cng cng l mt mng my tnh c phm vi trn ton th gii, tc l mt mng kt ni hng triu cc thit b tnh ton khp ni trn th gii. Hu ht cc thit b tnh ton l cc my bn truyn thng, cc my trm Unix c s, hay cn c gi l my ch ci m lu tr v truyn dn thng tin v d nh cc trang Web v cc th in t. Cng ngy, cc thit b tnh ton phi truyn thng nh Web TVs,my tnh di ng, my nhn tin v cc toaster cng c kt ni vi Internet.(Cc toaster khng phi ch l cc thit b khc thng c kt ni vo mng Internet; xem trong The Future of the Living Room) Trong lnh vc Internet,tt c nhng thit b ny c gi l cc host hoc cc end system (h thng u cui).Cc ng dng Internet m nhiu ngi trong s chng ta quen thuc, chng hn nh WWW v e-mail, l nhng chng trnh ng dng mng chy trn cc h thng u cui nh vy.Chng ta s nhn vo cc h thng u cui Internet mt cch chi tit hn trong phn 1.3 v sau i su vo nghin cu cc ng dng mng trong Chng 2. Cc h thng u cui, cng nh cc mnh khc ca Internet,chy cc giao thc ci m iu khin vic gi v nhn thng tin trong mng Internet.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)v IP (Internet Protocol) l hai trong s cc giao thc quan trng nht ca mng Internet. Cc giao thc c bn ca Internet c gi chung l cc giao thc TCP/IP. Chng ta s tm hiu k hn v giao thc phn 1.2. Tuy nhin mi ch l 1 khi u- c rt nhiu ch trong ton b cun sch ny lin quan n cc giao thc mng my tnh! Cc h thng u cui c kt ni vi nhau bi cc lin kt truyn thng. Chng ta s thy trong phn 1.5 rng c rt nhiu loi lin kt truyn thng. Cc lin kt c to thnh t cc loi phng tin vt l khc nhau: cp ng trc, cp ng, cp quang v sng radio. Cc lin kt khc nhau c th truyn d liu vi tc khc nhau. Tc truyn dn ca lin kt thng c gi l bng thng lin kt, v thng c o bng bit/giy. Thng thng,cc h thng u cui khng trc tip kt ni vi nhau qua mt lin kt truyn thng duy nht.Thay vo , chng c kt ni gin tip vi nhau thng qua cc thit b chuyn i trung gian c bit n nh l cc router(b nh tuyn). Mt router s nhn thng tin c gi ti t mt trong s cc lin kt truyn thng i ti n v sau chuyn tip thng tin ny ln mt trong s cc lin kt truyn thng i ra khi n. Giao thc IP s xc nh nh dng thng tin c gi v nhn gia cc router v cc h thng u cui. ng dn m truyn thng tin nhn c t h thng u cui gi, qua mt lot cc lin kt truyn thng v router, n h thng u cui nhn c bit n nh l mt route (l trnh) hoc path (ng dn) qua mng. Chng ta s tm hiu chi tit hn v nh tuyn trong phn 1.4.v nghin cu cc thut ton c s dng xc nh cc tuyn ng cng nh cu trc ni b ca bn thn mt router trong Chng 4. Thay v cung cp mt ng dn dnh ring gia cc h thng u cui ang giao tip vi nhau, Internet s dng mt k thut c gi l chuyn mch gi, n cho php nhiu h thng u cui ang giao tip vi nhau chia s mt ng dn, hoc cc phn ca mt ng dn, cng mt lc. Chng ta s thy rng chuyn mch gi thng s dng mt lin kt "hiu qu" hn nhiu so vi chuyn mch vng ( mi mt cp h thng u cui giao tip vi nhau s c gi mt ng dn dnh ring). Hnh thc ban u ca Internet l cc mng chuyn mch gi u tin; Internet cng cng ngy nay l b ln ca tt c cc mng chuyn mch gi ang tn ti.

Internet thc s l mt mng ca cc mng. Tc l, Internet l mt tp ca cc mng c s hu v qun l t nhn hoc cng cng hp li vi nhau. Bt k mt mng no kt ni vi Internet u phi chy giao thc IP v phi tun theo cc quy c t tn v nh a ch bit. V cn khng t nhng rng buc khc na, tuy nhin , mt ngi iu hnh mng c th thit lp cu hnh v chy mng mc cho n chn ci g (tc l, bn thn n l mt mnh nh ca Internet). V s dng mt cch ph bin giao thc IP trong mng Internet, nn giao thc IP i khi cn c bit n nh l Internet dail tone. Cu trc lin kt ca mng Internet, tc l, cu trc ca lin kt gia cc mnh khc nhau ca mng Internet, l phn cp lng lo. Ni mt cch khi qut, t thp n cao, h phn cp bao gm cc h thng u cui kt ni n cc nh cung cp dch v Internet a phng (ISPs) thng qua cc mng truy cp. Mt mng truy cp c th l mt ci gi l mng cc b trong mt cng ty hoc trng i hc, mt ng in thoi quay s vi mt modem, hoc mt mng truy nhp cp hoc in thoi c s tc cao. ISPs a phng ln lt kt ni ti cc ISP khu vc, ci m ln lt kt ni ti cc ISP trong nc v quc t. Cc ISP trong nc v quc t c kt ni vi nhau ti tng cao nht trong h thng phn cp. Cc tng v cc nhnh mi (tc l, cc mng mi, v cc mng mi ca cc mng) c th c thm vo nh l mt mnh Lego mi c th c gn vo mt cu trc Lego ang tn ti. Trong na u ca nm 1996, c khong 40.000 a ch mng mi c thm vo Internet [Network 1996] mt tc tng trng ng kinh ngc. mc k thut v pht trin, Internet c thc hin thng qua cc sng to, th nghim v thc hin cc chun Internet. Nhng chun ny c pht trin bi Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Cc ti liu chun IETF c gi l cc RFC ( ngh duyt tho v bnh lun). Cc RFC khi u nh l nhu cu chung cho cc tho lun (ging nh tn gi) gii quyt cc vn kin trc ci m hng v cc tin thn ca Internet. Cc RFC, mc d l cc chun khng chnh thc, tin ha n chng c trch dn nh cc chun chnh thc. RFC c xu hng kh l k thut v chi tit. Chng nh ngha cc giao thc nh TCP, IP, HTTP (cho Web) v

SMTP (i vi cc chun m th in t). Hin c hn 2.000 RFC khc nhau. Internet cng cng (tc l mng li ton cu ca cc mng c tho lun trn) l mng m mt in hnh ca n c bit n nh l Internet. Ngoi ra cn c rt nhiu mng li t nhn, chng hn nh cc mng no ca cng ty v chnh ph, nhng host ca cc mng ny khng c truy cp t cc host bn ngoi mng t nhn (tc l, chng khng th trao i thng ip vi nhau). Nhng mng li t nhn thng c bit n nh l cc mng intranet (mng cc b), v chng thng s dng cng mt "cng ngh internet" nh Internet cng cng (tc l, cc host, cc router, lin kt, giao thc, v cc chun cng loi).

M t dch v
Tho lun trn nh ngha rt nhiu mnh to nn Internet. By gi chng ta s b qua phn m t c bn v i n mt ci nhn hng dch v tru tng hn: Internet cho php cc ng dng phn tn chy trn cc h thng u cui ca n trao i d liu vi nhau. Cc ng dng ny bao gm ng nhp t xa, truyn file, th in t, to lung m thanh v video, hi ngh m thanh v video thi gian thc, cc tr chi phn tn, World Wide Web, v.v [AT & T 1998]. iu c gi tr nhn mnh rng Web khng phi l mt mng ring bit m ch l mt trong nhiu ng dng phn tn s dng dch v truyn thng c cung cp bi Internet. Web cng c th chy trn mt mng ngoi mng Internet. Mt l do m Internet l phng tin truyn thng c la chn cho Web, d nh th no, l bi v khng tn ti mt mng chuyn mch gi no khc kt ni nhiu hn 43 triu my tnh vi nhau [Network 1999]v c 100 triu ngi s dng hoc nhiu hn [Almanac]. (Nhn y, vic xc nh s lng my tnh ni vi Internet l mt nhim v rt kh khn, v vy khng c ai chu trch nhim duy tr mt danh sch ca nhng ngi kt ni. Khi mt mng mi c thm vo Internet, cc qun tr vin ca n khng cn phi bo co nhng h thng u cui c kt ni vi mng . Tng t nh vy, mt mng ang tn ti khng cn bo co nhng thay i ca n v cc h thng u cui c kt ni vi bt k chnh quyn trung ng no.)

Internet cung cp 2 dch v cho cc ng dng phn tn ca n l: dch v hng kt ni (connection-oriented service)v dch v phi kt ni (connectionless service). Ni mt cch khng r rng, dch v hng kt ni m bo rng d liu c truyn t mt ngi gi n mt ngi nhn cui cng s c chuyn ti ngi nhn theo th t v ton vn. Dch v phi kt ni khng a ra bt k mt m bo no v vic phn phi cui cng. Thng thng, vic thc hin mt ng dng phn tn s s dng mt trong 2 dch v m khng phi l c hai. Chng ta s xem xt hai dch v khc nhau ny trong phn 1.3 v chi tit hn trong Chng 3. Hin ti, Internet khng cung cp mt dch v m a ra li ha v vic n s cn bao lu chuyn giao d liu t ngi gi n ngi nhn. V ngoi tr vic tng tc bit truy cp ca bn n nh cung cp dch v Internet (ISP), th hin ti bn khng th c c dch v tt hn (tc l c c tr nh hn) bng cch tr nhiu hn - mt trng thi cng vic m mt s ngi (c bit l ngi M!) gp phi. Chng ta s cng xem mt nghin cu Internet tin tin ci m nhm mc ch thay i tnh trng ny trong Chng 6. M t th hai ca chng ta v Internet- theo quan im cc dch v m n cung cp cho cc ng dng phn tn m t ny l phi truyn thng, nhng l mt trong nhng ci quan trng. Cng ngy, nhng tin b trong cc thnh phn c bnca Internet ngy cng c thc y bi nhu cu ca cc ng dng mi. V vy, iu quan trng cn ghi nh rng Internet l mt c s h tng trong cc ng dng mi lin tc c pht minh ra v c trin khai. Chng ta c c 2 m t v mng Internet, mt theo quan im ca cc thnh phn phn cng v phn mm ci m to nn Internet, ci cn li theo quan im ca cc dch v m n cung cp cho cc ng dng phn tn. Nhng c l bn thm ch cn lng tng hn v Internet l ci g? Chuyn mch gi, TCP/IP v dch v hng kt ni l g? Router l g ? Nhng loi lin kt truyn thng no ang c mt trn mng Internet? Mt ng dng phn tn l g? Internet lm g vi chi tr em (Lego)? Nu by gi bn cm thy mt cht chong ngp bi tt c nhng iu ny, th cng ng lo lng - mc ch ca cun sch ny l gii thiu cho bn k c nhng ci cn bn ca Internet, cng nh cc nguyn l chi phi vic

Internet hot ng nh th no v v sao. Chng ta s gii thch cc thut ng v cc cu hi quan trng ny trong cc phn v cc chng tip theo.

Mt s siu lin kt tt
Tt c cc nh nghin cu Internet u bit, mt s thng tin tt nht v chnh xc nht v Internet v cc giao thc ca n khng c trong nhng quyn sch in, bo, hoc tp ch. Hiu bit cao nht v Internet l ngay trong bn thn Internet! Tt nhin, thc s l c rt nhiu ti liu xem xt qua, v i khi cc thng tin qu l tht thng (khi c khi khng). Di y, chng ta s lit k mt vi trang Web ni chung l xut sc v mng v cc thnh phn lin quan n mng Internet. Trong sut cun sch, chng ta cng s trnh by cc lin kt c lin quan, cc URL cht lng cao ci m cung cp khi qut, nguyn thy (ngha l mt trch dn), hoc ti liu tin tin lin quan n ch c th c nghin cu. y l mt tp cc lin kt chnh m bn s mun tham kho trong khi bn theo ui trong sut cun sch ny: Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF): IETF l cng ng quc t m c lin quan ti s pht trin v hot ng ca Internet v kin trc ca n. IETF chnh thc c thit lp bi Internet Architecture Board (IAB) nm 1986. IETF hp ba ln mt nm; nhiu cng vic lin tc ca n c thc hin thng qua danh sch gi th bi cc nhm lm vic. Thng thng, da trn cc bo co IETF trc, cc nhm lm vic s triu tp cc cuc hp ca IETF tho lun v cng vic ca cc nhm lm vic IETF. IETF c qun l bi Hip hi Internet, trang web c nhn ca n c cha rt nhiu ti liu cht lng cao, lin quan n Internet. The World Wide Web Consortium(W3C): W3C c thnh lp nm 1994 pht trin cc giao thc chung cho s tin trin ca World Wide Web. N l mt ch ni bt vi cc thng tin hp dn v cc cng ngh, cc giao thc v cc chun Web ang ni ln. The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) v Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): y l hai t chc chuyn nghip quc t chnh c cc hi ngh k thut, cc tp ch, v cc bo trong lnh vc mng. ACM Special Interest Group in Data Communications (SIGCOMM), IEEE Communications

Society, v IEEE Computer Society l cc nhm trong cc c quan ny c nhng n lc lin quan cht ch n mng. Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia: Mt c gng gi Internet truyn thng m, cc chi tit k thut giao thc t do, kt hp n vi mt biu din Web nm 1990, v to ra mt ti liu tham kho c th c c v hu ch cho cc hot ng k thut ca mng Internet. Trang web c cha cc ti liu qua 100 ch v Internet. Data communications tutorials : t tp ch trc tuyn Data Communication: mt trong nhng tp ch tt nht v cng ngh truyn thng d liu. Trang ch bao gm rt nhiu hng dn xut sc. Media History Project:Bn c th t hi Internet bt u nh th no. Hoc bn c th t hi in t vin thng bt u ni u tin nh th no. V thm ch bn c th thc mc trc in t vin thng l g! May mn thay, trang Web ny cha mt ngun ti nguyn phong ph tuyt vi c sn v cc i tng ny. Trang web ny thc y vic nghin cu lch s phng tin truyn thng t petroglyths n pixels. N bao gm lch s ca phng tin truyn thng k thut s, phng tin truyn thng i chng, phng tin truyn thng in t, phng tin truyn thng in n, v thm ch c vn ha ni v vit.

Tham kho
[Almanac 1998] Computer Industry Almanac, December 1998, http://www.c-ia.com/ [AT&T 1998] "Killer Apps," AT&T WWW page http://www.att.com/attlabs/brainspin/networks/killerapps.html [Network 1996] Network Wizards, Internet Domain Survey, July 1996, http://www.nw.com/zone/WWW-9607/report.html [Network 1999] Network Wizards, Internet Domain Survey, January 1999, http://www.nw.com/zone/WWW/top.html

1.2.Giao thc l g?
Chng ta c mt cht cm nhn v "Internet" l g, by gi hy cng xem xt mt vn quan trng khng km ng thi cng l tiu ca cun sch: "giao thc". Giao thc l g? Giao thc lm nhng g? V lm th no ta nhn bit c mt giao thc nu ta gp mt trong s chng?

Tng t nh con ngi


S d dng nht hiu c khi nim v mt giao thc mng my tnh bng cch u tin xem xt mt s tng ng trong x hi loi ngi, bi v loi ngi chng ta thc hin cc giao thc mi lc. Hy xem xt nhng g bn lm khi bn mun hi ai gi trong ngy. Mt trao i in hnh c ch ra trong Hnh 1.21. Giao thc ca con ngi (hoc cch c x tt, t nht) quy nh rng mt trong nhng ci u tin a ra l mt li cho ("Hi" u tin trong hnh 1.2-1) bt u giao tip vi ngi khc. Nhng phn ng tiu biu cho mt thng ip Hi (t nht l bn ngoi thnh ph New York) l mt thng ip Hi tr li. Ngm hiu l, sau khi nhn c mt phn hi Hi mt cch thn mt th l du hiu cho thy ngi u tin c th bt u trc v hi gi trong ngy. Mt phn ng khc nhau cho ci "Hi" ban u (chng hn nh "ng lm phin ti!", hoc "Ti khng ni c ting Anh," hoc mt cu tr li khim nh m ngi ta c th nhn c thnh ph New York) c th ch ra mt ci khng mun hoc khng

c kh nng giao tip. Trong trng hp ny, giao thc ca con ngi s khng hi gi trong ngy. i khi ngi th nht khng nhn c phn hi tt c cc cu hi, trong trng hp ny ngi th nht in hnh s a ra mt ln na cu hi v thi gian. Lu rng trong giao thc con ngi ca chng ta, c nhng thng ip c th chng ta gi i, v cc hnh ng c th chng ta thu c trong phn hi nhn c t cc thng ip tr li hoc cc s kin khc (chng hn nh khng tr li trong mt khong thi gian nht nh). R rng, vic truyn v nhn cc thng ip, v hnh ng nhn c khi cc thng ip c gi hoc c nhn hoc cc s kin khc xy ra, ng vai tr trung tm trong mt giao thc ca con ngi. Nu con ngi chy cc giao thc khc nhau (v d nu mt ngi c nhng cch c x v ngi kia khng lm nh vy hoc mt ngi hiu v khi nim v thi gian cn ngi kia th li khng hiu) th nhng giao thc ny khng th kt hp v khng th hon thnh cng vic. iu ny cng ng trong mng n i hi hai (hoc nhiu) thc th giao tip vi nhau chy chung mt giao thc thc hin mt nhim v. Hy xem xt tnh hung th hai. Gi s bn ang trong mt lp i hc (v d nh lp hc v mng my tnh chng hn). Gio vin ang ging v cc giao thc v bn m h v n. Gio vin dng ging hi rng "C cu hi no ko ?" ( mt thng ip c truyn i, v c nhn bi tt c nhng sinh vin nhng ngi m khng ng gt). Bn gi tay ( truyn mt thng ip ngm n gio vin). Gio vin ca bn chp nhn bng mt n ci, v ni "Mi em"(mt thng ip c truyn c v bn a ra cu hi ca mnh- gio vin thch vic t cc cu hi) v sau bn a ra cu hi ca mnh (tc l, truyn thng ip ca bn n thy gio). Thy gio lng nghe cu hi ca bn (nhn thng ip cu hi ca bn) v tr li (truyn cu tr li n bn). Mt ln na, chng ta thy rng vic truyn v nhn cc thng ip, v mt tp nhng hnh ng theo quy c c dng khi nhng thng ip c gi v c nhn, l trung tm ca giao thc hi v tr li ny.

Cc giao thc mng


Mt giao thc mng l tng t vi giao thc ca con ngi, tr nhng thc th trao i thng ip v cc hnh ng nhn c l cc thnh phn phn cng hoc phn mm ca mt mng my tnh, nhng thnh phn y s c chng ta nghin cu ngn gn trong nhng phn sau. Tt c nhng hot ng trong Internet c lin quan ti hai hoc nhiu thc th t xa giao tip vi nhau b qun l bi mt giao thc. Cc giao thc trong cc router xc nh r mt phn ca gi tin t ngun n ch; cc giao thc phn cng c thc hin trong cc card giao din mng (network interface) ca hai my tnh kt ni vt l vi nhau s kim sot lung bit

qua dy kt ni gia hai my tnh; mt giao thc kim sot tc nghn s kim sot tc cc gi tin c truyn gia ngi gi v ngi nhn. Cc giao thc chy mi ni trn mng Internet v do vy mc ch ca cun sch ny l v cc giao thc mng my tnh

Hnh 1.2-1: Mt giao thc ca con ngi v mt giao thc mng my tnh Mt v d v giao thc mng my tnh m bn rt quen thuc, ta hy xem xt iu g s xy ra khi ta to ra mt yu cu n mt my ch Web, tc l, khi bn g vo URL ca mt trang Web no vo trnh duyt web ca bn. Kch bn ny c m t na bn phi ca Hnh 1.2-1. Trc tin, my tnh ca bn s gi mt thng ip gi l "yu cu kt ni" n my ch Web v ch cu tr li. My ch Web cui cng s nhn c thng ip yu cu kt ni ca bn v p tr li mt thng ip "tr li kt ni". Nh vy l thnh cng yu cu cc vn bn Web, my tnh ca bn sau s gi tn ca trang Web m bn mun ly t my ch Web trong mt thng ip "ly". Cui cng, my ch Web gi tr v nhng phn ca ca vn bn Web n my tnh ca bn. Vic a ra cc v d v con ngi v mng trn, cho thy vic trao i cc thng ip v cc hot ng nhn c khi cc thng ip c gi v c nhn l nhng yu t then cht ca mt giao thc: Mt giao thc xc nh nh dng v th t ca nhng thng ip trao i gia hai hoc nhiu thc th giao tip, cng nh l cc hnh ng c thc hin khi truyn v/hoc nhn cc thng ip.

Mng Internet v cc mng my tnh ni chung, lm cho vic s dng cc giao thc tr ln rng ri hn. Nhng giao thc khc nhau c s dng thc hin nhng cng vic giao tip khc nhau. Khi bn c ht quyn sch ny, bn s hc c mt vi giao thc n gin v d hiu, trong khi nhng ci khc th li rt phc tp v i hi kin thc chuyn su. Thnh tho trong lnh vc mng my tnh tng ng vi vic hiu c cc giao thc mng l g, ti sao v nh th no? (Tr li cho cc cu hi What, Why v How)

1.3 Bin ca mng (network edge)


Trong phn trc chng ta m t mc khi qut v internet v cc giao thc mng. By gi ta s i su hn vo cc thnh phn ca Internet. Chng ta bt u t phn bin ca mng (network edge) v xem xt ti cc thnh phn m ta quen thuc nht - cc my tnh (tc l, cc PC v cc my trm (workstation)) nhng ci m chng ta s dng hng ngy. Trong phn tip theo chng ta s chuyn t phn bin ca mng sang phn li v xem xt chi tit vic chuyn mch v nh tuyn trong cc mng my tnh. Sau Phn 1.5 chng ta s tho lun v cc ng lin kt vt l thc ci m cha cc tn hiu c gi i gia cc my tnh v cc b chuyn mch (switch).

1.3.1 Cc h thng u cui, cc my khch (client) v cc my ch (Server)


Trong ngn ng chuyn ngnh mng my tnh, cc my tnh m chng ta s dng hng ngy c xem nh l cc host (my ch) hoc cc end system (h thng u cui). Chng c coi nh l cc host bi v chng chy cc chng trnh mc ng dng nh trnh duyt web hoc cc chng trnh my ch , hoc mt chng trnh th in t. Chng cng c ni n nh cc h thng u cui bi v chng nm vng bin ca Internet, nh ch ra trong Hnh 1.3-1. Xuyn sut cun sch ny, chng ta s s dng cc thut ng host v end system hon i,thay th ln nhau, tc l, host = end system. Cc host i khi c chia nh hn thnh hai loi : client v server (my khch v my ch). Mt cch khng chnh thc th client thng hng ti cc my tnh PC bn hoc cc my trm (workstation), trong khi server l cc my mnh m hn. Nhng c mt ngha chnh xc hn v client v server trong mng my tnh. Trong ci c gi l m hnh client-server, mt chng trnh client chy trn mt h thng u cui s yu cu v nhn thng tin t mt server chy trn mt h thng u cui khc. M hnh client-server ny thc s l mt cu trc ph bin cho cc ng dng Internet. Chng ta s nghin cu v m hnh client-server ny chi tit hn trong Chng 2. Cc ng dng nh Web, e-mail, truyn file, ng nhp t xa (v d nh, Telnet), nhm thng tin (newgroups) v mt s ng dng thng dng

khc u s dng m hnh client-server. V mt client thng chy trn mt my tnh v server chy mt my tnh khc nn cc ng dng client-server, theo nh ngha, l cc ng dng phn tn. Client v server tng tc vi nhau bng vic giao tip (tc l, gi cho nhau cc thng ip) qua Internet. mc tru tng ny, cc router, cc lin kt v cc mnh khc ca Internet phc v nh mt hp en (black box) ci m truyn cc thng ip gia cc thnh phn phn tn, giao tip ca mt ng dng Internet. y l mc tru tng c m t trong Hnh 1.3-1

Hnh 1.3-1: S tng tc gia cc h thng u cui Cc my tnh (v d nh, mt PC hoc mt my trm), hot ng nh cc client v server, l cc loi h thng u cui ph bin nht. Tuy nhin, s tng ln v s lng ca cc thit b thay th, v d nh ci gi l cc my tnh mng v cc thin

client ( c ngha l "my tnh ca ngi dng c cu hnh ti thiu") [Thinworld 1998] , Web TV v tp cc top boxes (mt thit b gii m tn hiu truyn hnh v sau chuyn d liu hnh nh v m thanh ln mn hnh TV) [Mills 1998], cc my camera k thut s v cc thit b khc ang c gn vi Internet nh cc h thng u cui. Mt ch th v v qu trnh pht trin, tin ha tip theo ca cc ng dng Internet l [AT&T 1998]

1.3.2 Cc dch v phi kt ni v hng kt ni


Chng ta thy rng cc h thng u cui trao i cc thng ip vi nhau theo cc giao thc mc ng dng nhm mc ch hon thnh cc cng vic no . Cc lin kt, router v cc chi tit khc ca Internet cung cp phng tin vn chuyn cc thng ip ny gia cc ng dng ca cc h thng u cui. Nhng nhng c trng no ca dch v giao tip ny c cung cp? Internet, v ni khi qut hn l cc mng TCP/IP cung cp hai kiu dch v cho cc ng dng ca n : dch v phi kt ni (connectionless service) v dch v hng kt ni (connection-oriented service). Mt nh pht trin to ra mt ng dng Internet (v d nh, mt ng dng mail, mt ng dng truyn file, mt ng dng Web hoc mt ng dng phone qua Internet) phi lp trnh cho ng dng s dng mt trong hai dch v ny. y, ta ch m t ngn gn hai dch v ny; chng ta s xem xt chng mt cch k lng hn trong Chng 3, chng ni v cc giao thc tng vn ti.

