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PAKISTAN ECOLOGICAL AND FINANCIAL GAP ANALYSIS OF THE PROTECTED AREAS A Step towards Establishing a National System of Protected

Areas
June 2012

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature


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Contents
ACKWNOLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................................................. iii FOREWARD ................................................................................................................................................................. iv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................................................................. vi I. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................................... - 1 Context ................................................................................................................................................................. - 1 The Gap Analysis ................................................................................................................................................. - 2 Methodology ......................................................................................................................................................... - 3 II. VEGETATION TYPES, ECOSYSTEMS, AND KEY SPECIES ............................................................................. - 5 Physiographic and Phytogeographic Regions ...................................................................................................... - 5 Vegetation Zones and Ecosystems ...................................................................................................................... - 5 Critical Ecosystems .............................................................................................................................................. - 6 Endemic Flora and Fauna .................................................................................................................................... - 7 Wild Relatives of Crops ........................................................................................................................................ - 7 III. ASSESSMENT OF THE GAPS IN THE PROTECTED AREA SYSTEM ............................................................. - 8 Context ................................................................................................................................................................. - 8 National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves and Community Conservation Areas............................... - 9 Ecosystem Representation ................................................................................................................................. - 11 IV. ENABLING ENVIRONMENT ............................................................................................................................. - 15 Management Effectiveness ................................................................................................................................ - 15 Governance ........................................................................................................................................................ - 16 Capacity to Implement Protected Areas System ................................................................................................ - 17 Legal and Policy Frameworks............................................................................................................................. - 18 Institutional Framework....................................................................................................................................... - 18 Professional Skills............................................................................................................................................... - 19 Communication, Education and Public Awareness ............................................................................................ - 19 V. PLAN OF WORK ON PROTECTED AREAS..................................................................................................... - 21 Pakistans Plan of Work on Protected Areas ...................................................................................................... - 21 VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................................................. - 24 National List of Protected Areas ......................................................................................................................... - 24 Representation in Protected Area System .......................................................................................................... - 24 Enabling Environment......................................................................................................................................... - 26 VII. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS.............................................................................................................. - 29 i

VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................................................ - 30 Annex 1 ................................................................................................................................................................... - 31 Ecosystem Maps of Provinces/Territories ............................................................................................................... - 31 Annex 2 ................................................................................................................................................................... - 35 Endemic Mammals of Pakistan ............................................................................................................................... - 35 Annex 3 ................................................................................................................................................................... - 36 Endemic Reptiles of Pakistan ................................................................................................................................. - 36 Annex 4 ................................................................................................................................................................... - 38 Endemic Amphibians of Pakistan ............................................................................................................................ - 38 Annex 5 ................................................................................................................................................................... - 39 Endemic Freshwater Fish of Pakistan..................................................................................................................... - 39 Annex 6 ................................................................................................................................................................... - 41 Wild Relatives of Crop Plants in Pakistan ............................................................................................................... - 41 Annex 7 ........................................................................................................................................................................43 List of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves & CCAs ........................................................................43 Annex 8 ........................................................................................................................................................................70 List of Ecosystems Showing Existing and Proposed Protected Areas .........................................................................70 Annex 9 ........................................................................................................................................................................89 Financial Cost Estimates for establishment and management of one PA ....................................................................89 Annex 10 .................................................................................................................................................................90 Protected Area Management Plan Recommended Elements .................................................................................90

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ACKWNOLEDGEMENTS
I am grateful to the Inspector General of Forests, Ministry of Climate Change, and IUCN Pakistan for giving me an opportunity to undertake this important and challenging exercise on gap analysis of the protected system in Pakistan. It was great working for IUCN once again, and was a very pleasant experience. This work would not have been possible without the support of concerned government authorities, and active participation of working and recently retired professionals. I am partciculary indebted to Dr. Abdul Aleem Chaudhry who helped me from the design stage of this exercise through the finalization of the draft. He generously shared information, his views, reviewed the draft and made useful suggestions. I am also thankful to Inam Ullah Khan and Ayaz Saadullah who organized and accompanied me to meetings with government authorities, professionals and key resource persons in provinces, AJK, and Islamabad. A critique of the draft report by Inam Ullah Khan helped a great deal in refining and fine tuning the draft. My special thanks are due to Mohammad Safir Ahmad, Shibly Hamayun and other staff of IUCN Islambad Office for perfect logistics and Hammad Saeed for all the IT help. Javed Ahmed

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FOREWARD
The concept of protected areas is relatively new but Indo-Pakistan subcontinent has a long history of setting aside area for cultural and resource use. Protected areas are established for in-situ conservation where special measures are required to conserve biological diversity (Article 8 (a) of CBD). In addition to conservation of biodiversity, they provide economically valuable goods and services that benefit society, support local livelihoods, and contribute to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. The protected areas are also a key to buffering against unpredictable impacts of impending climate change. The CBD Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA), adopted in the 7th meeting held in Kuala Lumpur, 9 -20 February 2004, provides a globally-accepted framework for creating comprehensive, effectively managed, and sustainably funded system of protected areas. The PoWPA includes 92 different activities and required Parties to implement these by 2010 in the context of their nationally determined priorities, capacities and needs. Global assessment of the 2010 CBD targets revealed that the targets had not been met fully and therefore, the CBD in the Conference of the Parties in its 10th meeting held from 18 to 29 October 2010, in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, adopted a revised and updated Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, including the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, for the 2011-2020 period. Some of the examples of Aichi Targets are: o o o o o The rate of loss of natural habitats including forests should be at least reduced to half and, where feasible, brought close to zero. The conservation target should be at least 17% of terrestrial and inland water areas, and 10% of marine and coastal areas. The targets for restoration of degraded areas through conservation and habitat improvements should be 15% of the area. Extinction of known threatened species should be prevented and their conservation status improved. Viable populations of wild relatives of crops should be conserved in nature.

In order to take stock of the situation, and plan ahead to meet the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, the Ministry organized a consultative national workshop in July 2010 to review the progress of actions on the PoWPA. The review revealed that while there was some progress, the achievements were rather ad hoc and not part of nationally determined priorities. The Aichi Biodiversity Targets give us a window of opportunity to set our national priorities for catching up and making progress on the targets for the 2010 -2020 period. The study on the protected area system gap analysis (Activity 1.1.5 PoWPA) was undertaken in an effort to achieve the goal of having representative samples of all species and ecosystems within the protected area network, at a sufficient scale to ensure their long term persistence. The study identified many gaps in ecosystems of high biodiversity value, some of which were included in the Global 200 outstanding Eco regions identified in an analysis commissioned by WWF (2002). In addition, the study also found that not much attention had been paid to the conservation of the threatened species of flora and fauna, wild relatives of crops, and the endemic species. Under the Convention on Biological Diversity, the worlds governments set a goal of protecting 10% of all ecological regions by 2010. The study reveals that while Pakistan has a large number of protected areas spread over about 13.65 percent of area of the country, only a few protected areas are being effectively managed. In addition study has found major gaps in representation of some ecosystems and conservation of endangered species and wild relatives of crops. The study attributes these gaps to inadequate financial and skilled human resources. The situation can be improved through policy and institutional reforms.

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This report analysis of the representational and management gaps in the protected area system, may be read in conjunction with the report of Workshop on Protected Areas organized by the Ministry of Climate Change in July 2010, which is an activity by activity assessment of progress on the PoWPA. The two reports are meant to provide a guiding tool for the PAs planners and decision makers for taking action on the decisions of the CBD to meet Pakistans obligations. It is hoped that the provinces/territories will take necessary actions by 2020 to fill in the gaps in the protected area system identified in the report by achieving the targets set by them in the form of Action Plan. The Ministry shall take all actions to materialize the recommendations at the national level. On behalf of the Ministry and the Provinces/Territories, I thank IUCN Pakistan for help in the Ministry to accomplish this important task under the PoWPA. Last but not the least, my special thanks to Dr Javed Ahmed who designed and agreed to undertake this important exercise. Islamabad: July 30, 2012 Sayed Mahmood Nasir Inspector General of Forest

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1. A protected area system includes representative samples of all species and ecosystems at a sufficient scale to ensure their long term persistence. The purpose of gap analysis is to assess the extent to which species and ecosystems are represented in the protected area system. Gap analysis has three essential elements: representation gaps, ecological gaps and management gaps. Representation gaps refer to species, ecosystems and ecological processes that are missed entirely by the protected area system. Ecological gaps relate to biodiversity that exists within protected areas but with insufficient quality or quantity to provide long term protection. Management gaps refer to situations where protected areas exist but are failing to provide adequate protection either because they have the wrong management objectives or because they are not managed properly. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted a Program of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) in its 7th meeting held in Kuala Lumpur, 9 -20 February 2004. The gap analysis is an important activity of the PoWPA. The methodology to assess gaps in the protected area system was based on the CBD guidelines (2006). The study did not involve any field work and report is based on the secondary sources of documented information and consultations with the key stakeholders. The national lists of the protected areas do not include geographical location, the ecosystem that it represents, land tenure, its governance and whether it has a management plan or not. Therefore, as a first step, the provincial Forestry and Wildlife authorities were requested to add the above mentioned information to the lists. A working paper was also circulated to relevant provincial and national authorities and other key resource persons explaining the scope of the study. Consultative meetings were held with the relevant authorities and key resource persons in provincial capitals, except Gilgit-Baltistan due to non-availability of flights. The initial findings based on the information received and after review of documents were presented at a national level workshop. After the presentation, expert groups comprising of official and key resource persons were constituted for each province to review the initial finding and make suggestions to fill in the gaps in the protected area system. Conclusions and recommendations of the study on gap analysis are summarized hereunder. National List of the Protected Areas: There are 26 National Parks, 91 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 116 Game Reserves, and 116 CCAs covering an area of 109,969 km2 or 13.65 % of the area of Pakistan. The national list of protected areas includes the national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, game reserves, private game reserves and community conservation areas. The lists do not provide information on the geographical location, ecosystem or habitat, land tenure, governance, and whether or not managed under a plan. More than half the number of national parks and all wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves have no management plans. Many sites do not meet the IUCN criteria for protected areas. Recommendations 1. By 2015, implementable management plans should be prepared and periodically updated for all the National Parks (Action: All Provinces). 2. By 2020, management plans should be prepared and periodically updated for all the Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves where objective is biodiversity conservation, and Community Conservation Areas (Action: All Provinces). 3. Irrigated plantations that do not have two thirds of the area under natural ecosystems should be excluded from the list of the protected areas (Action: Punjab) 4. Game Reserves that are established for only controlled hunting, should not be included in the list of protected areas (Action: All Provinces) 5. By, 2015, the official provincial and national list of protected areas should include information on geographical location, ecosystem or habitat, key species of fauna, land tenure, governance, and management plan. (Action: IGF Office, All Provinces) Ecosystems: There is no authentic documentation and mapping of the ecosystems of Pakistan. The vegetation types described by Roberts (1991) and the ecosystem maps (IUCN, 2000) prepared from NOAA satellite but not verified on ground for the Protected Area System Review were used as a proxy for ecosystem. Some ecosystems are not represented in the Protected Area System (e. g. marine), , etc) while others are inadequately represented (e. g. Littoral

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and Mangrove, Riverine, Desert, Sub-Tropical Chir Forest, dry Temperate Semi-evergreen Scrub forest, Sub-tropical Mixed Deciduous Forest, Himalayan Dry Coniferous Forest, Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest, Balochistan Dry coniferous Forest). Recommendations: 1. By 2015, prepare updated provincial ecosystem maps using latest satellite imagery and description of their floristic composition through field work and secondary sources of information (Action: All provinces). 2. By 2012, under a phased plan based on priorities set in Table 8 and Annex 8, establish new protected areas (as per following summary) to fill in the gaps and improve representation. (Action: All Provinces indicated) Azad Jammu and Kashmir: Representative sites of Riverine Ecosystem (Mirpur); wetlands (Northern Kashmir); Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Scrub (Kot Kandhari and Pir Gali area); Sub-Tropical Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest (Thumb Pattni Maloni Areas, Chamairi); and Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest (Pir Chinassi). Balochistan: Representative sites of marine and island ecosystem (Arabian sea and Astola Island); Littoral and Mangrove Ecosystems (Ganjabad, Cheer Koh, Sonmiani, Gwathar Bay, Jiwani, Kalmat Hor); wetlands (Wasta Lake, and Zarri Daggar); Tropical Thorn Forest (Chattar Phuliji); Dry Temperate Semi-evergreen Scrub Forest (Tobati Apursi, Dozakh Tangi and Dharnal CCAs); and Balochistan Dry Coniferous Forest (Khilafat, Zargoon, and Ziarat). Gilgit-Baltistan: Nanga Parbat National Park (Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest, Alpine). Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Representative sites of Sub-Tropical Chir Pine Forest (massar RF); Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest (Kamal Ban, Mansi, and Kund Forest PAs; Pallas Valley CCA); and Himalayan Dry Coniferous Forest (Kumrat Valley CCA). Punjab: Representative sites of riverine, Thal Desert, and Dry Temperate Semi-evergreen Scrub Forest in Sulaiman Hills (Fort Monro area). Sindh: Representative sites of Littoral and Mangrove Ecosystem (Jubho Lagoon, Nurri Lagoon, Hawks Bay Sandspit Turtle Area ), Riverine Ecosystem; Tropical Thorn Forest (Dadu); Thar Desert (Karoonjhar Hills, Nagarparker). 6. Managed Forests: The managed forests serve a useful purpose in biodiversity conservation, but are not counted as protected areas, except those notified as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves under the wildlife acts. This dual notification has created conflict of interest between the forestry department and the wildlife department. The IUCN guidelines suggest that all managed forests where management objective is biodiversity conservation should be count as category IV Protected Areas. Recommendations 1. By 2015, a Managed Forest Protected Area category should be created through amendment or revision of the forestry legislation (Action: All Provinces) 2. By 2013, a coordination mechanism should be established at provincial level for joint management of forest protected areas by Forest and Wildlife Departments (Action: All Provinces) Species: Pakistan is endowed with many endemic species of flora and fauna and a large number of relatives of crops found in the wild. Except for a few species (Snow Leopard, Wooly Flying Squirrel, Indus Dolphin, Markhor, Himalayan Ibex, Blue Sheep, Urial, Black buck and Chinkara), no efforts have been made to conserve the species that are threatened with extinction. The migratory species have no fixed staging grounds and their conservation can best be achieved through awareness raising, socio-economic development, and law enforcement. Recommendation: By 2013, prepare provincial lists of species on CITES appendices, endemic flora and fauna, and wild relatives of crop, and by 2015, make plans for their conservation and recovery of populations of threatened species (Action: All Provinces).

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Cultural and Natural Features: The archaeological sites located in and around natural ecosystems, for example, Sharda Fort and Buddhist University (Neelum Valley), Rohtas Fort and Ketas Temple (Salt Range), Mehrgarh (Kacchi Plains,Balochistan) should be integrated in the management of the protected areas for their conservation and to increase flow of national and international tourists to the protected areas. Recommendation: By 2015, develop joint programs with Archaeological and Tourism Departments to promote tourism in the where cultural, religious and archaeological sites lie within or in close proximity of the protected areas. (Action: All Provinces). Management Effectiveness: Of the 26 National Parks, only about 10 have a management plan. Accept three National Parks (Chitral Gol, Machiara, and Hingol) which were part of a recently completed GEF project, the management of the remaining national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves is mostly limited to enforcement of laws. Recommendations: 1) By 2013, develop and test a model management plan that can be prepared and updated quickly with the available human, financial, and technical resources (Action: All provinces) 2) By 2015, all National Parks and by 2020, all protected areas should be brought under effective management (Action: All Provinces)

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10. Governance: While there are success stories of conservation by local communities, the top down management by government is the norm. Except in the three protected areas included in GEF PAMP, and to some extent in Khunjerab and Ayubia NPs, no serious effort has been made to involve local communities into collaborative management or providing support to local communities for conservation at a landscape level. Recommendations: 1) By 2020, the successful experiences of collaborative management under the GEF PAMP should be incorporated, where feasible, in protected area management plans (Action: All Provinces) 2) By 2020, assist the local communities to establish and manage Community Conservation Areas on sites with high biodiversity value (Table 8) of which they are the de facto land owners or users (Action: All Provinces). 11. Capacity to implement Protected Area System Plan: The management of protected areas needs a special focus and dedicated entity with a well-defined plan of work. In the absence of a PoWPA, it is not possible to estimate the financial needs for a protected area system plan. Recommendation: By 2015, assess the financial needs and develop a strategy to achieve financial sustainability of the protected area system (Action: All Provinces). 12. Legal and Policy Framework: There is no policy instrument, either at national or provincial level for the establishment and management of the protected areas. The protected areas are important not only for conservation of biodiversity they also provide valuable goods and services for the society as a whole and local communities in particular, provide shield against natural calamities (floods and tsunamis), and mitigate the climate change. The wildlife legislations are out dated and need to be updated to meet present and future needs. The forestry departments need to mainstream biodiversity conservation objectives in their mission statement and plans of operation. Recommendations: 1) By 2014, formulate national policy framework and provincial policies for the establishment and management of protected areas (Action: IGF Office, All Provinces). 2) By 2015, all wildlife and forestry laws should be reviewed and either suitably amended or revised to meet the present and future needs of protected areas (Action: All Provinces). 3) By 2015, reorganize the forestry and wildlife departments to strengthen institutional capacity for the establishment and management of protected areas (Action: All Provinces)

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13. Institutions: Many protected areas have been established on lands that are either managed as forests or their legal status is undefined and local communities are de facto owners and users of these lands. Due to conflict of interest, many protected areas remain parks or sanctuaries on paper without any habitat management. Recommendations: 1) By 2013, Round Tables or committees comprised of representatives of forest and wildlife departments, local communities, and conservation organizations are established to ensure coordination among stakeholders (Action: All Provinces). 2) By 2014, within the Forestry and Wildlife Departments, support mechanisms are established to support conservation NGOs and local organizations managing Community Conservation or Private Protected Areas (Action: All Provinces). 14. Professional Skills: There is no specialized training on protected area or wildlife management in Pakistan. Recommendations: 1) By 2015, capacity should be developed in at least one University or institute to offer specialization in protected areas to the interested students (Action: IGF Office) 2) By 2013, arrangements should be made at a university or training institute to develop and offer 4-6 week inservice training course in biodiversity conservation and protected area management (Action: IGF Office) 3) By 2015, every province should ensure that a minimum work force of 10 -12 professionals are trained through in-service training (Action: All Provinces). 15. Awareness and Communications: The protected areas in Pakistan are generally established and managed mainly for conservation purposes, but the value for the ecosystem goods and services they provide have not been amply demonstrated. Generally, people are kept out of the protected areas whereas protected areas provide a great opportunity to link people with nature and inspire popular support for their effective management. Recommendation: By 2015, design and launch a multi-media strategy to link people with nature and inspire popular support for protected areas utilizing the power of social media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.), Television, and print media. (Action: All Provinces)

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I. INTRODUCTION
Context
16. The Protected areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological and/or cultural values (Wikipedia). IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature defines Protected Area as a clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The Protected Areas can be of several different kinds depending on the objectives of conservation ranging from strict nature reserves to sustainable use of natural resources without compromising the needs and livelihoods of local and indigenous communities. Protected Areas are essential not only for conservation of natural biological heritage of a country but also provide ecological goods and services for the social and economic wellbeing of the people. The protected areas also provide a buffer against the unpredictable impending climate change and resulting natural catastrophes. 17. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is the most important international legal instrument which addresses the protected areas and in Article 8 it encourages Parties to establish a system of protected areas where special measures need to be taken to conserve biological diversity. The CBD adopted a Program of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) in its 7th meeting held in Kuala Lumpur, 9 -20 February 2004. The objective of the PoWPA is to establish and maintain a comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative national system of protected areas that contributes to achieving the objectives of the Convention. It includes 92 different activities and suggests that Parties should implement the activities of the PoWPA in the context of their nationally determined priorities, capacities and needs. 18. Under the CBD, the worlds governments set a goal of protecting 10% of all ecological regions by 2010. An evaluation of the progress towards that goal was undertaken by Jenkins and Joppa (2009) who found that while total area under legal protection reached 12.9%, only 5.8% had strict protection for biodiversity. The representation of eco-regions ranged from 4% to 25%. The situation in Pakistan with 13.65% area under legal protection is no different when it comes to representation of ecosystems and speciesin the protected area system. A quantitative assessment has not been made, however the results of this study show that while some biomes are not represented at all, many have inadequate representation. 19. In view of the global assessment that 2010 CBD targets had not been met fully, the CBD in its 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties held from 18 to 29 October 2010, in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, adopted a revised and updated Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, including the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, for the 2011-2020 period. Some of the examples of Aichi targets are: o The rate of loss of natural habitats including forests should be at least reduced to half and, where feasible, brought close to zero. o The conservation target should be at least 17% of terrestrial and inland water areas, and 10% of marine and coastal areas. o The targets for restoration of degraded areas through conservation and habitat improvements should be 15% of the area. o Extinction of known threatened species should be prevented and their conservation status improved. o Viable populations of wild relatives of crops should be conserved in nature. 20. So far, Pakistan had not taken much action on determining its national priorities, and thus lagged behind in taking action on the PoWPA. However, the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (ABT) provides a window of opportunity to catch up with the PoWPA and achieve the ABTs. In Pakistan, the subject matter of establishing and maintaining a comprehensive and representative system of Protected Areas is the responsibility of the provinces/territories. But as a party to the convention, the Ministry of Climate Change is the focal Ministry for the CBD and is responsible for upstream liaison with the CBD secretariat and downstream coordination with the provinces and two federally

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administered regions Azad Jammu & Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, collectively hereinafter referred to as provinces/territories. 21. As a first step towards establishing a comprehensive Protected Area System, the Government of Pakistan, under a grant from GEF for enabling activities, commissioned this study on the protected areas gap analysis, awareness needs and setting up of priorities for action, important activities under the PoWPA. The study was done in collaboration with the provinces/territories, consultations with key resource persons, and a review of secondary sources of information. The gap analysis involves comparing the distribution of biodiversity with the distribution of protected areas and finding where species and ecosystems are left unprotected or under-protected. 22. This study on the protected area gap analysis builds on the Protected Area System Review of Pakistan undertaken in year 2000. The system review in 2000 reclassified the protected areas according to IUCN Protected Area Category System (Box 1) and identified areas that did not conform to internationally accepted standards. It also identified Ecologically Sensitive Areas and suggested a framework for action. 23. The activities undertaken in gap analysis include expansion of the national list of protected areas to include information on their geographical location, the ecosystem that these represented, land tenure, management authority, and absence or presence of management plans. The Gap Analysis, also for the first time under took a complete listing of the ecosystems in different vegetation types, based on the Forest and Vegetation Types (Roberts, 1991) and the ecosystem maps based on NOAA satellite data developed during protected area system review of 2000 review. Sites included in the national lists were then assigned to the ecosystems, gaps identified, and promising protected area sites identified to fill in the gaps. It also identified gaps pertaining to enabling environment for effective management of protected areas, and prepared a prioritized plan of action.

