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b) G

u im: r, ch to nhanh, bn hn cht do, va tt, d lm mu hay m hnh kh


tinh vi. C th sa b mt c dng li.
Nhc im: gii hn khong 500 sn phm, kch thc nhy vi nhit v m.
c) Jabroc, Tufnol v Paxalin
u im: rt bn, kch thc n nh, b mt nhn. C th sn xut s lng ln sn
phm.
Nhc im: tng i t.
Cc loi vt liu nu trn l i din tiu biu cho ng cp ca chng. Jabroc l nha d
lien kt trong g dn (vt kiu lp), cn Tufnol v Paxolin l nha lien kt vi v giy
trong vt liu lp. Chng ph hp lm khun nh c cc tnh cht: chu nhit cao, dn
nhit thp, gi nhit tt, chu mi r, d gia cng ct gt.
d) Nha tng hp c
u im: kh r, d ch to, dn nhit thp, t hoc khng yu cu hon thin.
Nhc im: vi loi nhy cm vi nhit to hnh cao. Khng linh hot khi c rt
khun.
Trc y, kinh nghim cho thy kh khn do kch thc bin i khi ang se kh hoc
ang s dng nhng ngy nay nha epoxy gip khc phc nhc im ny. Thc t
n c th c rt nhng khun nha hon m vic sao chp b mt mu.
e) Kim Loi
u im: n nh kch thc, b mt hon thin tt, chu mi r v tui th cao.
Nhc im: thi gian ch to lu v gi t.

Bn cnh cc khun gia cng c bng thp, ng, nhm v.v, n cng c c bng
nhm v cc hp kim nng chy thp. Hay dng nht l hp kim c s km.
g) Hn hp nhn to (Titanite)
u im: rt r, d lm, kch thc n nh, chu nhit v bn.
Nhc im: d rt bn hn khun cht do nhng d v, nhng doi mng cn c gia
cng trnh hng.
Cc nguyn liu c pht hnh dng bt v c ha rn bng nc khi trn theo t l
c ha rn bng nc khi trn theo t l c nh sn xut ch dn v 24 - 48 h sau
s c cht liu cng nh .
Hnh 2.46 m t cch ch to khun kh in hnh bng hn hp nhn to.

Mu A bng g hoc kim loi c dn nh v v lm kn tm bng keo dn. B


mt hm khun v mu c ph mt lp cht nh ( v d sp rn ha tan trong carbon
tetrachloride) s nhn bng khi kh. Cc l thong kh c t cc v tr cn thit bng
cc kim cm v mu g. Cc thanh kim loi D t vo cc v tr gia cng cho khun khi
s dng. Cc kim thp t l thng kh phi c tho ra khong 12 h sau khi c, vt
liu vn cn mm sau khi c vi ngy khoan hoc khot v nu cn thn c th c
ta r ren. Sau 5 6 ngy cng hon ton m khng th gia cng bng cc dng c ct
thng thng. Mt nhc im khin loi vt liu ny b hn ch s dng l tnh d v,

b xm, vu g. khc phc nhc im trn c th gia cng bng si thy tinh hoc
thm ch kim loi (E trong hnh). Trng hp sn xut lin tc, khun cn c lm
ngui th t cc ng ng trong khun. Cn lu gim bt nguyn liu trong cc
khun ln, c th thay th nhng ch cho php bng vt liu tr hoc cc hp rng.
2.7.3.2. L thng hi ca khun
L thng khng kh thot ra khi ht c th l l hoc khe m ng knh hoc chiu
rng ph thuc tnh cht v chiu dy ca tm liu v cng ln cng tt nhng khng
c li du vt trn ch phm. Nu tm liu khng b qu nhit, vi polystyrene dy
0,080 in th chiu rng khe thng kh thng 0,020 in. Xc nh v tr, kch thc v s
lng ca thng hi r rng l rt quan trng. Tt c cc ch lm vo, cc gc trong, cc
bn knh ln ca khun u c t l thng hi. Cn ch ht chn khng nhanh c li
khi to hnh cc tm liu bng polystyrene v PVC nhng li khng ph hp vi cc loi
liu khc ( v d cellulose acetate) do chng cn to hnh chm. iu ny bt ngun t
ch tm liu b cng nhanh nn khng thi gian ng sut trong tm liu t n
trng thi cn bng, ng lc trc khng u gy cc khuyt tt.
2.7.3.3. Mt vi vn ca khun
gim gi thnh khun ngi ta c th dng b tng lm khun, dng thnh phm lm
mu to khun, dng phng php m in to khun. Thng l m ng vi chiu
dy ty thuc vo bn ca n nhng khng di khong 0,050 in. Khun m c chiu
dy khong 0,10 in th tch ra khi khoan l thng hi. Khun ng c m lt pha
sau bi cht do, cao su hoc hp kim co ngt thp.
2.8.4. Cc thng s cng ngh to hnh nng
a) Chiu dy ch phm
Chiu dy cui cng gn ng ca ch phm sau to hnh nng (gi thit ko dn u) c
quan h sau:

Trong :
T1 chiu dy nguyn thy ca tm liu (in hoc mm);
T2 chiu dy cui cng ca ch phm (in hoc mm);
A1 chiu dy nguyn thy ca tm liu (in hoc mm);
A2 chiu di tng ng ch phm kt thc ko dn (in hoc mm);
B1 chiu rng nguyn thy tm liu (in hoc mm);
B2 chiu rng tng ng ch phm kt thc ko dn (in hoc mm);
V d: mt tm cht do dy 0,1 in c kch thc 30 15 in (khng bao gm phn b
kp). Sau khi b ko cng c kch thc tng ng 40 20 in.
.
Kinh nghim cho thy, chiu dy thc t c th bin ng trong khong 30% chiu dy
trung bnh tnh ton. Nh vy, t gi tr tnh c, chiu dy t2 c th nm trong khong
0,0392 0,0728 in.
Hnh di y cho kt qu to hnh nng mt ch phm vi tm liu c chiu dy nguyn
thy 0,080 in. Cc chiu dy cc v tr khc nhau t c khc nhau.

b) H s co khun
Bng 2.22
H s co khun (in/in; mm/mm)
Loi khun

Polystyrene
bn

Khun li
(dng)
Khun lm
(m)

Polystyrene
Polyolefine

ASB

Polycarbonate

nh hng
hai trc

0,005-0,008

0,02-0,03

0,004

0,006

0,008-0,010

0,03-0,04

0,004-0,008

0,008

0,008

Hu ht co cht do v nh hnh. Khong 75% vt liu kt tinh co trong ch bin 1


gi, 25% cn li phi xc nh co sau 24 h bi v sau ny dng nhit cao c th l
nguyn nhn kt tinh v co sau ch bin. Khong 50% co l ngay trong khun.
c) cn khun
Khun li xut cn mi bn nh nht l 2 3O (hp l l 5O).
Khun lm xut cn nh nht mi bn l 1/2 1O (hp l l 2O).
d) Mt nung (tng)
Cellulose acetate, polystyrene bn, PVC: 1,5 3,5 kw/ft2 (1,5 3,5 W/cm2).
Polycarbonate: 5,0 kw/ft2 (5,0 W/cm2).
Polyethylene, polypropylene: 3,5 5,0 kw/ft2 (3,5 5 W/cm2).
e) Kch thc l thng hi

Bng 2.23
Vt liu
Acrylic, ABS, PVC, polystyrene
- Dy < 1/16 in (1,5 mm)
- Dy > 1/16 in (1,5 mm)
Polycarbonate
Polyolefin mng v l
Polyolefin tm

ng knh l max
(in)
(mm)
0,015-0,02
0,03-0,04
0,02-0,025
0,01-0,015
0,02-0,03

0,38-0,5
0,8-1,0
0,5-0,6
0,25-0,38
0,5-0,8

Chiu rng khe max


(in)
(mm)
0,015
0,025

0,38
0,6

0,01
0,015-0,020

0,25
0,38-0,5

Khong cch: - mt phng, bc 1 4 in (25 100 mm).


-Li lm, bc 1/8 1/2 in (3 12 mm).
g) Dp ct v xn tm cht do
Bng 2.24. Chiu dy max v nhit nung s b ca cc vt liu khi dp ct
Chiu dy max
Vt liu

Nhit nung s b

(in)

(mm)

(CO)

(FO)

Acrylic

1/2

12,5

100-140

212-284

Cellulose acetate

1/16

1,5

Ngui

Ngui

1/2

12,5

25

77

1/16

1,5

Ngui

Ngui

1/8

3,0

70

158

1/32

0,7

Ngui

Ngui

1/8

3,0

80-100

176-212

1/32

0,7

Ngui

Ngui

1/8

3,0

135

275

1/16

1,5

Ngui

Ngui

1/2

12,5

60-80

140-176

Nylon

Phenolic (liu lp)

Polycarbonate

Polyvinyl chloride

h) p sut v cc thng s to hnh (polystyrene nh hng hai trc).