Dch v hng kt ni
Khi mt ng dng s dng mt dch v hng kt ni, my client v server (t ti cc h thng u cui khc nhau) gi cc gi (cha thng tin) iu khin ti nhau trc khi gi cc gi cha d liu thc (v d nh cc thng ip th in t). Qu trnh ny c gi l th tc bt tay (handshaking procedure) , n s cnh bo cho c client v server , to iu kin chng chun b cho mt cuc tn cng ca cc gi tin ( ni c 2 bn s tip nhn cc gi tin c truyn ). C mt iu lu th v rng th tc bt tay khi u ny tng t nh cch thc m con ngi s dng tng tc vi nhau. S trao i qua li ca t Hi chng ta thy Hnh 1.2-1 l mt v d ca giao thc bt tay ca con ngi (mc d vic bt tay khng din ra theo ngha en gia hai ngi ). Hai thng ip TCP - c trao i nh mt phn ca tng tc WWW c ch ra trn Hnh 1.21 l hai trong ba thng ip c trao i khi TCP thit lp mt kt ni gia bn gi v bn nhn.Thng ip TCP th ba (khng c ch ra trn hnh) , ci m hnh thnh nn khu (phn) cui cng ca nghi thc ba ln bt tay ca TCP (xem Phn 3.7) , c nm trong thng ip get ch ra trong Hnh 1.2-1.

Mt khi th tc bt tay kt thc,th mt kt ni c ni l c thit lp gia hai h thng u cui. Nhng hai h thng u cui ny c kt ni vi nhau trong theo mt cch thc lng l t xut hin thut ng connection oriented( hng kt ni) . c bit rng, ch c cc h thng u cui l nhn thc c kt ni ny; cc b chuyn mch gi (tc l, cc router) trong mng Internet l hon ton m tt v kt ni ny. Bi v mt kt ni TCP th khng hn g cc ti nguyn xc nh v cc bin trng thi trong cc h thng u cui. Cc b chuyn mch gi khng bo lu li bt c thng tin trng thi kt ni no. Dch v hng kt ni ca Internet xut hin km theo mt vi dch v khc , bao gm truyn d liu tin cy (reliable data transfer), iu khin lung (flow control) v iu khin tc nghn (congestion control ). i vi truyn d liu tin cy, chng ta mun ni ti vic mt ng dng c th tin tng vo mt kt ni vn chuyn tt c d liu ca n m khng gp bt c li no v theo mt th t ng n. Tnh tin cy trn mng Internet t c thng qua vic s dng cc xc nhn v truyn li (acknowledgments (ACK) and retransmission). nm c hiu bit s b v vic Internet trin khai dch v truyn tin cy nh th no, hy xem xt mt ng dng m n thit lp mt kt ni gia h thng A vi h thng B. Khi h thng B nhn mt gi tin t A, n s gi thng tin xc nhn; khi h thng A nhn c thng tin xc nhn, n bit rng gi tin tng ng dt khot l c nhn. Khi h thng A khng nhn c mt thng tin xc nhn no th n cho rng gi tin n gi khng c B nhn, v do n truyn li gi tin ny. iu khin lung th m bo rng khng c bt k mt pha no ca mt kt ni lm trn pha cn li bng vic gi qu nhiu gi tin v gi qu nhanh. Thc vy, ng dng mt pha ca kt ni s khng th x l thng tin nhanh nh khi n nhn thng tin . Do , s tn ti mt nguy c qu ti c hai pha ca mt ng dng. Dch v iu khin lung bt buc bn gi phi gim tc gi bt c khi no c mt nguy c. Ta s thy Chng 3 , Internet trin khai dch v iu khin lung bng vic s dng cc b m gi v nhn (sender and receiver buffers) trong cc h thng u cui giao tip vi nhau. Dch v kim sot tc ngn ca mng Internet gip ngn nga vic Internet ri vo trng thi kha mng li (grid lock). Khi mt router b nghn , cc b m ca n c th trn v vic mt cc gi tin c th xy ra. Trong cc trng hp ny, nu mi cp ca h thng lin lc u cui tip tc bm cc gi tin vo mng nhanh nh chng c th, tnh trng n tc s xy ra v ch c mt vi gi tin l c chuyn ti ch. Internet ngn nga iu ny bng vic bt buc cc h thng lin lc u cui gim bt tc truyn cc gi tin vo mng trong khong thi gian xy ra tc nghn. Cc h thng u cui c cnh bo v s tn ti ca tc nghn khi chng dng vic nhn cc tin xc nhn cho cc gi tin chng gi .

y, ta nhn mnh rng mc d cc dch v hng kt ni ca Internet i km vi truyn d liu tin cy , iu khin lung v kim sot tc nghn, ba c trng ny khng phi l cc thnh phn bn cht ca dch v hng kt ni. Mt loi mng my tnh khc c th s cung cp dch v hng kt ni cho cc ng dng ca n m khng km thm mt hoc vi th trong ba th trn. Qu thc, bt c giao thc no thc hin nghi thc bt tay gia cc thc th lin lc trc khi truyn d liu th u l dch v hng kt ni.[Iren] Dch v hng kt ni ca Internet c mt tn gi TCP( Transmission Control Protocol - Giao thc iu khin truyn ti); phin bn ban u ca giao thc TCP c nh ngha trong Internet Request for Comments RFC 793 [RFC 793]. Cc dch v m TCP cung cp cho mt ng dng bao gm vn chuyn tin cy, iu khin lung v kim sot tc nghn. Lu rng mt ng dng ch cn quan tm ti dch v m n c cung cp , n khng cn bn tm n vic TCP thc s trin khai, thit lp tnh ()tin cy, iu khin lu lng hoc kim sot tc nghn mng nh th no. Chc chn ta rt hng th vi vic TCP thc thi cc dch v ny nh th no v chng ta s xem xt c th trong chng 3.

Dch v khng kt ni
Khng c nghi thc bt tay (handshaking) trong dch v phi kt ni ca Internet. Khi mt pha ca mt ng dng mun gi gi tin cho mt pha khc ca mt ng dng , ng dng gi ch n gin gi gi tin. V khng c th tc bt tay trc khi truyn cc gi tin , d liu c th c vn chuyn nhanh hn. Nhng s khng c tn hiu xc nhn , do ngun gi s khng bao gi bit chc chn c gi tin no n c ch. Hn th na, dch v ny khng cung cp km theo iu khin lu lng hoc kim sot nghn mng Dch v phi kt ni ca Internet c cung cp bi UDP (User Datagram Protocol); UDP c nh ngha trong Internet Request for Comments RFC 768 [RFC 768]. Phn ln cc ng dng Internet quen thuc u s dng TCP, dch v hng kt ni ca Internet. Cc ng dng ny bao gm Telnet (ng nhp t xa), SMTP (cho th in t), FTP (cho truyn file), v HTTP (cho web). Tuy nhin, UDP - dch v phi kt ni ca Internet c s dng bi mt s ng dng , bao gm mt s ng dng a phng tin mi m, v d in thoi Internet, pht thanh (m nhc) theo yu cu, truyn hnh hi ngh.

Tham kho

[AT&T 1998] "Killer Apps," AT&T WWW page http://www.att.com/attlabs/brainspin/networks/killerapps.html [Iren] S.Iren, P.Amer, P.Conrad, "The Transport Layer: Tutorial and Survey," ACM Computing Surveys, June 1999 [Thinworld 1998] Thinworld homepage, http://www.thinworld.com/ [Mills 1998] S. Mills, "TV set-tops set to take off ", CNET News.com, Oct. 1998 [RFC 768] J. Postel, " Datagram Protocol," RFC 768, Aug. 1980. [RFC 793] J. Postel, "Transmission Control Protocol," RFC 793, September 1981.

1.4 Li ca mng
Chng ta nghin cu cc h thng u cui v m hnh dch v truyn ti gia cc u cui ca Internet trong phn 1.3, by gi chng ta s nghin cu su hn vo "bn trong" ca mng. Trong phn ny chng ta s nghin cu v li ca mng mt mng li ca router nhng ci m kt ni cc h thng u cui ca Internet. Hnh 1.4-1 lm ni bt li ca mng bng mu .

Hnh 1.4-1: Li ca mng

1.4.1 Chuyn mch knh, chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch thng bo


C hai phng php c bn nhm xy dng mt mng li: chuyn mch knh (circuit switching) v chuyn mch gi (packet switching). Trong cc mng chuyn mch knh, cc ti nguyn cn thit dc theo ng dn (vng m, bng thng lin kt) cung cp cho truyn thng gia cc h thng u cui c dnh ring trong thi gian ca phin lm vic. Trong cc mng chuyn mch gi, cc ti nguyn ny khng c dnh ring; mt thng ip ca phin lm vic s dng ti nguyn theo yu cu, v h qu l, c th phi ch (tc l, xp hng) truy cp vo mt lin kt truyn thng. Nh mt php suy din n gin, hy xem xt hai nh hng - mt ci th i hi phi t ch trc cn ci cn li th khng

i hi phi t ch trc v cng khng chp nhn t ch trc. i vi nh hng m yu cu t ch trc, u tin chng ta phi thng qua cuc gi kh phc tp (hoc gi mt e-mail) trc khi chng ta ri khi nh. Nhng khi chng ta n nh hng chng ta c th, v nguyn tc, ngay lp tc giao tip vi ngi bi bn v gi ba n ca chng ta. i vi cc nh hng m khng yu cu t ch trc, chng ta khng cn phi bn tm n vic d tr mt bn. Nhng khi chng ta n nh hng , chng ta c th phi ch c c mt bn trc khi chng ta c th giao tip vi nhn vin nh hng. Cc telephone network khp ni l nhng v d ca cc mng chuyn mch knh. Hy xem xt nhng g xy ra khi mt ngi mun gi thng tin (thoi hoc fax) n mt ngi khc qua mt mng in thoi. Trc khi ngi gi c th gi thng tin, u tin mng phi thit lp mt kt ni gia ngi gi v ngi nhn. Ngc li vi cc kt ni TCP m chng ta tho lun trong phn trc, y l mt kt ni tht m cc thit b chuyn mch trn con ng gia ngi gi v ngi nhn duy tr trng thi kt ni cho kt ni . Trong thut ng ca in thoi, kt ni ny c gi l mt mch (circuit). Khi mng thit lp mch, n cng duy tr mt tc truyn dn khng i cho cc lin kt ca mng trong sut thi gian kt ni. Vic t trc ny cho php ngi gi chuyn d liu n ngi nhn vi tc c nh c m bo. Internet ngy nay l mt v d hon ho ca mng chuyn mch gi. Hy xem xt nhng g s xy ra khi mt host mun gi mt gi tin n mt host khc qua mt mng chuyn mch gi. Ging nh vi chuyn mch knh, gi tin c truyn qua mt lot cc lin kt truyn thng. Nhng vi chuyn mch gi, gi tin c gi vo trong mng m khng duy tr bt k bng thng no. Nu mt trong cc lin kt b nghn bi cc gi khc cn phi c truyn qua lin kt ny cng mt lc, th khi gi tin ca chng ta s phi ch trong mt b m bn gi ca ng truyn, v phi chu mt tr. Internet thc hin n lc ti a cung cp cc d liu mt cch kp thi. Nhng n khng thc hin bt k s bo m no. Khng phi tt c cc mng vin thng u c th c phn loi thnh cc mng chuyn mch knh thun ty hay cc mng chuyn mch gi thun ty. V d, cc mng da trn cng ngh ATM, mt kt ni c th thc hin mt s duy tr trc nhng thng ip ca n vn cn c th phi ch i cc ngun ti nguyn b tc nghn! Tuy nhin, vic phn loi c bn da vo cc mng chuyn mch gi v knh l mt im bt u xut sc t s hiu bit v cng ngh mng vin thng.

Chuyn mch knh

Cun sch ny ni v mng my tnh, Internet v chuyn mch gi, ch khng phi v cc mng in thoi v chuyn mch knh. Tuy nhin, n rt quan trng hiu c ti sao Internet v cc mng my tnh khc s dng chuyn mch gi ch khng phi l cng ngh chuyn mch knh truyn thng c s dng trong cc mng in thoi. V l do ny, by gi chng ta s a ra mt ci nhn tng quan ngn gn v chuyn mch knh. Hnh 1.4-2 minh ha mt mng chuyn mch knh. Trong mng li ny, ba b chuyn mch c kt ni vi nhau bi hai lin kt, mi mt lin kt ny c n mch, sao cho mi lin kt c th h tr n kt ni ng thi. Cc h thng u cui (v d, cc my PC v cc my trm) c kt ni trc tip vi mt trong cc b chuyn mch. (Cc in thoi thng thng cng c kt ni vi cc thit b chuyn mch, nhng chng khng c th hin trong s ). Lu rng mt s host c quyn truy cp tng t (tn hiu tng t) n cc thit b chuyn mch, trong khi mt s khc c truy cp s trc tip(tn hiu s). Vi cc truy cp tng t, mt modem l bt buc. Khi hai host mun giao tip, mng s thit lp mt mch u cui (end-to-end circuit) dnh ring gia hai host. (Nhng cuc gi hi ngh gia nhiu hn hai thit b, tt nhin, cng c th. Nhng gi cho mi th n gin, chng ta hy gi s hin ti ch c hai host cho mi mt kt ni). Nh vy, host A gi thng ip n host B, u tin mng phi duy tr mt mch trn c hai lin kt.

Hnh 1.4-2: Mt mng chuyn mch knh n gin bao gm ba b chuyn mch c kt ni vi hai lin kt. Mi lin kt c n mch, mi mch u cui trn mt lin kt c phn cho 1/n bng thng ca lin kt trong thi gian ca mch. n mch trong mt lin kt c th l mch TDM hoc FDM. Mt mch trong mt lin kt c thc hin bi ghp knh phn chia theo tn s (FDM) hoc ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM). Vi FDM, ph tn s ca mt lin kt c chia s gia cc kt ni c thit lp i qua lin kt . C th, lin kt s dnh mt bng tn cho mi kt ni trong sut thi gian kt ni. Trong cc mng in thoi, bng tn ny thng c chiu rng bng 4 kHz. Chiu rng ca bng tn c gi, khng l g, chnh l bng thng (bandwidth). Cc i pht thanh FM cng s dng FDM chia s ph tn vi sng. Xu hng ca in thoi hin i l thay th FDM bng TDM. Phn ln cc lin kt trong hu ht cc h thng in thoi Hoa K v cc nc pht trin khc hin ang s dng TDM. i vi mt lin kt TDM, thi gian c chia thnh cc khung thi gian c nh v mi khung c chia thnh mt s c nh cc khe thi gian. Khi mng thit lp mt kt ni thng qua mt lin kt, mng ny s dnh mt khe thi gian trong mi khung cho kt ni . Cc khe ny c dnh ring cho vic s dng duy nht ca kt ni , vi mt khe thi gian c sn c s dng (trong mi mt frame) truyn d liu ca kt ni.

Hnh 1.4.3 minh ha FDM v TDM cho mt lin kt mng c th. i vi FDM, min tn s c tch ra thnh mt s mch, mi bng thng 4 KHz (tc l, 4.000 Hertz hoc 4.000 vng / giy). i vi TDM, min thi gian c tch ra l bn mch; mi mch c phn cng cng mt khe cm dnh ring trong cc khung TDM quay. Tc lan truyn ca khung bng tc khung nhn vi s bit trong mt khe. V d, nu lin kt truyn 8.000 khung/giy v mi khe cm gm c 8 bit, th tc truyn l 64 Kbps.

Hnh 1.4-3: Vi FDM, mi mch s lin tc nhn c mt phn nh ca bng thng. Vi TDM, mi mch s nhn c tt c bng thng mt cch nh k trong sut cc khong nh ca thi gian (tc l, trong cc khe thi gian). Nhng ngi ng h chuyn mch gi lun lun lp lun rng chuyn mch knh l lng ph bi v cc mch chuyn dng l nhn ri trong sut thi gian cm (silent period). V d, khi mt trong nhng bn lin quan trong mt cuc gi in thoi dng ni chuyn, th ti nguyn mng nhn ri (di tn s hoc cc khe trong cc lin kt dc theo tuyn ng ca kt ni) khng th c s dng bi cc kt ni khc ang din ra. Xt mt v d khc v cch thc m cc ngun ti nguyn ny c th c s dng ng mc, hy xem xt mt bc s X quang ngi m s dng mt mng chuyn mch knh truy cp t xa vo mt lot cc tia x. Ngi ny s thit lp mt kt ni, yu cu mt hnh nh, xem hnh, v sau yu cu

mt hnh nh mi. Cc ti nguyn mng l lng ph trong sut thi gian xem hnh ca ngi bc s ny. Nhng ngi ng h chuyn mch gi cng ch ra rng vic thit lp cc mch u cui v t bng thng u cui l phc tp v i hi cc phn mm bo hiu phc tp phi hp hot ng ca cc b chuyn mch trn ng i t ngun n ch. Trc khi chng ta kt thc cuc tho lun ca chng ta v chuyn mch knh, chng ta hy cng lm vic thng qua mt s v d nhng ci m a ra ci nhn su sc hn na v vn ny. Hy cng xem xt xem phi mt bao lu gi mt tp tin 640 kbits t host A n host B qua mt mng chuyn mch knh. Gi s rng tt c cc lin kt trong mng s dng TDM vi 24 khe cm v c tc bit 1.536 Mbps. Cng gi s rng phi mt 500 miligiy thit lp mt mch u cui trc khi A c th bt u truyn ti tp tin. Mt bao lu gi tp tin ? Mi mch c mt tc truyn l (1.536 Mbps)/24 = 64 Kbps, do , phi mt (640 kbits)/(64 Kbps) = 10 giy truyn tp tin. Vi 10 giy ny chng ta thm vo thi gian thit lp mch, ta s nhn c 10,5 giy gi tp tin . Lu rng thi gian truyn dn l c lp vi s lng lin kt: thi gian truyn dn s l 10 giy d cho mch u cui i qua mt lin kt hay mt trm lin kt. AT & T Labs cung cp mt trang web tng tc [AT & T 1998] tm hiu v tr truyn dn cho cc loi tp tin khc nhau v cc cng ngh truyn dn khc nhau.

Chuyn mch gi
Chng ta thy trong phn 1.2 v 1.3 rng cc giao thc mc ng dng trao i cc thng ip (messages) trong vic thc hin nhim v ca chng. Cc thng ip c th cha bt k mong mun thit k giao thc no. Cc thng ip c th di dng mt chc nng iu khin (v d, thng ip "hi" trong v d v th tc bt tay ca chng ta) hoc c th cha d liu, chng hn nh mt file ASCII, mt file Postscript, mt trang Web, mt file m thanh s. Trong cc mng chuyn mch gi hin i, bn ngun chia nh thng ip di thnh cc gi (packet) nh hn. Gia ngun v ch, mi gi tin i qua cc lin kt truyn thng v cc b chuyn mch gi (packet switches) (cn c bit n nh l cc router). Cc gi tin c truyn qua mi lin kt truyn thng vi tc bng vi tc truyn y ca lin kt . Hu ht cc thit b chuyn mch gi s dng lu tr v chuyn tip truyn dn ti cc u vo ca cc lin kt. Lu tr v chuyn tip truyn dn c ngha l b chuyn i phi nhn c ton b gi tin trc khi n c th bt u truyn nhng bit u tin ca gi tin ln cc lin kt i ra. V vy, chuyn mch gi lu tr v chuyn tip a ra mt tr do lu tr v chuyn tip ti u vo ca mi mt lin kt dc theo ng i ca gi tin. Tr ny t l thun vi chiu di ca gi tin tnh bng bit. c bit, nu mt gi c cha L bit, v gi

tin ny c chuyn tip ln mt lin kt i ra c tc R bps, th tr lu tr v chuyn tip ti b chuyn mch l L/R giy. Trong mi b nh tuyn c nhiu b m (cn c gi l hng i), vi mi lin kt s c mt b m u vo (input buffer) ( lu tr cc gi tin ch i n lin kt ) v mt b m u ra (output buffer). B m u ra ng vai tr quan trng trong chuyn mch gi. Nu mt gi tin ti cn phi truyn qua mt lin kt nhng thy lin kt y ang bn rn vi vic truyn ti gi d liu khc, th gi tin n phi ch i trong b m u ra. Nh vy, ngoi s chm tr do lu tr v chuyn tip, cc gi tin s chu cc tr do xp hng (queueing delay) b m u ra. Nhng tr ny l khc nhau v ty thuc vo mc tc nghn trong mng. Do khong khng gian m l hu hn, nn mt gi tin n c th thy rng b m l hon ton y vi cc gi khc ang ch c truyn. Trong trng hp , hin tng mt gi (packet loss) s xy ra - hoc l gi tin va n hoc mt trong cc gi tin xp hng s b b i. Quay tr li vi v d tng t v nh hng ca chng ta lc trc trong phn ny, tr do xp hng tng t nh lng thi gian dnh cho vic ch i mt bn. Vic mt gi tng t nh vic c thng bo t ngi phc v rng bn phi ri khi y v c qu nhiu ngi ang i ti cc quy bar cho mt bn n. Hnh 1.4-4 minh ha mt mng chuyn mch gi n gin. Gi s rng cc host A v B ang gi cc gi tin n host E. u tin host A v B s gi cc gi tin ca mnh dc theo cc lin kt 28.8 Kbps n b chuyn mch gi u tin. B chuyn mch gi s ch o cc gi tin n lin kt 1.544 Mbps. Nu c tc nghn ti lin kt ny, cc gi s xp hng trong b m u ra ca lin kt trc khi chng c th c truyn ln trn lin kt. By gi ta s xem xt xem cc gi tin ca host A v host B c truyn ln trn lin kt ny nh th no. Nh ch ra trong Hnh 1.44, th t ca cc gi tin A v B khng theo bt k mt th t nh k no; th t l ngu nhin hoc c thng k - cc gi tin c gi i bt c khi no chng c mt ti lin kt. V l do ny, chng ta thng ni rng chuyn mch gi s dng ghp knh thng k (statistical multiplexing). Ghp knh thng k tng phn mnh vi ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM), trong mi host nhn c cng mt khe thi gian trong mt khung TDM quay.

Hnh 1.4-4: Chuyn mch gi By gi chng ta xem xt xem phi mt bao lu gi mt gi tin c L bit t host A n mt host khc qua mt mng chuyn mch gi. Chng ta hy gi s rng c Q lin kt gia A v E, mi ci c tc R bps. Gi nh rng tr do xp hng v tr lan truyn u cui l khng ng k v rng khng c thit lp kt ni. u tin gi tin phi c truyn ln trn lin kt u tin xut pht t host A; vic ny mt L / R giy. Sau n phi c truyn i trn Q-1 lin kt cn li, c ngha l, n phi c lu tr v chuyn tip Q-1 ln. Do , tng tr l QL / R.

So snh chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch knh


Chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi u c m t, by gi chng ta hy so snh hai ci vi nhau. Nhng ngi khng ng h chuyn mch gi thng lp lun rng chuyn mch gi khng ph hp cho cc dch v thi gian thc (v d, cc cuc gi in thoi, cc cuc gi hi ngh c video) bi v cc tr hay thay i v khng th on trc c ca n. Nhng ngi ng h chuyn mch gi lp lun rng (1) n cung cp chia s bng thng tt hn so vi chuyn mch knh v

(2) n n gin hn, hiu qu hn, v t tn km hn thc hin so vi chuyn mch knh. Ni chung, nhng ngi khng thch s phc tp ca nh hng yu cu t ch trc s thch chuyn mch gi hn l chuyn mch knh. Ti sao chuyn mch gi li hiu qu hn? Chng ta hy cng xt mt v d n gin sau. Gi s rng nhiu ngi dng cng chia s mt lin kt 1 Mbps. Cng gi s rng mi ngi dng lun phin nm gia hai trng thi hot ng (khi n pht ra d liu vi tc khng i 100Kbits/giy) v trng thi khng hot ng (khi n khng pht ra d liu). Gi s thm rng mt ngi ch hot ng trong 10% thi gian (v h ung c ph trong sut 90% thi gian nhn ri cn li). Vi chuyn mch knh, 100 Kbps phi c dnh ring cho mi ngi dng tt c cc ln. Nh vy, lin kt ch c th h tr mi ngi s dng ng thi. Vi chuyn mch gi, nu c 35 ngi s dng, th xc sut c 10 ngi dng hoc nhiu hn ng thi trng thi tch cc l nh hn 0,0004. Nu c 10 ngi dng hoc t hn ng thi hot ng (iu ny xy ra vi xc sut 0,9996), tc n tng hp ca d liu nh hn 1Mbps (tc u ra ca lin kt). V vy, lu lng cc gi tin ca ngi s dng s thng qua lin kt c bn m khng c s chm tr no c, ging nh trng hp ca chuyn mch. Khi c hn 10 ngi dng ng thi trng thi tch cc, th tc n tng hp ca cc gi tin s vt qu kh nng cha ca lin kt, v hng i u ra s bt u pht trin (cho n khi tc u vo tng hp ri tr li xung di 1Mbps, ti thi im hng i s bt u gim chiu di). Bi v xc sut ca vic c mi ngi s dng hoc nhiu hn ng thi hot ng l rt rt nh, do chuyn mch gi gn nh lun lun c s chm tr tng t nh thc hin chuyn mch knh, nhng n lm vic trong khi cho php nhiu hn ba ln s lng ngi s dng. Mc d chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch knh c hai u rt ph bin trong cc mng vin thng hin nay, nhng xu hng chc chn ang nghing v chuyn mch gi. Thm ch nhiu mng in thoi chuyn mch knh ngy nay cng t t di chuyn theo hng chuyn mch gi. Trong , cc mng in thoi thng chuyn sang chuyn mch gi cho phn cc cuc gi ra nc ngoi t tin.