The Gap Analysis


24. In simplest terms, gap analysis is an assessment of the extent to which biodiversity protection goals are met at the level of a protected area or a nation or a region. A gap analyses can vary from simple exercises based on a spatial comparison of biodiversity within the existing protected areas to more complex studies that need detailed data gathering and analysis. Gap analysis has three essential elements: representation gaps, ecological gaps and management gaps. Representation gaps refer to species, ecosystems and ecological processes that are missed entirely by the protected area system. Ecological gaps relate to biodiversity that exists within protected areas but with insufficient quality or quantity to provide long term protection. Management gaps refer to situations where protected areas exist but are failing to provide adequate protection either because they have the wrong management objectives or because they are not managed properly. 25. The goal of full representation, as identified in the Programme of Work, is to have representative samples of all species and ecosystems within the protected area network, at a sufficient scale to ensure their long term persistence. The first objective of the PoWPA is to establish and maintain a comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative national system of protected areas that contributes to achieving the objectives of the Convention. The second important objective of the PoWPA is the effective management of the protected areas. The aim of the program is to encourage Parties to complete ecologically representative networks of protected areas, both on land and at sea, providing basic protection for all national biodiversity, with a particular emphasis on threatened and endemic species.

Box 1. IUCN Protected Areas Categories System Ia Strict Nature Reserve Category Ia are strictly protected areas set aside to protect biodiversity and also possibly geological/geomorphical features, where human visitation, use and impacts are strictly controlled and limited to ensure protection of the conservation values. Such protected areas can serve as indispensable reference areas for scientific research and monitoring. Ib Wilderness Area Category Ib protected areas are usually large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence without permanent or significant human habitation, which are protected and managed so as to preserve their natural

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Methodology
26. The methodology to assess gaps in the protected areas system was based on the CBD guidelines (Dudley and Parish, 2006). The step by step process followed in the gap analysis is outlined below: 1) Identification of focal biodiversity and setting the key targets: Representation of the full range of ecosystems in the protected areas system was the major focus of the study. The target was to have at least 10 percent of the area of land or water for protection as per the recommendation of The World Parks Congress held in 1992. However, in the absence of data on the assessment of ecosystems and habitats, the extent of their representation was subjectively assessed as adequate or inadequate. Evaluation and mapping the occurrence and status of critical biodiversity: The occurrence and status of biodiversity, or ecological needs of species and ecosystems, has not so far been assessed in Pakistan. Therefore, existing information from reputable sources on data was gathered. It included: (a) vegetation types and ecosystems, (b) a few well-known species of concern; (c) species on the CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SOPECIES (CITES) appendix 1 and 2, (d) endemic species, and (e) wild relatives of crops. Analysis and mapping the occurrence and status of protected areas: The basic available data on protected areas was used to develop a matrix of ecosystems as a proxy for mapping their occurrence. In addition, gaps in the status of protected areas in terms of governance and management effectiveness were also identified. Use of the information to identify gaps: The entries of existing protected areas in the matrix of ecosystems identified the gaps. The ecosystem maps were then used to identify promising sites based on the knowledge of the resource persons and proposed for inclusion in the protected area system. Most of the existing protected areas are failing to provide adequate protection either because they have the wrong management objectives or because they are being poorly managed. Important sites were identified for bringing them under effective management on priority basis (Table 8). Prioritization of gaps to be filled: Developed priorities on the basis of conservation status and viability of the targets, threats, opportunities and capacity; and balanced with stakeholder needs and societal interests. Agreed strategy for action: Made proposals on how to fill the gaps, e. g., new protected areas, enlarge existing protected areas, ecological corridors, buffer zones, and introduction of sustainable management approaches.

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Figure 1. Physical map of Pakistan. (Source: http://www.magazine.com.pk/travel/Pakistan/maps/)

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II. VEGETATION TYPES, ECOSYSTEMS, AND KEY SPECIES


Physiographic and Phytogeographic Regions
27. Pakistan is bestowed with a rich natural heritage of biodiversity which is the result of diverse physiography, soil types and the climate. The two major physiographic regions are (a) mountainous north and (b) the Indus Plains. The mountains cover the northern and western parts of Pakistan and comprise parallel ranges intervened by narrow and deep river valleys. The mountain ranges on the eastern side of the Indus River in general run from east to west -The Himalaya, The Karakorum and Hindu Kush. The mountain ranges west of Indus River (Koh-e-Safaid, Waziristan Hills, Sulaiman Hills, and Khirthar Mountains) run from north to south. The mountains also encompass the Balochistan and Pothwar Plateau regions. The Balochistan Plateau lies to the west of the Sulaiman-Khirthar Mountains and includes the Makran Coast Range and the Central Makran Range in its western part. The Pothwar Plateau and its associated hilly ranges Salt Range, Kala Chitta Range and Margalla lie to the south of the Himalayan Mountains. The Indus plains lie to the east of river Indus and South of the Potwar Plateau. A map showing the physiographic regions is given in Figure 1. 28. Four phytogeographic regions are recognized in Pakistan. The regions and percentage of species of flora that are found in these regions are: the Irano- Turanian element is the most common (46%), followed by the Sino-Japanese (10%), Saharo-Sindian (9.5%) and Indian (4.5%) elements (Ali & Qaiser, 1986).

Vegetation Zones and Ecosystems


29. The vegetation zones and ecosystems of Pakistan defined by T. J. Roberts (1991) remain the most authentic published documentation to date. In order to prepare a baseline for reprsetation gap analysis, the vegetation types and ecosystems described by Roberts (1991) the ecosystems maps prepared in the year 2002 from NOAA satellite imagery of 1992 for use with Protected Area System Review, and in consultations with key resource persons, a list of vegetation types and ecosystems was prepared (Table 1). There are 17 distinct vegetation types based on physiognomy and 34 distinct ecosystems. Some degraded areas that appear as distinct vegetation type in the satellite maps, were not taken into consideration. Table 1. Vegetation Zones and Ecosystems of Pakistan Vegetation Type Marine and Island Littoral and Mangrove Salt Marshes Riverain Ecosystem Astola Island, Arabian Sea Avicenna Ceriops (Balochistan, Sindh) Cressa Juncus - Cyperus (Sindh) Dalbergia sissoo Saccharum spp (AJK) Dalbergia sissoo Populus euphratica (Punjab) Acacia nilotica Populus euphratica (Sindh) Wetlands, swamps and seasonal inuundations Tropical Thorn Forest Sand Dune Desert Tamarix dioica, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata, Paspalum distichum, Imperata cylindrical, Nelumbium muciferum, and in water pools Vallisneria spirais, and Hydrilla verticellata Prosospis cineraria Capparis decidua (Indus Plain) Prosopis cineraria Zizyphus mauritiana (Thal and D. I. Khan) Tamarix aphylla Propsopis cineraria (Greater Cholistan) Calligonum polygonoides Haloxylon spp. (Lesser Cholistan) Calligonum polygonoides Haloxylon spp. Indigofera cordifolia (Nara Desert) Propospis cineraria Tamarix aphylla (Thar) Commiphora wightii Acacia Senegal (Karoonjar Hills, Sindh) Capparis decidua Sueda fruticosa (Sibi Desert) Haloxylon ammodendron Rhazya stricta (Chagai)

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Dry Sub Tropical Semievergreen Scrub Forest

Dry Temperate Semievergreen Scrub Forest

Sub-Tropical Chir Pine Forest Tropical Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest Balochistan Dry Coniferous Forest Himalayan Moist TemperateForest Himalayan Dry Coniferous Forest

Acacia spp. Commiphora wightii ( Makran Range, Lakkhi and Pabb Hills, Khirthar Range) Olea ferruginia - Acacia modesta Justacia adhatoda (Salt Range, Kalachitta Hills, parts of D. I. Khan, southern Waziristan along eastern flank of hills) Olea ferruginia Pistacia mutica (Chaman, Maslakh, Hazar Ganji, Harboi Hills, Surkhab Valley, southernBalochistan) Olea ferruginea Acacia modesta Artemesia maritima (North Waziristan, Khyber and Mohmand Agency, Bannu and Kohat) Olea ferruginea Acacia modesta Monotheca buxifolia (lower slopes and main valleys in southern part of Chitral, Dir, Malakand Agency, Indus Kohistan, Amb, and Buner) Pinus roxburghii Quercus incana (AJK, Punjab, KP) Acacia modesta Bauhinia variegata (Karot valley,AJK), Lehtrar Valley (Punjab), Margalla Hills (Islamabad) Acacia modesta Butea monosperma Acaica nilotica var. cuppressiformis (Salt Range) Juniperus excelsa Fraxinus xanthoxyloides (Khilafat, Takatu, Zargoon, Ziarat) Pinus wallichiana Abies pindrow (AJK, GB,KP, Punjab) Cedrus deodara Pinus wallichiana- Quercus baloot (Lower Indus Kohistan, Swat Kohistan, northern Dir, parts of Chitral, and inner valleys of Hazara) Picea smithiana Pinus wallichiana (Naltar Valley, Astore, and Takht-iSuleiman) Pinus gerardiana Pinus wallichiana- Quercus baloot (Chilas, Dir, Gilgit Agency, Safed Koh slopes of intermediate elevation, Takh- iSuleiman,and higher ranges of Malakand Agency) Abies pindrow Picea smithiana (Neelum Valley, Salkhalla, and Machiara in AJK) Juniperus spp Artemesia spp. (northern Gilgit, Baltistan, Ghizer, northern Chitral) Hippophae rhamnoides Myricaria sp., Salix denticulata (northern region of Chitral, Gilgit Hunza and all of Baltistan) Carex cruneata Sibbaldia sp (Deosai, Skardu) Betula utilis Juniperus squamata (Higher slopes of Kaghan, AJK, and parts of Swat, Dir, and Indus Kohistan)

Northern Montane Steppe or Cold Desert Dry Alpine Zone Himalayan Moist Alpine Zone

Critical Ecosystems
30. Critical Ecosystems may be defined as the biologically most significant and threatened areas of the biome that require special management. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment was called for by the Secretary General of the UN in the year 2000. The global ecosystems were divided into 238 eco-regions, of which 200 were picked up for priority action. The global eco-regions that occur in Pakistan are as shown in Table 2 (Olson and Dinerstein, 2002). Table 2. The Global Priority 200 Eco regions represented in Pakistan. Global 200 Eco-region Western Himalayan Temperate Forests Ran of Kutch Flooded Grasslands Tibetan Plateau Steppe Conservation Status Critical or endangered Critical or endangered Vulnerable Representation in PA System Adequate Adequate Adequate

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Indus River Delta Arabian Sea

Critical or endangered Critical or endangered

In adequate No representation

31. Roberts (1991) identified 10 critically endangered ecosystems in Pakistan. These are listed in Table 3. Table 3. Critically Threatened Ecosystems in Pakistan (Roberts, 1991) Ecosystem 1 2 3 4 5 6 Indus delta and coastal wetlands Indus river and wetlands Chagai desert Balochistan juniper forest Chilghoza forest (Suleiman Range) Balochistan subtropical forests Characteristics Extensive mangroves and mudflats Extensive wetlands A desert of great antiquity Huge and ancient junipers Rock outcrops with shallow mountain soils Mid-altitude forests with sparse canopy but rich associated flora Not connected with the Indus River System Extend from the Margalla Hills NP east to Azad Kashmir Important forest tracts now becoming increasingly fragmented Spectacular mountain scenery Significance Rich avian and marine fauna; mangrove habitat; marine turtle habitat Migratory flyway of global importance; habitat for Indus river dolphin Many endemic and unique species Largest remaining juniper forest in the world; Unique flora and fauna Important wildlife habitat for several species at risk Important wildlife habitat

7 8 9 10

Balochistan rivers Sub Tropical deciduous forests (Himalayan foothills) Moist and dry temperate Himalayan forests Trans-Himalayan alps and plateaux

Unique aquatic fauna and flora with high levels of endemism Perhaps the most floristically rich ecosystems of Pakistan Global hotspot for avian diversity; important wildlife habitat Unique flora and fauna; centre of endemism

Endemic Flora and Fauna


32. There are a large number of species of flora and fauna that are restricted to Pakistan and not found anywhere else in the world. It is estimated that five monotypic endemic plant genera (Douepia, Sulaimania, Kurramiana, Wendelboa and Spiroseris) and 400 species belonging to 169 genera and 45 families are endemic to Pakistan (Ali, 2008). These species are restricted to northern and western mountains. Unfortunately a list of the endemic flowering plants was not readily available with the Flora of Pakistan Project, and therefore could not be included in this report. 33. Endemic mammals found only in Pakistan include the Indus River Dolphin (EDGE), the Balochistan Forest Dormouse (ZFMK pdf file), and the Pale Gray Shrew (IUCN Red List). The Balochistan Pygmy Jerboa (Rodent-Info.net) represents an endemic genus. The Woolly Flying Squirrel Eupetaurus cinereus (WWF Pakistan), the sole member of its genus, may survive only in Pakistan. The Punjab Urial (WWF Pakistan) has recently been elevated to a full species, while the Chiltan Wild Goat Capra aegagrus chialtanensis (Wildlife of Pakistan) is an endemic subspecies. There are also many unique reptiles and amphibians in Pakistan. A list of endemic mammals, reptiles and amphibians is given in Annexes 2-4. Similarly there are many Freshwater fish that are unique to Pakistan (Annex 5.).

Wild Relatives of Crops


34. There are around 500 wild relatives of cultivated crops, most of which are found in the Gilgit-Baltistan (in BAP 2000). As a matter of fact, northern and western Pakistan comprises one of the world centers on the origin and diversity of cultivated plants. A list of some of the prominent wild relatives of crops in the country is given in Annex 6.

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III. ASSESSMENT OF THE GAPS IN THE PROTECTED AREA SYSTEM


Context
35. There is no systematic basis or rationale for the national list of protected areas. It includes only the National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and the Game Reserves while giving no consideration to the managed forests, most of which were establishment during the British India was to conserve various ecosystems and manage them on sustainable basis for production of ecosystem goods like timber and fuel wood. Many of the sites included in the list do not meet IUCN definition of a protected area and are not established and managed according to the internationally recognized criteria (Box 2). In order to be part of the global system of protected areas, it is imperative that the sites included in the national list of protected areas meet IUCNs definition of a protected area and meet the globally recognized criteria for their establishment and management. One of the main reasons for these anomalies is the lack of a national policy for the protected areas and lack of institutional capacity at national and provincial levels for the management of protected areas. .
Box 2. Protected Area Definition and Criteria IUCNs Definition of a Protected Area A protected area is a clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. Criteria 1. The primary objective for establishment is the protection of biodiversity and associated natural and cultural resources. 2. The area of the PA is usually very large, except strict nature conservation areas, and habitats of key species. 3. It has legally defined boundaries 4. Managed under an active conservation regime. 5. It has a defined tenure. 6. At least two thirds of the area is a natural ecosystem.

36. In view of the above, the present gap analysis takes into consideration only those areas that are currently included in the national list of protected areas. However it is important to mention here that the Protected Area Review undertaken in the year2000 opined that Game Reserves did not meet the globally accepted criteria for a protected area. Similarly the barrages and dams that were constructed for irrigation and power generation and irrigated plantations notified as wildlife sanctuaries, were not considered protected areas. 37. While some Game Reserves, though small, are part of the natural ecosystems set aside and protected for hunting, others such as Thal and Cholistan comprise of vast landscapes where only hunting is prohibited, and include villages, towns and agriculture fields. These areas do not serve the objectives of the protected areas, therefore should not be included in the national list of protected areas. The issue of game reserves became very contentious at the time of the review in year 2000 on the grounds that some Game Reserves did meet the objectives of protected areas but were wrongfully designated as Game Reserves. Therefore, after a case by case review a few game reserves were considered to qualify to be included in the list of protected areas. The issue was hotly contested again during the gap analysis exercise and majority opined to keep the list intact. In view of the above, it was decided to keep the integrity of the national list, but because many Game Reserves are small in size, are widely scattered, and without any conservation corridors, only the game reserves that were larger than 1,000 ha and represented natural habitats were considered as protected areas for the purpose of representation in the protected area system. 38. Barrages and Dams: Pakistan has large number of small and large dams and barrages to divert the river water to canals. The ponding of the water creates a wetland that becomes a staging ground and winter habitat for waterfowl

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and other migratory birds and thus serves a useful purpose for conservation of species in addition to serving the primary purpose of storing water for irrigation and or power generation. The Protected Area system Review (2000) did not consider these sites as protected areas since the primary purpose of their establishment was not conservation. Some of these are also Ramsar sites, and therefore it is recommended that these be considered wetland protected areas. 39. Managed Forests Can the managed forests be considered Protected Areas? There is no simple answer to this question because a distinction needs to be made between protection and management. The Vth World Parks Congress in Durban in 2003 recommended that WCPA should promote the use of the categories for protected areas in forests .. In response, IUCN (2006) published guidelines on how to apply IUCN protected areas management categories to managed forests. The guidelines suggest that all managed forests where management objective is biodiversity conservation, except for planted industrial wood forests, and natural forests with main objective other than biodiversity conservation should be count as category IV Protected Areas. However, the guidelines suggest that multiple-use areas that do not fully maintain natural ecosystems will not qualify as Forest Protected Areas. 40. Irrigated Plantations: At the time of colonization of the Indus plains some areas were set aside as canal irrigated plantations to meet the timber and fuel needs. These plantations provide refuge to many species of wildlife and created a micro-environment for under story vegetation not normally found in the natural ecosystems of the Indus Plains. Many irrigated plantations have been wrongfully notified as Wildlife Sanctuaries, while some others were notified as Game Reserves. Since the irrigated plantations are not part of natural ecosystems, therefore the Protected Areas System Review (2000) did not consider them as protected areas. However, in this gap analysis, the irrigated plantations that include at least two thirds of the area that are high lying and cannot be irrigated and have natural vegetation have been retained in the national list.

National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves and Community Conservation Areas
41. National Parks: Wildlife related legislations in Pakistan describe a National Park as with a view to the protection and preservation of flora and fauna in the natural state, Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, declare any area which is the property of the government or over which Government has proprietary rights to be declared a national park and may demarcate it in such manner as prescribed. The names and areas of all the National Parks in different provinces/territories are included in the lists in Annex 7. A summary of the total National Parks and their area in various provinces/territories is summarized in the Table 4.

