You are on page 1of 5

1 Data Link Control Data Communication & Computer Networking

1. Main Features of Data Link Control & Why flow control is required?
Answer:- The two main functions of the data link layer are Data link control and Media access Control. The first, data link control, deals with the design and procedures for communication between two adjacent nodes: node-tonode communication. The second function of the data link layer is media access control, or how to share the link.

Main Features of Data Link Control are:Frame synchronization:- Data are sent in blocks called frames. The beginning and end of each frame must be recognizable. • Flow control:-The sending station must not send frames at a rate faster then the receiving station can absorb them. • Error control:-Any bit errors introduced by the transmission system must be corrected. • Addressing:-On a multipoint line, such as a local area network (LAN), the identity of the two stations involved in a transmission must be specified. • Control and data on same link:- It is usually not desirable to have a physically separate communications path for control information. Accordingly, the receiver must be able to distinguish control information from the data being transmitted. Link management: - The initiation, maintenance, and termination of a sustained data exchange require a fair amount of coordination and cooperation among stations. Procedures for the management of this exchange are required. •

Why flow control is required?
Flow control is a technique for assuring that a transmitting entity does not over- whelm a receiving entity with data. The receiving entity typically allocates a data buffer of some maximum length for a transfer. When data are received, the receiver must do a certain amount of processing before passing the data to the higher-level software. In the absence of flow control, the receiver's buffer may fill up and overflow while it is processing old data.

2. The Receiver must contain a sorting logic while a sender must contain a searching logic during ARQ. Which ARQ uses such mechanism for transmission, explain in all three cases.
Answer:- Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request Go-Back-N ARQ simplifies the process at the receiver site. The receiver keeps track of only one variable, and there is no need to buffer out-of-order frames; they are simply discarded. However, this protocol is very inefficient for a noisy link. In a noisy link a frame has a higher probability of damage, which means the resending of multiple frames. This resending uses up the bandwidth and slows down the transmission. For noisy links, there is another mechanism that does not resend N frames when just one frame is dam- aged; only the damaged frame is resent. This mechanism is called Selective Repeat ARQ. It is more efficient for noisy links, but the processing at the receiver is more complex. The Selective Repeat Protocol also uses two mechanisms: a sender mechanism searching and a receiver mechanism sorting. The sender always search’s for the ACK from receiver of individual and if any ACK does not come in its given time period the sender sends that particular frame again (Selective Repeat).

Go-Back-N : Case when the forward channel is reliable. there are three frames and the first one starts from the beginning of the window. arrival events are triggered by acknowledgments from the physical layer. there are seven sender events. but still none of the frames can be delivered. 2. After the first arrival. the set starts from the beginning of the window. can frames 1. but the reverse is not. Only at the last arrival. ACK 3 serves as both ACK 2 and ACK 3. There are two conditions for the delivery of frames to the network layer: First. Selective Repeat Automatic Repeat Request :Go-Back-N ARQ simplifies the process at the receiver . but it cannot be delivered because frame 1 is missing.work layer.2 Data Link Control Data Communication & Computer Networking Similarly the receiver contains a sorting mechanism as it sorts the correct or errorless data frame from sender and after successful delivery it arrange or sorts those frames in right order to get correct information. There are four receiver events. Answer:. After initialization. There is no time-out event here because all outstanding frames are acknowledged before the timer expires. but some ACKs are delayed and one is lost. frame 2 arrives and is stored and marked (colored slot).e. frame 3 arrives and is marked and stored. there was only one frame and it started from the beginning of the window. The example also shows how cumulative acknowledgments can help if acknowledgments are delayed or lost. At the receiver site we need to distinguish between the acceptance of a frame and its delivery to the network layer. After the last arrival. all triggered by the arrival of frames from the physical layer. Note that although ACK 2 is lost. Request events are triggered by data from the network layer. and 3 be delivered to the net. No data frames are lost. Describe the two approaches by which packet loss is detected in Go-Back-n ARQ protocol & Selective repeat protocol. when finally a copy of frame 1 arrives. a set of consecutive frames must have arrived. Second. At the second arrival. At the next arrival. 3. I.

This resending uses up the bandwidth and slows down the transmission.tions: from node A to node B and from . 4. This mechanism is called Selective Repeat ARQ. which means the resending of multiple frames. this protocol is very inefficient for a noisy link. It is more efficient for noisy links.Piggybacking The three protocols we discussed in this section are all unidirectional: data frames flow in only one direction although control information such as ACK and NAK frames can travel in the other direction.aged. only the damaged frame is resent. data frames are normally flowing in both direc. The receiver keeps track of only one variable. For noisy links. In a noisy link a frame has a higher probability of damage.3 Data Link Control Data Communication & Computer Networking site. What is Piggybacking? Answer:. but the processing at the receiver is more complex. However. they are simply discarded. In real life. there is another mechanism that does not resend N frames when just one frame is dam. and there is no need to buffer out-of-order frames.

1. A technique called piggybacking is used to improve the efficiency of the bidirectional protocols. and 2 have all been accepted and that A is now expecting frame Number 3. Node B transmits its second and third I-frames (numbered 1 and 2) before accepting further frames from node A.4 Data Link Control Data Communication & Computer Networking node B to node A. Node B. The NAK frame does two things here: It confirms the receipt of frame 0 and declares that frame 1 and any following frames must be resent. therefore. The number 3 in the N(R) field tells B that frames 0. it cannot piggyback an acknowledgment onto an I-frame and sends an S-frame instead. When a frame is carrying data from A to B. 1. when a frame is carrying data from B to A. Node B piggybacks its acknowledgment of both frames onto an Iframe of its own. Node B's first I-frame is also numbered 0 [N(S) field] and contains a 2 in its N(R) field. Note that the protocol being used is GoBack-N with the special use of an REJ frame as a NAK frame. but frame 1 is lost. Therefore. The RR code indicates that A is still ready to receive. it can also carry control information about arrived (or lost) frames from B. Node A has sent all its data. Its N(R) information. it can also carry control information about the arrived (or lost) frames from A. This means that the control information also needs to flow in both directions. When node A receives frame 2. . it discards it and sends a REJ frame for frame 1. has not changed: B frames 1 and 2 indicate that node B is still expecting A's frame 2 to arrive next. acknowledging the receipt of A's frames 1 and 0 and indicating that it expects frame 2 to arrive next. and 2). Piggybacking with Error : Node B sends three data frames (0. Piggybacking without Error: Node A begins the exchange of information with an I-frame numbered 0 followed by another I-frame numbered 1.

resends frames 1 and 2. so re-transmission of frame would happen.In case of FCS is damaged at receiver there will be no error check available so either frame will be rejected or will show as corrupted.5 Data Link Control Data Communication & Computer Networking after receiving the REJ frame. What happened if FCS is damaged in HDLC frame? Answer:. 5. . Node A acknowledges the receipt by sending an RR frame (ACK) with acknowledgment number 3.