Chuyn mch thng bo


Trong mt mng chuyn mch gi hin i, host ngun phn chia cc thng ip di thnh cc gi tin nh hn v gi cc gi tin nh hn ny vo trong mng; ngi nhn tp hp cc gi li thnh thng ip gc. Nhng ti sao li phi bn tm n vic phn on cc thng ip thnh cc gi h thng u tin, ch lp rp li cc gi tin thnh thng ip? C phi iu ny t thm mt gnh nng v l khng cn thit i vi cc h thng ngun v ch? Mc d vic phn on

v tp hp li lm phc tp cc thit k ca ngun v ngi nhn, nhng cc nh nghin cu v cc nh thit k mng li kt lun trong nhng ngy u ca chuyn mch gi rng nhng u im ca vic phn on b p rt nhiu cho s phc tp ca n. Trc khi tho lun v mt s u im, chng ta cn phi gii thiu mt s thut ng. Chng ta ni rng mt mng chuyn mch gi thc hin chuyn mch thng bo (message switching) nu cc ngun khng phn on cc thng ip, tc l, h gi mt thng ip vo trong mng nh mt ton th. V vy chuyn mch thng bo l mt loi c th ca chuyn mch gi, m trong cc gi tin i qua mng l bn thn cc thng ip ton vn. Hnh 1.4-5 minh ha chuyn mch thng bo trong mt l trnh gm hai thit b chuyn mch gi (PSs) v ba lin kt. Vi chuyn mch thng bo, thng ip c gi li trong mt nhp khi n i qua mng. Bi v cc thit b chuyn mch l cc b chuyn mch gi lu tr v chuyn tip, nn mt b chuyn mch gi phi nhn c ton b thng ip trc khi n c th bt u chuyn tip thng ip vo mt lin kt i ra.

Hnh 1.4-5: Mt mng chuyn mch thng bo n gin Hnh 1.4-6 minh ha chuyn mch gi cho cng mt mng. Trong v d ny thng ip ban u c chia thnh nm gi tin ring bit. Trong Hnh 1.4-6, gi tin u tin n ch, gi tin th hai v th ba ang c truyn trong mng, v hai gi tin cui cng vn cn nm bn ngun. Mt ln na, v cc thit b chuyn mch l cc b chuyn mch gi lu tr v chuyn tip, nn mt b chuyn mch gi phi nhn c mt gi tin y trc khi n c th bt u chuyn tip cc gi tin trn mt lin kt i ra.

Hnh 1.4-6: Mt mng chuyn mch gi n gin

u im chnh ca chuyn mch gi (vi nhng thng ip b phn on) l n t c tr u cui thng l nh hn nhiu so vi tr ca chuyn mch thng bo c ghp li. Chng ta minh ha im ny vi v d n gin sau y. Xt mt thng ip di 7,5 Mbit. Gi s rng gia h thng ngun v ch c hai thit b chuyn mch gi v ba lin kt, v mi lin kt c tc lan truyn l 1.5Mb/s. Gi s khng c tc nghn trong mng li, vy phi mt bao lu l cn thit di chuyn thng ip t ngun ti ch bng chuyn mch thng bo? N cn ngun 5 giy di chuyn thng ip t ngun n b chuyn mch u tin. Bi v cc thit b chuyn mch s dng c ch lu tr v chuyn tip, do b chuyn mch u tin khng th bt u chuyn bt k bit no trong thng ip vo lin kt ch n khi n nhn c ton b thng ip. Sau khi b chuyn mch u tin nhn c ton b thng ip, n phi mt 5 giy di chuyn thng ip t b chuyn mch u tin n b chuyn mch th hai. Nh vy phi mt mi di chuyn thng ip t ngun n b chuyn mch th hai. Theo logic ny chng ta thy rng tng cng l 15 giy l cn thit di chuyn thng ip t ngun ti ch. Cc tr c minh ha trong Hnh 1.4-7.

Hnh 1.4-7: Thi gian truyn thng ip ca mt thng ip 7.5 Mbit trong mt mng chuyn mch thng bo

Tip tc vi mt v d tng t, by gi gi s rng h thng ngun gc ph v thng ip thnh 5.000 gi tin, mi gi tin di 1.5 Kbit. Mt ln na gi nh rng khng c tc nghn trong mng, mt bao lu di chuyn 5000 gi tin t ngun ti ch? N cn ngun 1 ms di chuyn gi tin u tin t ngun n b chuyn mch u tin. V phi mt b chuyn mch u tin 1 ms di chuyn gi tin u tin ny t b chuyn mch u tin n ci th hai. Nhng trong khi gi tin u tin ang c chuyn t b chuyn mch u tin n b chuyn mch th hai, th gi tin th hai ng thi cng c chuyn t ngun ti b chuyn mch u tin. Do , gi th hai n c b chuyn mch u tin ti thi im time = 2ms. Theo logic ny chng ta thy rng gi tin cui cng l nhn c hon ton b chuyn mch u tin ti thi im time = 5000 ms = 5 giy. Do gi tin cui cng c truyn i trn hai lin kt, nn gi tin cui cng c nhn ch ti thi im time=5.002s.

Hnh 1.4-8: Thi gian truyn cc gi tin ca thng ip 7.5Mbit, chi thnh 5000 gi tin, trong mt mng chuyn mch gi Tht ng kinh ngc, chuyn mch gi lm gim tr ca chuyn mch thng bo xung ba ln! Nhng ti sao li nh vy? Chuyn mch gi lm g khc so vi chuyn mch thng bo? S khc bit quan trng chnh l chuyn mch thng bo thc hin truyn dn ni tip trong khi chuyn mch gi thc hin truyn dn song song. Quan st thy rng vi chuyn mch thng bo, trong khi mt nt (ngun hoc mt trong cc thit b chuyn mch) c truyn, th cc nt cn li l

nhn ri. Vi chuyn mch gi, mt khi gi d liu u c gi ti b chuyn mch cui cng, th ba nt s truyn ti cng mt lc. Chuyn mch gi c thm mt u im quan trng khc so vi chuyn mch thng bo. Nh chng ta s tho lun v sau trong cun sch ny, cc bit li c th c a vo cc gi tin khi chng c chuyn trn mng. Khi mt b chuyn mch pht hin ra mt li trong mt gi tin, n thng loi b ton b gi. V vy, nu ton b thng ip l mt gi tin v mt bit trong thng ip b hng, th ton b thng ip b loi b. Ngc li, nu thng ip c tch ra thnh nhiu gi tin v mt bit trong mt trong cc gi d liu b hng, th ch c mt gi tin b loi b. Tuy nhin,chuyn mch gi khng phi l khng c nhc im, so vi chuyn mch thng bo. Chng ta s thy rng mi gi tin hoc thng ip, ngoi cc d liu c gi t cc ng dng gi n cc ng dng nhn, u phi cha ng mt lng thng tin iu khin. Thng tin ny, ci m c cha trong nhn (header) ca cc gi hoc thng bo, c th bao gm danh tnh ca ngi gi v ngi nhn v mt nhn dng ca gi hoc thng ip (v d nh, s lng). V lng thng tin ca header xp x bng nhau i vi mt thng ip hoc mt gi tin, do tng lng header/byte d liu l cao hn cho chuyn mch gi so vi chuyn mch thng bo. Trc khi chuyn sang tiu mc tip theo, bn c khuyn khch cao khi tm hiu v Message Switching Java Applet. Applet ny s cho php bn th nghim vi cc kch thc thng ip v cc gi tin khc nhau, v s cho php bn kim tra hiu qu ca tr lan truyn c b sung.

1.4.2 nh tuyn trong cc mng d liu


Mng chuyn mch gi c chia lm 2 loi phn bit:mng kt ni datagram v mng kt ni knh o.Hai loi ny c phn bit da trn vic ngi ta chuyn cc gi tin da theo a ch ca host ch hay theo cc m s ca knh o.Chng ta s gi mng truyn cc gi tin theo a ch ch ca my ch l 1 mng kt ni (theo phng thc) datagram.Giao thc IP ca Internet nh hng cc gi tin da trn a ch ch ca my ch;do Internet l 1 mng kt ni datagram.Chng ta s gi mng truyn tin da trn m s ca knh o l mng kt ni knh o.Cc v d ca k thut chuyn gi c s dng knh o nm trong phn X.25,frame relay v ATM.

Mng knh o ( Virtual circuit network)


Mt mng knh o(VC) bao gm (1) ng dn(tc l:1 chui cc link v cc gi tin cn chuyn) gia ngun v ch l cc my ch,(2) cc m s ca knh o,mi m s ng vi mt link cng vi 1 ng dn,v (3) cc cng vo trong bng chuyn i m s VC(m s ca knh o) trong mi gi c chuyn i cng mt ng dn.Mt khi VC c thit lp gia ngun v ch ,cc gi tin c th c gi i vi m s VC thch hp.Bi v 1 VC c cc m s VC khc nhau trn mi link,mt gi tin trung gian phi thay th m s VC ca mi gi tin truyn qua bng mt s mi.M s VC mi nm trong bng chuyn i m s VC. minh ha cho khi nim ny,ta xem xt mng di phn 1.4-9.Gi s host A yu cu mt mng thit lp VC(knh o) gia chnh n v host B.Gi s mng chn ng dn l A-PS1-PS2-B v phn 3 s VC l 12,22,32 n 3 ng link(ng kt ni) trong ng dn ny.Sau ,khi mt gi tin l mt phn ca VC ny ri host A,gi tr ca m s VC l 12;khi n ri PS1,gi tr tng ng l 22;v khi n ri PS2,gi tr l 32.Nhng s k tip cc ng link ca PS1 gi l cc m s giao din.

Hnh 1.4-9.Mt mng knh o n gin Vy lm th no b chuyn mch xc nh m s VC thay th cho mt gi tin khi chuyn i?Mi b chuyn mch c 1 bng chuyn i m s VC;vd:bng chuyn i m s VC ca PS1 c th nh sau:

Giao din bn trong 1 2 3 1

M s VC bn trong 12 63 7 97

Giao din bn ngoi 3 1 2 3

M s VC bn ngoi 22 18 17 87

Bt c khi no 1 m s VC mi c thit lp qua b chuyn mch,1 cng s c thm vo bng m s VC.Tng t,khi vic trao i thng tin bng knh o kt thc,mi cng cng vi cc link (ng kt ni) gn vi n cng s c xa i . Bn c th thc mc mt gi tin khng dng mt m s VC duy nht trn sut qu trnh n c truyn i? Cu gii p cho vn ny l hai mc ch sau.Th nht,bng vic thay th m s t link n link, di ca knh o (VC) s c gim bt.Th hai,v quan trng hn ,bng vic cho php s dng m s VC khc nhau vi mi link trn ng truyn dn ca VC,chc nng qun l mng c n gin ha.C th hn,vi rt nhiu m s VC,mi link trn ng dn c th chn 1 m s VC c lp,khc vi nhng m s VC m cc link khc cng ng dn chn.Nu s dng mt m s chung cho mi link trn mt ng dn ,cc b chuyn mch s phi trao i v x l mt s lng ng k cc tin nhn v vic s dng m s VC cho vic kt ni. Nu mng kt ni theo phng thc knh o,cc b chuyn mch phi duy tr trng thi thng tin cho cc kt ni sp din ra.C th l khi mi kt ni c thit lp trn b chuyn mch ,mt cng vo mi cn c thm vo bng chuyn i m s VC ca b chuyn mch;v n khi kt ni hon thnh th cng y li phi b xa khi bng.Lu rng ngay c khi m s VC khng thay i,vn cn thit phi duy tr trng thi thng tin kt hp cc m s VC vi cc m s giao din.Vn ct yu l nn hay khng vic b chuyn mch hay b nh

tuyn(router) duy tr trng thi thng tin cho mi kt ni tip din- iu ny s c cp ti phn bn di.

Cc mng datagram
Mng datagram xt v nhiu phng din tng t nh cc dch v bu chnh. Khi mt ngi mun gi th n mt ni no , ngi ny phi nht l th vo phong b, trn phong b c ghi r a ch ni cn n ca bc th. a ch trn th ny c cu trc phn cp. V d, nhng bc th gi c ni nhn ti Hoa K (USA) a ch bao gm : t nc (USA), bang (vd :..., Pennsylvania), thnh ph (vd :........, Philadelphia), tn ph (vd : ph Walnut), s nh (vd :...., 141). Dch v bu chnh thng s dng a ch c ghi trn phong b gi bc th n a im cn n. VD : bc th c gi t Php, vn phng bu chnh Php u tin s gi bc th n trung tm bu cc Hoa K. Ti y, trung tm sau chuyn bc th n trung tm bu cc Philadelphia. Cui cng, ngi a th Philadelphia s chuyn bc th n a im cui trn a ch bc th. Trong mt mng datagram, phn u ca mi gi thng tin qua mng bao gm i ch ch. Ging vi a ch bu chnh, a ch ny cng c cu trc phn cp. Khi mt gi c chuyn n mt b chuyn mch gi trong mng, b chuyn mch ny s kim tra phn i ch ch ca gi thng tin v gi chuyn tip n b chuyn i lin k. C th hn, mi b chuyn mch gi c mt bng nh tuyn nh x a ch ch (hoc mt phn a ch ch) ra lin kt ngoi bin (outbound link). Khi mt gi n lc chuyn i, b chuyn kim tra a ch v lp bng ch mc vi a ch ny tm ra outbound link thch hp, sau b chuyn s gi gi thng tin ny vo trong lin kt ngoi tm c. Ton b phng php nh tuyn cng tng t nh ngi li xe khng s dng bn m thay vo vn xc nh c tuyn ng bng cch hi ng. V d, gi s Joe ang li xe t Philadelphia n s 156 Lakeside Drive Orlando, Floria. u tin, Joe li xe n trm gn v hi cch i n a ch s 156 Lakeside Drive Orlando, Floria. Nhn vin trm xng tch phn Floria t a ch Joe hi v by cho Joe hy i ng cao tc pha Nam I-95, sau hy r vo trm xng gn . Anh ta cng khuyn Joe ngay khi n Floria tt nht nn hi tip ai . Joe i trn ng cao tc I-95 v anh ta n c Jacksonvile, Floria, Joe nh mt nhn vin trm xng khc ch ng cho mih. Ngi ny tch tip phn Orlando t i ch Joe hi v ni Joe nn di tip ng I-95 n bi bin Daytona, sau hi tip. Sau khi n c bi bin Daytona, ngi nhn vin trm xng Joe hi tip cng tch phn Orlando ca a ch v ch Joe i thng I-4 l n Orlando. Joe i thng I-4 n c Orlando v tip tc dng li hi, ngi ny

tch tip phn Lakeside Drive t a ch hng dn Joe n . Trn ph lakeside Drive, cu nhc i xe p m Joe hi a ch tch nt phn 156 trn a ch v ch cho Joe ngi nh c a ch Joe hi. Cui cng, Joe n c ni Joe mun. Chng ta s tho lun vic nh tuyn trong cc mng datagram mt cch k lng trong quyn sch ny. Nhng trc ht, chng ta cp n vn sau, ngc vi mng VC( virtual circiut_ mng mch o), mng datagram khng lu gi thng tin trng thi kt ni trong khi chng chuyn i. Tht vy, b chuyn i trong mt mng datagram thun ty hon ton khng quan tm n bt k dng lu lng thng tin no c chuyn qua n- n s a ra nhng quyt nh nh tuyn cho tng gi ring. a ch ch xc nh ng i tip theo v ng i c th thay i trong phin. Nh trong v d trn : Joe dng tng phn trong a ch ca mnh tip tc tm ng i tip. V n tng phn c th i bng nhiu ng khc nhau. Cn mng VC phi lu gi thng tin trng thi kt ni trong khi chuyn i. V d nh l n kin xc nh ng i bng cch nhn bit bng mi ca chng tit ra, chnh l trng thi dng kt ni. Khi chng b xo mt mi, ngay lp tc chng i lung tung- kt ni b ngt. Vic phi lu tr lm cho VC phc tp. Nhng ngi xng ca mng VC nhn thy rng VCs c th a ra nhiu ng dng rng ri hn. Vy trn thc t lm th no bn c th nh tuyn c mt gi thng tin ly c t Internet ? By gi chng ti mi bn lm mt cng vic kh kh khn bng cch tng tc vi Traceroute program.

Phn loi mng


Chng ta c gii thiu mt s khi nim quan trng l: chuyn mch knh, chuyn mch gi, chuyn mch thng bo, cc knh o, dch v phi kt ni v dch v hng kt ni. Vy chng c lin quan vi nhau nh th no? Trc tin, di ci nhn n gin ca chng ta v th gii, mt mng vin thng hoc l s dng chuyn mch knh hoc l s dng chuyn mch gi:

Hnh 1.4-10: S khc nhau ln nht gia cc mng vin thng: chuyn mch knh hay chuyn mch gi? Lin kt trong mt mng chuyn mch knh c th dung FDM hoc TDM:

Hnh 1.4-11: Chuyn mch knh thc hin : FDM hay TDM? Cc mng chuyn gi l cc mng knh o hoc cc mng datagram. B chuyn mch trong cc mng knh o s gi cc gi tin theo s hiu VC ca cc gi v duy tr trng thi kt ni. B chuyn mch trong cc mng datagram s gi cc gi tin theo a ch ch ca gi v khng duy tr trng thi kt ni:

Hnh 1.4-12: Mng chuyn gi thc hin: knh o hay datagram? V d v cc mng chuyn mch gi s dng cc VC gm c X.25, frame relay, v ATM. Mt mng chuyn mch gi hoc (1) s dng VC cho tt c vic nh tuyn thng ip ca mnh, hoc (2) s dng a ch ch cho tt c vic nh tuyn thng ip ca mnh. N khng s dng cng lc c 2 k thut nh tuyn ny. (Tuyn b cui cng l mt phn ca mt li ni di v hi, bi v c nhng mng s dng nh tuyn datagram trn nn ca nh tuyn VC.y l trng hp ca "IP trn ATM," nh chng ta s theo di sau trong cun sch ny.) Mng datagram, d th no, th n cng khng phi l mng phi kt ni cng khng phi l mng hng kt ni. Tht vy, mt mng datagram c th cung cp cc dch v phi kt ni n cho s ng dng ca n v cc dch v hng kt ni cho cc ng dng khc. V d, mng Internet, l mt mng datagram, l mng datagram cung cp c dch v phi kt ni v hng kt ni cho cc ng dng ca n. Chng ta thy trong phn 1.3 rng cc dch v c cung cp trong Internet tng ng bi cc giao thc TCP v UDP. Cc mng vi VC chng hn nh X.25, Frame Relay v ATM d th no i na th cng lun lun l hng kt ni.

Tng tc vi Java Applet: Chuyn mch thng bo v Chuyn mch gi


Applet tng tc (cc ng dng k sinh) ny cho php bn thc s thy c ti sao chuyn gi c th c c cc tr nh hn so vi chuyn mch thng bo khi cc gi tin i qua cc b chuyn mch lu tr- v-chuyn tip. Trong applet ny c 4 nt: ngun(nt A), ch(nt B) v 2 thit b chuyn mch lu tr-v-chuyn tip. Mi gi tin gi t ngun phi c truyn qua 3 lin kt trc khi n n c ch. Mi lin kt c tc truyn dn l 4 Kb/giy v tr truyn ti ngu nhin l 1 giy. Mi hnh ch nht nh tng ng vi 1Kbit d liu. Khi bn nhn nt Start, cc hnh ch nht c gp li vo mt gi tin trong b m truyn dn ca thit b ngun. Gi tin ny c truyn ti b chyn mch u tin, ti y n phi c lu tr trc khi c chuyn tip. Gi tin ny sau tip tc c truyn ti ch. m phng chuyn mch thng bo, ta thit lp kch c gi tin bng vi kch c thng ip. m phng chuyn mch gi, ta thit lp kch c gi nh hn kch c thng ip. xem xt kt qu cc tr truyn dn ca lin kt, ta kim tra cc hp thch hp cho cc tr truyn dn ngu nhin. C nhiu cch lm vic ny v cch c khuyn dng l bn tnh tr u cui phn tch v sau kim tra li s tnh ton ca bn vi cc applet.

Tm ng i trn Internet
Traceoute l mt chng trnh ph bin tm ng i ca mt gi tin t bt c host ngun no ti bt k mt host ch no trong mng Internet. Trc khi chng ta gii thch xem traceroute lm g v n hot ng nh th no, u tin hy th chy chng trnh traceroute. Trong hp bn di, nhp vo tn ca mt host bt k, v d surf.eurecomf.fr hoc www.mit.edu. Tn host m bn nhp vo s c gi n mt my ch t ti IBM Israel Tel-Aviv, Israel. Host ti Tel-Aviv s phn ng vi cc tuyn ng c ly t Tel-Aviv n my ch m bn lit k trong hp di y. Sau khi chy chng trnh, hy quay v trang ny tho lun v chng trnh traceroute. a ch host hoc tn

trng tm ng i n trnh duyt ca bn. Sau khi c du vt ng i t Tel-Aviv n host yu thch ca bn, hy th mt ln na vi mt im bt u mi - Dana Point min nam California y nng. a ch host hoc tn

Traceroute lm g v n thc hin nh th no


Cc thit b chuyn mch gi chnh trong mng Internet c gi l cc router, v cc router s dng nh tuyn datagram. C th, khi mt ngun cu trc mt gi tin, n gn thm a ch ch ln trn gi tin. Khi gi tin i n mt router, b chuyn mch s xc nh lin kt u ra thch hp cho gi tin bng cch kim tra a ch ch ca gi tin. Traceroute l mt chng trnh nh c th chy trn bt k host Internet no. Khi ngi dng ch nh tn mt host ch, chng trnh s gi nhiu gi tin hng ti ch . Khi nhng gi tin lm vic ng i ca chng hng ti ch, chng i

qua mt lot cc router. Khi mt router nhn c mt trong s cc gi tin, n s gi mt thng ip nh tr v ngun. Thng ip ny cha tn v a ch ca router. C th hn, gi s c N-1 router gia ngun v ch. Khi ngun s gi N gi tin vo trong mng, mi gi tin c nh a ch n ch cui cng. Nhng gi tin ny cng c nh s t 1 n N, vi gi u tin ca N gi c nh s 1 v gi tin cui cng ca N gi c nh s N. Khi router th n nhn c gi tin th n c nh s n, router s tiu hy gi tin v gi mt thng ip n ngun. V khi host ch nhn c gi tin th N, ch s tiu hy n, v mt ln na tr mt thng ip tr li ngun. Ngun ghi li thi gian tri qua t khi n gi mt gi tin cho n khi n nhn c thng ip tr li tng ng; n cng ghi li tn v a ch ca router (hoc host ch) ci m tr v thng ip. Theo cch ny, bn ngun c th ti to li cc tuyn ng c thc hin bi cc gi tin chy t ngun ti ch, v ngun c th xc nh tr phn hi ca tt c cc router gia. Thc cht traceroute lp li cc th nghim va c m t ba ln, do , my ngun thc cht gi 3* N gi tin n ch. RFC [1393] traceout m t traceout rt chi tit. Encyclopedia Internet cng cung cp mt overview of how traceroute works. Di y l mt v d v u ra ca chng trnh traceroute, khi m ng i ang c truy tm t host ngun eniac.seas.upenn.edu (ti trng i hc Pennsylvania) n diane.ibp.fr (ti trng i hc Paris VI) . u ra gm c su ct: ct u tin l gi tr n c m t trn, tc l, s th t ca router dc theo tuyn ng; ct th hai l tn ca cc router; ct th ba l a ch ca cc router (c dng xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx); ba ct cui cng l cc tr phn hi ca ba th nghim. Bi v c mt gi trong mng nn nu my ngun nhn c t hn ba thng ip t bt k router no, th traceroute s nh mt du sao tng ng sau s th t ca router v thng bo t hn ba ln thi gian phn hi cho router . 1 GW.CIS.UPENN.EDU (130.91.6.254) 3 ms 2 ms 1 ms 2 DEFAULT7-GW.UPENN.EDU (165.123.247.8) 3 ms 1 ms 2 ms 3 192.204.183.1 (192.204.183.1) 3 ms 4 ms 3 ms 4 border2-hssi1-0.WestOrange.mci.net (204.70.66.5) 6 ms 6 ms 6 ms 5 core1-fddi-1.WestOrange.mci.net (204.70.64.33) 7 ms 6 ms 6 ms

6 somerouter.sprintlink.net (206.157.77.106) 16 ms 305 ms 192 ms 7 somerouter.sprintlink.net (206.157.77.106) 20 ms 196 ms 18 ms 8 sl-dc-6-H2/0-T3.sprintlink.net (144.228.10.33) 19 ms 18 ms 24 ms 9 198.67.0.1 (198.67.0.1) 19 ms 24 ms 18 ms 10 gsl-dc-3-Fddi0/0.gsl.net (204.59.144.197) 19 ms 18 ms 20 ms 11 *raspail-ip.eurogate.net (194.206.207.6) 133 ms 94 ms 12 raspail-ip2.eurogate.net (194.206.207.57) 93 ms 95 ms 97 ms 13 194.206.207.17 (194.206.207.17) 200 ms 94 ms 209 ms 14 stamand1.renater.ft.net (192.93.43.185) 105 ms 101 ms 105 ms 15 stlambert.rerif.ft.net (192.93.43.117) 108 ms 102 ms 95 ms 16 danton1.rerif.ft.net (193.48.53.50) 110 ms 97 ms 91 ms 17 u-jussieu-paris.rerif.ft.net (193.48.58.122) 94 ms 96 ms 100 ms 18 r-jusren.reseau.jussieu.fr (192.44.54.126) 100 ms 94 ms 100 ms 19 r-ibp.reseau.jussieu.fr (134.157.254.250) 96 ms 100 ms 94 ms 20 masi.ibp.fr (132.227.60.23) 121 ms 100 ms 97 ms 21 * diane.ibp.fr (132.227.64.48) 105 ms 102 ms Trong phc ha trn khng c router no nm gia ngun v ch. Hu ht cc router u c tn, v tt c chng u c a ch. V d, tn ca router 8 l sl-dc6-H2/0-T3.sprintlink. net v a ch ca n l 144.228.10.33. Nhn vo d liu c cung cp cho cng mt router ny, chng ta s thy rng trong ln th nghim u tin ca ba cuc th nghim tr phn hi gia ngun v router 8 l 19 miligiy. Cc tr phn hi cho hai cuc th nghim tip theo l 18 v 24 msec. Cc tr phn hi bao gm tr tuyn truyn gi tin, tr x l ti router, v tr do xp hng xy ra do tc nghn trn mng Internet. V tc nghn l khc nhau theo thi gian, nn tr phn hi n mt router n thc t c th ln hn tr phn hi n router n+1. Trong v d trn lu rng c th c mt bc nhy ln trong tr phn hi khi i t router 10 n router 11. l bi v lin kt gia cc router 10 v 11 l mt lin kt i qua i dng. Bn mun th traceroute t mt s im bt u khc ngoi Tel-Aviv v Dana Point? Vy th hy truy cp Yahoos List ca cc trang web cung cp nh tuyn.