Table 4. Summary of National Parks in Pakistan Province / Territory Azad Jammu and Kashmir Gilgit Baltistan Balochistan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Punjab Sindh Islamabad FATA Total Area (km2) 12,431 347,190 68,879 74,521 205,345 140,914 906 27,220 National Parks Number 7 5 2 6 4 1 1 0 Area (ha) 90,159 2,016,745 643,539 196,649 217,648 308,733 17,386 0 Percent 7.25 5.81 9.34 2.63 1.06 2.19 19.19 0

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Total for Pakistan

877,406

26

3,490,859

3.98

42. Wildlife Sanctuaries: Wildlife Sanctuary or Game Sanctuary represent the same management category except difference in their nomenclature as used in the wildlife laws of different provinces/territories, hereinafter referred to simply as Wildlife Sanctuary. The wildlife related legislations in Pakistan describe a wildlife sanctuary as (1) Government may by notification in the official Gazette, declare any area which is the property of the Government or over which Government has proprietary rights to be declared a wildlife sanctuary and may demarcate it in such manner as prescribed. (2) The wild life sanctuary shall be set aside as undisturbed breeding ground for the production of wildlife and access thereto for public shall, except in accordance with the rules, be prohibited and no exploitation of forest therein shall be allowed except for reducing fire hazards, epidemics, or insect attacks, or other natural calamities. There is not a single site in Pakistan that comes close to the description. The list of notified Wildlife Sanctuaries in different provinces/territories is in Annex 7, and summary is given Table 5. Table 5. Summary of Wildlife Sanctuaries in Pakistan. Province / Territory Azad Jammu and Kashmir Gilgit Baltistan Balochistan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Punjab Sindh Islamabad FATA Total for Pakistan Total Area (km2) 12,431 347,190 68,879 74,521 205,345 140,914 906 27,220 877,406 Number 0 3 14 3 37 33 1 0 91 Wildlife Sanctuaries Area (ha) Percent 0 0.00 164,100 0.47 1,192,335 17.31 34,212 0.46 851,609 875,223 6.21 7,000 7.73 0 0 3,124,479 3.56

43. Game Reserves: Wild life related legislations in Pakistan describe a Game Reserve as Government may declare any
area to be a game reserve where hunting and shooting of wild animals shall not be allowed, except under special permit, which may specify the maximum number of animals or birds that may be killed or captured and the area and duration for such permit which shall be valid. The legal requirements of a Game Reserve do not require any habitat management, therefore in terms of legal definition; the protected areas do not meet the objectives of a protected area. However, other than the management category of private game reserve, there are no legal options for the establishment of a protected area based on the principle of sustainable use. Therefore a distinction must be made between a Game Reserve where the objective is to regulate hunting only and those Game Reserves where the management objectives include habitat conservation. Also there should be a minimum size requirement for a Game Reserve to be considered a Protected Area and for this purpose a minimum size of 1,000 ha is proposed. The list of notified Game Reserves in different provinces/territories is in Annex 7, and summary is given Table 6. Table 6. Summary of Game Reserves in Pakistan Province / Territory Azad Jammu and Kashmir Gilgit Baltistan Balochistan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Punjab Sindh Islamabad FATA Total for Pakistan Total Area (km2) 12,431 347,190 68,879 74,521 205,345 140,914 906 27,220 877,406 Number 11 9 6 54 23 13 0 0 116 Game Reserves Area (ha) 13,664 124,099 511,214 376,906 2,521,797 578,034 0 0 4,125,714 Percent 1.10 0.36 7.42 5.06 12.28 4.10 0 0 4.7

44. Community Conservation Areas. The local community initiatives for conservation and sustainable use emerged long after the wildlife legislations were made and therefore are not a legal management category. However, many local

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communities have set aside areas for conservation under management plans and are now recognized as Community Conservation Areas (CCA). The concept of CCAs was introduced through GEF pilot project in G-B and KP during the mid 1990s and extended to conservancy level under MACP. In KP, the CCAs are called Community Controlled Hunting Areas (CCHAs). The CCAs and CCHAs are included in the lists in Annex 7, but chances are that not all sites are in the list, which needs to be updated. Even before the GEF PRIF project, community based conservation and sustainable use was being successfully practiced inTorghar. A summary of the CCAs by provinces/territories is given in Table 7. Table 7. Summary of Community Conservation Areas in Pakistan Province / Territory Total Area (km2) 12,431 347,190 68,879 74,521 205,345 140,914 906 27,220 877,406 Community Conservation or Controlled Hunting Area Number Area (ha) Percent 0 24 2 89 2 0 0 0 116 0 447,000 358,299 432,668 0 0 0 0 1,237,967 0.00 1.29 2.61 5.81 0.00 0.00 0 0 1.41

Azad Jammu and Kashmir Gilgit Baltistan Balochistan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Punjab Sindh Islamabad FATA Total for Pakistan

Ecosystem Representation
45. The list of National Parks, Wildlife sanctuaries, Game Reserves and Community Conservation Areas in Pakistan normally include only the name of the site and its area. The lists do not contain information on geographical location, the ecosystem type, the land ownership and its governance type and management status. New lists with all of the above mentioned information were developed with the help of key resource persons and validated with the vegetation maps. The province/territory wise lists are given in Annex 7. 46. The NPs, WSs, GRs, and CCAs were then assigned to the corresponding vegetation types and ecosystem matrix (Annex 8). As a result, many gaps appeared in the Protected Area System of Pakistan. For lack of province/territory wise data on the total area under different vegetation types, it was not possible to objectively assess whether 10 percent representation requirement is being met or not. Therefore a subjective assessment was made whether the representation is adequate or inadequate. The results of gap analysis at vegetation type level, province/territory wise are given in Annex 8 and for the country as a whole are summarized in Table 8.

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Table 8. Representation of Vegetation types of Pakistan in the Protected Area System and proposals to fill the gaps Vegetation Type Ecosystem Representation Proposed Sites Priority Marine and Island Astola Island, Arabian None A suite site in Arabian Sea including Astola High Sea Island to be identified for PA Site selection for PAs in Ganjabad, Cheer Koh, Medium Littoral and Avicenna Ceriops Inadequate Sonmiani, Gwathar Bay, Jiwani, Kalmat Mangrove (Balochstan) Management Plan for Darran Beach WS High (Balochistan) Management Plans for Keti Bunder North and High South WSs (Sindh) Protected Area to be established at Jubho High Lagoon, Nurri Lagoon, Hawks Bay Sandspit Turtle Area (Sindh) Salt Marshes Riverain Cressa Juncus Cyperus Dalbergia sissoo Saccharum spp Dalbergia sissoo Populus euphratica Acacia nilotica Populus euphratica Tamarix dioica-Typha angustata, Adequate
Inadequate Management Plan for Runn of Kutch WS (Sindh) Bela PA to be established in Mirpur, AJK

High Medium High High High High High High High High Medium High High High High High

X X Adequate

Suitable site for PA to be identified (Punjab) Management Plan of Doung Block Additional suitable site to be identified (Sindh) Management plans to be prepared for all wetland PAs (AJK, Balochistan, KP, Punjab, and Sindh) Northern Kashmir wetland complex to be notified as PAs Wasta Lake, and Zarri Daggar to be made PAs (Zhob, Balochistan) PA Managmenet Plans for high lying areas of slected IPs (Punjab) Chattar Phuliji (Balochistan) Management Plan for Sheikh Buddin NP (KP) PA site to be identified in Dadu (Sindh) PA to be established Thal (Punjab) Management Plan for Cholistan GR (Punjab) Management plan of Lal Sunhara NP to be updated, Management Plan of Cholistan WS, and Chaupalia GR (Punjab) Management Plan for Nara WS

Wetlands, swamps and seasonal inuundations

Tropical Thorn Forest

Prosospis cineraria Capparis decidua

Adequate

Sand Dune Desert

Prosopis cineraria Zizyphus mauritiana Tamarix aphylla Propsopis cineraria Calligonum polygonoides Haloxylon spp. Calligonum polygonoides Haloxylon spp. Indigofera cordifolia Prosopis cineraria Tamarix aphylla Commiphora wightii Acacia Senegal Capparis decidua Sueda fruticosa Haloxylon ammodendron Rhazya stricta

X Adequate Adequate Adequate

X X X X

Suitable site for PA to be identified in Thar WS in Karronjar Hills to be declared a PA Suitable site for PA to be identified in Sibi Management Plan for Zangi Nawar GR, and Ghut and Ras Koh WSs (Balochistan) Establish Kachao (Sandak) and Dak CCAs (Balochistan

Medium High Medium High Low

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Dry Sub Tropical Semi-evergreen Scrub Forest

Acacia spp. Commiphora wightii

Adequate

Olea ferruginea Acacia modesta Justicia adhatoda

Adequate

Dry Temperate Semi-evergreen Scrub Forest

Olea ferruginea Pistacia mutica

Olea ferruginea Acacia modesta Artemesia maritima Olea ferruginea Acacia modesta Monotheca buxifolia Pinus roxburghii Quercus incana Inadequate Inadequate

Sub-Tropical Chir Pine Forest

Effective management of Hingol NP, and Durreji CCA (Balochistan); Management Plan for Chorani WS (Balochistan) Effective management of Khirthar NP (Sindh) Effective management of Mahal Kohistan WS/GRs (Sindh) PAs to be established at Kot Kandhari and Pir Gali area (AJK) Management plan for Deva Vatala (AJK)) Management Plans for 14 GRs, and 3 CCAs in Abottabad, Haripur,Mardan and Swabi (KP) Management Plan for Chinji and Kala Chitta NPs (Punjab) Management Plans for chumbi Surla, Loi Bher, and Sodhi WSs (Punjab) Management Plans for Diljaba-Domeli, Tilla Jogian, Kalabagh, and Kheri Murat GRs (Punjab) Effective management of Hazar Ganji NP Management Plan for Duzdara & Koh-e-Sukh GRs (Balochistan) Establish Tobati Apursi, and Dozakh Tangi CCAs(Balochistan) Select site for Fort Munro PA (Punjab) Establish Dharnal CCA (Balochistan) Management Plans for 1 WS, 18 GRs, 8CCAs in Kohat, Bannu, Karak, Hungu,and Nowshehra (KP) Selection of site for PA in Indus Kohistan (GB) Management Plans for 3 GRs, and 2 CCAs in Buner, Malakand, and Kohistan (KP) Management plan for Pir Lasohra NP (Kotli, AJK) Establish Forest PA at Massar RF (KP) Management Plan for GRs and CCAs in lower Dir, Mansehra lowr Swat, and Malakand (KP) Management Plan for Murre, Kotli Sattian Kahuta NP (Punjab)
Establish PAs at Thumb Pattni Maloni Areas, Chamairi (AJK) Establish PA at Garam thum RF (KP) Effective management of Margalla Hills NP and WS (Islamabad) Management Plan for Kathar GR (Punjab) Salt Range to be declared a NP (Punjab)

High High High High Medium Medium High Medium High High High Medium Medium High Medium High Medium High High High Medium High High High High High High

Sub-Tropical Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest

Acacia modesta Bauhinia variegata

Balochistan Dry Coniferous Forest Himalayan Moist TemperateForest

Acacia modesta Butea monosperma Acaica nilotica var. cuppressiformis Juniperus excelsa Fraxinus xanthoxyloides Pinus wallichiana Abies pindrow

Inadequate

Inadequate

Management Plan for Takatu GR and Sasanamma WS PAs to be established at Khalifat, Zargoon, and Ziarat Pir Chinassi to be notified as a PA (AJK) Effective management of Ayubia NP (KP) Kamal Ban, Manshi, and Kund Forest PAs to be established (KP)

High High High High

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Himalayan Dry Coniferous Forest

Cedrus deodara Pinus wallichianaQuercus baloot Picea smithiana Pinus wallichiana Pinus gerardiana Pinus wallichianaQuercus baloot Abies pindrow Picea smithiana Juniperus spp Artemesia maritima

X Inadequate

Pallas Valley to be managed as a CCA (KP) Management Plan for Toli Pir NP (Poonch) Establish CCA in Kumrat Valley (KP)

High High High High Medium High High High High High Medium High High High High

Adequate Adequate

Northern Montane Steppe or Cold Desert

Nanga Parbat NP to be established (Astore, GB) Management Plan for Naltar WS (GB) Existing CCAs to be supported Establish CCA in Shishi Valley ( KP) Establish CCA in Takhat i-Suleiman (Balochistan) Management Plan for Tangir GR (GB) Effective management of Machiara NP and Salkhalla GR Effective management of Khunjerab NP (GB) Management palns for all WSs and GRs (GB) Effective management of Chitral Gol NP (KP) Management Plans for Agram Basti WS and 5 GRs in Chitral (KP) Support to 7 CCAs in Chitral (KP) Effective management of CKNP (GB) Management Plan for Broghil NP (KP) Effective management of Deosai NP (GB)

Dry Alpine Zone

Himalayan Moist Alpine Zone

Hippophae rhamnoides Salix denticulate, Myricaria sp. Carex cruneata Sibbaldia sp Betula utilis Juniperus squamata

Adequate

High High High High

Adequate

Management Plan for Ghamot NP (AJK) Shounthar Valley, Jargan, and Ratti Galli, and Noori Nar Area to be notified as PAs (AJK)) Management Plans for Lulusar-Dodipath, and Saiful Maluk NPs (KP)

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IV. ENABLING ENVIRONMENT


Management Effectiveness
47. The purpose of gap analysis in the management effectiveness is to highlight problems and to set priorities for action. The gaps in the effective management of the protected area system in Pakistan are organized around three main themes: (a) design issues relating to both individual sites and protected area system; (b) adequacy and appropriateness of management systems and processes; and (c)delivery of protected area objectives including conservation of values. 48. Design issues. The first serious action to conserve the key ecosystems and habitats in Pakistan was made when a large number of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Game Reserves were established under the West Pakistan Wildlife Protection Ordinance 1959 in late 1960s and early 1970s. When protected areas started receiving attention of the global conservation community and data on protected areas were gathered from the countries, Pakistan listed all of its national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves as protected areas. While a couple of reviews of the protected area system were undertaken, no follow up action was taken to plan a protected area system in Pakistan. Vast areas of natural ecosystems, except those managed as forests by the government, have undefined land tenure and are generally degraded. Thus the managed forests offer a great opportunity to conserve biodiversity in Pakistan, but unfortunately only a small percentage have included in the protected area system. 49. Management Issues. Until recently, the thrust of protected area management had been on enforcement of the wildlife acts with little or no effort to manage the habitats, and assess and monitor biodiversity. There are 26 national parks and only 11 have management plans (Table 9). The first serious effort to effectively manage protected areas was made with the initiation of GEF project Strengthening Protected Area Management in Pakistan (PAMP). Three National Parks (Chitral Gol, Machiara, and Hingol) were selected under the project and major investment was made in management planning, buffer zone development and habitat improvement and management. In addition, Ayubia NP was managed under Environmental Rehabilitation Project. Management plans of four other national parks (Ayubia, Khunjerab, Khirthar, and Lal Sunhara) were prepared and were partially implemented. Though management plans for Margalla Hills, Chiltan-Hazar Gangi, and Deosai NPs were prepared, but were never implemented due to financial constraints. Management plan of Central Karakorum is in final stages of completion. 50. Unfortunately Pakistan is faced with serious social development issues and conservation agenda has never received priority in the national planning processes. With the preparation of the Biodiversity Action Plan, awareness about biodiversity conservation increased among the professionals, and many new sites for protected areas were notified. In many cases establishment of the protected areas did not follow the globally agreed criteria, probably due to financial and human resource constraints. Strict enforcement of laws in Khirthar, Khunjerab, and Chiltan-Hazar Ganji NPs and protected area management in Chitral Gol, Machiara, and Hingol has resulted in significant improvement in the habitat and wildlife. 51. Vast areas of Pakistan are de facto owned and used by local communities who had no incentives for conservation. Consequently the ecosystems were being degraded through overgrazing, cutting of vegetation for fuel, and key wildlife species had dwindled due to over hunting and killing by the predators. However, there are three success stories of conservation of wildlife in Pakistan by the local communities: Torghar, Kalabagh, and Durreji. The islands of success were based on sustainable sport hunting. At the back of these initiatives were influential persons who had international connections for marketing the hunts and work through the system to get permission for export of trophies. 52. In order to bring the communities into mainstream of conservation, a pilot GEF project tested the concept of conservation at valley level by local communities, and their empowerment for sustainable trophy hunting. Community conservation initiatives proved a big success and Pakistan was able to get CITES quota for Markhor. Table 9. List of National Parks in Pakistan showing their management status. National Park 1 Margalla Hills Management Status Plan Islamabd Capital Territory Yes Not implemented

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2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Azad Jammu & Kashmir Machiara Yes Ghamot No Pir Lasorha No Toli Pir No Gurez Musk deer NP No Deva Vatala No Poonch River Mahsheer NP No Balochistan Chiltan-Hazargangi Yes Hingol Yes Gilgit-Baltistan Khunjerab Yes Deosai Yes Central Karakorum Yes Hunderab-Shandoor No Karmbhar No Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Ayubia Yes Chitral Gol Yes Sheikh Buddin No Saif ul Maluk No Lulusar-Dodhipath No Broghil No Punjab Lal Sunhara Yes Kala Chitta No Chinji No Murree-Kahuta-Kotli Sattian No Sindh KKhirthar Yes

Under implementation

Not implemented Under implementation Under implementation Not implemented Under finalization

Under implementation Under implementation

Outdated

Under implementation

53. A few successful hunts and resulting financial benefits increased the demand for similar support programs in other valleys. The program was scaled up through a full GEF project Mountain Areas Conservancy Project (MACP) and today the concept is widely implemented throughout northern Pakistan. Gradually valleys are clustering at landscape level into conservancies, and thus making valuable contribution to the protection of landscapes. 54. Protected Area Objectives: Although there are some success stories of effective management of protected areas, yet Pakistan is far off from making significant achievements of protected area objectives and fully realizing the conservation values. Except under the GEF project and community based conservation initiatives, there have been very few biodiversity assessments or monitoring. Therefore it is hard to quantify the achievements of objectives or conservation values. There are still many paper parks, due mainly to lack of institutional and professional capacity, financial constraints and conflicting land use demands. This participatory study on gap analysis has helped the responsible institutions to identify gaps in representation, enabling environment, and effective management and it is hoped they will take necessary measures to improve management through collaborative management.

Governance
55. IUCN recognizes four main types of governance for the protected areas: (a) government management, (b) collaborative management, (c) Community Conservation Areas, and (d) private protected areas. 56. Government management is the norm in Pakistan and vast majority of protected areas are managed simply through enforcement of wildlife laws. The protected areas managed by government and CCAs, and whether or not there is a management plan have been identified in the lists of protected areas (Annex 2).

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57. Collaborative management involving local communities in management through active consultation, consensusseeking, negotiating, sharing responsibility and transferring management responsibility to communities or NGOs was initiated under the GEF PAMP. While the government agencies recognize the need for collaborative management, it has not taken any serious measures to extend it to other protected areas, due mainly to financial constraints. The protected areas being managed under collaborative management have been identified in the lists of protected areas (Annex 2). 58. The major driving force behind a large number of community conservation areas is success of sport hunting programmes. Community conservation is widely practiced mainly at valley level in Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan primarily due to the work of GEF MACP. The concept is now being replicated on a limited scale in the Punjab and Sindh. Torghar and Dureji community conservation areas pre-date the MACP. Torghar was first to involve local communities in conservation with seed money from US Fish and Wildlife Department who were interested in conservation of straight horned markhor. The project soon became self-sustaining and its success led to adoption of similar approach by the tribal leader in Dureji. 59. There are numerous private protected areas have been established in the country mainly for hunting of birds which includes both resident and migratory species. In view of big demand for private protected areas, the governments of KP, Punjab, and Sindh have adopted legal instruments for the establishment of private game reserves. However, there is no proper documentation of such areas and many are in existence without any registration with the government. The private game reserves are generally well protected and are making a valuable contribution to conservation in Pakistan.

Capacity to Implement Protected Areas System


60. Financial constraints for effective management of the protected area systems pose a significant challenge. The country usually looks for international funding due to limited national capacity. Except for GEF funding and the cofinancing by other donors and the government, there has been no other significant funding for the protected area system. Central Karakorum National Park received financial support from Government of Italy under its debt swap program and from some other smaller international NGOs with interest in high altitude mountaineering. International Snow Leopard Trust is providing some support for conservation of snow leopard, and Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) for the conservation of wooly flying squirrel. There are now only a few protected areas (Khirthar, Chitral Gol, Khunjerab, Lal Suhanra, and Hingol) that receive limited government funding for maintenance operations only. The Protected Area Fund established under PAMP is not operational because it is not fully capitalized due to inability of the government to contribute its share. 61. Financial gap Analysis: The financial gap is the difference between available funds and funds needed for basic or optimal levels of conservation. A financial analysis provides the following key information: a) Funds available from different sources: national, international; or protected area revenues b) Historical review of financial allocations by program, subprogram, or activity; c) Level of actual expenditures by program, subprogram, or activity; d) Identification of cost-reduction opportunities; e) Level of needs by program, subprogram, or activity, defined at both the basic and optimal levels; and, f) Existing financial gaps by program, subprogram, or activity through the comparison of income vs. expenditures, and of needs vs. income. 62. There is no point in making grandiose plans if finances are not available for making them happen. Therefore, financial gap analysis was limited to the preparation of an estimate of the financial needs for the establishment and management of one protected area over a period of five years. These cost estimates multiplied by the number of protected areas that a province or region has selected to take action on priority basis to fill in the gaps of protected area system will provide an estimate of the financial needs. The cost estimates for one PA are given in Annex 9. 63. The establishment and effective management of a Protected Area system is essential not only to conserve the unique natural heritage of Pakistan but also to ensure sustainable supply of ecosystem goods and services, and climate change adaptation. Therefore, we must make serious efforts to explore funding opportunities from sources such as GEF, Debt for Nature Swap, Carbon Offset Projects, etc.