Kh nn to hnh: 80 150 lbf/in2 (5,6 10,6 kg/cm2).
Kh nn cng tc nung: 5 25 lbf/in2 (0,35 1,75 kg/cm2).
Kh nn tho phm: 40 60 lbf/in2 (2,8 4,2 kg/cm2).
Nhit nung: 30 W/in2 (4,7 W/cm2).
L vo v thot khun ca khng kh: d = 0,02 in (0,5 mm).
L vo ca kh nng: ng knh d = 0,02 in bc 1/2 1 in (d = 0,5 mm bc 12
25 mm).
i) Dung sai to hnh
Cc dung sai tiu biu ca ch phm to hnh chn khng (loi tr cc ch phm bao b)
c cho trong bng 2.25.

Bng 2.25
Dung sai trn
Dng khun (v tr v profil)
Cc khe h sau to hnh (v tr)

Cc khe h hoc profil hnh trnh (kch thc)

Cc khe h hoc profil dp ni (kch thc)

Khong kch thc


(in)
(cm)
< 12
< 30
12-36
30-90
36-60
90-150
< 24
< 60
24-48
60-120
48-60
120-150
<3
<7
3-12
7-30
<3
<7
3-12
7-30

Dung sai
(in)
(mm)
1/32
0,75
1/16
1,5
3/32
2,5
1/64
0,5
1/32
0,75
3/64
1,2
1/64
0,5
1/32
0,75
0,01
0,25
0,015
0,38

< 30
30-48
> 48
< 30

1/32
3/64
1/16
3/64

Tt c cc kch thc tinh sa


Cc tm liu chiu dy < 0,1 in (< 0,25 mm)
Cc tm liu chiu dy > 0,1in (> 0,25 mm)

< 75
75-120
> 120
< 75

0,75
1,2
1,5
1,2

30-48
> 48

75-100
> 120

1/16
5/64

1,5
2,0

Cc ch phm bao b:
- Cc ng knh p vo b mt khun 0,005 in (0,12 mm).
- Cc ng knh xa b mt khun 0,01 in (0,25 mm).
k) Nhit ca qu trnh cng ngh to hnh nng
Bng 2.26
Vt liu

TuL gii hn
trn ca qu
trnh, OC
5
182
182
193
182

T khun,
O
C

TlL gii hn di
ca qu trnh, OC

TN tiu chun
to hnh, OC

2
85
71
85
79
50-60
138
77
204

3
127
127
149
127
168
121
274

4
149
149
177
146
150
191
149
316

210

279

343

18

82
60-80
88
91
163
85
149
66
40-49

127

146
120-135
154-166
204
246
149
288
138-141
140-170

182

1
ABS
Acetate
Acrylic
Butyrate
Cellulose acetate
Polycarbonate
Polyester (PETG)
Polyethersulfone
Polyethersulfone n
thy tinh
HDPE
LDPE
PP
PP - n thy tinh
Polysulfone
Polystyrene
FEP
PVC cng
UPVC

129
129
190
127
232
104

204
166
171

166
232
302
182
327
154

2.9. Ch bin thi cht do


2.9.1. Phn loi v cng ngh ch bin
Phng php ch bin ny p dng vi cc ch phm dng chai l v dng hnh kn khc.
c thi chia lm ba dng chnh: c thi dn, c phun thi v c n thi. Khi

lng ch bin ch phm dng thi ton th gii (1995) gp ba ln to hnh nng. Cc
loi cht do thng s dng ch bin thi theo th t khi lng gim dn: HDPE, PET ,
PP, PVC, LDPE, LLDPE, PSHDPE c s dng rng ri trong thi chai v bn nn
c th lm thnh mng, gim gi thnh hn LDPE (nht l cc chai l c nh).
Trong ch bin c thi cht do thng c to hnh trung gian l mt ng rng, tm
gi phi ng, thut ng ting Anh l parison.
c thi dn thng p dng c cc chai nc ung bng cht do mch thng nh PET,
PVC, PP v nylon v nh hnh. Phi ng va n trn nhit chuyn ha thy tinh (Ttt)
phi c thi dn ngay nhm ngn nga trng thi kt tinh ca nguyn liu. C th chia
ra loi ch bin mt hoc hai bc. Loi hai bc, phi ng thng c ch bin mt
nh my khc sau a vo my gia nhit thi thnh ch phm. Loi mt bc, mi
giai on s ch u trn dy chuyn ca my.
Trong phng php ch bin c phun thi, phi ng c ch to bng c phun sau
c chuyn n v tr thi chai. Phng php ny ng dng ch to chai l nh cho
ngnh dc phm, chnh xc c l, c th t n dung sai 0,004 in (102,6 m).
chnh xc c l (va ren) nhm m bo khn khi ng nt chai, l.
c n thi l phng php ch bin c ng dng rng ri nht.
Qu trnh ch bin nh sau (hnh 2.48a): phi ng c n xung pha di. Khi phi
ng chiu di tnh trc, hai na khun bao quanh ng li, tht kn y ng nhng
u trn th m np cht thi kh vo. Lc ny, khun tnh ti v qu trnh thi nguyn
liu trong khun to hnh c thc hin. Phi ng vn lin tc c n p s c mt
khun bn cnh nng ln n ly, sai khung ny h xung thi to hnh v tho
ch phm. My n thi c th c bnh xe quay, trn lp rt nhiu khun thay nhau
thc hin quy trnh trn qu trnh ch bin lin tc. Phng php ch bin ny c th
dng ch to thng cha nh n to thm ch c bn kh ln.