Tham kho

[RFC 1393] G. Malkin, "Traceroute Using an IP Option," RFC 1393, January 1993.

1.5 Cc mng truy nhp v phng tin truyn thng vt l


Trong phn 1.3 v 1.4 chng ta nghin cu vai tr ca cc h thng u cui v cc rounter trong mt kin trc mng.Trong phn ny chng ta quan tm n Access network (cc mng truy nhp)- cc lin kt vt l m kt ni mt h thng u cui n router bin ca n, tc l, router u tin trn ng t h thng u cui n bt k h thng u cui no khc xa. Do vy cng ngh truy cp mng gn lin vi cng ngh phng tin truyn thng vt l( cp quang, cp ng trc, dy din thoi xon i, ph tn v tuyn) chng ta s cp cng lc c hai ch trn trong phn hc ny.

1.5.1 Cc mng truy cp


Hnh 1.5.1 ch ra cc lin kt ca mng truy nhp c nh du .

Hnh 1.5-1: Cc mng truy nhp Cc mng truy nhp c th chia mt cch khng chnh xc thnh 3 loi: Cc mng truy nhp c nhn: kt ni mt thit b u cui gia nh vo trong mng; Cc mng truy nhp t chc: kt ni h thng u cui trong mt doanh nghip hoc h thng gio dc vo trong mng; Cc mng truy nhp di ng: kt ni mt thit b u cui di ng vo trong mng Cc loi c chia ra trn khng phi l cng nhc v cht ch (bn vng); mt s h thng u cui ca cc t chc cng c th s dng hiu qu nhng cng ngh mng truy m chng ta gn cho cc mng truy nhp c nhn, v ngc li.M t ca chng ta di y c p dng cho trng hp ph bin (khng phi l tt c cc trng hp).

Cc mng truy nhp c nhn


Mt mng truy cp c nhn kt ni mt h thng u cui ti nh ring(tiu biu l my PC, nhng cng c th l mt Web TV hoc cc h thng c nhn khc) n mt router bin. Hu nh dng ph bin nht ca truy nhp ti nh ring l s dng mt modem trn mt ng dy quay s POTS(plain old telephone system- h thng in thoi c n gin) n mt nh cung cp dch v Internet (ISP- Internet service provider).Modem ti nh ring s chuyn i tn hiu s u ra ca PC sang dng tn hiu tng t truyn qua ng in thoi tng t. Mt modem trong ISP s chuyn i tn hiu tng t ngc tr li thnh dng tn hiu s a vo ISP router. Trong trng hp ny, mng truy nhp ch n gin l mt lin kt quay s im ti im vo trong mt router bin. Lin kt im ti im thng l ng in thoi xon i ca bn. (Chng ta s tho lun v cp xon i sau trong phn ny). Tc modem ngy nay cho php truy nhp quay s vi tc ln n 56 Kb/s. Tuy nhin, do cht lng hn ch ca ng xon i gia nhiu home v nhiu ISP, nn nhiu ngi s dng nhn c tc thc t nh hn ng k so vi tc 56 Kb/s. c mt tho lun su hn v cc kha cnh thc t ca modem hy tham kho trn trang web Institute for Global Communication (IGC) mc Modems and Data Communication. Trong khi cc modem quay s yu cu phi chuyn i d liu s ca h thng u cui sang dng tn hiu tng t truyn dn, th ci c gi l cng ngh ISDN di tn hp (Intergrated Services Digital Network- mng s a dch v tch hp)

[Pacific Belll 1988] cho php truyn d liu s ho t mt h thng u cui gia nh (home) qua cc ng in thoi ISDN n vn phng trung tm ca mt cng ty in thoi. Mc d ban u ISDN c thit k nh l mt phng php truyn d liu s gia hai u ca mt h thng in thoi (t mt h thng in thoi n mt h thng in thoi khc), nhng n cng l mt cng ngh truy nhp mng quan trng cho php truy nhp tc cao (v d, 128 Kb/s) t nh ti mt mng d liu v d nh Internet. Trong trng hp ny,ISDN c th c hiu n gin nh l mt modem tt hn[NSA 1995]. Mt ngun tt b xung thng tin v ISDN l Dan Kegels ISDL page. Cc modem quay s v ISDN bng tn hp l nhng cng ngh c trin khai su rng.Hai cng ngh mi l Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSLng dy thu bao bt i xng) v hybrid fiber coaxial cable (HFC- lai gia cp ng trc v cp quang) [Cable 1988] hin cng ang c xy dng. ADSL l khi nim tng t nh modem quay s: n l mt cng ngh modem mi mt ln na chy trn cc ng dy in thoi xon i hin ang tn ti, nhng c th truyn ti vi tc ln n khong 8 Mb/s t ISP router n mt h thng u cui nh ring. Tc d liu theo hng ngc li, t h thng u cui nh n router ca vn phng trung tm, l nh hn 1 Mb/s. S bt i xng trong tc truy cp lm pht sinh thut ng "Bt i xng" trong ADSL. S bt i xng trong tc d liu phn nh s tin tng rng nhng ngi dng gia nh c nhiu kh nng l mt ngi tiu th thng tin (em d liu vo nh ca h) hn l mt nh cung cp thng tin. ADSL s dng b ghp knh phn chia theo tn s, nh miu t trong phn trc. c bit, ADSL chia lin kt truyn thng gia home v ISP thnh 3 di tn khng trng nhau sau :
o o o

high-speed downstream channel (knh truyn xung tc cao), trong di tn t 50 KHz n 1MHz medium-speed upstream channel (knh truyn ln tc trung bnh), trong di tn t 4 KHz n 50 KHz v ordinary POTs two way telephone channel (knh in thoi hai chiu POT thng thng),trong di tn t 0 n 4 KHz

Mt c trng ca ADSL chnh l dch v cho php ngi dng thc hin mt cuc gi thoi thng thng, bng cch s dng knh POTs,trong khi ng thi c th lt wed.c im ny l khng c sn i vi cc modem quay s chun. Lng bng thng hng ln v hng xung thc s c sn cho ngi s dng l mt hm ca khong cch gia home modem v ISP modem, loi ng cp xon

i, v nhiu in (giao thoa in). i vi mt ng dy cht lng cao vi nhiu in khng ng k, th mt tc truyn xung 8 Mb/s l hon ton c th nu khong cch gia home v ISP nh hn 3.000 mt; tc truyn xung gim xung khong 2 Mb/s i vi khong cch 6.000 mt. Phm vi ca tc truyn ln t 16 Kb/s n 1 Mb/s. Trong khi ASDL,ISDN v modem quay s tt c u s dng cc ng in thoi thng thng, th cc mng truy nhp HFC li l s m rng ca mng cp hin nay s dng cho vic pht sng truyn hnh cp. Trong mt h thng cp truyn thng, mt trm im cui ca cp s pht qung b thng qua s phn b ca cp ng trc v cc b khuch i c tr (chng ta s tho lun v cp ng trc sau trong chng ny). Nh c minh ha trong Hnh 1.5-2, cp quang (cng s tho lun sm) kt ni im cui ca cp n cc nt ln cn (cc nt hng xm), t cp ng trc truyn thng s c s dng tip cn cc h gia nh ring l v cc cn h (chung c). Mi mt nt hng xm thng h tr t 500 n 5000 h gia nh.

Figure 1.5-2: Mt mng truy nhp lai gia cp quang v cp ng trc (HFC) Cng nh vi ADSL, HFC i hi phi c cc modem c bit, c gi l cable modem. Cc cng ty cung cp truy nhp Internet qua cp yu cu khch hng ca

h phi mua hoc thu mt modem.Mt trong nhng cng ty nh vy l CyberCable , ni m s dng Motorolas CyberSufer Cable Modem v cung cp truy nhp Internet tc cao n hu ht cc vng ln cn Paris. Thng thng, modem cp l mt thit b ngoi vi v kt ni n my tnh gia nh thng qua mt cng Ethenet 1-BaseT (chng ta s tho lun chi tit chng 5). Cc modem cp chia mng HFC thnh 2 knh, mt knh truyn xung v mt knh truyn ln. Cng nh vi ADSL, knh truyn xung thng c phn b nhiu bng thng v do c tc truyn dn ln. V d, tc truyn xung ca h thng CyberCable l 10 Mb/s v tc truyn ln l 768 Kp/s. Tuy nhin, vi HFC ( v khng ng cho ADSL), cc tc ny c chia s gia cc h gia nh, nh chng ta s tho lun bn di. Mt c im quan trng ca HFC l n l mt phng tin truyn thng chia s. C th, mi gi tin c gi bi headend (im cui-trung tm phn phi truyn hnh cp) s di chuyn n ng xung ca tt c cc lin kt dn ti mi h gia nh; v mi gi tin c gi t mt h gia nh s di chuyn ln knh truyn ln n headend ny. V l do ny, nu mt s ngi s dng nhn c cc video Internet khc nhau trn knh truyn xung, th tc thc t m mi ngi s dng nhn c video ca h s nh hn ng k so vi tc truyn xung. Mt khc, nu tt c ngi s dng hin thi u ang lt Web, th mi ngi s dng thc s c th nhn c cc trang web vi tc truyn xung ti a, mc d mt nhm nh ngi dng s him khi nhn c mt trang web vo cng mt thi im chnh xc. Bi v knh truyn ln cng c chia s, nn cc gi tin gi i bi hai h gia nh khc nhau ti cng mt thi im s dn n xung t, iu s lm gim hn na bng thng truyn ln thc s. (Chng ta s tho lun v vn xung t ny chi tit hn khi chng ta tho lun v Ethernet trong Chng 5.) Nhng ngi ng h ADSL nhanh chng ch ra rng ADSL l mt kt ni im ti im gia h gia nh v ISP, v do ton b bng thng ADSL c dnh ring thay v b chia s. Tuy nhin, nhng ngi ng h cp lp lun rng mt mng HFC c kch c tng ng s cung cp bng thng ln hn ca ADSL [@ Home 1988].Cuc tranh u gia ADSL v HFC v truy nhp nh ring tc cao bt u sng t, v d, [@Home 1998].

Cc mng truy nhp doanh nghip


Trong cc mng truy nhp doanh nghip, mt mng cc b (LAN) c s dng kt ni mt h thng u cui vi mt router bin. Nh chng ta s thy trong Chng 5, c rt nhiu loi cng ngh LAN khc nhau. Tuy nhin, cng ngh Ethernet hin ti b xa cc cng ngh truy cp ph bin nht trong cc mng doanh nghip. Ethernet mang n tc 10 Mb/s hoc 100Mb/s (v hin nay thm

ch ln n 1 Gb/s). N s dng dy ng xon i lm cp ng trc kt ni mt s h thng u cui vi nhau v vi mt router bin. Router bin c trch nhim nh tuyn cc gi tin c a ch ch nm bn ngoi mng LAN . Ging nh HFC, Ethernet s dng mt phng tin chia s, do nhng ngi dng cui s chia s tc truyn dn ca mng LAN. Gn y, cng ngh chia s Ethernet c di chuyn theo hng cng ngh chuyn mch Ethernet. Chuyn mch Ethernet s dng cp ng trc a hoc cc phn on Ethernet xon i kt ni vo mt switch cho php ton b bng thng ca mt Ethernet s c chuyn giao cho nhng ngi s dng khc nhau trn cng mt mng LAN cng mt lc [Cisco 1998]. Chng ta s tm hiu v chia s v chuyn mch Ethernet chi tit hn trong Chng 5.

Cc mng truy nhp di ng


Cc mng truy nhp di ng s dng ph tn v tuyn kt ni mt h thng u cui di ng (v d nh, mt my tnh xch tay hoc mt PDA vi mt modem khng dy) n mt trm c s, nh c ch ra trong Hnh 1.5-1. Trm c s ny, ln lt, c kt ni n mt router bin ca mt mng d liu. Mt chun tiu biu cho mng d liu khng dy l Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) [Wireless 1998]. Nh tn gi ca n, mt mng CDPD hot ng nh mt mng ph kn bn trong mng in thoi t bo (tc l, nh mt mng ring o nh hn, nh mt phn ca mng ln hn). Do mt mng CDPD s dng ph v tuyn ging nh h thng in thoi t bo, v hot ng tc 10 Kb/s. Nh vi cc mng truy nhp da vo cp v mng Ethernet chia s, cc h thng u cui CDPD phi chia s phng tin truyn dn vi cc h thng u cui CDPD khc trong cc c ph bi mt trm c s. Mt giao thc iu khin truy cp phng tin (MAC) c s dng phn x chia s knh gia cc h thng u cui CDPD; chng ta s quan tm n cc giao thc MAC chi tit hn Chng 5. H thng CDPD h tr giao thc IP, v do cho php mt h thng u cui IP trao i cc gi tin IP qua cc knh khng dy vi mt trm c s IP. Mt mng CDPD thc s c th h tr nhiu giao thc tng mng; ngoi IP, giao thc ISO CNLP cng c h tr. CDPD khng cung cp cho bt k giao thc no trn tng mng. T kha cnh Internet, CDPD c th c xem nh l m rng ca mng quay s Internet (tc l, kh nng chuyn cc gi tin IP) trn mt lin kt khng dy gia mt h thng u cui di ng v mt router Internet. Mt gii thiu tuyt vi v CDPD l [Waung 98].

1.5.2 Phng tin truyn thng vt l


Trong cc tiu mc trc y chng ta a ra mt ci nhn tng quan v mt s cng ngh mng truy nhp quan trng nht trong mng Internet. Trong khi m t cc cng ngh ny, chng ta cng ch ra cc phng tin truyn thng vt l c s dng. V d, chng ta ni rng, HFC s dng kt hp cp quang v cp ng trc. Chng ta ni rng cc modem thng thng, ISDN, v ADSL s dng cp ng xon i. V chng ta ni rng mng truy nhp di ng s dng ph tn v tuyn in. Trong mc ny chng ti s cung cp mt ci nhn tng quan ngn gn v cc phng tin truyn dn v cc phng tin truyn dn khc thng c s dng trong mng Internet. nh ngha phng tin vt l c ngha l g, chng ta hy suy ngm v vng ic vn tt ca mt bit. Hy xem xt mt bit di chuyn t mt h thng u cui, thng qua mt lot cc lin kt v router, n mt h thng u cui khc. Bit ti nghip ny b truyn i rt nhiu, rt nhiu ln! u tin h thng u cui ngun truyn bit ny i v ngay sau router u tin trong chui s nhn c bit ; sau router u tin truyn bit ny i v ngay sau router th hai nhn c bit , v.v Do bit ca chng ta, khi di chuyn t ngun ti ch, i qua mt lot cc cp truyn-nhn. Vi mi mt cp truyn-nhn, bit ny c gi i bng cch truyn sng in t trn mt phng tin vt l. Cc phng tin vt l c th nm di nhiu hnh dng v hnh thc, v khng bt buc phi cng loi vi mi cp truyn-nhn dc theo ng i (t ngun n ch). V d v cc phng tin thng tin vt l gm c dy ng xon i, cp ng trc, cp si quang a mt, ph tn v tuyn mt t v ph tn v tuyn v tinh. Phng tin thng tin vt l phn thnh hai loi: thit b c nh hng v thit b khng nh hng. Vi thit b c nh hng, cc sng c nh hng dc theo mt mi trng c, v d nh cp si quang, dy ng xon i hoc cp ng trc. Vi thit b khng nh hng, sng c pht qung b trong kh quyn v trong khng gian bn ngoi, chng hn nh trong mt knh v tinh k thut s hoc trong mt h thng CDPD.

Mt s phng tin vt l ph bin


Gi s rng bn mun mc (dy) in cho mt to nh cho php cc my tnh c th truy cp vo Internet hoc mt mng cc b -- bn nn s dng dy ng xon i, cp ng trc, hay cp quang? Phng tin no c th em li c tc (truyn) bit (d liu) cao nht qua nhng khong cch xa nht? Chng ta s tr li nhng cu hi ny bn di.

Nhng trc khi chng ta i vo nhng c im ca nhng loi thit b c nh hng khc nhau, chng ta c mt vi nhn xt v chi ph ca chng. Chi ph thc t ca lin kt vt l (dy ng, cp quang, v.v.....) thng tng i nh so vi chi ph ca cc lin kt mng khc. c bit, gi nhn cng gn vi vic lp t lin kt vt l c th ln hn chi ph ca nguyn vt liu. V l do , rt nhiu nhng cng ty xy dng lp t dy xon i, si quang, v cp ng trc cho mi cn phng trong to nh. Thm ch nu lc u ch c mt phng tin c s dng ngay, th l mt c hi tt nhng thit b khc c th c s dng trong tng lai gn, v rt nhiu tin s c tit kim m khng phi lp t thm cc ng dy. Dy ng xon i Thit b truyn dn t tn km v thng c s dng nht l dy ng xon i. T hn 100 nm nay n c s dng trong cc mng li in thoi. Trn thc t, c nhiu hn 99% cc kt ni mc t thit b in thoi cm tay n b chuyn mch in thoi cc b s dng dy ng xon i. Hu ht chng ta u tng nhn thy dy xon i trong nh hoc trong mi trng lm vic ca mnh. Dy xon i bao gm 2 si ng cch in, mi si dy khong 1mm, c sp xp u n theo m hnh xon c; quan st Hnh 1.5-3. Nhng si dy c xon vo nhau gim thiu s nhiu in xy ra gia nhng cp ging nhau. in hnh nh, mt s cp c buc li vi nhau trong mt dy cp bng cch bc chng li trong 1 lp bo v. Mi cp dy to thnh mt lin kt truyn thng n

Hnh 1.5-3: Cp dy xon Dy xon i khng bc(UTP) thng c s dng cho cc mng my tnh trong phm vi mt to nh, c ngha l, cho cc mng cc b (LAN). Tc truyn d liu cho cc mng LAN s dng dy xon i ngy nay nm trong khong t 10 Mb/s n 100 Mb/s. Tc truyn d liu c th t c ph thuc vo dy ca dy v khong cch gia my pht v my thu. 2 loi UTP thng thng trong cc mng LAN: loi 3 v loi 5. Loi 3 ph hp vi cp dy xon phn bc thoi, thng thy trong cc ta nh vn phng. Cc ta nh vn phng thng mc dy vi hai hoc nhiu hn cc cp dy xon i loi 3 song song; mt cp c s dng cho lin kt in thoi, v nhng cp b sung c th c s dng cho cc ng dy in thoi thm vo hoc cho kt ni mng LAN. Mng Ethernet 10Mb/s, mt trong nhng loi mng LAN ph bin nht, c th s dng loi 3 UTP. Loi 5, vi nhiu cun xon trn mi cm v Teflon cch nhit, c

th iu khin tc truyn bit cao hn. Mng Ethernet 100Mb/s chy trn loi 5 UTP tr nn rt ph bin trong nhng nm gn y. Trong nhng nm gn y, loi 5 UTP tr nn thng dng cho s lp t trc trong nhng ta nh vn phng mi. Khi cng ngh quang th hc xut hin vo nhng nm 1980, rt nhiu ngi ch bai dy xon i bi v n c tc truyn bit tng i chm. Mt s ngi cn cm thy rng cng ngh quang th hc c th thay th hon ton dy xon i. Nhng dy xon i khng th b i mt cch d dng. Cng ngh dy xon i mi, v d nh loi 5 UTP, c th t c tc truyn d liu 100 Mbps i vi khong cch t ti vi trm mt. Thm ch tc cao hn c th t c vi nhng khong cch ngn hn.Cui cng, dy xon i ni ln nh mt gii php vt tri cho lin kt mng LAN tc cao. Nh tho lun trong Phn 1.5.1, dy xon i cng thng c s dng trong vic truy cp Internet ti nh ring. Chng ta thy rng cng ngh modem quay s c th truy cp vi tc t ti 56 Kbps qua dy xon i. Chng ta cng thy rng ISDN rt hu dng trong nhiu tp th, cung cp tc truy cp vo khong 128 Kb/s qua dy xon i. Chng ta cng thy rng cng ngh ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Loop) c kh nng gip ngi dng truy cp Web vi tc vt qua 6 Mb/s qua dy xon i. Cp ng trc Ging nh dy xon i, cp ng trc bao gm 2 dy ng, tuy nhin hai dy dn ny c t ng tm thay v t song song. Vi cu trc ny cng vi 1 cht cch nhit v bao bc c bit, cp ng trc c th c tc truyn bit cao hn so vi dy xon i. Cp ng trc c 2 loi: cp ng trc bng thng gc v cp ng trc bng thng rng. Cp ng trc bng thng gc, cng c gi l cp 50-ohm, dy khong 1 cm, nh, v d dng un cong . N thng c s dng trong cc mng LAN; trn thc t, my tnh m bn s dng ni lm vic hoc trong trng hc thng kt ni mng n mt mng LAN bng cp ng trc bng thng rng hoc bng UTP. Hy quan st kt ni n card giao din trong my tnh ca bn. Nu bn nhn thy gic cm ging nh gic in thoi v mt vi dy tng t nh dy in thoi, th bn ang s dng UTP; nu bn nhn thy 1 b ni hnh ch T v 1 cp chy ra c 2 mt ca b ni ch T, th bn ang s dng cp ng trc bng thng gc. Thut ng bng thng gc xut pht t thc t rng nhng dng bit c chy trc tip vo trong cp, m khng lm lch tn hiu n mt bng tn

khc. Mng Ethernet 10Mb/s c th s dng UTP hoc cp ng trc bng thng gc. Nh chng ta s tho lun trong Chng 5, rng s cn chi ph cao hn s dng UTP cho mng Ethernet 10Mb/s, v UTP yu cu 1 thit b mng b sung, c gi l hub. Cp ng trc bng thng rng, cn c gi l cp 75-ohm, n mng hn 1 cht, nh hn v cng hn so vi loi bng thng gc. Trc kia n thng c s dng trong mng LAN v vn c th tm thy trong mt vi h thng c. i vi cc mng LAN, cp bng thng gc c a dng hn, bi v n t t hn v d dng iu khin vt l, v khng yu cu cp gn lin. Tuy vy, cp bng thng rng vn thng c s dng hn trong cc h thng truyn hnh cp. Nh chng ta tm hiu trong Phn 1.5.1, cc h thng truyn hnh cp gn y c ghp thnh i vi cc modern cp cung cp cho ngi dng ti nh vic truy cp Web vi tc 10 Mb/s hoc cao hn. Vi cp ng trc bng thng rng, my pht chuyn t tn hiu s sang mt bng tn c bit khc, v tn hiu tng t kt qu c gi t my pht ti 1 hoc nhiu my thu. C cp ng trc bng thng gc v bng thng rng u c th c s dng nh mt thit b chia s c nh hng. c bit, 1 s h thng u cui c th c kt ni trc tip ti cp, v tt c cc h thng u cui nhn bt k th g m mt trong nhng my tnh truyn ti. Chng ta s nhn nhn vn ny k cng hn trong Chung 5. Cp quang Si quang l mt si mng, mt mi trng linh hot iu khin xung ca nh sng, vi mi xung i din cho 1 bit. Mt si quang n c th h tr tc truyn bit rt ln, c th ln ti hng chc hoc thm ch hng trm gigabit/giy. Chng min nhim vi nhiu cm ng in t, c suy gim tn hiu rt thp/100 km, v rt kh khai thc. Nhng c im ny khin cp quang tr thnh thit b truyn dn nh hng tm xa c a dng, c bit l vi nhng lin kt vt bin (lin kt ra nc ngoi). Rt nhiu nhng mng in thoi khong cch xa M, v nhng ni khc ngy nay u s dng cp quang. Cp quang cng tr nn ph bin trong xung sng ca mng Internet. Tuy vy, gi c cao ca cc thit b quang nh my pht, my thu, v cc cng chuyn mch gy tr ngi cho s trin khai cp quang nhng truyn ti tm gn, v d nh trong mt mng LAN hoc trong mt h gia nh trong mt mng truy nhp c nhn. H thng phng th nghim AT&T cung cp 1 trang web tuyt vi v cp quang, trong c mt s hnh ng kh p. Cc knh v tuyn trn mt t v qua v tinh

Cc knh v tuyn truyn nhng tn hiu trong ph in t. Chng l 1 phng tin hp dn v khng yu cu thit lp cc dy vt l, c th xuyn qua tng, cung cp kh nng lin kt vi mt ngi dng hay di chuyn, v c kh nng truyn tn hiu vi nhng khong cch xa. Nhng c im ny ca 1 knh v tuyn ph thuc nhiu vo mi trng truyn dn v khong cch m tn hiu c truyn i. Nhng nghin cu v mi trng s xc nh tn tht do ng i v s phai mu bng ( lm gim cng tn hiu khi n i qua 1 khong cch v i xung quanh/xuyn qua cc vt cn tr), s phai mu a ng ( do s suy gim tn hiu bi cc i tng cn tr), v nhiu (do cc knh v tuyn hoc cc tn hiu in t khc). Knh v tuyn trn mt t ni chung c th chia lm 2 nhm: nhng knh hot ng nh cc mng cc b ( thng ko di t 10 ti 1 vi trm mt) v cc knh v tuyn din rng ci m thng c s dng cho cc dch v d liu di ng (thng hot ng trong 1 khu vc th ). Mt s cc sn phm mng LAN khng dy c bn ngoi ch, hot ng trong phm vi 1-10 Mb/s . Cc thit b d liu di ng (v d nh chun CDPD chng ta cp n trong phn 1.3) thng cung cp cc knh hot ng 10 Kb/s. Tm hiu [Goodman97] c mt ci nhn tng qut v tho lun v cng ngh v cc sn phm ny. Mt v tinh truyn thng lin kt 2 hay nhiu my pht/thu vi sng c s trn mt t, c gi l cc trm mt t. V tinh nhn tn hiu truyn i trn mt bng tn, phc hi tn hiu s dng mt b lp (s c tho lun sau) v truyn tn hiu trn tn s khc. Cc v tinh c th cung cp bng thng trong phm vi hng gigabit mi giy. 2 loi v tinh c s dng trong lin lc l: v tinh a tnh v v tinh tm thp. V tinh a tnh vnh vin trn cng 1 ni so vi Tri t. S hin din tnh ny c c bng cch t v tinh trong qu o 36.000 km so vi b mt Tri t. Khong cch rt ln ny t mt trm mt t qua v tinh quay li trm mt t dn n mt tr qung b tn hiu ng k khong 250 mili giy. Tuy nhin, cc lin kt v tinh thng c s dng trong cc mng in thoi v trong xng sng ca mng Internet. V tinh tm thp c t kh gn vi Tri t v khng ng yn mt ch so vi Tri t. Chng xoay quanh Tri t nh Mt trng quay xung quanh Tri t. cung cp bo co lin tc v tnh hnh ca 1 khu vc, rt nhiu v tinh c t trong qu o. Hin ti c rt nhiu h thng lin lc tm thp trong pht trin. V d, H thng Irdirum bao gm 66 v tinh tm thp. Chm sao v tinh Lioyd cung cp v thu thp thng tin v Iridium tt nh cc h thng chm sao v tinh khc.