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Legal and Policy Frameworks


64. There is no national legal or policy instrument for management of Protected Areas at the national level mainly because it is a provincial subject matter. The provinces/territories have wildlife laws that govern the establishment of NPs, WSs, GRs, but have no policy instruments for protected area management. Since Pakistan is a signatory to CBD, The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar), Convention on International Trade In Endangered Sopecies (CITES), Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), United Nations Commission to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and other multilateral environmental agreements, it will be useful to have a national policy framework to guide the provinces/territories in implementing the decisions of the conventions. 65. The wildlife legislations were mostly enacted in 1974-75 which provide legal basis for the establishment of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, and Game Reserves. Wildlife legislations in all the provinces/territories are very similar to each other. The process of revision of wildlife laws was initiated in AJK, Balochistan, G-B, KP, and Sindh. However the draft laws are yet to be approved by any of the provinces/territories. In AJK, draft Wildlife Act was promulgated as an Ordinance and the Wildlife Department operates under its umbrella. 66. In order to be part of the global system of protected areas, it is imperative that the sites included in the national list of protected areas meet the IUCNs definition of a protected area and also meet globally recognized criteria for their establishment and management. There is not a single Wildlife Sanctuary which fulfills the criteria as defined. Similarly by definition, the Game Reserves do not meet the criteria of a protected area but are included in the national list of protected areas. The problem is due to too few management categories of protected areas that can be established under the law. In order to overcome this situation, the following management categories (Table 10) are recommended for inclusion in relevant forest and wildlife legislations through revisions or amendments: Table 10. Proposed management categories of protected areas for Pakistan Proposed category Wilderness Area Nature Reserve Game Reserves National Park Nature Park National Forest or Forest Protected Areas Wildlife Refuge Wildlife Breeding Farm Conservation Landscape Description
Large unmodified or slightly modified areas, retaining their natural character and influence without permanent or significant human habitation , e. g. Runn of Kutch, glaciers and mountain peaks Habitats of threatened species or areas set aside for scientific research where human impacts are strictly controlled Areas of natural habitats strictly managed to conservation biodiversity, but primarily set aside for hunting purposes. Large natural or near natural areas set aside to protect large-scale ecological processes, species, and ecosystems

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Natural areas set aside for recreation near major metropolitan areas or areas with popular tourism potential Managed forests of high biodiversity value but extraction of wood and non wood products is allowed on sustainable use principles ensuring that area retains its natural condition. Areas such as manmade dams or seasonal breeding grounds of wildlife where habitat management is difficult as their primar purpose is management for irrigation and or hydel power generation. An area set aside for breeding wildlife under captivity. Large areas of natural and agro-ecosystems managed by local communities on sustainable use principles

Institutional Framework
67. Government institutions: Provincial Wildlife departments are responsible for the establishment and management of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Game Reserves in the country. The KP and Punjab have well developed and adequately staffed wildlife departments, whereas in other provinces/territories and regions the departments are relatively small. The levels at which these departments are headed is given in table 11. Table11. The level of the head of wildlife departments in different provinces/territories.

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Province / Territory Azad Jammu and Kashmir Gilgit Baltistan Balochistan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Punjab Sindh

Head of the Department Director Wildlife and Fisheries Conservator of Wildlife Chief Conservator of Forests Chief conservator of Wildlife Director General Wildlife and Parks Conservator of Wildlife

68. International Conservation Organizations: IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature, and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) have strong presence in Pakistan. The Country Office of IUCN is in Karachi, while WWF Pakistan is based in Lahore. Both IUCN and WWF have made significant contributions towards advancement of the protected areas management in Pakistan. 69. Non-Governmental Organizations: The most prominent Non-Governmental Organization is Himalayan Wildlife Foundation which is based in Islamabad. Its major contribution is conservation of brown bear in Deosai, leading the process to the notification of Deosai and Musk Deer National Parks. 70. Community Based Organizations: While there are many valley level community organizations and some conservancy level clusters of CCAs, the most prominent are Society for Torghar Environment Protection (STEP), Dureji Environment and Wildlife Society (DEWS), and Khunjerab Village Organization (KVO). Society for Torghar Conservation (STEP) is working in Torghar Hills in Qila Saif Ullah for conservation of habitat of Straight-horned markhor and Urial. It has won many international awards for conservation. Durreji Environment and Wildlife Conservation Society (DEWS) is working in southern Balochistan for conservation of habitat of Urial and Sindh Ibex. Khunjerab Village Organization (KVO) is a cluster of CCAs working for conservation in buffer zone of Khunjerab National Park.

Professional Skills
71. Effective management of Protected Areas system requires special skills; however, there are no in-country education and training opportunities and research in the field for the protected area managers and professionals. The protected area managers have either degree in forestry from Pakistan Forest Institute or different agriculture universities, or graduates in biological sciences. Recently University of Arid Agricult Rawalpindi (UAAR) have started a degree program in wildlife management. Wildlife Department Department of Khyber Pakhtunkwa made a serious effort to send many of its professionals to USA and Canada where at least two received doctoral degrees and many others obtained Masters degrees.

Communication, Education and Public Awareness


72. Conservation in general and protected areas in particular cannot be managed without popular support of the local communities, general public, and the planners and policy makers. There are some general myths about conservation,some are as follows: It is a western agenda. Economic development comes before the environment. Conservation benefits rich at the cost of the poor. Conservation and protected areas take away local livelihoods.

73. These are just some general examples, but the communication, education and awareness programmes will be successful only when they deconstruct these myths or false belief. The term conservation also does not appeal to the hearts and minds of local communities because it usually conflicts with their interests. Protected areas provide great opportunities for connecting people with nature and stimulating their interest in conservation. However, communication programs have not always been effective because their design and delivery is not well planned.

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Despite the importance of communication, education and public awareness programs to the overall effectiveness of protected areas, communication programs usually receive a low priority, are implemented as a standalone program and not fully integrated into the protected areas program of work. 74. Communication and outreach programs must focus on an appeal to the emotions and raise awareness that these are areas protected by people for the benefit of society, and not protected from people. The study on gap analysis identified the following gaps in the area of communication, awareness and education: The protected area professionals lack training in getting their messages across to the local people. The communication, awareness raising and education is not assigned to right people for design and delivery General public lacks awareness about the ecosystem services that protected areas provide for the good of the society. Policy makers and planners attach a low priority to conservation and protected areas. The programs mostly ignore local communities as these are geared towards the elite.

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V. PLAN OF WORK ON PROTECTED AREAS


75. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) adopted a program of work on protected areas (PoWPA) in its 7th meeting held in Kuala Lumpur, 9 -20 February 2004. The objective of the PoWPA is to establish and maintain a comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative national system of protected areas that contributes to achieving the objectives of the Convention. The CBD had set a goal of protecting 10% of all ecological regions by 2010, but an evaluation of the progress towards that goal (Joppa, 2009) found that while total area under legal protection reached 12.9%, only 5.8% had strict protection for biodiversity. In light of the global assessment, the CBD in its 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties held from 18 to 29 October 2010, in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, adopted a revised and updated Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, including the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, for the 2011-2020 period. 76. Some of the examples of Aichi targets are: o The rate of loss of natural habitats including forests should be at least reduced to half and, where feasible, brought close to zero. o The conservation target should be at least 17% of terrestrial and inland water areas, and 10% of marine and coastal areas. o The targets for restoration of degraded areas through conservation and habitat improvements should be 15% of the area. o Extinction of known threatened species should be prevented and their conservation status improved. o Viable populations of wild relatives of crops should be conserved in nature. 77. The PoWPA is an ambitious program with 92 different activities, and the Parties are required to implement the activities of the PoWPA in the context of their nationally determined priorities, capacities and needs. The PoWPA is comprised of some critical activities and a large number of enabling activities. To date, the authorities responsible for the establishment and management of protected areas have not taken action to determine national priorities, and thus Pakistan has lagged behind in achieving the objective of the PoWPA. However, the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (ABT) provides a window of opportunity. This study on the protected area gap analysis enabled the stakeholders to come together and identify the following nine most crucial activities and set the targets for action.

Pakistans Plan of Work on Protected Areas


78. Following are nine activities and suggested targets that were identified and mutually agreed by the stakeholders as most crucial in the national context of CBD PoWPA. The goals in these activities refer to the goals of the PoWPA. 1. Establish and strengthen a comprehensive and ecologically representative system of protected areas

The PoWPA (Goal 1.1) directs parties to identify at the national level, gaps in protected area system based on the requirements for representative systems of protected areas that adequately conserve the terrestrial, marine and inland water biodiversity and ecosystems. National plans should also include interim measures to protect highly threatened or highly valued areas, as well as areas securing the most threatened species, also taking into consideration the conservation needs of migratory species. The study has identified gaps in the national protected area system and identified sites for expansion and establishment of new protected areas (Table 8) keeping in view the requirements of the PoWPA. Target By 2020, a representative and effectively managed protected area system is established to significantly reduce loss of biodiversity and to fulfill our national obligations of achieving the goal of the Strategic Plan of the Convention and the World Summit on Sustainable Development 2. Substantially improve site-based protected area planning and management The PoWPA suggests that management of the protected areas should be based on ecosystem approach using sitebased planning through active stakeholder participation by staff that are well trained (Goal 1.4). The management plans should have clear biodiversity objectives, targets, measures for climate change adaptation, management

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strategies and monitoring programmes. A vast majority of the protected areas, except a few national parks, have no site-based management and plans. Targets 1) By 2013, prepare and test at national level a model protected area management plan that can be prepared quickly and economically (Action: IGF Office). 2) By 2020, the provincial governments should ensure that all protected areas have management plans and are managed by site-based management authority (Action: Provincial governments). 3. Develop opportunities and capacities of local communities and other stakeholders to establish and manage community-conserved and private protected areas PoWPA emphasizes on the need to avoid and mitigate negative impacts from the establishment and management of protected areas and, and ensure equitable sharing of both costs and benefits arising thereof (Goal 2.1). In addition, it requires the Parties to develop opportunities and capacity of local communities and other stakeholders to establish and effectively manage community-conserved and private protected areas (Goal 2.2). Many protected areas were notified without an assessment of the economic and socio-cultural costs and negative impacts arising from their establishment. Large areas of natural ecosystems with high biodiversity values, other than the managed forests, have undefined land tenure and local communities are de facto owners and users. Biodiversity conservation in such areas is possible only through the establishment of Community Conservation Areas and private protected areas. Targets 1) By 2015, integrate assessment of the socio-economic costs and benefits for local communities as part of the planning process for the establishment and management of all protected area, and where appropriate compensate costs and equitably share benefits. (Action: All Provinces) 2) By 2020, support local communities and other stakeholders to establish Community Conservation Areas proposed in Annex 8 for inclusion in the protected area system. (Action: All Provinces) 4. Create an enabling policy, institutional and socio-economic environment for protected areas Unfortunately, two of the three essential ingredients of the enabling environment (Goal 3.1) for effective management of protected areas, that is, protected area policy, and socio-economic incentives are non-existent, while the third institutions, is very week. The protected areas are presently established under outdated wildlife acts, which should be reviewed and revised to meet the needs of the protected areas. The managed forests can play an important role in biodiversity conservation, but there is no legal mechanism to establish Forest Protected Areas. Targets 4) By 2013, draft a model national policy for the establishment and management of protected areas (Action: IGF Office). 5) By 2014, all the provinces should formulate their policy instruments for protected areas establishment and management (Action: All Provinces). 6) By 2014, all wildlife and forestry laws should be reviewed and either suitably amended or revised to meet the present and future needs of protected areas (Action: All Provinces). 7) By 2015, reorganize the forestry and wildlife departments to strengthen institutional capacity for the establishment and management of protected areas (Action: All Provinces). 5. Build capacity for the planning, establishment and management of protected areas Knowledge and skills at individual, community and institutional levels, and high professional standards are keys to the effective management of protected areas (Goal 3.2). The professionals currently responsible for the establishment and management of protected areas have only the basic degree in forestry or biological sciences. Specialized education or training in protected areas is not offered at any of the academic institutions in the country. Targets 1) By 2015, capacity should be developed in at least one University or institute to offer specialization in protected areas to the interested students (Action: IGF Office). 2) By 2013, arrangements should be made at a university or training institute to develop and offer 4-6 week in-service training course in biodiversity conservation and protected area management (Action: IGF Office). 3) By 2015, every province should ensure that a minimum work force of 10 -12 professionals are trained through in-service training (Action: All Provinces).

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6. Secure the financial costs of effective management of national system of protected areas. In addition to the technical resources, sufficient financial resources are essential to meet the costs of implementing and managing national system of protected areas (Goal 3.4). There are competing demands for scarce national and international resources, therefore, other windows of opportunities like collaborative management, private-public partnerships, socio-economic development in buffer zone, carbon trade, and climate change adaptation, and endowment funds should be explored. Target By 2015, assess the financial needs and develop a strategy to achieve financial sustainability of the protected area system (Action: All Provinces). 7. Strengthen communication, education and public awareness The policy makers, planners and public in general are not aware of the economic benefits of the goods and services that protected areas produce in addition to providing environmental protection and recreational opportunities. Therefore in order to secure popular support for the establishment and maintenance of protected areas public awareness, understanding and appreciation of the importance and benefits of protected areas needs to be significantly increased (Goal 3.5). Target By 2015, develop and implement a plan of action to raise public awareness through effective communications and education. (Action: IGF Office and all Provinces). 8. Develop and adopt minimum standards and best practices for protected area system An efficient long-term system should be developed and implemented to monitor the outcomes being achieved through protected area systems in relation to the goals and targets, and to adapt and improve protected area management based on the ecosystem approach (Goal 4.1 4.3). Targets 1) By 2012, develop and implement a reporting system for monitoring progress on this plan of work (Action: IGF Office). 2) By 2013, improve and update national database on protected areas to include only those sites that meet IUCNs definition and criteria and incorporate information on ecosystem representation, land tenure, governance, and management effectiveness (Action: IGF Office). 3) By 2015, develop a national and regional geographic information system for the protected areas and employ remote sensing tools for monitoring key protected areas (Action: All provinces). 9. Improve the scientific knowledge and its contribution to the effective management of protected areas Protected areas can provide an excellent opportunity for research scientists and students to carryout field research leading to an improved understanding of biodiversity in protected areas. The knowledge of the distribution, status and trends of biological diversity can be a useful tool in monitoring progress towards achievements of the objectives of conservation (Goal 4.4). Target By 2014, identify needs for scientific research in the protected areas and develop joint plans with appropriate organizations and institutions (Action: IGF Office and All provinces).

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VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


National List of Protected Areas
79. There are 26 National Parks, 91 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 116 Game Reserves, and 116 CCAs covering an area of 109,969 km2 or 13.65 % of the area of Pakistan. The national lists of protected areas are comprised of all the national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, game reserves, private game reserves and community conservation areas. The lists do not provide information on the geographical location, ecosystem or habitat, land tenure, governance, and whether or not managed under a plan. More than half the number of national parks and all wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves have no management plans; the current management involves enforcement of hunting and shooting under the wildlife acts. The list contains many sites that do not meet the IUCN criteria for protected areas; for example, game reserves are primarily set aside for controlled hunting and not habitat conservation. Similarly, planted forests, except where two thirds of the area under natural ecosystems, do not meet the criteria but many irrigated plantations in the Punjab province are notified as wildlife sanctuaries. Until such time that choice of protected areas management categories is expanded through revision or amendment, distinction should be made in game reserves set aside for controlled hunting and those set aside for biodiversity conservation. Recommendations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. By 2015, implementable management plans should be prepared and periodically updated for all the National Parks (Action: All Provinces). By 2020, management plans should be prepared and periodically updated for all the Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves where objective is biodiversity conservation, and Community Conservation Areas (Action: All Provinces). Irrigated plantations that do not have two thirds of the area under natural ecosystems should be excluded from the list of the protected areas (Action: Punjab) Game Reserves that are established for only controlled hunting, should not be included in the list of protected areas (Action: All Provinces) By, 2015, the official provincial and national list of protected areas should include information on geographical location, ecosystem or habitat, key species of fauna, land tenure, governance, and management plan. (Action: IGF Office, All Provinces)

Representation in Protected Area System


80. Ecosystems: The gap analysis of the protected area system proved to be a challenging task as very little information was available on the ecosystems that the protected areas represent. An additional challenge was to establish a baseline of ecosystems for gap analysis. The description of vegetation types by Roberts (1991) and the ecosystem maps developed from NOAA satellite for the Protected Area System Review in the year 2000 were used as a first approximation to establish the ecosystems baseline. The mapping exercise in 2000 did not involve any field verification of the ecosystem type nor was any field checking done during this study. Reliance on the floristic characterization was based on secondary data (Roberts, 1991) and knowledge of key resource persons. Therefore, there may be some element of human error. Total area of protected areas in Pakistan exceeds international minimum recommendation of 10% area. However, some ecosystems are not represented in the Protected Area System while others are inadequately represented. The gaps in the ecosystem are summarized in Table 8, and detailed analysis is provided in Annex 8. Recommendations 1. By 2015, prepare updated provincial ecosystem maps using latest satellite imagery and description of their floristic composition through field work and secondary sources of information (Action: All provinces). 2. By 2012, under a phased plan based on priorities set in Table 8 and Annex 8, establish new protected areas (as per following summary) to fill in the gaps and improve representation. (Action: All Provinces indicated)

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Azad Jammu and Kashmir: Representative sites of Riverine Ecosystem (Mirpur); wetlands (Northern Kashmir); Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Scrub (Kot Kandhari and Pir Gali area); Sub-Tropical Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest (Thumb Pattni Maloni Areas, Chamairi); and Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest (Pir Chinassi). Balochistan: Representative sites of marine and island ecosystem (Arabian sea and Astola Island); Littoral and Mangrove Ecosystems (Ganjabad, Cheer Koh, Sonmiani, Gwathar Bay, Jiwani, Kalmat Hor); wetlands (Wasta Lake, and Zarri Daggar); Tropical Thorn Forest (Chattar Phuliji); Dry Temperate Semi-evergreen Scrub Forest (Tobati Apursi, Dozakh Tangi and Dharnal CCAs); and Balochistan Dry Coniferous Forest (Khilafat, Zargoon, and Ziarat). Gilgit-Baltistan: Nanga Parbat National Park (Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest, Alpine). Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Representative sites of Sub-Tropical Chir Pine Forest(Massar RF); Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest (Kamal Ban, Mansi, and Kund Forest PAs; Pallas Valley CCA); and Himalayan Dry Coniferous Forest (Kumrat Valley CCA). Punjab: Representative sites of riverine, Thal Desert, and Dry Temperate Semi-evergreen Scrub Forest in Sulaiman Hills (Fort Monro area). Sindh: Representative sites of Littoral and Mangrove Ecosystem (Jubho Lagoon, Nurri Lagoon, Hawks Bay Sandspit Turtle Area ), Riverine Ecosystem; Tropical Thorn Forest (Dadu); Thar Desert (Karoonjhar Hills, Nagarparker). 81. Managed Forests: The managed forests serve a useful purpose in biodiversity conservation, but are not counted as protected areas. Some of the managed forests have been notified as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves under the wildlife acts. However, management of these forest protected areas, and establishment of new forest protected areas has become a cause for conflict of interest between the forestry department which manages the forests, and the wildlife department. Forest ecosystems, in general, are either inadequately represented in the protected area system or not represented at all. This is especially true in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Punjab. The IUCN guidelines suggest that all managed forests where management objective is biodiversity conservation, except for planted industrial wood forests, and natural forests with main objective other than biodiversity conservation should be count as category IV Protected Areas. Recommendations 1. By 2015, a Managed Forest Protected Area category should be created through amendment or revision of the forestry legislation (Action: All Provinces) 2. By 2013, a coordination mechanism should be established at provincial level for joint management of forest protected areas by Forest and Wildlife Departments (Action: All Provinces) 82. Species: A number of species of flora and fauna are included in the CITES Appendix I (threatened with extinction) and Appendix II (trade strictly regulated to avoid extinction due to over harvesting). In addition, Pakistan is endowed with many endemic species of flora and fauna, and wild relatives of crops (Annexes 2-6). Except for a few CITES species (Snow Leopard, Wooly Flying Squirrel, Indus Dolphin, Markhor, Himalayan Ibex, Blue Sheep, Urial, Blackbuck and Chinkara) there are neither any efforts underway nor there are any plans for conservation of the species. The migratory species have no fixed staging grounds and their conservation can best be achieved through awareness raising, and enforcement of laws. Recommendation By 2013, prepare provincial lists of species on CITES appendices, endemic flora and fauna, and wild relatives of crop, and by 2015, make plans for their conservation and recovery of populations of threatened species (Action: All Provinces). 83. Cultural and Natural Features: There are many important archaeological sites located in and around natural ecosystems, for example, Sharda Fort and Buddhist University (Neelum Valley), Rohtas Fort and Ketas Temple (Salt Range), Mehrgarh (Kacchi Plains, Balochistan). There is a need to develop collaborative programs with the

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Arhaeological and Tourism Departments to identify all such sites and integrate them into the management of the protected areas to increase flow of national and international tourists to the protected areas. Recommendation: By 2015, develop joint programs with Archaeological and Tourism Departments to promote tourism in the where cultural, religious and archaeological sites lie within or in close proximity of the protected areas. (Action: All Provinces).

Enabling Environment
84. Management Effectiveness: Of the 26 National Parks, only about 10 have management plans. These are: CCKNP, Khunjerab, and Deosai (GB), Ayubia and Chitral Gol (KP), Margalla Hills (Islamabad), Machiara (AJK), Lal Sunhara (Punjab), Chiltan-Hazar Ganji, Hingol (Balochistan), and Kirthar (Sindh). Management Plans of Khunjerab, Margalla Hills, and Lal Sunhara expired with little implementation. Accept three National Parks (Chitral Gol, Machiara, and Hingol) which were part of a recently completed GEF project, and Ayubia, the management of the remaining national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves is mostly limited to enforcement of laws. Community Conservation or Controlled Hunting Areas and private game reserves are required to have verifiable census to be eligible for hunting permits. The format and process for the management plans should be kept simple so that it can be prepared with the available human and financial resources, secondary sources of information and minimal field work. The protected areas should be managed on the principles of adaptive management plans updated periodically to incorporate lessons learnt. The essential elements of protected area management plan are given in Annex 10. Recommendations 1) 2) By 2013, develop and test a model management plan that can be prepared and updated quickly with the available human, financial, and technical resources (Action: All provinces) By 2015, all National Parks and by 2020, all protected areas should be brought under effective management (Action: All Provinces)

85. Governance: While there are many success stories of conservation by local communities, the top down management by government continues to be the norm. Except in the three protected areas included in GEF project, and Ayubia, no serious effort has been made to involve local communities in collaborative management or providing support to local communities for conservation at a landscape level. Recommendations 1) 2) By 2020, the successful experiences of collaborative management under the GEF PAMP should be incorporated, where feasible, in protected area management plans (Action: All Provinces) By 2020, assist the local communities to establish and manage Community Conservation Areas on sites with high biodiversity value (Table 8) of which they are the de facto land owners or users (Action: All Provinces).