a) S ch bin kiu c n thi. b) Phi ng c dy khc nhau.


Hnh 2.48
p ng bn v dy ca cc b phn khc nhau ca ch phm (v d dy
cc gc, c 3 chiu khng gian nn c th mng hn), phi ng c ch to c chiu
dy v bn khc nhau trn chiu di phi bng chng trnh ha (hnh 2.48b).
2.9.2. Thit k khun
Hai nhn t quan trng nht chn vt liu lm khun c thi l tnh truyn dn nhit
v tnh chu mn. Ngi ta thng chn cc kim loi: nhm, thp, hoc ng beryllium
ch to khun ty thuc loi hnh ch bin v tnh cht do s dng. Nhm thng
c dng cho cc poly olefine. ng beryllium cng, chu n mn, chng mi mn
tt, h s truyn dn nhit cao thng c dng cho PVC v cc chi tit tinh xo.
Khun cho PVC c nh bng, m crm cho khun c cc chi tit b mt cn tinh.
Khun cho phi ng (parison) thng lm bng thp dng c cng. Khun phn c chai
thng lm ri d gia cng, thay th. Cn ch s kn kht hai na khun nu
chch khun s hnh thnh vt ni ni ng phn khun d thnh rt mng. Lc kp
khun thng rt nh so vi khun bm phun hoc c p. Vic lm ngui khun thng
s dng nc. ng nc lm ngui nh v vung gc vi ng trc ca khun.
ng ny hoc khoan ra sau ny hoc lm li t khi c khun.
Trong lc b ngoi vt c c khun lm ngui th lp rong li gy tr ngi do tnh
truyn nhit km ca cht do, khng tn dng hiu qu thi gian lm ngui qu bu ca
khun. khc phc nhc im ny ngi ta hoc thi nit hay carbon dioxide long,
cc ha cht thi ( xem gii thiu tnh cht ca chng trong 2.9.3) hoc thi khng kh rt
lnh cha hi nc vo thay khng kh trong ch phm.

2.9.3. Thng s k thut


2.9.3.1. Cc thng s k thut ca qu trnh ch bin
1) My n p.
Chn my n p phi c nng sut vt nng sut yu cu khong 10%.
- T s L/D t nht l 20: 1.
- Vng nh lng t nht: 6D.
- C sang: 40/80/40 l.
- T l nn: polyolefine v styrene 3 4: 1.
PVC: 2: 1.
Bng 2.27. Nng sut my n cc ch phm c thi in nh cho polyethylene
D vt n
in
mm
1/2
1
38
2
51
1/2
2
63,5

Nng sut
lb/h
kg/h
20-40
9-18
60-80
27-36
100-170
45-77

D vt n
in
mm
1/2
3
82,5
1/2
4
114
6
152

Nng sut
lb/h
kg/h
200-300
91-136
400-600
181-272
700-1000
317-453

Bng 2.28. Chiu su ren vt my n in hnh c thi polyethylene


D vt
in

mm

2
21/2
31/2

51
63,5
82,5

Chiu su ren
Vng cp liu
Vng nh
hF
lng hM
in
mm
in
mm
0,24
6,1
0,08
2,0
0,30
7,6
0,10
2,5
0,42
10,7
0,14
3,5

D vt
in

mm

41/2
6

114
154

Chiu su ren
Vng cp liu
Vng nh
hF
lng hM
in
mm
in
mm
0,54
13,7
0,18
4,6
0,75
19,0
0,25
6,3

2) Thng s vt liu.
Bng 2.29. Nhit chy ca liu
Vt liu
Acetal
acrylic
Polycarbonate
Polyethylene LD
Polyethylene HD

(OC)
193-216
205-232
260-282
140-160
170-190

(OF)
380-420
400-450
500-540
284-320
338-374

Vt liu
Polypropylene
Polystyrene
Polyvinyl chloride
Styrene acrylonitrile

(OC)
190-220
185-230
150-180
199-204

(OF)
374-428
365-446
302-356
390-400