Cng ngh v tinh tm thp c th c s dng trong vic truy cp Internet trong tng lai.

Tham kho
[@Home 1998] @Home, "xDSL vs. @HOME'S Hybrid-fiber-coaxial (HFC) Cable Modem Network: the Facts," 1998. [ADSL 1998] ADSL Forum, ADSL Tutorial, 1998. [Cable 1998] Cable Data News, "Overview of Cable Modem Technology and Services," 1998. [Cisco 1998] Cisco, "Designing Switched LAN Internetworks," 1998. [Goodman 1997] D. Goodman (Chair), "The Evolution of Untethered Communications," National Academy Press, December 1997. [NAS 1995] National Academy of Sciences, "The Unpredictable Certainty: Information Infrastructure Through 2000," 1995. [Pacific Bell 1998] Pacific Bell, "ISDN Users Guide," http://www.pacbell.com/products/business/fastrak/networking/isdn/info/isdnguide/index.html [Waung 1998] W. Waung, "Wireless Mobile Data Networking The CDPD Approach," Wireless Data Forum, 1998. [Wireless 1998] Wireless Data Forum, "CDPD System Specification Release 1.1," 1998

1.6 Tr(Delay) v Mt(Loss) trong cc mng chuyn mch gi


By gi chng ta s xem xt 1 cch tng qut cc mnh(pieces) ch yu ca kin trc mng Internet- cc ng dng, cc h thng u cui, cc giao thc vn chuyn u cui, cc router, v cc lin kt- by gi hy cng chng ti xem xt xem iu g c th xy ra i vi 1 gi tin khi n di chuyn t ngun n ch. Nh li rng 1 gi tin bt u ti 1 host (ngun), thng qua 1 lot cc router, v kt thc cuc hnh trnh ca mnh 1 host khc (ch). Khi 1 gi tin di chuyn t 1 nt (host hoc router) n nt k tip (host hoc router) dc theo ng dn, gi tin s phi chu 1 vi loi tr khc nhau ti mi nt dc theo ng dn. Cc tr quan trng nht l nodal processing delay (tr do x l ti nt mng), queuing delay (tr do xp hng), transmission delay (tr do truyn tin) v propagation delay (tr lan truyn); cng vi nhau, cc tr ny tch ly li gy ra total nodal delay ( tng tr ti nt). c c 1 s hiu bit su sc v chuyn mch gi v cc mng my tnh, chng ta phi hiu r bn cht v tm quan trng ca cc tr ny.

Hnh 1.6-1: Tr qua router A Chng ta hy cng nghin cu cc tr trong bi cnh Hnh 1.6-1. Nh 1 phn ca cc router u cui nm gia ngun v ch, 1 gi tin s c truyn t nt pha

trc(upstream node) qua router A, n router B. Mc ch ca chng ta l m t c im tr nt router A. Lu rng router A c 3 ng lin kt dn ra ngoi(outbound link), 1 dn n router B, 1 ci khc dn n router C, v 1 ci khc dn n router D. Mi 1 ng lin kt c t trc 1 hng i (cng c bit n nh 1 b m). Khi gi tin n router A (t upstream node), router A s kim tra phn u ca gi tin xc nh outbound link thch hp cho gi tin , v sau gi gi tin n link ny. Trong v d ny, outbound link cho gi tin l lin kt dn n router B. 1 gi tin ch c th c truyn trn 1 link nu hin thi khng c gi tin no khc ang c truyn trn link v nu khng c gi tin no khc trc n trong hng i; nu link ny hin thi ang bn hoc cc gi tin khc xp hng cho link ny, th gi tin va mi n s tham gia vo hng i. Thi gian cn thit kim tra phn u ca gi tin v xc nh ni chuyn gi tin l 1phn ca tr do x l. Tr do x l cng c th bao gm cc yu t khc, v d nh thi gian cn thit kim tra cc li bit-level trong gi tin, ci m xy ra trong qu trnh truyn cc bit ca gi tin t router trc n router A. Sau qu trnh x l ti nt ny, router s gi gi tin n hng i c t trc ng lin kt n router B.(Trong phn 4.7 chng ta s nghin cu chi tit xem 1 router hot ng nh th no.) Ti hng i, gi tin ny s tri qua tr do xp hng khi n i c truyn trn ng lin kt ny. Tr do xp hng ca 1 gi tin c th s ph thuc vo s lng cc gi tin khc, nhng gi tin n sm hn, xp hng v ang i c vn chuyn qua ng lin kt ny; tr ca 1 gi tin xc nh c th thay i ng k t gi ny n gi khc. Nu hng i rng v hin thi khng c gi tin no khc ang c truyn, th tr do xp hng ca gi tin ca chng ta l bng 0. Ngc li, nu lng truy cp ln v c nhiu gi tin khc cng ang i c vn chuyn, thi gian tr do xp hng s ln. Chng ta s thy ngay rng s lng gi tin m 1 gi tin ti c th hi vng tm thy trn ng ti (s lng trung bnh cc gi tin xp hng, ci m t l thun vi tr trung bnh gy ra bi cc gi tin) l 1 hm ca cng v bn cht ca lu lng truy cp n hng i. Gi s rng cc gi tin c truyn i theo kiu n trc phc v trc, nh l ph bin trong mng Internet, gi tin ca chng ta ch c th c truyn i khi tt c cc gi tin n trc n c truyn i ht. K hiu chiu di ca gi tin l L bit v k hiu tc truyn dn ca ng lin kt (t router A n router B) l R bit/s. Tc R c xc nh bi tc truyn dn ca ng lin kt n router B. V d, cho 1 lin kt Ethernet 10Mb/s, th tc l R=10 Mb/s; cho 1 lin kt Ethernet 100Mb/s, th tc l R=100Mb/s. Tr truyn tin (cn c gi l tr do lu tr v chuyn tip, nh tho lun trong Phn 1.4) bng L/R. l

lng thi gian cn thit truyn tt c cc bit ca gi tin vo trong ng lin kt. Khi 1 bit c y ln ng lin kt, n cn c truyn n router B. Thi gian cn thit truyn t im bt u ca ng lin kt n router B chnh l tr lan truyn. Bit ny c truyn i vi tc lan truyn ca ng lin kt. Tc lan truyn ph thuc vo phng tin vt l ca lin kt (v d, a si, dy ng xon i, v.v) v nm trong khong t 2*108 m/s n 3*108 m/s, bng , hoc nh hn 1 cht so vi tc nh sng. Tr lan truyn bng khong cch gia 2 router chia cho tc lan truyn. Ngha l, tr lan truyn bng d/s, trong d l khong cch gia router A v router B v s l tc lan truyn ca ng lin kt. Khi bit cui cng ca gi tin truyn n nt B, n v tt c cc bt trc ca gi tin s c lu tr ti router B. Ton b qu trnh sau s tip tc trong router B by gi s thc hin vic chuyn tip. Nhng ngi mi n vi lnh vc mng my tnh i khi gp kh khn trong vic nhn bit c s khc nhau gia tr truyn tin v tr lan truyn. Khc bit ny l kh thy nhng li quan trng. Tr truyn tin l lng thi gian cn thit router y gi tin ra; n l hm ca di gi tin v tc truyn dn ca lin kt, nhng khng lin quan g n khong cch gia 2 router. Tr lan truyn, mt khc, li l thi gian cn 1 bit truyn i t 1 router n ci tip theo; n l hm ca khong cch gia 2 router, nhng khng lin quan g n di ca gi tin hay tc truyn dn ca lin kt. Mt cch tng t c th lm r khi nim tr truyn tin v tr lan truyn. Xt 1 ng cao tc m c 100km li c 1 trm thu ph. Bn c th coi cc on ng cao tc nm gia cc trm thu ph nh cc ng lin kt v cc trm thu ph l cc router. Gi s rng cc t di chuyn(tc l, truyn) trn ng cao tc ny vi tc 100km/h (tc l, khi 1 t ri khi 1 trm thu ph n s ngay lp tc tng tc ln 100km/h v duy tr tc ny gia cc trm thu ph). Gi s rng c 1 on gm 10 chic xe t di chuyn cng nhau, v 10 chic xe theo sau nhau theo 1 th t nht nh. Bn c th coi mi 1 t nh l 1 bit v on xe nh 1 gi tin. Cng gi s rng mi 1 trm thu ph phc v (tc l, truyn) 1 t vi tc 12s/chic, v n lm vic rt khuya cho cc t ca on ch l cc t trn ng cao tc. Cui cng, gi s rng bt c khi no chic t u tin ca on cp vo 1 trm thu ph, n s i cng vo cho n khi 9 chic t khc n v xp pha sau n. (V vy ton b on xe phi c lu tr trm thu ph

trc khi n c th bt u c chuyn tip.) Thi gian cn thit trm thu ph y ton b on xe ln trn ng cao tc l 10/(5 t/pht)=2 pht. Thi gian ny tng t nh tr truyn tin trong 1 router. Thi gian cn thit 1 t di chuyn t im ra ca 1 trm thu ph n trm thu ph tip theo l 100Km/ (100km/h)=1h. Thi gian ny tng t nh tr lan truyn. V vy thi gian t khi on xe c lu tr pha trc ca 1 trm thu ph cho n khi on xe c lu tr pha trc ca trm thu ph tip theo l tng ca tr truyn tin v tr lan truyn trong v d ny l 62 pht. Hy tm hiu v d tng t ny thm 1 cht na. iu g s xy ra nu thi gian trm thu ph phc v cho 1 on xe ln hn thi gian 1 t di chuyn gia cc trm thu ph? V d, gi s rng cc t di chuyn vi tc 1000km/h v trm thu ph phc v cc t vi tc 1 pht 1 t. Khi tr do di chuyn gia cc trm thu ph l 6 pht v thi gian phc v 1 on xe l 10 pht. Trong trng hp , 1 vi xe t u tin trong on xe s n trm thu ph th 2 trc khi nhng t cui cng trong on ri khi trm thu ph th nht. Tnh hung ny cng pht sinh trong cc mng chuyn mch gi cc bit u tin trong 1 gi c th ti 1 router trong khi nhiu bit trong s cc bit ca gi vn i c truyn dn bi router trc . Nu chng ta k hiu dproc, dqueue, dtrans v dprop l tr x l, xp hng, truyn dn v lan truyn, th tng tr ti nt c cho bi cng thc dnodal = dproc + dqueue + dtrans + dprop S ng gp ca cc tr thnh phn c th khc nhau ng k. V d, dprop c th l khng ng k ( v d, 1 vi s) cho 1 lin kt kt ni 2 router trong cng khu trng i hc; tuy nhin, dprop bng hng trm mili giy cho 2 router c kt ni vi nhau bi 1 lin kt v tinh a tnh, v c th l thnh phn chi phi trong dnodal. Tng t, dtrans c th dao ng t khng ng k n ng k. ng gp ca n thng khng ng k vi tc truyn dn 10Mb/s v cao hn na (v d, cc mng LAN); tuy nhin, n c th l hng trm mms cho cc gi tin Internet ln gi ln cc ng lin kt modem 28.8 kb/s. Tr x l, dproc, thng l khng ng k; tuy nhin, n nh hng mnh m n thng lng (throughput) ti a ca mt router, l tc ti a m mt router c th chuyn tip cc gi d liu.

Tr do xp hng
Hu ht cc thnh phn phc tp v th v ca tr nt l tr do xp hng d queue. Trong thc t, tr do xp hng l rt quan trng v th v trong mng my tnh, do

c hng ngn bi bo v rt nhiu sch vit v n [Bertsekas 1992] [Daigle 1991] [Kleinrock 1975] [Kleinrock 1976] [Ross 1995]! y chng ti ch a ra nhng tho lun trc quan, 1 mc cao v tr do xp hng; ngi c mun tm hiu thm c th mun c qua 1 vi quyn sch (hoc thm ch cui cng vit 1 lun n tin s v ti ny!). Khng ging nh 3 loi tr khc (c th l, dproc, dtrans v dprop), tr do xp hng c th khc nhau gia cc gi. V d, nu c 10 gi tin n 1 hng i rng ti cng 1 thi im, gi tin u tin c truyn i s khng phi chu tr do xp hng, trong khi gi tin cui cng c truyn i s chu 1 tr do xp hng tng i ln (khi n i cho 9 gi tin khc c truyn i). Do , khi m t c im ca tr do xp hng, ngi ta thng s dng bin php thng k, v d tr do xp hng trung bnh, phng sai ca tr do xp hng v xc sut m tr do xp hng vt qu 1 vi gi tr c nh trc. Khi no th tr do xp hng l ln v khi no th n l khng ng k? Cu tr li cho cu hi ny ph thuc phn ln vo tc ca lu lng truy cp n hng i, tc truyn dn ca lin kt, v tnh cht ca lu lng truy cp n, ngha l, d lu lng truy cp n l nh k hay n truy cp n 1 cch t ngt. thu c 1 s hiu bit y, hy k hiu a l tc trung bnh ca cc gi tin n hng i (n v ca a l gi tin/giy). Nh li rng R l tc truyn dn, tc l, n l tc (tnh theo bit/s) m cc bit c y ra khi hng i. n gin, ta s gi s rng tt c cc gi d liu u bao gm L bit. Khi tc trung bnh cc bit n hng i l La bit/s. Cui cng, gi nh rng hng i l rt ln, do v bn cht n c th cha v s bit. T l La/R, c gi l cng lu lng, thng ng mt vai tr quan trng trong vic xc nh mc ca tr do xp hng. Nu La/R > 1, khi tc trung bnh ca cc bit n hng i vt qu tc ca cc bit c th c truyn i t hng i. Trong trng hp khng may , hng i s c xu hng tng ln khng gii hn v tr do xp hng s tin n v cng! Do , mt trong nhng quy tc vng ca k ngh giao thng l : thit k h thng ca bn sao cho cng lu lng khng ln hn 1. By gi xt trng hp La/R <=1. y, bn cht ca lu lng truy cp n s tc ng n tr do xp hng. V d, nu cc gi tin n mt cch nh k, tc l, c mi 1 L/R giy s c 1 gi tin n, khi mi gi tin s n mt hng i rng v do s khng c tr do xp hng. Mt khc, nu cc gi tin n t ngt nhng nh k, n c th gy ra mt tr do xp hng trung bnh ng k. V d, gi s rng s c N gi tin n cng lc sau mi khong thi gian l (L/R)N giy. Khi gi tin u tin s c truyn i m khng b tr do xp hng; gi tin th hai s c truyn i vi tr do xp hng l L/R giy; v ni chung, gi tin th n s c truyn i vi tr do xp hng l (n-1)L/R giy. Chng ti li vic tnh tr do xp hng trung bnh trong v d ny nh mt bi tp cho ngi c.

Hai v d c m t trn vi cc bt n mt cch nh k l mt bit khng c thc. in hnh l vic truy cp n mt hng i l ngu nhin, tc l, cc bt n khng tun theo bt k mt khun mu no; cc gi tin c t cch nhau bi mt lng thi gian bt k. Trong trng hp thc t hn nh vy, t s La/R thng khng m t c im y ca cc s liu thng k v tr. Tuy nhin, n c ch trong vic t c mt hiu bit trc quan v mc ca tr do xp hng. c bit, nu cng lu lng gn bng 0, khi cc gi c y ra khi hng i vi tc ln hn rt nhiu so vi tc cc gi tin n; do , tr do xp hng trung bnh s gn bng 0. Mt khc, khi cng lu lng gn bng 1, th s c 1 khong thi gian khi m tc n vt qu nng lc truyn dn (do tnh truyn lot ca cc gi tin n), v 1 hng i c hnh thnh. Khi cng lu lng tin n 1, chiu di trung bnh ca hng i s ln hn v ln hn. tr do xp hng trung bnh ph thuc nh tnh vo cng lu lng c ch ra trong Hnh 1.6-2 di y. Mt kha cnh quan trng ch ra trong Hnh 1.6-2 l thc t rng khi cng lu lng tin n 1, tr do xp hng trung bnh s tng ln nhanh chng. Mt t l nh tng ln trong cng s dn n mt t l phn trm rt ln tng ln trong tr. C l bn tng c kinh nghim v hin tng ny trn ng cao tc. Nu bn thng xuyn li xe trn 1 con ng m thng b tc, th thc t l con ng thng b tc ngha l cng giao thng ca n gn bng 1. Nu 1 vi s kin gy ra 1 lng lu lng ln hn mc bnh thng, th cc tr bn phi chu c th rt ln.

Hnh 1.6-2: S ph thuc ca tr do xp hng trung bnh vo cng lu lng

Mt gi tin
Trong cc tho lun trc y ca chng ta, chng ta gi nh rng hng i c kh nng cha v s cc gi tin. Trong thc t mt hng i ng trc mt lin kt c kh nng hu hn, mc d sc cha ca hng i ph thuc rt ln vo thit k v chi phi ca cng (switch). Bi v kh nng ca hng i l hu hn, nn tr ca gi tin khng thc s tin n v cng khi cng lu lng tin n 1. Thay vo , mt gi c th i n gp mt hng i y. Vi khong trng khng lu tr thm 1 gi tin, mt router s nh gi tin ra; iu c ngha l, gi tin s b mt. T cch nhn ca h thng u cui, iu ny s c nhn nh l mt gi tin c truyn vo trong li ca mng, nhng khng bao gi xut hit t mng ch n. S lng cc gi d liu b mt tng ln khi cng lu lng tng ln. Do , hiu sut ti mt node thng c xc nh khng ch bi tr, m cn bi xc sut mt gi tin. Nh chng ta s tho lun trong chng tip theo, mt gi tin b mt c th c pht li trn mt c s u cui, bi giao thc tng ng dng hoc tng vn ti.

Tr u cui
Tho lun ca chng ta n thi im ny tp trung vo tr ti nt, tc l tr mt router ring l. Hy kt thc tho lun ca chng ta bng cch xt mt cch tm tt tr t ngun n ch. hiu c khi nim ny, gi s rng c Q-1 router gia my ch ngun v my ch ch. Chng ta cng gi s rng mng khng b tc nghn (tc l tr do xp hng l khng ng k), tr do x l ti mi mt router v ti my ch ngun l dproc, tc truyn dn ca mi mt router v ca my ch ngun l R bit/s, v tr lan truyn gia mi mt cp router v gia my ch ngun v router u tin l dprop. Cc tr ti cc nt tch ly v to ra tr u cui, dendend = Q(dproc + dtrans + dprop), trong mt ln na dtrans = L/R, vi L l kch thc gi tin. Chng ti li cho ngi c vic tng qut ha cng thc ny trong trng hp cc tr l khng ng nht ti cc node v xut hin tr do xp hng trung bnh ti mi node.

Tham kho

[Bertsekas 1992] D. Bertsekas and R. Gallager, Data Networks, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1992 [Daigle 1991] J.N. Daigle, Queuing Theory for Telecommunications, AddisionWesley, Reading Massachusetts, 1991. [Kleinrock 1975] L. Kleinrock, Queuing Systems, Volume 1, John Wiley, New York, 1975. [Kleinrock 1976] L. Kleinrock, Queuing Systems, Volume 2, John Wiley, New York, 1976. [Ross 1995] K.W. Ross, Multiservice Loss Models for Broadband Telecommunication Networks, Springer, Berlin, 1995.

1.7 Cc tng giao thc v cc m hnh dch v ca chng


T nhng tho lun ca chng ta trc y, r rng Internet l mt h thng v cng phc tp. Chng ta thy rng c rt nhiu mnh trong mng Internet: mt lng ln cc ng dng v cc giao thc, cc loi h thng u cui khc nhau v cc kt ni gia cc h thng, cc router, v nhiu loi phng tin truyn thng mc lin kt. Vi s phc tp to ln ny , liu c bt k hy vng (kh nng) no v t chc kin trc mng, hoc t nht l liu c bt c tho lun no v kin trc mng khng ? Tht may mn, cu tr li cho c hai cu hi ny l c. Trc khi hng suy ngh ca chng ta v kin trc Internet, hy tm mt s tng ng loi ngi. Trn thc t, chng ta tip xc vi cc h thng phc tp mi lc trong cuc sng thng ngy ca mnh. Hy tng tng nu mt ai bo bn phi m t, v d nh, h thng hng khng. Lm th no bn tm ra c ci cu trc m t h thng phc tp ny vi cc nhn vin bn v, nhng ngi kim tra hnh l, nhng ngi gc cng, cc phi cng v cc my bay,h thng kim sot khng lu v mt h thng ton cu dn ng cho cc my bay ? Mt cch m t h thng ny c th l m t cc chui hnh ng bn lm (hoc nhng ngi khc lm cho bn) khi bn i trn mt chuyn bay. Bn tr tin v, kim tra hnh l, i ti cng v cui cng l c a vo my bay. My bay ct cnh v c dn ng ti ch n. Sau khi my bay ca bn h cnh, bn ri khi my bay ti cng v yu cu ly li hnh l ca mnh. Nu l mt chuyn bay ti, bn phn nn v chuyn bay ti i l bn v (bn s chng nhn c g cho n lc ny ca mnh). Chui s kin ny c m t trong Hnh 1.7-1.

Hnh 1.7-1: Thc hin mt chuyn bay: cc hnh ng Chng ta c th thy mt s im tng ng y vi lin kt mng my tnh: bn ang c vn chuyn t ngun ti ch bng ng hng khng; tng t nh mt gi tin c vn chuyn t host ngun ti host ch trong mng Internet. Nhng y cha hn l nt tng ng m chng ta mong mun tm kim. Chng ta ang tm kim mt s cu trc trong Hnh 1.7-1. Nhn vo Hnh 1.7-1, ta thy rng u c mt chc nng kim tra v (ticketing function) hai u; cng nh chc nng x l hnh l (baggage function) cho cc hnh khch mua v, v chc nng x l ti cng (gate function) cho cc hnh khch c ghi v v c kim tra hnh l. Vi nhng hnh khch tri qua cc cng on (tc l, c ghi v, kim tra hnh l v qua ca) s c chc nng ct cnh v h cnh, v trong khi bay, c mt chc nng nh hng my bay (routing function). iu ny m ch rng chng ta c th nhn cc chc nng trong Hnh 1.7-1 theo lt ct ngang, nh c ch ra trong Hnh 1.7-2.

Hnh 1.7-2 : Phn tng ngang ca chc nng hng khng Hnh 1.7-2 chia cc chc nng trong vn chuyn hng khng thnh cc tng, cung cp mt b khung m da vo ta c th tho lun v vic di chuyn bng ng khng. By gi, khi chng ta mun m t mt phn ca vn chuyn hng khng, chng ta c th ni v mt b phn r rng, c th ca vn chuyn hng khng. V d, khi chng ta tho lun v chc nng x l ti cng, chng ta bit rng ta ang tho lun v chc nng nm bn di chc nng kim sot hnh l, v bn trn chc nng ct cnh v h cnh. Ta thy rng mi tng, lin kt vi cc tng bn di n, thc thi mt s chc nng, mt s dch v. Ti tng v v cc tng di, vic vn chuyn mt hnh khch qua li gia hai h thng (hng) hng khng c thc hin. Ti tng hnh l v cc tng di, vic vn chuyn hnh khch v cc hnh l ca h t cng on kim tra hnh l n yu cu hnh l c thc hin. Lu rng tng hnh l ch cung cp dch v ny cho nhng ngi c kim tra v. Ti tng cng, vic vn chuyn ngi v hnh l ca h t cng on cng khi hnh n cng ch c thc hin. tng ct/h cnh, vic vn chuyn mt ngi (thc t l, nhiu ngi) v hnh l ca h, c thc hin. Mi tng cung cp chc nng (dch v) ca chng bng cch (i) thc hin cc hnh ng c th bn trong tng (v d: tng cng, nhn v tr hnh khch t mt my bay) v bng cch (ii) s dng cc dch v ca cc tng trc tip bn di n (v d: tng cng, s dng dch v vn chuyn hnh khch ca tng ct/h cnh). Nh lu trn, mt kin trc phn tng cho php chng ta xem xt mt phn r rng, c th ca mt h thng ln v phc tp. iu ny t n c gi tr ng k.