86. Capacity to implement Protected Area System Plan: The management of protected areas is not the focus of management within the forestry and wildlife departments who were traditionally set up to manage forests for logging and enforcement of wildlife laws. The management of protected areas needs a special focus and dedicated entity with a clearly defined mandate. In the absence of a PoWPA, it is not possible to do a financial gap analysis. The following recommendation is also included as an activity in the national priorities under the PoWPA described in Chapter V. Recommendation By 2015, assess the financial needs and develop a strategy to achieve financial sustainability of the protected area system (Action: All Provinces). 87. Legal and Policy Framework: There is no policy instrument, either at national or provincial level for the establishment and management of protected areas. There are only some passing references to conservation of biodiversity in the forest policies of KP and Punjab. The other provinces neither have a forest nor a wildlife policy. The protected areas are important not only for conservation of biodiversity but they also provide valuable goods and services for the society as a whole and local communities in particular, provide shield against natural calamities (floods and tsunamis), and mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change. The wildlife legislations that provide legal basis for

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the establishment of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves are outdated and need to be updated to meet the present and future needs. The forestry departments which are the custodians of the nations forests, have changed little over time and need to mainstream biodiversity conservation objectives in their mission statement and plans of operation. Actions recommended here are part of the national priority activities under the PoWPA outlined in Chapter V. Recommendations 1) By 2014, formulate national policy framework and provincial policies for the establishment and management of protected areas (Action: IGF Office, All Provinces). 2) By 2015, all wildlife and forestry laws should be reviewed and either suitably amended or revised to meet the present and future needs of protected areas (Action: All Provinces). 3) By 2015, reorganize the forestry and wildlife departments to strengthen institutional capacity for the establishment and management of protected areas (Action: All Provinces) 88. Institutions: The wildlife departments have no government lands to manage and 100% of the national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and game reserves have been established on lands that are either managed by the forestry departments or their legal status is undefined and local communities are de facto owners and users of these lands. Consequently, due to conflict of interest, many so called protected areas remain parks on paper without any habitat management. Wildlife and Forest Departments and local communities are all important stakeholders and therefore there is need to institute effective coordination mechanisms at provincial level. IUCN and WWF, international conservation organizations in Pakistan, had major influence on biodiversity conservation and continue to influence policies. Recommendation By 2013, Round Tables or committees comprised of representatives of forest and wildlife departments, local communities, and conservation organizations are established to ensure coordination among stakeholders (Action: All Provinces). 89. Except for three community or private conservation areas (Torghar, Dureji, and Kalabagh) most other community conservation or hunting organizations mushroomed under GEF MACP. After the project ended, these community organizations have no support mechanism and in its absence many will cease to function. There are only a few local level NGOs that have started to pay attention to biodiversity conservation. The Himalayan Wildlife Foundation is the only conservation NGO which has made any significant contribution to biodiversity conservation in Pakistan. Recommendation By 2014, within the Forestry and Wildlife Departments, support mechanisms are established to support conservation NGOs and local organizations managing Community Conservation or Private Protected Areas (Action: All Provinces). 90. Professional Skills: There is no specialized training in protected areas or wildlife and habitat management in Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute and other universities that offer education in forestry should develop curriculum for biodiversity conservation and in the interim to begin with at least offer it as a minor with major in forestry. These institutions should also develop short term training courses for protected area managers. Pakistan receives a large number of overseas training facilities, most of which remain unutilized due mainly to lack of timely nominations. Following recommendations are taken from the national priority activities identified under the PoWPA (Chapter V). Recommendation: 1) By 2015, capacity should be developed in at least one University or institute to offer specialization in protected areas to the interested students (Action: IGF Office) 2) By 2013, arrangements should be made at a university or training institute to develop and offer 4-6 week in-service training course in biodiversity conservation and protected area management (Action: IGF Office) 3) By 2015, every province should ensure that a minimum work force of 10 -12 professionals are trained through in-service training (Action: All Provinces). 91. Awareness and Communications: The protected areas in Pakistan are generally established and managed for conservation purpose and we have failed to demonstrate their value for the ecosystem goods and services they provide. As a general trend people are kept out of the protected areas, rather than manage the protected areas for the

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people. Protected areas provide a great opportunity to link people with nature and inspire popular support for their effective management. The power of social media and TV networks needs to be harnessed to create awareness regarding benefits of protected areas and mobilize popular support for their effective management. Recommendation By 2015, design and launch a multi-media strategy to link people with nature and inspire popular support for protected areas utilizing the power of social media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.), Television, and print media. (Action: All Provinces)

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VII. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS


AJK BAP CBD CCA CCHA CITES CKNP CMS DEWS ERNP G-B GEF GS GR Ha IP IUCN Km2 KP KVO MACP NGO NOAA NP PA PAMP PoWPA RF STEP UAAR UNCCD USA WCS WWF Azad Jammu and Kashmir Biodiversity Action Plan Convention on Biological Diversity Community Conservation Area Community Controlled Hunting Area Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Central Karakorm National park Convention on Migratory Species Dureji Environment and Wildlife Society Environmental Rehabilitation Project Gilgit Baltistan Global Environment Facility Game Sanctuary Game Reserve Hectare Irrigated Plantation International Union for Conservation of Nature Kilometer square Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Khunjerab Village Organization Mountain Areas Conservancy Project Non-Governmental Organization National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Park Protected Area Protected Area Management Project Plan of Work of Protected Areas Reserve Forest Society for Torghar Environment Protection University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi United Nations Commission to Combat Desertification United States of America Wildlife Conservation Society World Wide Fund for Nature

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VI. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anwar, M. Review of the Protected Area Management and Performance Effectiveness in Pakistan. Ministry of Environment, Gobernment of Pakista, and IUCN The World Conservation Union, Pakistan. 78 pp. David M. Olson, and E. Dinerstein. 2002. The Global 200: Priority Eco regions for Global Conservation. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 89: 199 -224. Dudley, N. Editor. 2008. Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. x + 86pp Dudley, N., and A. Phillips. 2006. Forests and Protected Areas - Guidance on the use of the IUCN protected area management categories. World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 12. IUCN The International Union for Conservation of Nature. X+58pp. Flores, M., Rivero, G., Len, F., Chan, G., et al. 2008. Financial Planning for National Systems of Protected Areas: Guidelines and Early Lessons. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, US. Goldstein, W. 2003. Communication, Education and Public Awareness for Protected Areas West Asia and Northern Africa. Workshop Report September 2003, IUCN Gland Switzerland 59 pp. Jenkin, Clinton, N and L. Joppa. 2009. Expansion of the global terrestrial protected area system. Biology Consservation. Hockings, M., Stolton, S., Leverington, F., Dudley, N. and Courrau, J. 2006. Evaluating Effectiveness: A framework for assessing management effectiveness of protected areas. 2nd edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. xiv + 105 pp. ICIMOD. 1993. Land cover assessment and Monitoring Volume 10A Pakistan. United Nations Environment Programme, Bangkok. 42pp. Nigel, D. and J. Parish. 2006. Closing the Gap. Creating Ecologically Representative Protected Area Systems: A Guide to Conducting the Gap Assessments of Protected Area Systems for the Convention on Biological Diversity. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Technical Series no. 24, vi + 108 pages. Roberts, T. J. 1991. The Birds of Pakistan. Oxford University Press. 666 pp. Schill, S., and G. Raber. 2009. Protected Area Tools (PAT) for ArcGIS 9.3TM Version 3.0 - User Manual and Tutorial . The Nature Conservancy. 75 pp. S. I. ALI. 2008. Significance of flora with special reference to Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot., 40(3): 967-971. Somuncu, M., A. A. Khan, L. A. Waseem. Review of Protected Areas System in Pakistan: Present Status and Problems Concerning Future Development. (http://dergiler.ankara.edu.tr/dergiler/47/1155/13587.pdf)

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Annex 1 Ecosystem Maps of Provinces/Territories


The ecosystem maps in this annex were produced in the year by National Agriculture Research Center, Islamabad using NOAA satellite data of October 1992 for Protected Area System Review of Pakistan by IUCN. Due to time constraint, it was not possible to check the maps on the ground and the ecosystems names were assigned based on the field knowledge of the key resource persons. This annex contains following maps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Baluchistan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (then NWFP) and Gilgit-Baltistan (then Northern Areas) Punjab Sindh

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- 32 -

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- 34 -

Annex 2 Endemic Mammals of Pakistan


This list of mammal species found exclusively in Pakistan is based on the taxonomy used in: Wilson, D.E. & Reeder, D.M. (Eds.)(2005) Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third Edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Scientific name

Common name

Distribution

Representation in PA

Remarks

Crocidura pergrisea (Soricomorpha - Soricidae) Platanista gangetica minor (Cetacea - Platanistidae) Dryomys niethammeri (Rodentia - Gliridae) Salpingotulus michaelis (Rodentia - Dipodidae)

Pale Gray Shrew

Indus River Dolphin

Niethammer's Forest Dormouse Baluchistan Pygmy Jerboa

- 35 -

Annex 3 Endemic Reptiles of Pakistan


Checklist of Endemic Reptile species and subspecies in Pakistan prepared by Rafaqat Masroor of the Pakistan Museum of Natural History and is current to 2009. Scientific name Calottes versicolor farooqi Common name Farooqs Garden Lizard Distribution Alpine areas in Kaghan, Dir, Swat, Kohistan, AJK Tanishpa, Killa Saifullah, Toba Kakar Range,Balochistan Besham (KP) Hadar, Chilas (G-B) Darband (Baluchistan) southeastern Pakistan Khirthar Range (Sindh) Passu, Khyber ( G-B) Skardu (G-B) Drosh (Chitral) Sulaiman range Sakhi Sarwar, Rakhni( DGK) southern Salt Range Nizampur ( Attock) Chilas, Astor Marghazar (Swat) Deh Akro ( Sindh). Fort Munro (D. G. Khan) Iskinderabad (Mianwali) Representation in PA Remarks Restricted

Laudakia melanura nasiri

Nasirs Black Rock Agama Auffenbergs Rock Agama Khans Rock Agama Spotted Toad Agama Pakistans Brilliant Agama Red-throated Agama Batura Glacier Gecko Bhme Rock Gecko Chitral Gecko Western Rock Gecko Sulaiman Range Gecko Salt Range Gecko Potohar Gecko Baigs Tuberculated Rock Gecko Short-limbed Bent-toed Gecko Deh Akro Arboreal Gecko Fort Munro Sand-stone Gecko Soan Sand-stone Gecko

Restricted

Laudakia pakistanica auffenbergi Laudakia pakistanica khani Phrynocephalus euptilopus Travels agile pakistanensis Trapelus rubrigularis Altigekko baturensis Alsophylax boehmei Mediodactylus walli (Cyrtopodion chitralense) Cyrtopodion kachhense ingoldbyi Cyrtopodion kohsulaimanai Cyrtopodion montiumsalsorum Cyrtopodion potoharensis Cyrtopodion baigii Altigecko brachykolon Mediodactylus dehakroense Indogekko fortmunroi Indogekko indusoani

Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted

- 36 -

Scientific name Indogekko rhodocaudus Indogekko rohtasfortai Ptyodactylus homolepis homolepis Siwaligekko battalense Siwaligekko dattanense Siwaligekko mintoni Tropiocolotes depressus Tropiocolotes persicus euphorbia cola Eremias cholistanica Novoeumeces cholistanensis Novoeumeces indothalensis Typhlops ahsanuli Typhlops diardii platyventris Typhlops madgemintonae madgemintonae Typhlops madgemintonae shermanai Coluber karelini mintonorum Enhydris pakistanica Platyceps rhodorachis kashmirensis Echis carinatus astolae

Common name Red-tailed Sand-stone Gecko Rohtas Sand-stone Gecko Fan-toed Gecko Reticulate Plum-bodied Gecko Plum banded Gecko Plump Swati Gecko Mountain Dwarf Gecko Persian Dwarf Gecko Cholistan Desert Lacerta Cholistan Striped Skink Thal Mole Skink Ahsans Blind Snake Kashmirs fat-Blind Snake Madges Slender Blind Snake Shermans Slender Blind Snake Spotted Desert Racer Sind ditch Snake Kashmir Cliff Racer Dark-blotched Sawscaled Viper

Distribution Tanishpa, (Kila Saifullah)Balochistan. Kotli (AJK) Shikarpur (Sindh) Batgram, Manshera (KP) Manshera (KP) Udigram, Swat (KP) Kach, Quetta Division Vikus Dehak, Balochistan. Bahawalpur Bahawalpur, Cholistan Bakkar, Punjab Kotli, AJK Kotli, AJK Kotli, AJK Kotli, AJK Zangi-Nawar, Nushki Jati, Sindh Kotli, AJK Astola Island,Balochistan

Representation in PA

Remarks Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted Restricted

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Annex 4 Endemic Amphibians of Pakistan


This list of the amphibian species and subspecies found exclusively in Pakistan was prepared by Rafaqat Masroor of the Pakistan Museum of Natural History and is current to 2009. Scientific name Common name Distribution Representation in PA Remarks

Duttaphrynus melanostictus hazarensis Bufo pseudoraddei pseudoraddei Bufo pseudoraddei baturae

Hazara Toad

Manshera, and Datta, KP Mingora, Swat Hunza River, Passu River, G-B Peshin, Balochistan, Barmoach, Goi Madan, AJK Murree ,Punjab

Swat Green Toad Batura Glacier Green Toad Baloch Green Toad Kashmir Torrent Forg

Pseudepidalea zugmayeri Allopaa barmoachensis

Nanorana vicina

Murre Hills Frog

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Annex 5 Endemic Freshwater Fish of Pakistan


This list is primarily based on information from the 13 March 2009 version of the Catalogue of Fishes database and includes species described through 2008. OC = a FishBase occurrence record suggests a specimen from another country outside normal stated range ( these vary widely in reliability from obvious misidentifications to being almost certainly correct)

Scientific name

Common name

Disribution

Representation in PA

Remarks

Amblyceps macropterus (Amblycipitidae) Batasio pakistanicus (Bagridae) Mystus horai (Bagridae) Nemacheilus fascimaculatus (Balitoridae) Nemacheilus kohatensis (Balitoridae) Schistura afasciata (Balitoridae) Schistura arifi (Balitoridae) Schistura curtistigma (Balitoridae) Schistura machensis (Balitoridae) Schistura microlabra (Balitoridae) Schistura pakistanica (Balitoridae) Schistura shadiwalensis (Balitoridae) Triplophysa trewavasae (Balitoridae) Barilius pakistanicus (Cyprinidae) Garra wanae OC (Cyprinidae) Labeo nigripinnis OC (Cyprinidae) Puntius punjabensis (Cyprinidae) Puntius waageni (Cyprinidae) Indus Catfish

- 39 -

Scientific name

Common name

Disribution

Representation in PA

Remarks

Clupisoma naziri (Schilbeidae) Glyptothorax naziri (Sisoridae) Glyptothorax punjabensis (Sisoridae) Glyptothorax stocki (Sisoridae) Nangra robusta (Sisoridae) Schistura anambarensis (Balitoridae) Schistura harnaiensis (Balitoridae) Schistura lepidocaulis (Balitoridae) Schistura naseeri (Balitoridae) Triplophysa hazaraensis (Balitoridae) Triplophysa naziri (Balitoridae) Barilius naseeri (Cyprinidae) Naziritor zhobensis (Cyprinidae) Schizopyge dainellii (Cyprinidae) Ompok sindensis (Siluridae) Gagata pakistanica (Sisoridae) Zhobi Mahseer

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Annex 6 Wild Relatives of Crop Plants in Pakistan


Common Name Wild relative of wheat Scientific Name Aegilops squarossus Aegilops triuncialis Wild relative of wheat Elymus borianum Elymus kuramensis Elymus nodosus Elymus stewarti Elymus longe aristatus Province/territory/District Distribution Mountain areas of Northern Pakistan Mountain areas of Northern Pakistan Endemic to Swat Endemic to Kurram Kurram Endemic to Kashmir High alpine areas of Hindukush Himalayas and Karakorum Endemic to Karakorum Endemic to Kashmir Karakorum, Ziarat, and Harboi Range North Balochistan NWFP, Murree Hills Indus Delta Hazara and Murree Hill tract Common weed throughout the country High alpine slopes of Karakorum, Himalayas, Hindukush South Sindh Western area of Balochistan Western part of North Balochistan Representation in PA System

Elymus russelii Elymus jacquemontii Wild relatives of barley Hordeum bogdanii Hordeum spontaneum Hordeum murinum Oryza coarctata Sorghum nitidum Sorghum halepense Wild relatives of millet Wild relative of cotton Wild relatives of mustard Pennisetum flaccidum

Gossypium stocksii Brassica junacea Brassica deflexa

- 41 -

Common Name Wild relatives of kenaf

Scientific Name Hibiscus caesius Hibiscus micranthus Hibiscus lobatus

Province/territory/District

Distribution North Punjab, NWFP, Kashmir Sindh and Balochistan Salt Range, Kurram Valley, Sindh Hindukush, Himalayas,-Karakorum Hindukush, Himalayas,-Karakorum

Representation in PA System

Wild relatives of chick pea

Cicer macranthum Cicer microphyllum

Wild relatives of bean Wild relatives of fruits

Vigna spp Pyrus pashia Mallus chitralensis Prunus prostrate Temperate Himalayas Chitral Temperate Himalayas NorthBalochistan NorthBalochistan Himalayas Foothill Himalayas Lower hills of North Pakistan

Wild almond Wild cherry Wild relatives of grapes Pomegranate Wild relative of olive

Amygdalus brahuicus Cerrasus rechingeri Vitis jacquemontii Punica granatum Olea ferruginea

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Annex 7 List of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves & CCAs
The ecosystem representation of the sites in this list was done based on their geographical location and personal knowledge of the key resource persons. There may be some error of judgement but it is a good first approximation. It is hoped that the ecosystem representation will be checked in the field by the concerned officials of the Forestry and Wildlife Departments and corrections made where necessary. The lists of following provinces and territories are included in the annex in the order listed: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Islamabad Capital Territory Azad Jammu and Kashmir Baluchistan Gilgit-Baltistan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Punjab and Islamabd Sindh

43

National Park, and Wildlife Sanctuaries in Islamabad Capital Territory Name National Park Margalla Hills Wildlife sanctuary Islamabad 7,000 Islamabad Government Government Sub Trpical Semievergree Acacia modesta Bauhinia variegata No 17,3086 Islamabad Government Government Sub Trpical Semievergreen Acacia modesta Bauhinia variegata Area (ha) District Land Tenure Governance Vegetation Ecosystem Management Plan

44

List of National Parks, and Game Reserves in Azad Jammu and Kashmir.
Name Area (Ha.) District Land Tenure Governance Vegetation Type Ecosystem
Management Plan

NATIONAL PARKS 1 2 Ghamot Gurez Musk Deer NP Machiara Toli Pir Pir Lasura Deva Vatala Poonch River Mahasher NP TOTAL GAME RESERVES 1 2 3 4 5 6 Salkhala Moji Qazinag Mori Said Ali Phala Hillan 859 3,859 4,830 273 472 384 Neelum Hattian Hattian Havelli Havelli Havelli Forest land Forest land Forest land Forest land Forest land Forest land Government Government Government Government Government Government Dry temperate Dry temperate Moist Temperate Moist Temperate Moist Temperate Moist Temperate Deodar-blue pine Deodar-blue pine Blue Pine Fir Blue Pine Fir Blue Pine Fir Blue Pine Fir No No No No No No 27,271 52,815 13,5,32 1,000 1,580 2,993 4,500 90,159 Neelum Neelum Forest land Forest land Government Government Sub Alpine Moist Temperate Birch - Juniper Blue Pine Fir No No

3 4 5 6 7

Muzaffarabad Poonch Kotli Bhimber Poonch Mirpur

Forest land Forest land Forest land Forest land State land

Government Government Government Government Government

Moist Temperate Moist Temperate Sub Tropical Chir Pine Sub Tropical Thorn Wetland

Blue Pine Fir Blue Pine Fir Pinus - Quercus Acacia - Dhak Wetland

Yes No No No No

45

7 8 9 10 11

Nar Sudhan Gali Doom Galla Banjonsa Junjhal Hill TOTAL

558 525 715 558 631 13,664

Bagh Bagh, Hattian Bagh Poonch Sudhanutti

Forest land Forest land Forest land Forest land Forest land

Government Government Government Government Government

Moist Temperate Moist Temperate Moist Temperate Moist Temperate Moist Temperate

Blue Pine Fir Blue Pine Fir Blue Pine Fir Blue Pine Blue Pine

No No No No No

46

List of National Parks, Game Sanctuaries, Game Reserves, and Community Conservation Area in Balochistan. Name NATIONAL PARKS 1 HazarganjiChiltan 2 Hingol Area (ha) District Land Tenure Governance Vegetation Type Ecosystem
Management Plan

27,421 616,118

Quetta, Mastung Lasbella, Awaran, Gwadar

Government Government

Government Government

Dry temperate highland Marine, Coastal, Desert Ecosystem

Artemisia Pistacia Acacia senegal Prospopis-capparis

Yes Yes

TOTAL GAME SANCTUARIES 1 Khuzdar 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Ras Koh Bund Khushdil Khan, Ziarat Chorani KohieGishk Shashar SasnaMana KolwaKap Raghie Rakhshan Kacho

643,539

48,000 99,498 1,296 37,247 19,433 24,356 29,555 6,670 33,198 125,425 21,660

Khuzdar Kharan Pishin Ziarat Khuzdar Kalat Khuzdar Ziarat Awaran Kharan Awaran

Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Sub-tropical thorn forest Dry Tropical thorn Forest Dry Temperate Dry Temperate Tropical thorn Forest Dry Temperate Dry Temperate Dry Temperate Tropical thorn Desert scrub Tropical thorn

Propospis Zizyphus Tamarix - Acacia jacomantie Artimisia - Tamarix Juniper Prosopis - Zyzyphus Artimisia -Pistacia Acacia spp. Juniper Acacia - Proposis Haloxylon Calligonium Acacia -Proposis

No No No No No No No No No No No

47

Name 12 13 14 15 Maslakh Khurkhera Gut Buzi Makola TOTAL GAME RESERVES 1 Duzdara and koh-e-Surkh 2 ZangiNawar 3 4 5 6 Gogi Wam Kambran ZawarKan TOTAL

Area (ha) 464,559 18,345 165,992 145.101 1,240,335 2,351 2,640 7,773 10,364 211,433 3,887 238,448

District Pishin Lasbella Chagai Pishin

Land Tenure Government Government Government Government

Governance Government Government Government Government

Vegetation Type Dry Temperate Tropical thorn Desert scrub Tropical Thorn

Ecosystem Artimisia - Pistacio Salvadora Proposis Calligonum Haloxylon Acacia Spp.