Khi mt h thng c cu trc phn tng, n cng s d dng hn nhiu thay i vic thc hin cc dch v c cung cp bi cc tng. Min l mt tng cung cp cc dch v tng t cho tng trn n, v s dng cc dch v tng t t tng bn di n, phn cn li ca h thng s khng thay i khi mt thc hin trong tng thay i. (Lu rng s thay i trong vic thc hin ca mt dch v rt khc so vi vic thay i chnh dch v y). V d, nu chc nng x l ti cng b thay i (v d, cho hnh khch ln v xung my bay theo chiu cao), th phn cn li ca h thng hng khng s khng thay i bi v tng cng vn cung cp chc nng tng t (nhn v tr khch); ch n gin l n thc hin chc nng ny theo mt cch khc sau khi thay i. i vi nhng h thng ln v phc tp nhng h thng m lun lun phi cp nht, th kh nng thay i vic thc hin ca mt dch v m khng nh hng ti cc thnh phn khc ca h thng l mt li th quan trng ca vic phn tng. qu khi ni v cc hng hng khng. By gi chng ta hy hng s ch ti cc giao thc mng. gim phc tp thit k, nhng nh thit k mng t chc cc giao thc -- phn cng v phn mm mng nhng ci m thc hin cc giao thc -- thnh cc tng. Vi mt kin trc giao thc phn tng, mi giao thc s thuc v mt trong cc tng. Mt iu quan trng cn nhn ra rng mt giao thc tng n c phn phi gia cc thc th mng (bao gm cc h thng u cui v cc b chuyn mch gi) nhng ci m thc thi giao thc , tng t nh cc chc nng trong kin trc hng khng phn tng ca chng ta c phn phi gia cc sn bay n v i. Ni theo mt cch khc,s c mt mnh ca tng n trong mi thc th mng. Nhng mnh ny lin lc vi cc mnh khc bng cch trao i cc thng ip ca tng n. Cc thng ip ny c gi l n v d liu giao thc tng n (layer-n protocol data units) , hoc thng dng hn l nPDUs. Ni dung v nh dng ca mt n-PDU, cng nh cch thc m trong cc n-PDU c trao i gia cc thc th mng, c nh ngha bi mt giao thc tng n. Khi c xp li cng nhau, cc giao thc ca cc tng khc nhau c gi l chng giao thc. Khi tng n ca host A gi mt n-PDU ti tng n ca host B, tng n ca host A s chuyn n-PDU ti tng n-1 v sau bt tng n-1 vn chuyn n-PDU ti tng n ca B; do tng n c ni l da vo tng n-1 vn chuyn n-PDU ca n ti ch. Mt khi nim quan trng l m hnh dch v ca mt tng. Tng n-1 c gi l cung cp dch v cho tng n. V d, tng n-1 c th bo m rng n-PDU s ti tng n ch trong khong thi gian mt giy m khng gp li no, hoc n ch c th bo m rng n-PDU cui cng s ti ch m khng c bt k bo m no v li xy ra.

Khi nim v phn tng giao thc rt tru tng v i khi kh c th nm bt c khi tip cn ln u. Khi nim ny s tr nn r rng hn khi chng ta nghin cu v cc tng ca mng Internet v cc giao thc cu thnh nn chng mt cch chi tit hn. Nhng by gi hy nhn tng th v phn tng giao thc v chng giao thc vi mt v d. Xt mt mng m t thc cc giao thc giao tip ca n thnh 4 tng. V c 4 tng, nn c 4 loi PDU: 1-PDUs, 2-PDUs, 3-PDUs v 4-PDUs. Nh ch ra Hnh 1.7-3, ng dng, hot ng tng cao nht, tng 4, to ra mt thng ip, M. Bt c thng ip no c to ra tng cao nht ny u l 4-PDU. Bn thn thng ip M c th bao gm nhiu trng khc nhau (theo cch tng t nh mt cu trc hoc bn ghi trong mt ngn ng lp trnh c th bao gm nhiu trng khc nhau); n ty thuc vo ng dng nh ngha v thng dch cc trng trong thng ip. Cc trng c th cha tn ca bn gi, mt m ch ra loi ca thng ip v mt s d liu thm vo. Bn trong host ngun, cc ni dung ca ton b thng ip M sau s c chuyn xung chng giao thc n tng 3. v d trong Hnh 1.7-3, tng 3 trong host ngun chia mt 4-PDU, M, ra thnh hai phn , M1 v M2. Tng th 3 host ngun sau thm vo M1 v M2 ci c gi l cc header (cc tiu , u ), to ra 2 PDUs ca tng 3. Cc header cha thng tin b sung cn thit cho kha cnh gi v nhn ca tng 3 thc thi dch v m tng 3 cung cp cho tng 4. Th tc ny tip din trong ngun, b sung thm nhiu header ti mi tng, cho n khi 1-PDU c to ra. 1-PDU c gi ra ngoi host ngun ln mt ng truyn vt l. pha bn kia, host ch nhn 1-PDUs v hng(xp) chng ln chng giao thc. Ti mi tng, cc header tng ng s b loi b. Cui cng M c tp hp li t M1 v M2 v sau c chuyn ln ng dng.

Hnh 1.7-3: Cc PDUs khc nhau ti cc tng khc nhau trong kin trc giao thc

Lu rng Hnh 1.7-3, tng n s dng cc dch v ca tng n-1. V d, khi tng 4 to ra thng ip M, n chuyn thng ip ny xung tng 3 v da vo tng 3 vn chuyn thng ip ti tng 4 ti ch. Th v l, khi nim nh cy vo dch v ca tng thp hn l kh ph bin trong nhiu hnh thc giao tip khc. V d, xt vic gi th qua ng bu in thng thng. Khi bn vit mt bc th, bn bao gm c thng tin bn ngoi phong b v d nh a ch ch n v a ch tr v ca bc th. Bc th vi cc thng tin v a ch c th c coi nh l mt PDU tng cao nht ca chng giao thc. Sau bn b PDU vo mt hm th. Ti thi im ny, l th ri khi tay bn. Sau dch v bu chnh c th thm mt s thng tin ca h ln l th ca bn, c bn l thm mt header cho l th ca bn. V d , ti M mt m vch thng c in ln th ca bn. Khi bn b phong b th ca mnh vo mt hm th, bn nh cy vo cc dch v ca dch v bu chnh chuyn bc th ti ch chnh xc, mt cch kp thi. V d, bn s khng phi lo lng v vic liu xe ch th c b hng khi mang l th hay khng. Thay vo , bu in s lo vic ny, (c l) vi mt k hoch r rng khc phc t nhng sai st . Hn th na, bn trong bn thn dch v bu chnh cng c nhiu tng, v cc giao thc ti mt tng s nh cy v s dng cc dch v ca tng bn di. cho mt tng c th tng tc vi tng bn di n, cc giao din gia hai tng phi c nh ngha mt cch chnh xc. Cc khung (thn) chun nh ngha mt cch chnh xc cc giao din gia cc tng lin k (v d : nh dng ca cc PDU c truyn gia cc tng) v cho php cc nh pht trin phn mm v phn cng mng thit lp phn bn trong ca cc tng nh h mong mun. Do , nu mt thc hin mi v ci tin ca mt tng c a ra, th ci thc hin mi ny c th thay th ci cch thc hin c v, theo l thuyt, cc tng s tip tc lm vic c vi nhau. Trong mt mng my tnh, mi tng c th thc hin mt hoc nhiu hn cc tp cng vic khi qut sau y: Kim sot li, n lm cho knh logic gia cc tng trong hai phn t mng ngang hng tr nn tin cy hn. iu khin lung (kim sot lu lng), n ngn nga vic lm ngp mt my ngang hng chm hn bng cc PDUs.

Phn on v tp hp li, pha truyn i n chia cc khi d liu ln thnh cc mnh nh hn; v pha nhn n tp hp cc mnh nh ny li thnh khi d liu ln ban u. Ghp knh, n cho php mt vi phin mc cao hn chia s mt kt ni n mc thp hn. Ci t kt ni, n thit lp quan h (thc hin bt tay) vi mt h ngang hng.

Phn tng giao thc c nhng li th v khi nim v cu trc. Tuy nhin, mt s nh nghin cu v cc k s mng phn i kch lit s phn tng ny [Wakeman 1992]. Mt mt hn ch tim tng ca s phn tng l mt tng c th lp li chc nng ca tng thp hn. V d, mt s chng giao thc cung cp chc nng khi phc li trn c lin kt c s (link basis) ln u cui c s (end-to-end basis). Mt hn ch th hai l chc nng ca mt tng c th cn cc thng tin (v d, gi tr timestamp) nhng ci m ch xut hin trong tng khc ; iu ny nh hng ti mc ch tch bit cc tng.

1.7.1 Chng giao thc Internet


Ngn xp Internet bao gm 5 tng : tng vt l, tng ln kt d liu, tng mng, tng vn ti, v tng ng dng. Thay cho vic s dng thut ng PDU-n cho mi tng, chng ta gn tn cho cc PDUs ca bn trong nm tng nh sau: frame (khung), datagram , segment (on), v message (thng ip). Ta trnh t tn cho n v d liu ca tng vt l, v khng c tn no thng c s dng tng ny. Ngn xp Internet v tn ca cc PDU tng ng c ch ra trong Hnh 1.7-4

Hnh 1.7-4: Chng giao thc, v cc n v d liu giao thc

Mt tng giao thc c th c thc hin bng phn mm, phn cng hoc s dng kt hp c hai. Cc giao thc tng ng dng v d nh HTTP v SMTP lun lun c thc hin bng phn mm trong hu ht cc h thng u cui; tng t vi cc giao thc tng vn ti. Bi v tng vt l v tng lin kt d liu chu trch nhim iu khin s giao tip trao i qua mt lin kt c th, nn chng thng c thc hin trong mt card giao din mng (v d : card giao din Ethernet hoc ATM) lin kt vi mt ng lin kt c cp. Tng mng thng l s thc hin kt hp trn ln ca phn cng v phn mm. By gi ta tng kt cc tng ca Internet v cc dch v m chng cung cp: Tng ng dng: Tng ng dng chu trch nhim ph tr cho cc ng dng mng. Tng ng dng bao gm nhiu giao thc, bao gm HTTP h tr Web, SMTP h tr th in t, v FTP h tr truyn file. Ta s thy trong Chng 2 rng tht d dng to cc giao thc tng ng dng mi ca ring chng ta. Tng vn ti: Tng vn ti chu trch nhim truyn cc thng ip ca tng ng dng gia hai pha client v server ca mt ng dng. Trong mng Internet c hai giao thc vn chuyn, TCP v UDP, c hai u c th vn chuyn cc thng ip ca tng ng dng. TCP cung cp mt dch v hng kt ni cho cc ng dng ca n. Dch v ny bao gm vic m bo phn pht cc thng ip ca tng ng dng ti ch v iu khin lung (v d : ng b tc ca bn gi v bn nhn). TCP cng phn on cc thng ip di thnh cc on ngn hn v cung cp k thut kim sot tc nghn, do mt ngun (pht) s gim tc truyn ca n khi mng b tc nghn. Giao thc UDP cung cp cho cc ng dng ca n mt dch v phi kt ni, dch v (nh chng ta thy trong phn 1.3) l mt dch v rt khng hnh thc. Tng mng : tng mng chu trch nhim nh tuyn cc datagrams t mt host ti mt host khc. Tng mng ca Internet c hai thnh phn chnh c bn. Th nht, n c mt giao thc nh ngha cc trng trong IP datagram cng nh cch m cc h thng u cui v cc router x l cc trng ny. Giao thc ny l giao thc IP ni ting. Ch c mt giao thc IP, v tt c cc thnh phn ca Internet m c tng mng u phi chy giao thc IP ny. Tng mng ca Internet cng bao gm cc giao thc nh tuyn, chng xc nh tuyn ng m datagram s dng gia cc ngun v cc ch. Internet c nhiu giao thc nh tuyn. Nh chng ta thy phn 1.4, Internet l mng ca mng v trong mt mng, ngi qun tr mng c th chy bt k giao thc nh tuyn mong mun no . Mc d tng mng bao gm c giao thc IP v mt lng ln cc giao thc nh

tuyn, nhng n thng c gi n gin l tng IP, iu phn nh s tht rng IP l cht kt dnh lin kt Internet li vi nhau. Cc giao thc tng vn ti ca Internet (TCP v UDP) trong mt host ngun gi mt segment ca tng vn ti v mt a ch ch n tng IP, ging nh khi bn gi cho dch v bu in mt bc th vi mt a ch ch. Tng IP sau cung cp cc dch v nh tuyn segment ti ch ca n. Khi gi tin n c ch, IP s chuyn segment ti tng vn ti bn trong ch nhn. Tng lin kt (link layer): tng mng nh tuyn mt gi tin i qua mt lot cc b chuyn mch gi (tc l, cc router) gia ngun v ch. chuyn mt gi tin t mt node (host hoc b chuyn mch gi) ti node tip theo trong tuyn ng, tng mng phi da vo cc dch v ca tng lin kt. C th, ti mi node IP chuyn datagram ti tng lin kt ci s chuyn datagram ny ti node tip theo trn tuyn ng. Ti node tip theo ny, tng lin kt chuyn IP datagram ti tng mng. Qu trnh x l ny tng t nh nhn vin bu in ti bu in trung tm , ngi m t l th ln mt chic my bay, my bay s chuyn bc th ti bu in trung tm tip theo trn tuyn ng. Cc dch v c cung cp ti tng lin kt ph thuc vo giao thc c th ca tng lin kt c s dng trn ng dn. V d , mt s giao thc cung cp dch v vn chuyn tin cy da trn mt ng lin kt c s, tc l, t node truyn pht , qua mt lin kt , ti node nhn. Lu rng, dch v chuyn pht tin cy ny khc vi dch v chuyn pht tin cy ca TCP, TCP cung cp chuyn pht tin cy t mt h thng u cui ti mt h thng u cui khc. V d v tng lin kt bao gm Ethernet v PPP; trong mt s ng cnh , ATM v Frame Relay c th c xem nh cc tng lin kt. V cc datagram thng cn phi i qua mt vi ng link i t ngun ti ch, mt datagram c th c x l,iu khin bi cc giao thc khc nhau ca tng lin kt ti cc ng link khc nhau dc theo l trnh ca n. V d, mt datagram c th c x l bi Ethernet trn mt lin kt v sau x l bi PPP ti lin kt tip theo. IP s nhn mt dch v khc nhau t mi giao thc khc nhau ca tng lin kt.

Tng vt l: Trong khi cng vic ca tng lin kt l chuyn ton b cc frame t mt phn t mng ti phn t mng lin k, th cng vic ca tng vt l l chuyn cc bit ring trong frame t mt node ti node tip theo. Cc giao thc ti tng ny l ph thuc vo lin kt, v xa hn l ph thuc vo cc phng tin truyn dn thc th ca lin kt (v d : dy

ng xon i, si quang m hnh n). V d , Ethernet c nhiu giao thc tng vt l: mt cho dy ng xon i, mt ci khc cho cp ng trc, v mt giao thc khc cho cp quang, v.v Trong mi trng hp , mt bit c chuyn qua lin kt theo cc cch khc nhau. Nu bn xem mc lc, bn s thy rng ta t chc quyn sch ny s dng cc tng ca chng giao thc Internet. Chng ta s dng phng php tip cn topdown , u tin xem qua tng ng dng v sau tin xung thp hn.

1.7.2 Cc thc th v cc tng mng


Cc thc th mng quan trng nht l cc h thng u cui v cc b chuyn mch gi. Chng ta s tho lun v sau trong quyn sch ny, c hai loi b chuyn mch gi : router v bridge (cu). Chng ta trnh by mt cch khi qut v cc router trong cc phn trc y. Bridge s c tho lun chi tit ti Chng 5 trong khi cc router s c xem xt c th ti Chng 4. Tng t nh cc h thng u cui, cc router v bridge t chc cc phn cng v phn mm mng thnh cc tng. Nhng router v bridge khng p dng tt c cc tng trong chng giao thc; chng thng ch s dng cc tng bn di. Nh ch ra Hnh 1.7-5 , cc bridge thc hin cc tng 1 v 2; cc router thc hin cc tng t 1 n 3. iu ny c ngha l, v d, cc Internet router c kh nng thc thi giao thc IP (giao thc tng 3) , trong khi cc bridge khng th. Sau ny chng ta s thy rng trong khi cc bridge khng nhn din c cc a ch IP, th chng ch c th nhn ra cc a ch tng 2, nh a ch Ethernet. Lu rng cc host thc thi tt c nm tng; iu ny thch hp vi cch nhn nhn rng : kin trc Internet t nhiu s phc tp ca n ti vng bin ca mng. Cc repeater (b lp), mt loi khc ca thc th mng s c bn lun Chng 5, n ch thc hin cc chc nng ca tng 1.

Hnh 1.7-5: Cc host ,router v bridge- mi th bao gm mt tp cc tng khc nhau, phn nh s khc nhau v chc nng ca chng.

Tham kho
[Wakeman 1992] Ian Wakeman, Jon Crowcroft, Zheng Wang, and Dejan Sirovica, "Layering considered harmful," IEEE Network, January 1992, p. 7.

1.8 Mng xng sng ca Internet, NAPs v ISPs


Tho lun ca chng ta v phn tng trong phn trc c th a ra n tng rng Internet l mt cu trc c t chc mt cch cn thn v c bn li mc cao. iu ny l chc chn ng theo ngha l tt c cc thc th mng (cc h thng u cui, router v bridge) u s dng mt tp cc giao thc chung, cho php cc thc th giao tip vi nhau. Nu ai mun thay i, loi b, hoc thm vo mt giao thc, ngi s phi tun theo mt quy trnh di v kh khn c c s chp thun ca IETF, t chc m s (mt trong s nhng t chc khc) m bo rng nhng thay i l ph hp vi cu trc bn li mc cao. Tuy nhin, t mt quan im t p, vi nhiu ngi Internet c v nh l pht trin mt cch hn lon, vi cc b phn, cc ngnh v cc nhnh mi ang xut hin mt cch ngu nhin trn c s hng ngy. Tht vy, khng ging nh cc giao thc, ca topo ca mng Internet c th pht trin v tin ha m khng cn c s chp thun t mt c quan trung ng no. By gi chng ta s c gng thu c mt s hiu bit v topo ca mng Internet ci m c v nh kh m mt.

Nh chng ta cp u chng ny, cc topo ca mng Internet l phn cp lng lo. Ni mt cch i khi, t thp n cao h thng phn cp bao gm cc h thng u cui (PC, my trm, v.v) kt ni vi Nh cung cp dch v Internet a phng (ISP). Cc ISP a phng ln lt c kt ni vi cc ISP khu vc, ci m ln lt c kt ni n cc ISP trong nc v quc t. Cc ISP trong nc v quc t c kt ni vi nhau ti cc tng cao nht trong h thng phn tng. Cc tng mi v nghnh mi ch c th c thm vo nh l mt mnh Lego ( chi bng vt rn hay nha c xy khp vo nhau) mi c th c gn vo mt cu trc Lego ang tn ti. Trong phn ny chng ta m t topo ca mng Internet ti M vo nm 1999. Hy bt u t nh ca h thng phn cp v lm vic xung di theo cch ca chng ta. C tr tng cao nht ca h thng phn cp l cc ISP quc gia, n c gi l Nh cung cp mng xng sng quc gia (NBPs). Cc NBPs to thnh cc mng xng sng c lp ko di qua Bc M (v in hnh l nc ngoi cng khng h g). Cng nh c nhiu cng ty in thoi ng di M, c nhiu NBPs cnh tranh vi nhau v lu thng v khch hng. Cc NBPs hin ti gm c internetMCI, SprintLink, PSINet, UUNet Technologies, v AGIS. Cc NBPs thng c cc lin kt truyn dn bng thng ln, vi bng thng trong khong t 1,5 Mb/s n 622 Mb/s v cao hn na. Mi NBP cng c nhiu hub ci m kt ni cc lin kt ca n v ti cc ISP khu vc c th mc vo NBP. Bn thn cc NBPs phi c kt ni vi nhau. thy iu ny, gi s c mt ISP khu vc, gi l MidWestnet, c kt ni n MCI NBP, v mt ISP khu vc khc, gi l EastCoastnet, c kt ni n NBP ca Sprint. Lm th no lu lng truy cp c th c gi t MidWestnet EastCoastnet? Gii php l a ra cc trung tm chuyn mch, c gi l cc im truy cp mng (NAPs-Network Access Points), n kt ni cc NBP, t cho php mi ISP khu vc truyn lu lng truy cp n bt k ISP khu vc no khc. cho tt c chng ta khi nhm ln, mt s NAP khng gi l NAP m thay vo l cc MAE (Tng i vng th). Ti M, nhiu NAP c iu hnh bi cc RBOC (cc cng ty iu hnh Bell khu vcTn gi chung ca cc cng ty in thoi M cung cp dch v ni ht trong mt vng a l ring); v d, PacBell c mt NAP ti San Francisco v Ameritech c mt NAP Chicago. Vi mt danh sch

ln ca cc NBP (nhng ci c kt ni vo t nht ba MAPs/MAE's), xem trong [Haynal 99]. Bi v cc NAP tip nhn v chuyn i mt khi lng ln lu lng truy cp Internet, cho nn thng th cc mng chuyn mch tc cao phc tp ca n c tp trung trong mt khu vc a l nh (v d, mt ta nh duy nht). Thng th cc NAP s dng cng ngh chuyn mch ATM tc cao ti trung tm ca NAP, vi IP nm trn nh ca ATM. (Chng ti cung cp mt gii thiu ngn gn v ATM phn cui ca chng ny, v tho lun v IP-over-ATM ti Chng 5) Hnh 1.8-1 minh ho PacBells San Francisco NAP, Cc chi tit ca Hnh 1.8-1 l khng quan trng i vi chng ta lc ny, n ng lu , tuy nhin l, cc hub NBP t bn thn n c th l cc mng d liu phc tp.

Hnh 1.8-1: Kin trc NAP ca PacBell (cch ni lch s ca trang web Pacific Bell).

Ngi c tinh c th nhn thy rng cng ngh ATM, ci m s dng cc mch o, c th c tm thy ni no trong mng Internet. Nhng trc y chng ti ni rng Internet l mt mng datagram v khng s dng cc mch o". By gi chng ti tha nhn rng cu ni ny hi ko dn s tht mt cht. Chng ti a ra tuyn b ny bi v n gip ngi c xem xt mt khu rng thng qua cc cy bng cch khng a ra cc vn chnh b che khut. S tht l c cc mch o trong mng Internet, nhng chng c tp trung trong cc nhm bit lp ca mng Internet v chng c chn su xung trong chng giao thc, thng nm tng 2. Nu bn thy kh hiu, th by gi ch cn gi v l Internet khng s dng bt k mt cng ngh no s dng cc mch o. iu ny khng phi l qu xa s tht. chy mt NBP khng phi l r. Thng 6 nm 1996, chi ph thu cc si quang 45 Mb/s t b bin ti b bin, cng nh phn cng b sung cn thit, vo khong 150.000 $/thng. V cc chi ph m mt NBP tr cho cc NAP kt ni n cc NAP c th vt qu 300,000 $ mi nm. Cc NBP v cc NAP cng cn chi ph vn ng k trong vic trang b cho lin kt mng tc cao. Mt NBP kim tin bng cch thu mt khon ph hng thng ca cc ISP khu vc m kt ni n n. Khon ph m mt NBP thu t mt ISP khu vc thng ph thuc vo bng thng ca kt ni gia ISP khu vc v NBP; r rng l mt kt ni 1.5 Mb/s s c tnh t tin hn mt kt ni 45 Mb/s. Mt khi cc kt ni c bng thng c nh ti ch, th cc ISP khu vc c th y ra v nhn v c nhiu d liu nh n mong mun, bng thng ca kt ni tng ln, m chi ph th khng tng thm. Nu mt NBP c doanh thu ng k t cc ISP khu vc m kt ni vi n, th n c th c tr cho ngun vn cao v cc chi ph hng thng thit lp v duy tr mt NBP. Mt ISP khu vc cng l mt mng li phc tp, bao gm cc router v cc lin kt truyn dn vi tc vo khong t 64 Kb/s tr ln. Mt ISP khu vc thng mc vo mt NBP (ti mt NBP hub), nhng n cng c th mc trc tip vo mt NAP, trong trng hp ny NBP khu vc tr mt khon ph hng thng cho mt NAP thay v cho mt NBP. Mt ISP khu vc cng c th mc vo xng sng ca Internet ti hai hay nhiu im khc nhau (v d, ti mt NBP hub hoc ti mt NAP). Lm th no mt ISP khu vc trang tri c chi ph

ca n? tr li cu hi ny, hy nhy vo y ca h thng phn cp. Cc h thng u cui c truy cp vo mng Internet bng cch kt ni n mt ISP a phng. Cc trng i hc v cc tng cng ty c th hot ng nh cc ISP a phng, nhng cc nh cung cp dch v xng sng cng c th phc v nh mt ISP a phng. Tuy nhin, c nhiu ISP a phng l cc cng ty gia nh nh. Mt trang web c nhn ph bin c bit n n gin nh mt "Danh sch" cha lin kt ti gn 8.000 a phng, khu vc, v cc ISP xng sng [List 1999]. Cc ISP a phng mc vo mt trong cc ISP khu vc trong khu vc ca n. Tng t nh cu trc l ph gia cc ISP khu vc v cc NBP, cc ISP a phng chi tr mt khon ph hng thng cho ISP khu vc ca n, ph thuc vo bng thng ca kt ni. Cui cng, cc ISP a phng thu t cc khch hng ca mnh (thng l) mt ph khng i, hng thng cho vic truy cp Internet: tc truyn dn ca kt ni cng cao, th chi ph hng thng cng cao. Chng ta kt thc phn ny bng cch ni n rng bt c ai trong s chng ta u c th tr thnh mt ISP a phng ngay khi chng ta c mt kt ni Internet. Tt c nhng g chng ta cn lm l mua cc thit b cn thit (v d, router v nhm cc modem) nhng ci cn thit cho php ngi dng khc kt ni n ci gi l im tp trung ca chng ta. Nh vy, cc lp mi v cc ngnh mi c th c thm vo topo ca mng Internet ging nh mt mnh Lego mi c th c gn vo mt cu trc Lego hin c.