Management Plan

No No No No

Mastung Noshki Ziarat Ziarat Chagai

Government Government Government Government Government Government

Government Government Government Government Government Government

Dry temperate highland Desert ecosystem Dry temperate Dry temperate Desert Scrub Dry Temperate

Artimisia Pistacia Haloxylon -Calliganum Juniper Juniper Haloxylon Calligonum Artimisia - Pistacia

No No No No No No

COMMUNITY CONSERVATION AREAS 1 Torghar 180,000 Qila Saif Ullah 2 Dureji 178,259 Lasbella TOTAL 358,259

Community Government

Community Government

Sub-tropical broadleaved Tropical thorn Forest

Olive Pistachio Acacia - Prosopis

Yes No

48

List of National Parks, Game Sanctuaries, Game Reserves, and Community Conservation Area in Gilgit-Baltistan. Name and Location NATIONAL PARKS 1 Khunjerab Area (ha) District Land Tenure Governance Vegetation Type Ecosystem
Management Plan

554,400

Hunza

Undefined

Government

Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Alpine meadow Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Sub Alpine Steppe Alpine Steppe

Juniper - Atremesia

Yes

2 3

Deosai HandarabShandur Karmbhar Central Karakoram

362,600 51,800

Skardu Ghizer

Undefined Undefined

Government Government

Meadows Juniper - Atremesia

Yes No

4 5

74,055 973,845 Ghanche, Skardu, Hunza

Undefined Undefined

Government Government

Juniper - Atremesia Juniper Atremesia

No Under preparation

TOTAL GAME SANCTUARIES 1 Kargah 2 Naltar

2,016,700

70,900 43,500

Gilgit Gilgit

Undefined Undefined

Government Government

Montane steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Montane steppe

Atremesia Ephedra Birtch willow

No No

Satpara TOTAL

49,700 164,100 12,959 17,100

Skardu

Undefined

Government

Pistacia -Juniper

No

GAME RESERVES 1 Askor Nullah 2 Chashi Baushdar

Skardu Gilgit

Undefined Undefined

Government Government

Mountane steppe Mountane steppe

Pistacia -Juniper Juniper - Artemesia

No No

49

Name and Location 3 4 Danyor Nullah Kilik-Mintaka

Area (ha)

District

Land Tenure

Governance

Vegetation Type

Ecosystem

Management Plan

13,00 65,036

Gilgit Hunza

Undefined Undefined

Government Government

Mountane steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Dry Temperate Coniferous

Juniper - Artemesia Artemesia Ephedra

No No

Nar Ghoro Nu1lah Nazbar Nullah

7,255

Ghanche

Undefined

Government

Artemesia Ephedra

No

13,200

Ghizer

Undefined

Government

Artemesia Ephedra

No

Pakora

7,515

Ghizer

Undefined

Government

Artemesia Ephedra

No

Sher Qillah

16,842

Ghizer

Undefined

Government

Artemesia Ephedra

No

Tangir

14,251

Chilas

Undefined

Government

Chilghoza Deodar

No

TOTAL

154,171 Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Community Community Community Community Community Community Montane Steppe Montane Steppe Montane Steppe Montane Steppe Sub Alpine Scrub Sub Alpine Scrub Artemisia Ephedra Artemisia Ephedra Artemisia Ephedra Artemisia Ephedra Betula Salix Betula Salix Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

COMMUNITY CONSERVATION AREAS 1 Khyber 32,300 Hunza 2 3 4 5 6 Bar Shinaki Ghulkin Pairshing Gorikote90,600 23,300 10,300 8,500 7,000 Gilgit Hunza Hunza Astore Astore

50

Name and Location Tarashing 7 8 Bunji Doyan

Area (ha)

District

Land Tenure

Governance

Vegetation Type

Ecosystem

Management Plan

41,000 4,500

Astore Astore

Undefined Undefined

Community Community

Montane Steppe Dry Himalayan Conifererous Dry Himalayan Coniferous

Artemesia Epedra Blue Pine-Fir

Yes Yes

DaskhinMushkinTurbulin SkoyoKrabathangBasingo Basho

7,500

Astore

Undefined

Community

Blue Pine Fir

Yes

10

150, 000

Skardu

Undefined

Community

Alpine Sub Alpine Steppe

Artemesia Pistacia

Yes

11

9,000

Skardu

Undefined

Community

Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine Steppe Sub Alpine steppe

Artemesia Ephedra

Yes

12

Yasin

16,500

Ghizer

Undefined

Community

Artemsia Ephedra

Yes

13

Passu

8,000

Hunza

Undefined

Community

Artemsia Ephedra

Yes

14

Ishkoman

11,500

Ghizer

Undefined

Community

Artemsia Ephedra

Yes

15

Gulmit-Minapin

21,000

Nagar

Undefined

Community

Artemsia Ephedra

Yes

16

Sakwar-JutialBarmass Sikandarabad-

7,500

Gilgit

Undefined

Community

Artemesia - Juniper

Yes

17

4,400

Nagar

Undefined

Community

Sub Alpine steppe

Artemesia - Juniper

Yes

51

Name and Location Jaffarabad 18 Yasin

Area (ha)

District

Land Tenure

Governance

Vegetation Type

Ecosystem

Management Plan

16,500

Ghizer

Undefined

Community

Alpine and Sub Alpine Scrub Alpine and Sub Alpine steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine Scrub Montane Steppe

Artemsia Ephedra

Yes

19

Khunjerab

65,000

Hunza

Undefined

Community

Artemesia Juniper

Yes

20

Sher Qila

16,800

Ghizer

Undefined

Community

Artemsia Ephedra

Yes

21

HussainabadGole Kanday-Salling Tangir Shimshal

13,000

Skardu

Undefined

Community

Pistacia Juniper

Yes

22 23 24

10,500 5,500 16,800

Ghanche Chilas Hunza

Undefined Undefined Undefined

Community Community Community

Montane Steppe Dry Coniferous Alpine and Sub Alpine Scrub

Pistacia - Fraxinux Pinus gerardiana Artemesia Ephedra

Yes Yes Yes

TOTAL

447,000

52

List of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves, and Community Conservation Areas in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Name NATIONAL PARKS 1 Ayubia 2 3 4 5 6 Broghil Chitral Gol Lulusar & Dodipath Saif ul Maluk Shiekh Buddin TOTAL WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES 1 Agram Basti 2 3 Boraka Manshi TOTAL GAME RESERVES 1 Bagra 2 3 4 5 6 7 Balyamin Darmalak Dhoda Drosh Gol Gehrait Gol Ghurzandi Area (ha) District Land Tenure Governance Vegetation Ecosystem Management Plan Yes No Yes No No No

3,372 134,744 7,750 30,376 4,867 15540 196,649 29,866 2,025 2,321 34,212 2,560 7,090 9,788 3,900 2,060 4,800 6,649

Abbottaba d Chitral Chitral Manshera Manshera D. I. Khan

State Undefined State Undefined Undefined State

Government Government Government Government Government Government

Moist temperate Alpine and Sub Alpine Montane Steppe Alpine and Sub Alpine Alpine and Sub Alpine Tropical thorn forest,

Pinus wallichiana Abies pindrowArtemesia Ephedra Juniper Artemesia Birch Vibernum Birch Vibernum Prosopis - Capparis

Chitral Kohat Manshera

Undefined Undefined State

Government Government Government

Alpine and Sub Alpine Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Moist Temperate Forest

Artemesia Ephedra Olea - Monotheca Pinus wallichiama

No No No

Haripur Hangu Kohat Kohat Chitral Chitral Kohat

Private Private Private Private State State Private

Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Montane Steppe Montane Steppe Sub-tropical Semi

Acacia Olea Monotheca Olea Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Juniper Artemesia Oak Artemesia Olea - Monotheca

No No No No No No No

53

Name

Area (ha)

District

Land Tenure

Governance

Vegetation Evergreen

Ecosystem

Management Plan No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 10 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Goleen Gol Indus River Jabbar Kachai Marai Kalinjar Kamrani Kingar Gali Makhnial Mang Marchungee Maroba Nizam pur Pind Hashim Khan Puritgol & Chinar Qalandar Abad Rakh Sardaran Rakh Topi Resi, Toi Banda Sewagalai

49,750 81,000 13,288 7,090 2,000 2,119 20,300 4,148 4,350 4,400 3,520 780 3,150 4,646 8,490 4,200 17,600 5,908 1,820

Chitral D. I. Khan Kohat Kohat Haripur Lower Dir Bunir Manshera Haripur Kohat Nowshera Nowshera Haripur Chitral Abbottaba d Haripur Kohat Kohat Swat

Undefined Undefined Undefined Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Undefined Private Private Private Private Private

Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Montane Scrub Riverine Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Chir Pine Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub Tropical Pine Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Montane Steppe Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub Tropical Pine

Juniper Artemisia Prosopis - Capparis Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Acacia Olea Pinus Quercus Quercus Olea Pinus Quercus Olea Acacia Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Olea Acacia Juniper Artemesia Acacia Olea Acacia Olea Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Pinus Quercus

54

Name 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Shamshtoo Shawaki, Chukhtoo Sheikhan Shinawarai Sudham Teri,Isak Kumari Thana-Palai Thanedarwala Togh Mangara Tooshi Gol Totalai Zarkani TOTAL

Area (ha) 3,490 11,379 2,770 5,360 11,500 18,966 3,500 4,050 3,300 1,545 17,000 12,800 371,066

District Nowshera Hangu Kohat Hangu Mardan Karrak Malakand Agency Bannu Kohat Chitral Bunir D. I. Khan

Land Tenure Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Community Private Private Private

Governance Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Vegetation Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Chir Pine Forests Tropical Thorn Forest Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Dry Temperate (Oak) Scrub Tropical Thorn Forest

Ecosystem Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Olea Acacia Prosopis Capparis Pinus Quercus Prosopis Capparis Olea - Monotheca Quercus Artemesia Olea Acacia Calligonum Haloxylon Calligonum Haloxylon

Management Plan No No No No No No No No No No No No

COMMUNITY GAME RESERVES 1 Adenzai 24,282 2 3 4 5 6 Alam Ganj Amluk Banr Arkari Babarr Baga Hills 1,040 46 100,000 55 61

Lower Dir Swat Swat Chitral D. I. Khan Swabi

Community Community Community Undefined Community Community

Community Community Community Community Community Community

Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub Tropical Pine Sub Tropical Pine Montane Steppe Tropical Thorn Forest Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen

Olea Acacia Pinus Quercus Pinus Quercus Artemisia Ephedra Prosopis - Capparis Olea Acacia

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

55

Name 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Bakhtai Battal Bazdara Begusht Behali Besak Bhalli Ghatti Bhan Brah Chamnaka Dab Manpithai Dara Tang Mouza Chowki Jand Daresh Khel Darwazai Banada Deran Pattay Dewan Shah Dhandidal Khel Dheri Julagram Dowrro /Algada Gari Phulgaran

Area (ha) 678 32 3,644 8,000 200 530 600 25,000 1,420 142 730 202 2,705 1,000 735 821 3,564 4,251 583 295

District Nowshera Manshera Malakand Chitral Manshera Swabi Manshera Swat Malakand Agency Abbottabad Swat Lakki Marwat Karak Kohat Swat D. I. Khan Karak Malakand Kohat Abbottabad

Land Tenure Community Community Community Undefined Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Communal Community Community Community

Governance Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community

Vegetation Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Chir Pine Forests Chir Pine Forests Montane Steppe Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Chir Pine Forests Dry temperate forest Chir Pine Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub Tropical Pine Tropical Thorn Forest Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub Tropical Pine Tropical Thorn Forest Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Chir Pine Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen

Ecosystem Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Pinus Quercus Artemesia Ephedra Acacia Olea Olea Acacia Pinus Quercus Cedrus Abies Pinus Quercus Acacia Olea Pinus Quercus Prosopis Capparis Prosopis Capparis Olea - Monotheca Pinus Quercus Prosopis - Capparis Prosopis Capparis Pinus Quercus Olea - Monotheca Acacia Olea

Management Plan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

56

Name 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Garu Amankot Garyalla Karmar Gehrait Goleen Gol Has are tatkan Hussainzai Jallo Jatta Ismail Khan Jhandar Abdul Sattar (Chaudwan) Kaigah Nullah Kamar Kanra Cheenah Karair Khanori Khwajagan Kohi Dara Koohi Barmol Kotli Lak-Kana Lassan Thukral

Area (ha) 1,214 760 95,000 40,800 3,239 140 200 2,826 40 5,000 5,096 359 250 1,300 80 202 1,822 425 2,195 200

District Mardan Mardan Chitral Chitral Malakand D. I. Khan Manshera Karak D. I. Khan Kohistan Kohat Hangu Manshera Malakand Agency Manshera Mardan Mardan Nowshera Karak Manshera

Land Tenure Community Community Undefined Undefined Community Community Community Community Community Undefined Communal Private Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community

Governance Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community

Vegetation Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Alpine and Sub Alpine Montane Steppe Chir Pine Forests Tropical Thorn Forest Chir Pine Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Tropical Thorn Forest Alpine and Sub alpine Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Chir Pine Forests Chir Pine Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Riverine Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Chir Pine Forests

Ecosystem Olea Acacia Olea Acacia Artemesia Ephedra Artemesia Juniper Pinus Quercus Prosopis - Capparis Pinus Quercus Prosopis Capparis Prosopis - Capparis Artemesia Ephedra Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Acacia Olea Pinus Quercus Pinus Quercus Olea Acacia Olea Acacia Saccarum Tamarix Prosopis Capparis Pinus Quercus

Management Plan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

57

Name 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 Madaklasht Manji Wala Mankial Manur Mapal Miangan Michen Khel Mohal Kalu Mohib Banda Nakhtar Banda Nanser Kuhay Naqi Dara Naranji Palsala Dhanaka Pharhana Pungi Banda Punjpir Rakh Sardaran Rakh Sarkar Mouza Momin Mughal Khel

Area (ha) 14,500 23 13,063 6,200 103 427 122 506 27 61 4,000 38 2,189 530 200 1,314 55 249 77

District Chitral Lakki Marwat Swat Chitral D. I. Khan Nowshera D. I. Khan Mardan Nowshera Mardan Bunir Mardan Swabi Manshera Manshera Hangu Swabi Haripur Bannu

Land Tenure Community Community Community Undefined Community Community Community Community Community Community Undefined Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community

Governance Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community

Vegetation Montane Steppe Tropical Thorn Forest Moist temperate forest Montane Steppe Tropical Thorn Forest Riverine Forests Tropical Thorn Forest Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Riverine Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub Tropical Chir Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Chir Pine Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Tropical Thorn Forest

Ecosystem Juniper Artemesia Prosopis Capparis Pinus wallichiana Abies pindrow Artemesia Juniper Prosopis - Capparis Olea - Monotheca Prosopis - Capparis Olea Acacia Saccarum Tamarix Olea Acacia Pinus roxburghiiQuercus baloot Olea Acacia Olea Acacia Pinus Quercus Acacia Olea Olea - Monotheca Olea Acacia Acacia Olea Olea Monotheca

Management Plan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

58

Name 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 Ralk Baiyan Saji kot Shamshattu Sharkidam Terri essak khumari Shazadi Banda Sheikh Abad Sheikh Sultan Sher khanai Shewa Karmar Sigram Soor Dag Sori Malandri Sumari Bala Takwara (Hathala) Tang Banr Tangi Dara Thath Solhan Tooshi Shasha Totai Usterzai Payan

Area (ha) 50 90 2,696 130 3,814 400 76 2,024 627 2,655 1,713 749 3,416 65 395 648 23 20,000 3,000 1,477

District Haripur Abbottabad Kohat Karrak Kohat Manshera Tank Malakand Swabi Swat Kohat Mardan Kohat D. I. Khan Swat Lower Dir D. I. Khan Chitral Malakand Agency Kohat

Land Tenure Community Community Undefined Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community

Governance Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community Community

Vegetation Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Tropical Thorn Forest Chir Pine Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub Tropical Pine Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Tropical Thorn Forest Sub Tropical Pine Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Tropical Thorn Forest Dry Temperate Chir Pine Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen

Ecosystem Acacia Olea Acacia Olea Olea - Monotheca Prosopis Capparis Olea - Monotheca Acacia Olea Proposis Capparis Pinus Quercus Olea Acacia Pinus Quercus Olea - Monotheca Olea Acacia Olea - Monotheca Prosopis - Capparis Pinus Quercus Pinus Quercus Prosopis - Capparis Pinus Quercus Pinus Quercus Olea - Monotheca

Management Plan Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

59

Name 86 87 88 89 Village Pahar Kehl Thall Village Plovan Musabad mouza Gandi Khan Khel Zarwandi uba TOTAL

Area (ha) 37 55 41 3,039 432,668 178 202 364 2,993 360 98 28 55 47 50 130 23 45

District Lakki Marwat D. I. Khan Lakki Marwat Malakand

Land Tenure Community Community Community Community

Governance Community Community Community Community

Vegetation Tropical Thorn Forest Tropical Thorn Forest Tropical Thorn Forest Chir Pine Forests

Ecosystem Prosopis Capparis Prosopis - Capparis Prosopis Capparis Pinus Quercus

Management Plan Yes Yes Yes Yes

PRIVATE GAME RESERVES 1 Daraban Kalan 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Dhok Dheri Dhok Lohran Drabokach Hathala Lalmi Gul Musazai Sharif Rakh Malak Banaras Khan Rakh Nadir Khan Rakh Rafaqat Shah Rakh Raja Gustasap Khan Rakh Saeed Taj Mohammad Rakh Sultan Mohammad Khan

D. I. Khan Kohat Kohat Kohat D. I. Khan Mardan D. I. Khan Haripur Haripur Haripur Haripur Haripur Haripur

Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private

Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private Private

Tropical Thorn Forest Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Tropical Thorn Forest Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Tropical Thorn Forest Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen

Prosopis - Capparis Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Olea - Monotheca Prosopis - Capparis Olea Acacia Prosopis - Capparis Acacia Olea Acacia Olea Acacia Olea Acacia Olea Acacia Olea Acacia Olea

No No No No No No No No No No No No No

60

Name 14 15 16 Rakh Syed Ali Shah Rakh Tiyal Sharqi Baizai Main Khan TOTAL

Area (ha) 26 27 1,214 5,840

District Haripur Haripur Mardan

Land Tenure Private Private Private

Governance Private Private Private

Vegetation Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen

Ecosystem Acacia Olea Acacia Olea Olea Acacia

Management Plan No No No

61

List of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, and Game Reserves in Punjab. Name NATIONAL PARKS 1 Chinji 2 3 4 Lal Suhanra Kala Chitta Area (ha) 6,070 65,789 36,965 District Land Tenure Governance Vegetation Type Ecosystem Management Plan No Yes No Yes

Chakwal Bahawalpur Attock Rawalpindi

Government Government Government Government

Government Government Government Government

Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Cholistan Desert Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Moist temperate Sub tropical Pine

Murree-Kotli 108,824 and Kahuta TOTAL 217,648 WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES 1 Bahawalpur IP 541 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Bhagat IP Bhakhar Plantation Chak Katora RF Changa Manga IP Chashma Barrage Chichawatni IP Cholistan Chumbi Surla Daman IP 248 2,124 529 5,064 33,084 4,666 660,949 55,945 2,270

Acacia modesta Olea ferruginea Calligonum Haloxylon Acacia modesta Olea ferruginea Pinus wallichiama Pinus roxburghii

Bahawalpur Toba tek singh Bhakhar Bahawalpur Kasur Mianwali Sahiwal Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur Chakwal Rajanpur

Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Irrigated Plantation Irrigated Plantation Irrigated Plantation Irrigated Plantation Irrigated Plantation Wetland Irrigated Plantation Desert Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Irrigated Plantation

Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Dalbergia sisso, Euclyptus sp. Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Wetland Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Calligonum Leptidinia Acacia modesta Olea ferruginea Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp.