Tham kho
[Haynal 99] R. Haynal, "Internet Backbones," http://navigators.com/isp.html [List 1999] "The List: The Definitive ISP Buyer's Guide," http://thelist.internet.com/

1.9 S lc lch s ca mng my tnh v mng Internet


Cc phn t 1.1 n 1.8 gii thiu mt cch tng quan v cng ngh ca mng my tnh v mng Internet. Kin thc hin ti ca bn gy n tng vi gia nh v bn b. Tuy nhin, nu bn thc s mun gy n tng mnh hn ti ln ba tic cocktail tip theo, th bn nn ri rc trong bi din thuyt ca mnh cc mu chuyn nh nhng l th v lch s hp dn ca Internet.

1961-1972: S pht trin v th hin ca cc nguyn l chuyn mch gi u tin.

Vo u nhng nm 1960 xut hin nhng du hiu u tin v lnh vc ca mng my tnh v Internet ngy nay, l thi im m mng in thoi ang l mng giao tip ph bin vt tri hn tt c. Nh phn 1.3 ni, mng in thoi s dng chuyn mch vng truyn thng tin t ngi gi n ngi nhn mt la chn thch hp c a ra l m thanh c truyn vi tc khng i gia ngi gi v ngi nhn. Cn c vo tm quan trng ngy tng (v chi ph ln hn) ca cc my tnh vo u nhng nm 1960 v s ra i ca my tnh chia s thi gian,mng my tnh ra i l l t nhin gii quyt cho cu hi lm th no mc ni cc my tnh vi nhau chng c th c chia s bi nhiu ngi s dng b ngn cch v mt a l. Lu lng truy cp c to ra bi nhiu ngi s dng c th c "truyn hng lot" cc c ly hot ng, v d nh, vic gi mt lnh n mt my tnh xa, theo sau l cc khong thi gian khng hot ng, trong khi ch i cu tr li hoc trong khi ch i nhng phn ng nhn c.
C ba nhm nghin cu trn ton th gii, tt c h u khng bit cng vic ca nhau, bt u a ra khi nim chuyn mch gi nh mt s la chn hiu qu v mnh m hn so vi chuyn mch vng. Cng trnh u tin cng b k thut chuyn mch gi l cng trnh ca Leonard Kleinrock [Kleinrock 1961, Kleinrock 1964]- mt sinh vin tt nghip ca MIT ti thi im . S dng l thuyt hng i, cng trnh ca Kleinrock chng minh tnh hiu qu ca phng php chuyn mch gi cho vic truyn hng lot cc ngun lu lng. Cng thi gian ny, Paul Baran thuc vin nghin cu Rand bt u nghin cu t m cch dng chuyn mch gi m bo an ton cho cc cuc m thoi qua mng qun i [Baran 1964], trong khi ti Phng Th Nghim Vt L Quc Gia ca Anh(National Physical Laboratory -NPL), Donald Davies v Roger Scantlebury cng pht trin cc tng ca h v chuyn mch gi. Cc nghin cu ti MIT, Rand, v NPL t nn mng cho Internet ngy nay . Nhng mng Internet cng c mt lch s lu di theo quan im xy dng v chng minh cng c bt u t u nhng nm 60. J.C.R. Lickder [DEC 1990]v Lawrence Roberts, c hai l cng s ca Kleinrock MIT, c hai tip tc ph trch cc chng trnh khoa hc my tnh ti C quan qun l cc d n cao cp (Advanced Reasearch Projects Agency -ARPA) M. Roberts [Roberts 67] cng b k hoch tng th cho ci c gi l ARPAnet [Roberts 1967], mng my tnh chuyn mch gi u tin v cng l t tin ca mng Internet cng cng ngy nay. Nhng mng chuyn mch gi u tin c bit n nh Interface Message Processors (IMPs-B x l thng ip giao din) v hp ng xy dng ARAPnet c cp cho BBN(cng ty Bolt, Beranek and Newman). Vo ngy Quc T lao ng nm 1969, mng IMP u tin c lp t ti UCLA, khng lu sau c thm 3 IMP c ci t Vin Nghin Cu Stanford, UC SanTa Barbara v trng i hc Utah. Tin thn non tr ca Internet vi bn nt ln c hnh

thnh vo cui nm 1969. Kleinrock nh li ln s dng mng li u tin thc hin ng nhp t xa t UCLA n SRI ln vo h thng [Kleinrock 1998].

Hnh 1.9-1: L.Kleinrock cng vi B x l thng ip Internet (IMP) u tin.

Nm 1972, ARPAnet tng ln n khong 15 nt, v c a ra trnh din ln u tin trc cng chng bi Robert Kahn vo nm 1972 Hi ngh quc t v truyn thng my tnh. Giao thc host-to-host u tin gia cc h thng u cui ARPAnet c bit n nh l Giao thc iu khin mng (NCP) c hon thnh [RFC 001]. Vi mt giao thc u cui c sn, lc ny cc ng dng c th c vit nn. Chng trnh e-mail u tin c vit bi Ray Tomlinson ca BBN vo nm 1972.

1972 1980: Cc lin mng, cc mng dng ring v cc mng mi


Cc ARPAnet ban u l mt mng duy nht,khp kn. giao tip vi mt host ARPAnet, th phi thc s c nh km vi mt ARPAnet IMP khc. Trong khong t u n gia nm 1970, cc mng chuyn mch gi b sung ngoi ARPAnet c ra i; ALOHAnet, mt mng v tinh lin kt cc trng i hc trn qun o Hawaiian vi nhau [Abramson 1972]; Telenet, mt mng chuyn mch gi thng mi BBN da trn cng ngh ARPAnet; Tymnet; v Transpac, mt mng chuyn mch gi ca Php. S lng cc mng bt u tng ln. Nm 1973, lun n tin s ca Robert Metcalfe a ra cc nguyn l ca mng Ethernet, ci m sau ny s dn ti mt s pht trin rt ln trong ci gi l cc mng cc b (LAN) n hot ng trn mt khong cch nh da trn giao thc Ethernet. Mt ln na, khi c mt nhn thc y ngay lc ny c th thy rng thi gian chn mui cho vic pht trin mt kin trc hon thin kt ni cc mng vi nhau. Hnh ng tin phong trong vic kt ni cc mng (mt ln na di s bo tr ca DARPA), thc cht l vic to ra mt mng ca cc mng, c thc hin bi Vinton Cerf v Robert Kahn [Cerf 1974]; thut ng "internetting" (lin kt mng) c a ra m t cng vic ny. Cc nguyn l kin trc m Kahn rp ni to ra ci gi l "kin trc mng m" l nn mng xy dng mng Internet ngy nay [Leiner 98]:

Tnh ti thiu, t tr: mt mng nn c th t vn hnh, v khng i hi bt k s thay i ni ti no n c th kt ni lin mng vi cc mng khc; Dch v n lc ti a: cc mng kt ni lin mng(internetworked network) s cung cp dch v n lc ti a, dch v u cui. Nu giao tip tin cy c yu cu, th n c th c hon thnh bng cch truyn li cc thng ip b tht lc t host gi i; Cc router khng trng thi: cc router trong cc mng kt ni lin mng s khng duy tr bt k trng thi per-flow v bt k kt ni no ang din ra Phn quyn iu khin: khng c iu khin bao trm trn cc mng kt ni lin mng.

Cc nguyn l ny tip tc phc v nh l nn tng kin trc cho Internet ngy nay, thm ch l 25 nm sau ny mt chng c r rng v s sng sut ca cc nh thit k Internet u tin.

Cc nguyn l kin trc ny c th hin trong giao thc TCP. Tuy nhin, cc phin bn u tin ca TCP hi khc so vi TCP ngy nay. Cc phin bn u tin ca TCP kt hp truyn d liu tun t tin cy thng qua kh nng truyn li ca h thng u cui (vn l mt phn ca TCP ngy nay) vi cc chc nng chuyn tip (chc nng m ngy nay c thc hin bi IP). Cc th nghim u tin vi TCP, kt hp vi vic tha nhn tm quan trng ca dch v truyn ti u cui khng tin cy, khng c iu khin lung cho cc ng dng nh ng gi m thanh, dn n vic ngn cch IP ra ngoi TCP v s pht trin ca giao thc UDP. Ba giao thc Internet quan trng m chng ta thy ngy nay -- TCP,UDP v IP l cc khi nim c thay th vo cui nm 1970. Cng vi cc nghin cu lin quan ti Internet ca DARPA, nhiu hot ng mng quan trng khc ra i. Hawaii, Norman Abramson pht trin ALOHAnet, mng v tuyn da trn chuyn mch gi ci m cho php nhiu v tr xa nhau trn qun o Hawaii giao tip c vi nhau. Giao thc ALOHA [Abramson] l giao thc a truy cp u tin, cho php ngi s dng b ngn cch bi a l chia s cng mt phng tin truyn thng i chng ( mt tn s v tuyn). Nghin cu ca Abramson v cc phng thc a truy cp c xy dng trn cc pht trin ca Robert Metcalfe v giao thc Ethenet [Metcalfe 1976] cho cc mng i chng chia s ng dy c s. iu th v l, cc giao thc Ethenet ca Metcalfe c thc y bi s cn thit phi kt ni nhiu PC, my in, v nhiu a cn chia s vi nhau [Perkins 1994]. Hai lm nm v trc, tht l l trc c cch mng my tnh v s bng n ca cc mng, Metcalfe v cc cng s ca ng trnh by nn tng ca cc mng LAN cho my PC ngy nay. Cng ngh Ethernet cng c cho l cc bc quan trng trong kt ni lin mng. Mi mng cc b Ethernet bn thn n l mt mng, v khi s lng mng LAN tng nhanh, s cn thit phi kt ni lin mng cc mng LAN ny vi nhau tr nn quan trng hn tt c. Mt ngun ng tin cy cung cp thng tin v Ethernet l Spurgeon's Ethernet Web Site, n cung cp bn v ca Metcalfe v khi nim Ethernet, nh ch ra bn di y trong Hnh 9.1-2 . Chng ta s tho lun v Ethernet, Aloha, v cc cng ngh LAN khc mt cch chi tit trong chng 5;

Hnh 1.9-2: Mt bn v nm 1976 c v bi R. Metcalfe v khi nim Ethernet(t wepsite Ethernet ca Chales Spurgeon) Ngoi nhng n lc kt ni lin mng DARPA v cc mng a truy cp Aloha/Ethernet, mt s cng ty pht trin cc kin trc mng c nhn ca ring h. Tng cng ty thit b s (Digital) pht hnh phin bn u tin ca mng DECnet vo nm 1975, cho php hai my tnh mini PDP-11 giao tip vi nhau. DECnet tip tc tin ha k t , cc phn quan trng ca tp giao thc OSI c da trn tng tin phong trong DECnet. Cc t chc quan trng khc trong sut nhng nm 70 l Xerox (vi kin trc XNS) v IBM (vi kin trc SNA). Mi n lc kt ni mng ban u ny ng gp cho c s tri thc cho xu hng kt ni mng trong nhng nm 80 v 90. Cng cn phi ch y l trong nm 1980 (v thm ch l trc ), cc nh nghin cu (xem, v d, [Fraser 1983, Turner 1986, Fraser 1993]) cng pht trin mt cng ngh cnh tranh vi kin trc mng Internet. Cc n lc gp phn cho s pht trin ca kin trc ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), mt cch tip cn hng kt ni da trn vic s dng cc gi c kch thc c nh, c gi l t bo. Chng ti s xem xt cc phn ca kin trc ATM trong sut cun sch ny.

1980 1990: S bng n ca cc mng


n cui nhng nm 1970 c khong 200 host c kt ni vi ARPAnet. n cui nhng nm 1980, s lng host kt ni vi Internet cng cng, mt lin minh ca cc mng trng ging nh mng Internet ngy nay ln n 100.000. Nhng nm 80 l khong thi gian tng trng mnh m. Phn ln s tng trng vo u nhng nm 80 l kt qu t nhng n lc ring l ca cc c nhn to ra cc mng my tnh lin kt cc trng i hc vi nhau.

BITnet (Because It's There NETwork) cung cp truyn th in t file gia mt s trng i hc vng ng Bc. CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) c thnh lp lin kt cc nh nghin cu trng i hc vi nhau m khng cn truy cp vo ARPAnet. Nm 1986, NSFNET c to ra cung cp truy cp n cc trung tm siu my tnh c bo tr bi NSF. Bt u vi mt mng xng sng nguyn thu tc 56Kb/s, mng xng sng ca NSFNET c chy tc 1,5 Mb/s vo cui thp k ny, v c cung cp nh l mng xng sng chnh lin kt cc mng khu vc vi nhau. Trong cng ng ARPAnet, cc mnh ghp cui cng ca kin trc Internet ngy nay ri vo cng mt thi im. Ngy 1 thng 1 nm 1983 chng kin vic trin khai chnh thc TCP/IP nh l giao thc host tiu chun mi cho mng Arpanet (thay th cho giao thc NCP). Vic chuyn i [Postel 1981] t NCP sang TCP/IP l mt s kin kiu nh "ngy l k nim l c M" - tt c cc host c yu cu chuyn qua TCP / IP vo ngy hm . Vo cui nm 1980, cc m rng quan trng c to ra cho TCP thc hin kim sot tc nghn da trn host [Jacobson 1988]. H thng tn min, c s dng nh x gia mt ci tn Internet m con ngi c th c c (v d, gaia.cs.umass.edu) vi a ch IP 32bit ca n, cng c pht trin [Mockapetris 1983, Mockapetris 1987]. Song song vi s pht trin ny ca ARPAnet (ci m phn ln l n lc ca M), u nm 1980 mt ngi Php a ra d n Minitel, mt k hoch y tham vng a cc mng d liu mng vo nh ring ca mi ngi. Di s ti tr ca chnh ph Php, h thng Minitel bao gm mt mng chuyn mch gi cng cng (da trn tp giao thc X.25, trong s dng cc mch o), cc my ch Minitel v cc thit b u cui r tin vi cc modem tc thp c xy dng. Minitel tr thnh mt thnh cng ln vo nm 1984 khi chnh ph Php thng bo s cp mt thit b Minitel min ph cho nhng h gia nh ngi Php no m mun c mt ci . Cc trang web ca Minitel bao gm cc trang web min ph chng hn nh mt trang web th mc in thoi - cng nh cc trang web c nhn, ni m thu mt khon ph da trn s dng t mi ngi dng. nh im ca n l vo gia nhng nm 90, n a ra hn 20.000 dch v khc nhau, tri rng t cc hot ng ngn hng gia nh cho n cc c s d liu nghin cu chuyn ngnh. N c s dng bi hn 20% dn s nc Php, pht sinh hn 1 t USD mi nm, v to ra 10.000 vic lm. Minitel c s dng trong phn ln cc h gia nh Php c mi nm trc khi hu ht ngi M bit n mng Internet. N vn c a thch s dng rng ri ti Php, nhng ngy cng n cng phi i mt vi cnh tranh gay gt t Internet.

Nm 1990: Thng mi ho v Web

Nm 1990 c bt u vi hai s kin tiu biu cho s tin ha tip tc v s thng mi ho nhanh chng ca Internet. u tin, ARPAnet, tin thn ca Internet khng cn tn ti. MILNET v Mng d liu quc phng pht trin trong nm 1980 thc hin hu ht cc vn chuyn lin quan n B quc phng M v NSFNET bt u phc v nh l mt mng xng sng kt ni cc mng khu vc ti Hoa K v cc mng quc gia ngang qua bin. Cng trong nm 1990, The World (www.world.std.com) tr thnh Nh cung cp dch v Internet quay s cng cng u tin (ISP). Nm 1991, NSFNET d b cc hn ch ca n v vic s dng NSFNET cho mc ch thng mi. Bn thn NSFNET s ngng hot ng vo nm 1995, vic vn chuyn trong mng xng sng Internet ang c thc hin bi cc nh cung cp dch v Internet thng mi. Tuy nhin s kin chnh ca nm 1990, l s xut hin ca World Wide Web, ci m em Internet n vi hng triu gia nh, doanh nghip, v hng triu ngi trn ton th gii. Web cng phc v nh mt nn tng cho php v trin khai hng trm ng dng mi, bao gm c giao dch chng khon trc tuyn v hot ng ngn hng, cc dch v a phng tin trc tip, v cc dch v tm kim thng tin. V s lc lch s nhng ngy u ca WWW, xem [W3C 1995]. WWW c pht minh ti CERN bi Tim Berners-Lee t 1989-1991 [Berners-Lee 1989], da trn tng bt ngun t cng vic trc y v siu vn bn t nhng nm 1940 ca Bush [Bush 1945] v t nhng nm 1960 bi Ted Nelson [ZiffDavis 1998]. Berners-Lee v cc cng s pht trin phin bn ban u ca HTML, HTTP, mt Web server v mt trnh duyt - bn thnh phn chnh ca WWW. Cc trnh duyt CERN ban u ch cung cp mt giao din ch dng (line-mode). Khong cui nm 1992 c khong 200 Web server trong qu trnh hot ng, tp hp cc my ch ny l phn ni ca tng bng tri cho nhng g sp n. Vo khong thi gian ny mt s nh nghin cu pht trin trnh duyt Web vi cc giao din GUI, gm c Marc Andreesen, ngi pht trin trnh duyt ph bin cho X. ng pht hnh mt phin bn alpha cho trnh duyt ca mnh vo nm 1993, v nm 1994 thnh lp Mosaic Communications, ci m sau ny tr thnh Tng cng ty truyn thng Netscape. Nm 1995 cc sinh vin i hc s dng cc trnh duyt Mosaic v Netscape lt web hng ngy. Vo khong thi gian ny, chnh ph Hoa K bt u chuyn giao quyn kim sot cc mng xng sng Internet cho cc hng vn ti t nhn. Cc cng ty - ln v nh bt u vn hnh cc Web server v thc hin giao dch thng mi trn Web. Nm 1996 Microsoft tin vo kinh doanh Web vi mt quy m ln, v cui nm 1990 n b kin v dnh cho trnh duyt ca n mt thnh phn trung tm trong h iu hnh ca mnh. Nm 1999 c hn hai triu Web server hot ng. V tt c iu ny xy ra trong vng cha y mi nm!

Trong sut nm 1990, vic nghin cu v pht trin mng cng to nn cc tin b ng k trong cc lnh vc ca cc router tc cao, nh tuyn (xem, v d nh, Chng 4) v cc mng cc b (xem, v d, Chng 5). Cng ng k thut vt ln vi cc vn v vic xc nh v thc hin mt m hnh dch v Internet cho vic vn chuyn yu cu rng buc thi gian thc, chng hn nh cc ng dng truyn thng lin tc (xem, v d, Chng 6). S cn thit ca an ton v qun l c s h tng Internet (see. v d, Chng 7 v 8) cng tr nn ht sc quan trng khi cc ng dng thng mi in t pht trin nhanh chng v Internet tr thnh mt thnh phn trung tm ca c s h tng vin thng th gii.

Tham kho
Hai tho lun tuyt vi v lch s Internet l [Hobbes 1998] v [Leiner 1998]. [Abramson 1970] N. Abramson, The Aloha System - Another Alternative for Computer Communications, Proceedings of Fall Joint Computer Conference, AFIPS Conference, 1970, p.37. [Baran 1964] P. Baran, "On Distributed Communication Networks," IEEE Transactions on Communication Systems, March, 1964. Rand Corporation Technical report with the same title (Memorandum RM-3420-PR, 1964). [Berners-Lee 1989] Tim Berners-Lee, CERN, "Information Management: A Proposal," March 1989,May 1990 [Bush 1945] V. Bush, "As We May Think," The Atlantic Monthly, July 1945. [Cerf 1974] V. Cerf and R. Kahn, "A protocol for packet network interconnection," IEEE Transactions on Communications Technology, Vol. COM22, Number 5 (May 1974) , pp. 627-641. [DEC 1990] Digital Equipment Corporation, "In Memoriam: J.C.R. Licklider 1915-1990," SRC Research Report 61, August 1990. [Hobbes 1998] R. Hobbes Zakon, "Hobbes Internet Timeline", Version 3.3, 1998. [Fraser 1983] Fraser, A. G. (1983). Towards a universal data transport system. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, SAC-1(5):803-816. [Fraser 1993] Fraser, A. G. (1993). Early experiments with asynchronous time division networks. IEEE Network Magazine, 7(1):12-27.

[Jacobson 1988] V. Jacobson, "Congestion Avoidance and Control," Proc. ACM Sigcomm 1988 Conference, in Computer Communication Review, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 314-329, Aug. 1988 [Kleinrock 1961] L. Kleinrock, "Information Flow in Large Communication Networks," RLE Quarterly Progress Report, July 1961. [Kleinrock 1964] L. Kleinrock, 1964 Communication Nets: Stochastic Message Flow and Delay,McGraw-Hill 1964, later re-issued by Dover Books. [Kleinrock 1998] L. Kleinrock, "The Birth of the Internet," http://millenium.cs.ucla.edu/LK/Inet/birth.html. [Leiner 98] B. Leiner, V. Cerf, D. Clark, R. Kahn, L. Kleinrock, D. Lynch, J. Postel, L. Roberts, S.Woolf, "A Brieif History of the Internet," http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.html [Metcalfe 1976] Robert M. Metcalfe and David R. Boggs.``Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks,'' Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, Vol19/No 7, July 1976. [Mockapetris 1983] P.V. Mockapetris, "Domain names: Implementation specification," RFC 833, Nov-01-1983. [Mockapetris 1987] P.V. Mockapetris, "Domain names - concepts and facilities," RFC 1034, Nov-01-1987. [Perkins 1994] A. Perkins, "Networking with Bob Metcalfe," The Red Herring Magazine, November 1994. [Postel 1981] J. Postel, "NCP/TCP Transition Plan," RFC 7801 November 1981. [RFC 001] S. Crocker, "Host Software, RFC 001 (the very first RFC!). [Roberts 1967] L. Roberts, T. Merril "Toward a Cooperative Network of TimeShared Computers," Fall AFIPS Conference, Oct. 1966. [Turner 1986] J. Turner, ``New Directions in Communications (or Which Way to the Information Age?),'' Proceedings of the Zurich Seminar on Digital Communication, pp. 25--32, 3/86.

[W3C 1995] The World Wide Web Consortium, "A Little History of the World Wide Web," 1995. [Ziff-Davis 1998] Ziff-Davis Publishing, "Ted Nelson: hypertext pioneer,"

1.10 Cc mng truyn ti khng ng b (ATM)


Nh vy cho n lc ny, trng tm ca chng ta l mng Internet v cc giao thc ca n. Th nhng nhiu cng ngh chuyn mch gi hin ti khc cng c th cung cp cc gii php lin kt mng u cui. Trong s cc la chn thay th cho Internet, th ci c gi l cc mng truyn ti khng ng b (ATM) c l l ni ting nht. ATM xut hin trong lnh vc mng vo u nm 1990. Vic tho lun v ATM l rt hu ch v hai l do. Trc tin, n cung cp mt tng phn th v vi Internet, v bng cch khai thc s khc bit ca n, mt ln na chng ta s c c hiu bit su hn v Internet. Th hai, ATM thng c s dng nh mt cng ngh tng lin kt trong mng xng sng ca Internet. Do chng ta s gii thiu v ATM xuyn sut cun sch ny, chng ta kt thc chng ny vi mt ci nhn tng quan ngn gn v ATM.

Mc ch ban u ca ATM
Cc chun cho ATM c pht trin ln u tin vo gia thp nin 80. cho nhng ngi qu tr nh c, th thi im c hai loi mng vt tri : cc mng in thoi, mng c s dng ch yu (v hin vn ang c s dng) thc hin thoi thi gian thc; v cc mng d liu, mng m c s dng ch yu chuyn cc file vn bn, h tr ng nhp t xa, v cung cp dch v email. Cng c cc mng c nhn dnh ring phc v cho hi ngh video. Internet tn ti vo thi im ny, nhng t ngi ngh n vic s dng n vn chuyn cc cuc gi in thoi, v WWW vn cha c bit n. l l do t nhin thit k mt cng ngh mng m c th thch hp vic vn chuyn m thanh v video thi gian thc cng nh cc vn bn, email v cc file hnh nh. ATM t c mc tiu ny. Hai t chc tiu chun, Din n ATM [ATM Forum] v Lin minh vin thng quc t [ITU] pht trin cc chun ATM cho Cc mng s dch v tch hp bng thng rng (BISDNs). Cc chun ATM ku gi chuyn mch gi vi cc mch o (c gi l cc knh o trong bit ng ATM); cc chun xc nh cch thc cc ng dng khp ni trc tip vi ATM, t ATM cung cp gii php lin kt mng hon chnh cho cc ng dng phn tn. Song song vi s pht trin ca cc chun ATM, cc cng ty ln trn khp th gii u t ng k trong vic nghin cu v pht trin ATM. Nhng u t ny dn n v s cc cng ngh ATM hiu qu cao, bao gm chuyn mch ATM ci m c th chuyn i hng terabit/giy. Trong nhng nm gn y, cng ngh ATM c trin khai rt tch cc c trong mng in thoi ln trong cc mng xng sng ca Internet.

Mc d ATM c trin khai trong cc mng, nhng n khng thnh cng trong vic m rng chnh n ln tt c cc my PC bn v cc my trm. V cu hi t ra hin nay l liu ATM bao gi s xut hin ng k my bn. Tht vy, trong khi ATM ang c chun b trong cc y ban tiu chun v cc phng th nghim nghin cu vo cui thp nin 80 v u nhng nm 90, th mng Internet v cc giao thc TCP/IP thc s hot ng v to ra tin b ng k: Tp giao thc TCP/IP c tch hp trong tt c cc h iu hnh ph bin nht. Cc cng ty bt u giao dch thng mi (thng mi in t) trn Internet. Truy cp Internet ti nh ring tr nn rt r. Nhiu ng dng my tnh bn tuyt vi c pht trin cho cc mng TCP / IP, bao gm c World Wide Web, in thoi Internet, v video lung tng tc. Hng ngn cng ty hin ang pht trin cc ng dng v cc dch v mi cho mng Internet.

Hn na, trong sut nhng nm 90, mt s cng ngh LAN tc cao chi ph thp c pht trin, bao gm mng Ethernet 100Mb/s v gn y hn l cc mng Gigabit Ethernet, n lm gim s cn thit ca vic s dng ATM trong cc ng dng mng LAN tc cao. Ngy nay, chng ta sng trong mt th gii m hu nh tt c cc sn phm ng dng mng ghp ni trc tip vi TCP/IP. Tuy nhin, chuyn mch ATM c th chuyn i cc gi tin vi tc rt cao, v do n c trin khai trong cc mng xng sng ca Internet, ni m s cn thit phi vn chuyn lu thng vi tc cao l quan trng nht. Chng ti s tho lun v ch IP trn ATM trong Phn 5.8.

Cc c im c bn ca ATM
Chng ta s tho lun v ATM chi tit hn trong cc chng tip theo. By gi chng ta s phc tho s lc cc c im c bn ca n: Cc chun ATM nh ngha mt tp y cc giao thc truyn thng, t tng vn ti theo tt c cc con ng xung qua tng vt l. N s dng chuyn mch gi vi cc gi c chiu di c nh l 53 byte. Trong bit ng ATM cc gi tin ny c gi l cc t bo. Mi t bo c 5 byte cho phn header v 48 byte cho "trng ti c ch". Cc t bo c chiu di c nh v cc header n gin to iu kin cho chuyn mch tc cao. ATM s dng cc mch o (VCs). Trong bit ng ATM, cc mch o c gi l cc knh o. ATM header bao gm mt trng cho s hiu knh o,

n c gi l nhn dng knh o (VCI) trong bit ng ATM. Nh tho lun trong Phn 1.3, chuyn mch gi s dng VCI nh tuyn cc t bo hng ti ch n ca chng; chuyn mch ATM cng thc hin phin dch VCI. ATM khng cung cp truyn li trn c s t lin kt n lin kt. Nu mt b chuyn mch pht hin ra mt li trong mt t bo ATM, n c gng sa li bng cch s dng m sa li. Nu n khng c th sa li, n s lm rt t bo v khng yu cu b chuyn mch ng trc phi truyn li t bo . ATM cung cp iu khin tc nghn trn c s u cui. l, vic truyn cc t bo ATM khng trc tip c quy nh bi cc thit b chuyn mch trong thi gian tc nghn. Tuy nhin, cc mng chuyn mch t bn thn n cung cp phn hi n mt h thng u cui gi gip n iu chnh tc truyn ti ca mnh khi mng tr nn tc nghn. ATM ch c th chy trn bt k tng vt l no. N thng chy trn cc si quang s dng chun SONET vi tc 155,52 Mb/s, 622 Mb/s v cao hn na.

Tng quan v cc tng ATM


Nh ch ra trong Hnh 1.10-1, chng giao thc ATM bao gm 3 tng: tng giao tip ATM (AAL), tng ATM, v tng vt l ATM:
ATM Adaptation Layer(AAL) ATM Layer ATM Physical Layer

Hnh 1.10-1: Ba tng ATM Tng vt l ATM phn phi in p, nh gi cho bit, v nh khung trn cc phng tin truyn thng vt l. Tng ATM l ct li ca chun ATM. N xc nh cu trc ca t bo ATM. Tng giao tip ATM tng t nh tng vn ti trong chng giao thc Internet. ATM bao gm nhiu loi AAL khc nhau h tr nhiu loi dch v khc nhau. Hin nay, ATM thng c s dng nh l mt cng ngh ca tng lin kt trong khu vc tp trung ca Internet. Mt loi AAL c bit, AAL5, c pht trin cho php TCP/IP giao tip vi ATM. Ti giao din IP-to-ATM, AAL5 chun b

cc IP datagram ATM truyn ti; ti giao din ATM-to-IP, AAL5 tp hp cc t bo ATM vo cc IP datagram. Hnh 1,10-2 cho thy chng giao thc ngn xp cho cc khu vc ca Internet m s dng ATM.

Hnh 1.10-2: Chng giao thc Internet qua ATM Lu rng trong cu hnh ny, ba tng ca ATM c vt vo hai tng thp hn ca chng giao thc Internet. c bit, tng mng ca Internet "nhn thy" ATM nh mt giao thc tng lin kt. iu ny kt thc gii thiu s lc ca chng ta v ATM. Chng ta s tr li vi ATM mt lc no trong sut cun sch ny.

Tham kho
[ATM Forum] The ATM Forum Web site, http://www.atmforum.com [ITU] The ITU Web site, http://www.itu.ch

1.11 Tm tt
Trong chng ny chng ta bao qut mt s lng vt liu khng khip! Chng ta xem xt cc mnh phn cng v phn mm khc nhau, nhng ci to nn mng Internet ni ring v mng my tnh ni chung. Chng ta bt u t bin ca mng, nhn vo cc h thng u cui, cc ng dng, v cc dch v vn ti c cung cp cho cc ng dng chy trn cc h thng u cui. S dng cc ng dng phn tn da trn mng nh l cc v d, chng ta gii thiu khi nim v mt giao thc - mt khi nim quan trng trong mng. Sau chng ta i su hn vo bn trong mng, vo li mng, xc nh chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch knh nh l hai phng php c s vn chuyn d liu qua mt mng li vin thng, v kim tra nhng im mnh v im yu ca tng phng php. Sau chng ta nhn xung nhng phn thp nht ca mng (t mt quan im kin trc) - cc cng ngh tng lin kt v phng tin truyn thng vt l thng c tm thy trong mng truy nhp. Sau , trong phn th hai ca chng m u ny chng ta c ci nhn rng hn v mng. T mt quan im thc hin, chng ta xc nh nguyn nhn ca tr gi v mt gi trong mng Internet. Chng ta xc nh cc nguyn l kin trc quan trng trong mng (cc m hnh dch v, phn tng). Sau chng ta kim tra cu trc ca Internet ngy nay. Chng ta kt thc phn gii thiu v mng ca mnh bng mt lch s s lc v mng my tnh. Bn thn chng u tin ny to thnh mt kha hc mini v mng my tnh. V vy, chng ta thc s bao qut c mt lng kin thc c s khng khip trong chng u tin ny! Nu bn cm thy hi dn dp, ng lo lng. Trong cc chng sau chng ta s xem xt li tt c nhng tng ny, bao qut chng vi nhiu chi tit hn ( l mt li ha, khng phi l mt li e da!). Ti thi im ny, chng ti hy vng bn ri khi chng ny vi mt trc gic vn ang pht trin v cc mnh to nn mt mng, mt hng dn vn cn ang pht trin v cc t vng ca mng (ng trnh n vic tham chiu n chng ny), v mt ham mun lun ln ln v vic tm hiu thm v mng. l nhim v trc mt ca chng ti cho phn cn li ca cun sch ny.

L trnh trong cun sch ny


Trc khi bt u bt k mt chuyn i no, chng ta lun lun nn nhn lt qua mt l trnh tr nn quen thuc vi cc ng chnh v nhng im ni nm gia chng ta v ch n cui cng ca mnh. i vi chuyn i ny ca chng ta, ch n cui cng l mt s hiu bit su sc v mng my tnh l g? (what) nh

th no? (how) v ti sao? (why). L trnh ca chng ta l chui cc chng ca cun sch ny: 1. Mng my tnh v mng Internet 2. Tng ng dng 3. Tng vn ti 4. Tng mng v nh tuyn 5. Tng lin kt v cc mng cc b 6. Mng a phng tin 7. An ton trong cc mng my tnh 8. Qun l mng Nhn vo l trnh ny, chng ta xc nh c t Chng 2 n Chng 5 l bn chng ct li ca cun sch ny. Bn nn bit trc rng mi chng s ni v mt trong s bn tng trn cng ca chng giao thc Internet. Hn na lu rng hnh trnh ca chng ta s bt u t nh ca chng giao thc Internet, c th l, tng ng dng, v s lm vic theo cch i xung pha di. L do ng sau hnh trnh i t trn xung ny l mt khi chng ta hiu c cc ng dng, th sau chng ta c th hiu c cc dch v mng cn thit h tr cho cc ng dng . Sau chng ta c th, ln lt, xem xt nhng cch khc nhau trong cc dch v nh vy c th c thc hin bi mt kin trc mng. Bao qut cc ng dng t sm t cung cp ng lc cho phn cn li ca vn bn. Na sau ca cun sch t Chng 6 n Chng 8 phng to ba ch v cng quan trng (v hi c lp) trong mng my tnh hin i. Trong Chng 6 (mng a phng tin), chng ta s kim tra cc ng dng m thanh v video - chng hn nh in thoi Internet, hi ngh truyn hnh, v lung lu tr phng tin truyn thng. Chng ta cng s xem xt xem lm th no mt mng chuyn mch gi c th c thit k cung cp cht lng dch v thch hp cho cc ng dng m thanh v video. Trong Chng 7 (An ton trong Mng my tnh), ln u tin chng ta nhn vo nn tng ca m ha v an ninh mng, v sau kim tra xem l thuyt c bn ang c p dng trong phm vi rng ln ca mng Internet nh th no, bao gm th in t v thng mi Internet. Chng cui cng (Qun l mng) xem xt cc vn then cht trong qun l mng cng nh cc giao thc Internet ci m lin quan n cc vn ny.

Bi tp v nh v cc cu hi tho lun Chng 1


Cc cu hi n tp
Cc phn 1.1-1.4
1) 2)

3) 4)

5)

6) 7) 8)

Hai loi hnh dch v m mng Internet cung cp cho cc ng dng ca n l g? Mt s c im ca mi dch v ? C ngi cho rng iu khin lung v iu khin tc nghn l tng ng. iu c ng i vi dch v hng kt ni ca Internet hay khng? Cc mc ch ca iu khin lung v kim sot tc nghn c ging nhau khng? Hy m t ngn gn v dch v hng kt ni ca Internet cung cp truyn ti tin cy nh th no? Nhng u im ca mt mng chuyn mch knh so vi mt mng chuyn mch gi? Nhng u im ca TDM so vi FDM trong mt mng chuyn mch knh? Gi s rng gia mt host gi v mt host nhn c ng mt thit b chuyn mch gi. Tc truyn ti gia host gi v switch, gia switch v host nhn tng ng l R1 v R2. Gi s rng router s dng chuyn mch gi lu tr v chuyn tip, khi tng tr u cui gi mt gi tin c chiu di L l bao nhiu? (B qua tr do xp hng v tr lan truyn.) Mt s cng ngh mng c s dng mch o l g? Tm cc URL tt tho lun v gii thch v cc cng ngh ny. Thng tin v trng thi kt ni trong mt mng mch o c ngha l g? Gi s bn ang pht trin mt chun cho mt loi mng mi. Bn cn phi quyt nh xem mng ca bn s s dng VCs hay nh tuyn datagram. Khi s c nhng thun li v kh khn g khi s dng VCs?

Cc phn 1.5-1.7
9)

C phi bng thng HFC c dnh ring hoc c chia s gia nhng ngi s dng hay khng? C phi cc xung t l c th xy ra trong mt knh HFC truyn xung hay khng? Ti sao c hoc ti sao khng?

10)Tc

truyn dn ca cc mng LAN s dng Ethernet l bao nhiu? i vi mt tc truyn dn nht nh, mi ngi dng trn mng LAN c th truyn ti lin tc tc ny hay khng? 11)Mt s phng tin thng tin vt l m Ethernet c th chy trn l g? 12)Cc modem quay s, ISDN, HFC v ADSL tt c c s dng truy cp nh ring. Vi mi cng ngh truy cp , hy cung cp mt lot cc tc truyn ti v bnh lun v vic liu bng thng trong cc cng ngh c chia s hay c dnh ring. 13)Hy xem xt vic gi mt lot cc gi d liu t mt host gi n mt host nhn trn mt tuyn ng c nh. Lit k cc thnh phn tr trong tr u cui cho mt gi tin duy nht. Nhng tr no trong s ny l khng i v nhng tr no c c nh? 14)Xem li s tng t trong mt on xe Phn 1.6. Mt ln na, gi s tc lan truyn l 100km/gi. a) Gi s on xe i 200 km, bt u pha trc ca mt trm thu ph, i qua mt trm thu ph th hai, v kt thc ngay trc mt trm thu ph th ba. Tr u cui l bao nhiu? b) Lp li cu (a), by gi gi s rng c 7 oto trong on xe thay v 10 ci.
15)Lit

k nm nhim v m mt tng c th thc hin. Mt (hay nhiu) nhim v c th c thc hin bi hai (hay nhiu) tng l hon ton c th c ng khng? 16)Nm tng trong chng giao thc Internet l g? Trch nhim chnh ca mi tng l g? 17)Nhng tng no trong chng giao thc Internet thc hin qu trnh nh tuyn?

Cc bi ton
1) Thit k v m t mt giao thc tng ng dng c s dng gia mt Automatic Teller Machine, v mt my tnh tp trung ca ngn hng. Giao thc ca bn nn cung cp xc nhn qua th ca ngi s dng v mt khu, truy vn s d ti khon (c duy tr cc my tnh tp trung), v thc hin rt tin khi ti khon (tc l, khi tin c trao cho ngi s dng). Cc thc th giao thc ca bn s c th x l tt c cc trng hp chung qu thng thng, trong bao gm c trng hp khng c tin trong

ti khon thc hin vic rt tin. Chi tit ho giao thc ca bn bng cch lit k cc thng ip trao i, v hnh ng thc hin bi Automatic Teller Machine hoc my tnh tp trung ca ngn hng trong vic truyn v nhn cc thng ip. Tm tt hot ng ca giao thc ca bn trong trng hp rt tin n gin m khng c li, bng cch s dng mt biu tng t nh trong Hnh 1.2-1. Trng thi tng minh ca cc gi nh c thc hin bi giao thc ca bn v dch v truyn ti u cui c bn. 2) Hy xem xt mt ng dng m truyn d liu vi tc n nh (v d, ngi gi to ra N bit n v d liu trong k n v thi gian, vi k l nh v c nh). Ngoi ra, khi mt ng dng bt u, n s lu li trong khong thi gian tng i di. Hy tr li cc cu hi sau y, a ra chng minh tm tt cho cu tr li ca bn: Mt mng chuyn mch gi hay mt mng chuyn mch knh s thch hp hn cho ng dng ny? Ti sao? Gi s mt mng chuyn mch gi c s dng v giao thng duy nht trong mng ny n t cc ng dng nh m t trn. Hn na, gi s rng tng tc d liu ca ng dng l nh hn so vi nng lc ca mi lin kt. C cn thit phi c mt s hnh thc kim sot tc nghn hay khng? Ti sao? 3) Xt vic gi mt tp tin c F = M * L bit trn mt con ng gm Q lin kt. Mi lin kt truyn vi tc R b/s. Mng c xp ti nh nhng khng c tr do xp hng. Khi mt hnh thc chuyn mch gi c s dng, M*L bit s c chia thnh M gi, mi gi cha bit L. Tr lan truyn l khng ng k. a) Gi s mng l mt mng chuyn mch gi knh o. C ngha l VC thit lp time = ts giy. Gi s vi mi gi cc tng gi thm vo tng cng h bit cho header. Mt bao lu gi tp tin t ngun ti ch? b.) Gi s mng l mt mng chuyn mch gi datagram, v mt dch v phi kt ni c s dng. By gi gi s mi gi tin c 2h bit cho header. Mt bao lu gi tp tin ? c) Lp li (b), nhng gi s chuyn mch thng bo c s dng (tc l, 2h bit c thm vo thng ip, v thng ip s khng b phn on). d) Cui cng, gi s rng mng l mt chuyn mch knh. Hn na gi s rng tc truyn ti ca mch gia ngun v ch l R b/s. Gi s thi

gian thit lp l ts v h bit cho header c thm vo tp tin y , mt bao lu gi tp tin ? 4) Th nghim Java applet ca chuyn mch thng bo trong chng ny. Cc tr trong applet c tng ng vi cc tr trong cu hi trc khng? Tr lan truyn ca lin kt nh hng nh th no n tr u cui tng th cho chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch thng bo? 5) Xt vic gi mt tp tin ln gm F bit t Host A n Host B. C hai lin kt (v mt switch) gia A v B, v cc lin kt khng b tc nghn (tc l, khng c tr do xp hng). Host A phn on tp tin thnh cc segment, mi segment cha S bit v thm 40 bit cho header, to thnh cc gi tin c L = 40 + S bit. Mi lin kt c tc lan truyn l R b/s. Tm gi tr ca S sao cho tr l nh nht khi di chuyn gi tin t Host A n Host B. B qua tr lan truyn. 6) Bi ton c bn ny s bt u khm ph tr lan truyn v tr truyn tin, hai khi nim trung tm trong mng d liu. Xt hai my ch, Host A v Host B, c kt ni bi mt lin kt duy nht c tc R b/s. Gi s rng hai host c t cch nhau m mt, v gi s rng tc lan truyn dc theo lin kt l s mt/giy. Host A gi mt gi tin kch thc L bit n Host B. a)Biu din tr lan truyn, dprop theo m v s b) Xc nh thi gian truyn gi tin, dtrans theo L v R c) B qua tr x l v tr do xp hng, tm mt biu din cho tr u cui. d) Gi s Host A bt u truyn gi tin ti thi im t = 0. Ti thi im t = dtrans, bit cui cng ca gi tin ang u? e) Gi s dprop ln hn dtrans. Ti thi im t = dtrans, bit u tin ca gi tin ang u? f)) Gi s dprop nh hn dtrans. Ti thi im t = dtrans, bit u tin ca gi tin ang u? g) Gi s s = 2,5 * 108, L = 100 bit v R = 28 kb/s. Tm khong cch m dprop bng dtrans. 7) Trong bi ton ny chng ta s xt vic truyn m t Host A n Host B trn mt mng chuyn mch gi (v d nh in thoi Internet). Host A chuyn i m thanh tn hiu tng t ang hot ng thnh lung tn hiu s 64

kb/s. Sau Host A nhm cc bit thnh cc gi 48-byte. C mt lin kt gia host A v host B; tc truyn ti ca n l 1 Mb/s v tr lan truyn ca n l 2 ms. Ngay sau khi Host A tp hp c mt gi tin, n s gi gi tin cho Host B. Ngay sau khi Host B nhn c ton b gi tin, n chuyn i cc bit ca gi tin thnh tn hiu tng t. Bao lu tri qua k t khi mt bit c to ra (t tn hiu tng t gc ti A) cho n khi mt bit c gii m (nh mt phn ca tn hiu tng t ti B)? 8) Gi s ngi s dng chia s mt lin kt 1 Mb/s. Cng gi s mi ngi dng cn 100 Kb/s khi truyn, nhng mi ngi dng ch truyn 10% thi gian. (Xem li tho lun v "Chuyn mch gi so vi chuyn mch knh" trong Phn 1.4.1.) a) Khi chuyn mch knh c s dng, c bao nhiu ngi dng c th c h tr? b) i vi cc cn li ca bi tp ny, gi s chuyn mch gi c s dng. Tm xc sut m mt ngi s dng c truyn tin. c) Gi s c 40 ngi s dng. Tm xc sut m ti mt thi im nht nh, n ngi dng c truyn ti ng thi. d) Tm xc sut rng c 10 ngi dng hoc nhiu hn c truyn cng mt lc. 9) Xt tr do xp hng trong mt b m router (ng trc mt lin kt i ra). Gi s tt c cc gi c L bit, tc truyn dn l R b/s v c N gi tin n vi b m sau mi L/RN giy. Tm tr do xp hng trung bnh ca mt gi tin. 10) Xt tr do xp hng trong mt b m router. Cho I biu th cng lu lng, tc l, I= La/R. Gi s rng tr do xp hng c dng LR/(1-I) vi I <1. (a) a ra mt cng thc cho tr tng cng", c ngha l, tr do xp hng cng vi tr truyn tin. (b) Biu din tr truyn tin nh l mt hm ca L/R. 11) (a) Khi qut cng thc tr u cui trong Phn 1.6 vi tc x l, tc truyn dn v tr lan truyn l khng ng nht. (b) Lp li (a), nhng by gi cng gi s rng c mt tr do xp hng trung bnh l dqueue ti mi nt. 12) Xt mt ng dng truyn d liu vi tc n nh (v d, ngi gi to ra mt gi tin N bit sau k n v thi gian, y k l nh v c nh).

Ngoi ra, khi mt ng dng bt u, n s lu li trong khong thi gian tng i di. a) Mt mng chuyn mch gi hay mt mng chuyn mch knh s thch hp hn cho ng dng ny? Ti sao? b) Gi s mt mng chuyn mch gi c s dng v giao thng duy nht trong mng ny n t cc ng dng nh m t trn. Hn na, gi s rng tng tc d liu ca ng dng l nh hn so vi nng lc ca mi lin kt. C cn thit phi c mt s hnh thc kim sot tc nghn hay khng? Ti sao? 13) Thc hin mt traceroute gia ngun v ch nm trn cng mt lc a ti ba thi im khc nhau trong ngy. Tm lch trung bnh v chun ca cc tr. Lm tng t cho mt cp ngun v ch nm trn cc lc a khc nhau. 14) Nh li rng ATM s dng cc gi d liu 53 byte gm 5 byte header v 48 byte trng ti. Nm mi ba byte l nh bt thng cho cc gi tin c di c nh; hu ht cc giao thc mng (IP, Ethernet, frame relay, v.v) s dng cc gi tin m, c kch thc trung bnh, hoc ln hn ng k. Mt trong nhng nhc im ca kch thc gi tin nh l phn ln bng thng lin kt c tiu th bi cc byte mo u; trong trng hp ca ATM, gn nh mi phn trm bng thng b "lng ph" bi cc ATM header. Trong bi tp ny chng ta tm hiu l do ti sao kch thc gi tin nh nh vy li c chn. kt thc, gi s rng cc t bo ATM bao gm P byte (c th khc 48) v 5 byte header. a) Xt vic gi trc tip mt ngun m s ho qua ATM. Gi s ngun c m ho vi mt tc khng i l 64 kb/s. Gi s mi t bo hon ton c lp y trc khi ngun gi cc t bo ny vo mng. Thi gian cn thit lm y mt mt t bo l tr packetization.K hiu L, xc nh tr packetization theo mili giy. b) Cc tr packetization ln hn 20 msecs c th gy s di li ng ch v kh chu. Xc nh tr packetization vi L = 1.500 byte (gn tng ng vi mt gi tin Ethernet kch c ln nht) v vi L = 48 (tng ng vi mt t bo ATM). c) Tnh tr lu tr v chuyn tip ti mt switch ATM duy nht vi tc lin kt R = 155 Mb/s (mt tc lin kt ph bin cho ATM) vi L = 1.500 byte v L = 48 byte.

d) Bnh lun v nhng u th ca vic s dng kch thc t bo nh.

Cu hi tho lun
1)Vit mt on vn m t cho mi mt d n trong ba d n ln hin ang c thc hin ti W3C. 2) in thoi Internet l g? M t mt s sn phm hin c cho in thoi Internet. Tm mt s trang Web ca cc cng ty kinh doanh in thoi Internet. 3) m thanh theo yu cu trn Internet l g? M t mt s sn phm hin c cho m thanh theo yu cu Internet. Tm mt s trang Web ca cc cng ty kinh doanh Internet m thanh theo yu cu. Tm mt s trang web cung cp ni dung m thanh theo yu cu. 4) Hi tho truyn hnh Internet l g? M t mt s sn phm hin c cho hi tho truyn hnh Internet. Tm mt s trang Web ca cc cng ty kinh doanh hi tho truyn hnh Internet. 5) Lt web tm mt cng ty cung cp truy cp Internet HFC. Tc truyn ca modem cp l bao nhiu? C phi tc ny lun lun c m bo cho mi mt ngi dng trn mng hay khng? 6) Cu hi tho lun: Gi s bn ang pht trin mt ng dng cho Internet. Bn s cho ng dng ca bn chy trn TCP hay UDP? Xy dng. (Chng ta s tm hiu cu hi ny chi tit hn trong cc chng sau. Hin ti hy s dng trc gic ca bn tr li cu hi..) 7) Cu hi tho lun: Mt s hot ng hin hnh ca The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) l g? Mt s hot ng hin ti ca National Laboratory for Applied Network Research or NLANR l g? 8) Cu hi tho lun: Cu trc t p hin ti ca mng Internet (tc l, cc ISP xng sng, cc ISP khu vc, v cc ISP a phng) c im chung g vi cu trc t p ca mng in thoi M? Gi c trong mng Internet ging hoc khc vi gi c trong h thng in thoi nh th no?