No No No No No No No No No No

62

Name 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Daphar IP Depalpur IP Fateh Major IP Harnoli RF Head Qdirabad Inayat IP Jahlar Lake Jalalpur Sharif RF Jauharabad IP Kamalia IP Khabbeke Lake Khanewal IP Kotla Issan IP Kundal Rakh Kundian IP Lal Suhanra IP Macchu IP

Area (ha) 2,286 2,928 1,255 878 2,816 4,162 17 2,236 394 4,397 283 7,213 2,152 2,964 7,800 5,099 4,109

District Gujrat Okara Leiah Mianwali Gujranwala Layyah Khushab Jhelum Khushab Toba Tek Singh Khushab Khanewal Rajanpur Jehlum Mianwali Bahawalpur Layyah

Land Tenure Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Governance Government Government Government Government Various Government Various Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Vegetation Type Irrigated Plantation Irrigated Plantation Irrigated Plantation Irrigated Plantation Wetland Irrigated Plantation Wetland Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Irrigated Plantation Irrigated Plantation Wetland Tropical Thorn Forest / IP Riverine forest / IP Irrigated Plantation Tropical Thorn Forest (Sandy) / IP Irrigated Plantation Irrigated Plantation

Ecosystem Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Dalbergia sisso, Euclyptus sp. Dalbergia sisso, Euclyptus Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Wetland Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Wetland Acacia modesta Olea ferruginea Euclyptus spp. Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Wetland Propsopis cineraria Tamarix aphylla Dalbergia sissoo Dalbergia sissoo Propsopis cineraria Tamarix aphylla Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp.

Management Plan No No No No NO No No No No No No No No No No No No

63

Name 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Miranpur IP MithaTiwana IP Rajan Shah IP Rakh Ghulaman Rakh Kharewala Shorkot IP Sodhi Taunsa Barrage Walhar IP Head Panjnad TOTAL GAME RESERVES 1 Abbasia IP 2 3 4 5 6 Bajwat Bhon Fazil Chaupalia Cholistan Dauluana

Area (ha) 760 1,116 2,110 4,286 5,877 4,032 5,820 6,567 1,853 2,779 851,609 10,067 5,464 1,063 9,857 2,020,195 2,429

District Lodhran Khushab Leiah Bhakkar Layyah Jhang Khushab Muzaffargarh R Y Khan Muzaffargarh

Land Tenure Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Governance Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Vegetation Type Irrigated Plantation Tropical Thorn Forest (Sandy) / IP Irrigated Plantation Thal Desert / Rangeland Tropical Thorn Forest (sandy) Irrigated Plantation Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Wetland Irrigated Plantation Wetland

Ecosystem Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Propsopis cineraria Acacia farnesiana Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Salvadora oleoides Prosopis cineraria Propsopis cineraria Acacia nilotica Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Acacia modesta Olea ferruginea Wetland Dalbergia sissoo, Euclyptus sp. Wetland

Management Plan No No No No No No No No No No

R Y Khan Sialkot Gujranwala Bahawalnagar RYKhan, B'Pur, B'Nagar Jhang

Government Government Government Government Government Government

Government Various Government Various Government Government

Tropical Thorn Forest (sandy) Wetland Riverine Cholistan Desert Cholistan Desert Thal desert

Propsopis cineraria Acacia nilotica Wetland Dalbergia - Tamarix Calligonum Leptadinia Calligonum Leptadinia Salvadora Prosopis, farmlands

No No No No No No

64

Name 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 DiljabbaDomeli Head Islam Indo-Pak Border Kala Chitta RF Kalar Kahar Lake Kathar Khairi Murat Lohi Bher Khanpur IP Kot Sabzal Nabi Shah Lake Namal Lake Rahri Bungalow Rasool Barrage Thal

Area (ha) 118,106 6,500 132,611 94,535 558 1,141 5,618 355 13,303 10,118 486 486 5,464 1,138 71,306

District Jhelum, Chakwal Bahawalnagar 5 mile wide belt alomg India border Government Government Rawalpindi Rawalpindi Rawalpindi Muzaffargarh Rajanpur Sargodha Mianwali Bahawalpur Gujrat Muzaffargarh, Leiah, Bhakkar, Khushab, and Mianwali

Land Tenure Government Government Private Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Private Government Various Government Various

Governance Government Various Private Government Various Government Government Government Government Various Various Various Various Government Various

Vegetation Type Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Wetland Tropical Thorn Forest, Farmlands Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Wetland Sub-Tropical Deciduous Forests Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Tropical Thorn Forest (sandy) / IP Desert / Tropical Thorn Forest (sandy) Wetland Wetland Farmland, desert Wetland Farmland & Desert

Ecosystem Acacia modesta Olea ferruginea Wetland Seasonal Crops, Prosopis Salvadoa Acacia modesta Olea ferruginea Wetland Acaia modesta Bauhinia variegate Acacia modesta Olea ferruginea Acacia modesta Olea ferrginea Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Calligonum Leptadinia Wetland Wetland Seasonal crops, Haloxylon-Calligonum Wetland Farmlands/Salvadora

Management Plan No No No No

No No No No No No No No No No

65

Name 22 23 Tilla Jogian Ucchali lake TOTAL

Area (ha) 10,065 932 2,521,797

District Jhelum Khushab

Land Tenure Government Government

Governance Government Various

Vegetation Type Sub-tropical Semi Evergreen Wetland

Ecosystem Acacia modesta Olea ferruginea Wetland

Management Plan No No

66

List of National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Game Reserves in Sindh. Name NATIONAL PARKS 1 Khirthar 308,733 Dadu, Karachi Dadu Sukkur, Khairpur, Sanghar Khairpur Nawabshah Thatta Thatta Shikarpur Badin, Tharparkar Thatta Karachi Thatta Thatta Thatta Thatta Nausharo Feroze Thatta Nawabshah Thatta Larkana Government Government Tropical Thorn Forest Tropical Thorn Forest Nara Desert Nara Desert Tropical Thorn Forest Mangrove Mangrove Riverine Salt Marshes Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Acacia - Euphorbia Yes Area (ha) District Land Tenure Governance Vegetation Ecosystem Management Plan

WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Mahal Kohistan Nara Desert Takkar Deh Akro II Keti Bunder North Keti Bunder South Dhoung Block Run of Khutch Keenjhar (Kalri) Lake Hub Dam Haleji Lake Hudero Lake Cut Munarki Hilaya Mohabat Dero Sadnani Lakht Norang Khat Dhoro 70,577 223,590 43,513 20,243 8,948 23,046 2,098 320,463 130,468 27,219 1,704 1,321 405 324 16 84 101 243 11 Government Government Government Government Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Government Government WAPDA KESB Government Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Acacia - Euphorbia CalligonumIndigofera Calligonum Indogofera Acacia Calligonum Avecinia Ceriops Avecinia Ceriops Acacia- Populus Cressa Juncus Cyperus Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland No No No Ramsar Site No No No No Ramsar Site Ramsar Site Ramsar Site No No No No No No No No

67

Name 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Lungh Lake Samno Dhand Gulsher Dhund Majiran Kot Dinghano Ghondak Dhoro Gullel Kohri Miani Dhand Shah Lanko Khadi Bijoro Chach Marho Kohri Drigh Lake Munarki TOTAL GAME RESERVES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Deh Jangisar Deh Khalifa Dosu Forest Hala Forest Dolphin Rserve Khipro Forest Mando Dero Forest Mirpur Sakro Forest Nara

Area (ha) 19 23 24 24 30 31 40 57 61 81 121 162 164 12 875,223 314 429 2312 954 44,200 3885 1234 777 109,966

District Larkana Hyderabad Hyderabad Thatta Nawabshah Jacobabad Thatta Hyderabad Thatta Thatta Thatta Thatta Larkana Thatta

Land Tenure Government Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Government Forest Land

Governance Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government Government

Vegetation Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland

Ecosystem Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland Wetland

Management Plan No No No No No No No No No No No No Ramsar Site No

Thatta Thatta Larkana Hyderabad Various Sanghar Sukkur Thatta Khairpur

Forset Land Forset Land Forset Land Forset Land Indus River Forset Land Forset Land Forset Land Forset Land

Government Government Government Government

Riverine Riverine

Riverine River

Acacia nilitica, Prosopis cineraria Acacia nilitica, Prosopis cineraria Acacia nilitica, Prosopis cineraria Acacia nilitica, Prosopis cineraria Wetland Euclyptus spp, Acacai nilitica Acacia nilitica, Prosopis cineraria Acacia nilitica, Prosopis cineraria Calligonum

No No No No No No No No No

Government Government Government Government

Irrigated plantation Riverine Riverine Desert/Wetland

68

Name

Area (ha)

District

Land Tenure

Governance

Vegetation

Ecosystem polygonoides Haloxylon spp. Indigofera cordifolia Acacia nilotica Acacia nilitica, Prosopis cineraria Acacia - Euphorbia Salvadora oleoides, Prosopis cineraria

Management Plan

10 11 12 13

Pai Forest Sahib Samo Forest Surjan, Sumbak, Eri & Hothiano Mountains Tabdo Mitho Khan Forest TOTAL

1969 349 406,302 5343 578,034

Nawabshah Hyderabad Dadu Sanghar

Forset Land Forset Land Forset Land Forset Land

Government Government Government Government

Irrigated Plantation Riverine Tropical Thorn Forest Tropical Thorn Forest

No No No No

69

Annex 8 List of Ecosystems Showing Existing and Proposed Protected Areas


The vegetation types and ecosystems described in the lists in this annex are based on the work of T. J. Roberts (1991). However, where Roberts (1991) used a geographical location to describe vegetation, an appropriate vegetation type name was assigned. There are different ecosystems within the broader vegetation types, and therefore it was decided to assign them a nomenclature based on two or three dominant species. These nomenclatures are first approximation and need to be confirmed through field checks. The lists of dominant species for each ecosystem are also based on the descriptions of Roberts (1991). It is hoped that subject matter specialists would help in refining and fine tuning the ecosystem and species nomenclature. The assignment of protected areas to ecosystems was based on the lists in annex 7, and there may be some error of judgement. However, many gaps in the ecosystem representation were apparent and it helped key resource persons to propose new sites for inclusion in the protected area system. The lists of provinces and territories included in this list are in the following order: a) b) c) d) e) f) Azad Jammu and Kashmir Baluchistan Gilgit-Baltistan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Punjab and Islamabad Sindh

70

Vegetation Types and Ecosystems Showing Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in AJK. Ecosystem Riverain 1 Dalbergia sissoo Saccharum spp. Ecosystem Dalbergia sisso, Saccharum spp., Acacia nilotica Bela National Park, Mirpur Undefined Establish PA Low Dominant Species Classification and Site Area (Ha) Land Tenure Proposed Action Priority

Wetlands 2 Wet lands

15 high alpine lakes in Upper Neelum(Chitta katha,Ratti gali, Pattilain, Saral, Kamakdori, Samgam, Nordi and Gujir Nar lake complexes)

Northern Kashmir wet land complex(Including lakes and glaciers) Poonch River NP

Neelum District

Establish PA

Mirpur, Kotli and poonch Districts Mirpur District

Management Plan

Mangla Dam 2,650 ha (propsed Ramsar site) Sub-Tropical Chir Pine Forests Trees: Pinus roxburghii, Quercus incana, 3 Pinus roxburghii Quercus incana ficus palmata, Punica granatum Under story: Zizyphus oxyphylla, Carisa opaca, Woodfordiafruticosa, Spiraea canescens, Buddleia paniculata, Berberis lycium, Indigofera pulchella Tropical Dry Mixed Decidous Forest (Karot Valley) Acacia modesta Bauhinia variegata, 4 Acacia modesta Cassia fistula, Dalbergia sisso, Mallotus Bauhinia variegata philipppinesis, Pistacia integerima, Punica granatum, Purus pashia, Salmalia Deva Vatala NP, Bhimber Thub Pattni Malani areas 2,993

Establish PA

Pir Lasura National Park, Kotli

1,580

State Land

Management Plan

High

Forest Land State Land

Management Plan Establish PA

High Medium

71

Ecosystem

Dominant Species malalbaricum, Justicia adhatoda Understory: Zizyphus mauritiana, Carissa spinarum, Clematis gouriana, Butea monopserma

Classification and Site Chamairi areas, Kotli Chuttro, Mirpur Kot Kandhari, Mirpur Pir Gali Area (Mirpur, Kotli, Bhimber)

Area (Ha)

Land Tenure State Land State Land State Land Stateland

Proposed Action Establish PA Establish PA Establish PA Establish Protected Area

Priority Medium Medium Medium Medium

Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests (lower Neelum Valley) Trees:Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, 5 Pinus wallichiana Ulmus wallichiana, Juglans regia, Quercus Abies pindrow dilatata, Acer caesium, A. villosum, and Prunus cornuta. Understory: Taxus baccata Shrubs:Viburnum nervosum, Berberis lycium, Rosa moschata, Skimmia laureoLa, Lonicera alpigea

Toli Pir National Park, Poonch Gurez Musk Deer NP Pir Chinasi

1,000

Forest Land

Management Plan

High

52,815

Neelum District Muzaffarabad District

Management Plan Establish PA

High High

Paniali Area Moji Game Resrve Qazi Nag Gamr Reseve

4000 3859 4830

Poonch District

Establish PA Management Plan ManagementPlan

Medium Medium Medium

Himalayan Dry Coniferous Forest (Neelum Valley, Salkhalla, and Machiara) Abies pindrow, Picea smithiana, Pinus 6 Abies pindrow - Picea wallichiana, Cedrus deodar, Quercus smithiana semicarpifolia

Machiara National Park, Muzaffarabad Salkhalla GR

13,532

Forest Land

Implement Management Plan Extend boundaries and management plan

High

4,000

Neelum District

High

72

Ecosystem Himalayan Moist Alpine Zone 7 Betula utilis Juniperus squamata

Dominant Species

Classification and Site

Area (Ha)

Land Tenure

Proposed Action

Priority

Betula utilis, Juniperus squamata, Salix himalayensis, Rhododendron collettianum, Polygonun affine, Sexifraga sibirica, Draba trinervis

Ghamot NP Shounthar Valley (30,000 ha) Jagran, Ratti Galli Noori Nar areas (10,000 ha)

27,271

Neelum District Neelum District Neelum District

Management Plan Establish PA Establish PA

High Medium Medium

73

Vegetation Types and Ecosystems Showing Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Balochistan. Ecosystem Dominant Species Classification And Location Marine and Island 1 Marine Littoral and Mangrove 2 Avicennia officinalis Ceriops tagal

Area (Ha)

Land Tenure

Proposed Action Establish PA Management Plan Establish PA Support local communities Support local communities Support local communities Establish PA

Priority

Various Avicennia officinalis, Ceriops tagal, Halopyrum mucronatum, Bruguiera conjugata

Astola Island 400 ha Darran Beach Game Sanctuary Somiani (600 ha) Gwather Bay Jiwani Kilmat Ganjabad and Cheer Koh, Gwadar 500

Government Undefined Government Community Community Community Undefined

High High High Low Medium Low Medium

Wetlands 3 Wetlands

Wetlands

Wasta lake, Zhob 2000 ha Zarri Daggar, Zhob 3000 ha Chattar Phuliji Community Support local communities Low

Tropical Thorn Forest (Nasirabad) 4 Prosopis cinerariaProsopis cineraria, Capparis decidua, Capparis decidua Salvadora oleoides, S. persica, Tamarix aphylla, Ziziphus mauritiana Sand Dune Deserts (Sibi, and Chagai) 5 Haloxylon Haloxylon ammodendron, Rhyzia stricta, ammodendron Rhazya Astargalus sericostachys, Peganum stricta hermala, Salsola arbuscula

Ghut Game Sanctuary Zangi Nawar Game Reserve Ras Koh Game Sanctuary

165,992 2,640 99498

Government Community Government Community

Dak Community Conservation Area

Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Support local communities

High High High Low

74

Ecosystem

Dominant Species

Classification And Location

Area (Ha)

Land Tenure

Kachao (Sandak) Community Community Conservation Area Dry Sub Tropical Semi Evergreen Scrub Forests ( SouthernBalochistan, Makran, Lakkhi and Pab Hills, Khirthar Range) 7 Acacia jacquemontii Acacia jacquemontii, A. senegal, Hingol, National Park 616,118 Government Commiphora wightii Commiphora wightii, Ziziphus nummularia, Chorani (Khuzdar) Game 48,000 Government Rhazyz stricta, Euphorbia caudicifolia, Sanctuary Grewia tenax, Blepharis sindica Dry Temperate Semi Evergreen Scrub Forest (Chaman, Maslakh, Hazar Ganji, Harboi Hills, Surkhab Valley, and southernBalochistan) 8 Olea ferruginea Olea ferruginea, Pistacia mutica, P. HazarGanji, National Park 27,421 Government Pistacia mutica khinjuk, Fraxinus xanthoxyloides, Juniperus excelsa (higher elevations) Bushes: Sophora mollis, Artemesia Duzdara and Koh-e-Surkh 2,351 Government maritima, Ephedra major, Prunus eburnea, Game Reserve Stocksia brahuica Torghar, Community 180,000 Community Conservation Area Tobati Apursi, Community Community Conservation Area DozakhTangi Community 9 Olea ferruginea, Acacia modesta, Dharnali, Community Managed Artemesia maritima, Monotheca buxifolia, Area Rhazya stricta, Withania coagulans, and Nannorrhops ritchieana (in ravines) Baluchistan Dry Coniferous Forests (Takatu, Zarghun, Wam-Pilghar, Ziarat, Toba Kakar) 110 Pinus gerardiana Pinus gerardiana, P. wallichiana, Populus Community Conservation Area Pinus excela ciliata, Artemesia maritima, Berberis gambleana 11 Juniperus excelsa Juniperous excelsa, Farxinus xantholoides, Khilafat Fraxinus Pistacia khinjik Takatu (Zawar Khan Game xanthoxyloides Bushes: Prunus eburnean, Berberis Reserve) balochistanica, Caragana ambigua, Rosa Sasanamma Game Sanctuary Olea ferruginea Acacia modesta Community

Proposed Action Support local communities

Priority Low

Management Plan

High

Impelement management plan Management Plan

.High

Medium

Support local communities Support local communities Support local Communities

Low Low Medium

Community

Support local communities Establish PA Management Plan Management

High

Government 3,887 6,670 Government Government

High High High

75

Ecosystem

Dominant Species moschata, Thymus aurantiacus, Salvia cabulica, Sophora griffithii

Classification And Location

Area (Ha)

Land Tenure

Zargoon

Government

Proposed Action Plan Establish PA

Priority

High

76

Vegetation Types and Ecosystems Showing Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Gilgit Baltistan. Ecosystem Dominant Species Location and designation Area (ha) Land Tenure Proposed Action Establish PA Priority

Dry Temperate Semi-evergreen Scrub Forest (Indus Kohistan) 1 Olea ferruginea Olea ferruginea, Acacia modesta, Acacia modesta Monotheca buxifolia, Justicia adhatoda, Dodonea viscosa, Mallotus philippinensis, Lannea caromandelica, Himalayan Dry Coniferous Forest (Astore, Naltar, Chilas, Darel Tangir) 2 Picea smithiana Picea smithiana, Pinus wallichiana, Populus Pinus wallichiana ciliata, Plectranthus rugosus, Rosa webbiana, Ribes grossularia, Prunus jacquemontii, Artemesia maritima, Berberis gambleana, Colutea armata 3 Pinus gerardianaPinus. geraradiana, Cedrus deodara, Pinus Cedrus deodara wallichiana, Quercus baloot (Diamer) Shrubs: Dephne oleoides, Sophora griffithii, Cotoneaster nummularia, Artemesia maritima, Plectranthus rugosus, Berberis lycium Northern Montane Steppe (Northern Gilgit, Baltistan, Ghizer) 4 Juniperus excelsa Juniperus excela, J. polycarpus, J.excelsa Artemesia maritima excelsa, J. communis, J. turkistanica, J. indica, J. recurva, Artemesia maritima, Ephedra sp.

Undefined

Medium

CCHA (5) Rama National Park CCHA (1) Tangir Game Reserve

27,500

Undefined Undefined

Support local communities Establish PA Support to local communities Management Plan Implement management plan Implement management plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management

High High High High

5,500 14,251

Undefined Undefined

Central Karakorum National Park Khunjerab National Park Qurumbar Natioal Park Kargah Nullah Game Sanctuary Satpara Game Sanctuary Askor Nullah Game Reserve Kilik Mintika Game Rserve Chashi Baushdar Game

973,845 554,400 74,055 70,900 49,700 12,959 65,036 17,100

Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined

High High High High High High High High

77

Reserve Pakora Game Reserve Sher Qillah Game Reseve Danyor Game Reserve Nar Goro Game Reserve Nazbar Nullah CCHA (21) Dry Alpine Zone (Higher elevations in Gilgit, Hunza, Baltistan Ghizer, Astore) 5 Salix denticulata Valleys: Hippophae rhamnoides, Myricaria Potentilla desertorum elegans, Populus ciliata (rare), Capparis spinosa, Tribulus terrestris, Peganum harmala, Sphora alopcuroides, Lycium ruthenicum Slopes: Salix denticulata, Mertensia tibetica, Potentilla desertorum, Juniperus ploycarpus, Berberis pachyacantha, Rosa webbiana, Spiraea macophylla 6 Carex cruneataCarex cruneata, Geranium himalaynse,Sibbaldia spp. Bistorta affinis, Sibbaldia spp. Saxifraga sp, Eragrostis sp Naltar Game Sanctuary Handarab-Shandur National Park 7,515 16,842 13,000 7,255 13,200 507,400 43,500 51,800 Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined

Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Support local communities Management Plan Management Plan High High High High High High High High

Deosai Plateau National Park

362,600

Undefined

Management Plan

High

78

Vegetation Types and Ecosystems Showing Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Note: Community Game Reseves and Private Game Reserves less than 1,000 were not been taken into consideration Ecosystem Dominant Species Classification and Location Sheikh Buddin National Park Area (Ha) Land Tenure Proposed Action Management Plan Priority

Tropical Thorn Forest (D. I. Khan) 1 Prosopis cinerariaProsopis cineraria, Capparis decidua, Capparis decidua Salvadora oleoides, S. persica, Tamarix aphylla, Ziziphus mauritiana Sand Dune Desert (D. I. Khan, Tank) 2 Prosopis cineraria -Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora oleoides, Salvadora oleoides Ziziphus mauritiana, Leptadinia spartium 3 Olea ferruginea Acacia modesta Justicia adhatoda Olea ferruginea, Acacia modeata, Justicia adhatoda, Monotheca buxifolia, Dodonea viscosa, Carissa opaca

15,540

Forest Land

High

Suitable site in D. I. Khan

Undefined

Identfy site for PA Establish PA Management Plan

Low

Dry Sub Tropical Semi-evergreen Scrub Forest (parts of D. I. Khan, South Waziristan, Haripur)
Garam Thum RF Proposed PA GR in: Abbotabad (1) 8,490 ha Haripur (5) 16,260 ha Mardan (1) 71,500 ha CGR in: Mardan (2) 3,036 ha Swabi (1) 2,189 ha Dry Temperate Semi-evergreen Scrub Forest 4 Olea ferruginea-Acacia Olea cupidata, Acacia modesta, Artemesia modesta Artemesia maritima, Monotheca buxifolia, Rhzya maritima stricta, Withania coagulans, and (North Wazistan, Nannorhops ritchieana in ravines. Khyber, Moamand Agency, Bannu and Kohat) Boraka Wildlife Sanctuary GR in: Kohat (10) 74,693 ha Naowshera (3) 7,790 CGR in: Hungu (1) 1,314 ha Karak (4) 11,290 ha Kohat (7) 19,212 ha Forest Land 97,250 Forest Land High Medium

5,225

Undefined

Suppot to lcal communities

High

2025 82,483

Forest Land Government

Management Plan Management Plan Support to local communities

High Medium

31,816

Undefined

High

79

Brabokach Private Game Reserve GR in Bannu (1) 4,050 ha GR in Karak (1) 18,966 ha 5 Olea cuspidata Acacia modesta Monotheca buxifolia (southern Chitral, Dir, Malakand agency, Indus Kohistan, Amb, Bunir) Pinus roxburghii Quercus incana Olea cuspidata, Acacia modesta, Monotheca buxifolia, Malotus philippinensis, Lannea coromandelica GR in Bunir (2) 37,300 GR in Malakand (1) 3,500 CGR in: Bunir (1) 4,000 ha Kohistan (1) 5,000 ha

2,963 23,016 40,800 9,000

Private Forest Land Forest land Undefined

Support to owner Management Plan Management Plan Support local communities

High Medium Medium High

Sub Tropical Chir Pine Forests(Lower Kaghan, Kawai, Batrasi, Lower Swat)
6 Trees: Pinus roxburghii, Quercus incana, Ficus palmata, Punica granatum Under story: Zizyphus oxyphylla, Carissa opaca, Woodfordia fruticosa, Spiraea canescens, Buddleia paniculata, Berberis lycium, Indigofera pulchella Massar RF Proposed PA GR in: Lower Dir (1)2,119 ha Mansehra (1) 4148 ha Swat (1) 1, 820 ha 8,087 Forest Land Forest Land Establish PA Management Plan High Medium

CGR in: Malakand (8) 21,017 ha Swat (4) 41,758 ha Himalayan Moist Temperate Forests (Galis, Kaghan Valley, parts of eastern Swat) 7 Pinus wallichiana Trees: Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Ayubia National Park Abies pindrow Ulmus wallichiana, Juglans regia, Quercus dilatata, Acer caesium, A. villosum, and Manshi Wildlife Sanctuary Prunus cornuta. Understory: Taxus baccata Shrubs:Viburnum nervosum, Berberis lycium, Rosa moschata, Skimmia laureola, Lonicera alpigea CCA (1) Kamal Ban, Mansi Proposed PA Kund, Siran Valley Proposed PA

62,775

Undefined

Support to local communities

Medium

3,372 2,321 13,064

Yes Government

Forest Department Management Plan High

Forest Land Forest land

Establish PA Establish PA

High High

80

Palas Valley CCA Proposed PA Himalayan Dry Coniferous Forest (Indus Kohistan, Swat Kohistan, northern Dir, parts of Chitral, and inner valleys of Hazara) 8 Pinus gerardianaPinus gerardiana, Pinus wallichiana, Shishi Valley (Chitral), Pinus wallichiana Cedrus deodara, Quercus baloot Higher slopes of Malakand Shrubs: Daphne oleoides, Sophora griffithii, Agency) Cotoneaster nummularia, Artemesia maritima, Plectranthus rugosus, Berberis lycium. 9 Cedrus deodara Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Kummrat Valley Pinus wallichiana Quercus baloot Bushes: Artemesia maritima, Ephedra intermedia, Periploca aphylla, Monotheca buxifolia, Corylus corlurna, Parrotia jacquemontiana, Cotoneaster nummularia, Sophora mollis. Northern Montane Steppe (northern Chitral) 10 Juniperus polycarpus Juniperus polycarpus, Artemesia maritima, Agram Basti Wildlife 29,866 Artemesia maritima Salix denticulata, S. viminalis, Mertensia Sanctuary tibetica, Populus ciliata, Hippophae Game Reserves in Citral (5) 62,501 rhamnoides Chitral Gol National Park 7,750

Undefine

Support to communities Establish CCA

High

Undefined

High

Undefined

Establish CCA

High

Undefined Undefined Government

Management Plan Management Plan Implement Management Plan Support local communities Management Plan

High Medium High

CGR in Chitral (7) Dry Alpine Zone (northern region of Chitral) 11 Hippophae rhamnoides Valleys: Hippophae rhamnoides, Myricaria elegans, Populus ciliata (rare), Capparis - Salix denticulate spinosa, Tribulus terrestris, Peganum harmala, Sphora alopcuroides, Lycium ruthenicum Slopes: Salix denticulata, Mertensia tibetica, Potentilla desertorum, Juniperus

284,500

Undefined

High

Broghil National Park (Chitral)

134,744

Undefined

High

81

ploycarpus, Berberis pachyacantha, Rosa webbiana, Spiraea macophylla Himalayan Moist Alpine Zone (higher slopes of Kaghan, and parts of Swat, Dir, and Indus Kohistan) 12 Betula utilis Juniperus Betula utilis, Juniperus squamata, Salix Lulusar & Dodipath National squamata himalayensis, Rhododendron collettianum, Park Polygonum affine, Saxifraga sibirica, Draba Saiful Maluk National Park trinervis, Poa spp., Anemone sp, Primula sp., Gentia sp. 30,376 4,867 Undefined Undefined Management Plan Management Plan High High

82

Vegetation Types and Ecosystems Showing Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Punjab. Ecosystem Riverain 1 Dalbergia sissoo Populus euphratica Wetlands 2 Man Made Wetlands Dominant Species Dalbergia sissoo, Populus euphratica, Tamatix dioica Wetland Classification and Location Inundated river banks, Kotla Issan Chashma Lake Wildlife Sanctuary Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary Head Panjnad Game Reserve Head Qadirabad Game Reserve Rasul Barrage Game Reseve 3 Natural Wetlands Wetland Jahlar Lake Wildlife Sanctuary Khabbeke Lake Wilkdlie Sanctuary Bajwat Game Reseve Namal Lake Game Reserve Ucchali Lake Game Reserve Kalar Kahar Lake Game Reserve Tropical Thorn Forest 4 Prosopis cinerariaCapparis decidua Prosopis cineraria, Capparis decidua, Salvadora oleoides, S. persica, Tamarix aphylla, Ziziphus mauritiana Kundian Wildlife Sanctuary (7,800 ha) Khanewal Wildlife Sanctuary (7,213) Khanpur Wildlife Sanctuary (13,303 ha) 33,084 6,567 2,779 2,816 1,138 17 283 5,464 486 932 558 3,800 3,200 5,300 Area (ha) Land Tenure Forest Lands Government Government Government Government Government Various Various Various Various Various Various Forest Land Forest land Forest Land Proposed Action Site selection for PA Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Priority High Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium Medium

83

Ecosystem

Dominant Species

Classification and Location Abbasia Wildlife Sanctuary (10,067 ha) Kot Sabzal Game Reserve

Area (ha) 5,000 10,118 5,877 6,625,252

Land Tenure Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Sate Land

Proposed Action Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Update management Plan Management Plan Manahement Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan Management Plan

Priority Medium Medium High High

Sand Dune Desert 5 Prosopis cineraria -Salvadora oleoides (Thal) 6 Tamarix aphylla Prosopis cineraria (Greater Cholistan) 7 Calligonum Haloxylon (Lesser Cholistan)

Prosopis cineraria, Salvadora oleoides, Ziziphus mauritiana, Leptadinia spartium Tamarix aphylla, Prosopis cineraria, Calotropis gigantea, Capparis decidua, Calligonum polygonoides, Leptadinia spartium, Haloxylon griffithii Calligonum polygonoides, Haloxylon grifithii, H. recurvum, Leptadenia spartium

Rakh Kherewala Wildlife Sanctuary Cholistan Game Reserve

Lal Sunhara National Park Cholistan Wildlife Sanctuaty Chaupalia Game Reserve

65,789 64,540 9,857 6,070 55,945 355 5820 118,106 10,065

State Land State Land State Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land Forest Land

High High Medium Medium High High High Medium Medium

Dry Sub-tropical Semi-Evergreen Scrub Forest (Kala Chitta Hills, Salt Range) 8 Olea cuspidata Olea ferrugina, Acacia modesta, Justicia Chinji National Park Acacia modesta adhatoda, Monotheca buxifolia, Dodonea Justicia adhatoda viscosa, Carissa opaca, Acacia nilotica var. Chumbi Surla Wildlife Sanctuary cupressussifolia Loi Bher Wildlife Sanctuary Sodhi Wildlife Sanctuary Diljabba-Domeli Game Reserve Tilla Jogian Game reserve

84

Ecosystem

Dominant Species

Classification and Location Kalabagh Game Rserve Kheri Murat Game reserve Kalla Chitta National Park

Area (ha) 1,550 5,618 36,965

Land Tenure Private Forest Land Forest Land Undefined

Proposed Action

Priority

Management Plan Management Plan Establish PA

Medium High High

Dry Temperate Semi-evergreen Scrub Forests (Fort Munro Hills) 9 Olea ferrugineaOlea cupidata, Acacia modesta, Artemesia Fort Monroe Acacia modesta maritima, Monotheca buxifolia, Rhzya Artemesia maritima stricta, Withania coagulans, and Nannorhops ritchieana in ravines. Sub Tropical Chir Pine Forest (Lower reaches of Muree, Kotli Sarrian and Kahuta) 10 Pinus roxburghii Trees: Pinus roxburghii, Quercus incana, Murree-Kotli Sattian, Kahuta National Park (108,124 ha) Quercus incana Ficus palmata, Punica granatum Under story: Zizyphus oxyphylla, Carisa opaca, Woodfordia fruticosa, Spiraea canescens, Buddleia paniculata, Berberis lycium, Indigofera pulchella Tropical Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest (Kahuta, Lower Lehtrar valley, Margalla Hills) 11 Acacia modesta Acacia modesta, Bauhinia variegata, Margalla Hills National Park (Capital territory) Cassia fistula, Dalbergia sisso, Mallotus Bauhinia variegata philipppinesis, Pistacia integerima, Punica granatum, Purus pashia, Salmalia Murree-Kotli Sattian, Kahuta malalbaricum, Justicia adhatoda National Park (108,124 ha) Understory: Zizyphus mauritiana, Carissa spinarum, Clematis gouriana, Butea monopserma Himalayan Moist Temperate Forest (upper reaches of Muree Hills) 12 Pinus wallichiana Trees: Pinus wallichiana, Abies pindrow, Abies pindrow Ulmus wallichiana, Juglans regia, Quercus dilatata, Acer caesium, A. villosum, and Kathar Game Reserve

54,000

Forest land

Management Plan

High

17,386

Forest Land

36,000

Forest Land

Update and implement management Plan Management Plan Management Plan

High

High

1,141

Forest Land

Medium

Murree-Kotli Sattian, Kahuta National Park (108,124 ha)

28,124

Forest land

Management Plan

High

85

Ecosystem

Dominant Species Prunus cornuta. Understory: Taxus baccata Shrubs:Viburnum nervosum, Berberis lycium, Rosa moschata, Skimmia laureola, Lonicera alpigea

Classification and Location

Area (ha)

Land Tenure

Proposed Action

Priority

86

Vegetation Types and Ecosystems Showing Existing and Proposed Protected Areas in Sindh. Ecosystem Dominant Species Classification and Location Area (ha) Land Tenure Proposed Action Pririty

Littoral and Mangrove (Indus Delta and Sindh Coast) Avicennia officinalis Avicennia officinalis, Ceriops tagal, Ceriops tagal Halopyrum mucronatum, Bruguiera conjugata Cressa Juncus Cressa cretica, Juncus sp., Cyeprus Cyperus rotundus Riverine Forests 6 Acacia nilotica Acacia nilotica, Populus euphratica, Populus euphratica Prosopis cineraria, Tamarx dioica Wetlands, Swamps, and Seasonal Innundation Lakes, swamps, man Tamarix spp, Saccharum spontaneum, made water bodies, Typha spp. inundation areas Sub Tropical Thorn Forests (Plain areas of Dadu)4 Prosopis cineraria Prosopis cineraria, Capparis decidua, Capparis decidua Salvadora oleoides, S. persica, Tamarix aphylla, Ziziphus mauritiana Sand Dune Desert (Nara, Tharparkar) 1 Calligonum Calligonum polygonoides, Haloxylon polygonoidesrecurvum, Indigofera cordifolia Haloxylon recurvum 2 Prosopis cineraria Prosopis cineraria,Tamarix aphylla, Tamarix aphyllaEuphorbia cauducufolia, Commiphora Euphorbia caudicifolia wightii, Ziziphus nummaularia, Grewia tenex, Cassia angustifolia, Calligonum polygonoides, Blepharis sindica 3 Commiphora wightii Commiphora wightii, Acacia senegal, Acacia senegal Calligonum polygonoides, Aerva javanica, Euphorbia caducifolia, Dry Sub tropical Semi-evergreen Scrub Forest (Sindh Kohistan)

Ket Bunder N orth and South Wildlife Sanctuaries (Indus Delta) Runn of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary Inundadtion areas of the Indus Thatta, Larkana, Nawabshah, Karachi, Hyderabad

31,994

Forest Land

Establish National Park Establish wilderness area Site Selection

High

320,463

State Land

High

Forest land

High

32,277

Various

Management Plans for WSs, and GRs Site selection

High

Dadu district

Undefined

Low

Narra Wildlife Sanctuary (Sukkur,Khairpur, Sanghar) Tharparkar

223,590

State Land

Management Plan Site selection

Medium

Undefined

Low

Karoonjar Hills (Nagarparkar)

Undefined

Establish national Park

High

87

Ecosystem 5 Acacia jacquemontii Commiphora wightii

Dominant Species Acacia jacquemontii, A. senegal, Commiphora wightii, Ziziphus nummularia, Rhazya stricta, Euphorbia caudicifolia, Grewia tenax, Blepharis sindica

Classification and Location Khirthar National Park (Indus Kohistan) Mahal Kohistan Wildlife Sanctuary

Area (ha) 308,733 70,577

Land Tenure State land State Land

Proposed Action

Pririty

Management Plan

Medium

88

Annex 9 Financial Cost Estimates for establishment and management of one PA


Major Activites Feasibility Surveys Boundry demarcation and mapping Management Costs Director -1 Experts (Social Sciences, Flora, Fauna) Field Staff Operations Vehicle Premises Maintenance Conservation and development Assessment of Biodiversity Monitoring Of Biodiversity Community Development Other Miscellaneous TOTAL 2,500,000 1,750,000 2,000,000 100,000 250,000 1 1 5 5 5 2,500,000 1,750,000 10,000,000 500,000 250,000 42,000,000 2 1 LS 1,500,000 750,000 500,000 5 5 5 3,000,000 3,750,000 2,500,000 1 3 10 1,250,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 5 5 5 6,250,000 7,500,000 Units LS LS Unit Cost 2,500,000 1,500,000 Years 1 1 Cost Estimate 2,500,000 1,500,000

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Annex 10 Protected Area Management Plan Recommended Elementsi


(Modified from work of F. Boltz, H. Balasubramanian,and M. Morales of Conservation International) 1. Executive summary This section summarizes the most important issues presented in the document and the main management decisions for the protected area. 2. Introduction The introduction describes the purpose, scope, and background of the management plan, as well as the purpose for which the PA was created. The purpose of the PA refers to the biological diversity, conservation role or function of the area, and in some cases will also include reference to its cultural or historical significance. This is the appropriate section in which to summarize the methodology used for the preparation of the management plan, and the organization and limitations of the document. 3. General description The description of the protected area includes information on its geographic and political location, coordinates, accessibility, size, local climate. It also includes a detailed account of its biodiversity and geological and soil formations, and hydrologic features, and its historical, cultural, social, and economic backgrounds and characteristics. Other important information includes legal status, management category, governance issues, land tenure and resource access rights, access, public services, and legal and institutional frameworks. Location and thematic maps should be incorporated in this section. 4. Protected area values The highest priority value of a protected area for the purpose of conservation is its biodiversity significance for which the area must be managed and the habitat on which they rely. Other values may include historical, cultural, social features. Direct economic values, such as the areas potential contribution to local or national economies from extractive or non-consumptive uses, and ecosystem services should be also considered here. 5. Selection of conservation targets From a biodiversity perspective, we could consider targets at different levels of ecological organization: species, sites, and landscapes or seascapes. This framework allows us to set consistent targets from which we can create clear management objectives. For example, among all sites, we choose to conduct conservation activities in those sites that are important for biodiversity. Within a protected area (or selected site), of all the species that are present, we may target those that are threatened. The same approach can be taken for cultural or historical resources or benefits. The targets allow managers to focus attention in order to achieve the protected area vision. Conservation targets are important elements of biodiversity to be affected by conservation actions. 6. Vision, management objectives, and principles The vision is a statement of what the area is to serve as in the long-term. The management objectives describe the intent of management actions or the expected results of interventions required to conserve/manage the area. The objectives contribute to the achievement of the vision, addressing specific actions or outcomes necessary for the vision to be attained. For biodiversity conservation, the objectives will be defined relative to an understanding of the state of biodiversity, the pressures that pose a threat to maintaining this biodiversity, the sources of these pressures, and those responses determined appropriate to alleviate pressures and conserve biodiversity targets. Other objectives may concern enhancement or maintenance of the areas historical or cultural sites, development of visitation areas, sustainable use of resources in extractive areas, and development of economic benefits from protected area use. Management objectives must be specific (clear and precise, with well-defined end results), measurable (quantifiable amount of change to be achieved), achievable (realistic and doable given available resources), relevant (related to the current and future status of the conservation targets), time bound (possible to be completed within specific timeframe), and prioritized in order of importance for implementation purposes. Principles are the manner in which management will occur. Key principles in protected area management might include transparency, stakeholder engagement, dispute resolution mechanisms, or internal governance

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structures/processes. These principles underpin how the area will be managed in order to reach the objectives and achieve the vision. 7. Opportunities and constraints This component of the management plan analyzes the opportunities and problems, existing and potential that affects the protected area. The current and future pressures need to be carefully identified and quantified here, as do the root causes of these pressures. The development of thorough conceptual models to understand the cause effect relationship between human activities and biodiversity is crucial in this part of the management plan. 8. Definition of management zones Zoning defines what can and cannot occur in different areas of the PA in terms of natural resources management, cultural resource management, human use and benefit, visitor use and experience, access, facilities and PA development, maintenance and operations. Through management zoning the limits of acceptable use and development in the PA are established. Often, when there is not enough information about the area, zoning is an action that occurs during the implementation of the management plan. 9. Selection of management strategies Management strategies are defined as those specific interventions (actions or tasks) and investments required to achieve the management objectives. They should be based on solid conceptual models and defined relative to the conditions required for management of the area, including delimitation and zoning, patrolling and mitigation of anthropogenic and natural pressure, interventions required to restore or maintain desirable natural processes and habitats, infrastructure development and maintenance, personnel management, visitor management, and interpretation and education. Intervention strategies are generally organized into programs and activities, with achievable and measurable objectives, deadlines, and stakeholders responsibilities. Activities should comprehensively address those elements or conditions required for effective management, such as: Staffing and capacity building Delineation, demarcation, and signalization Management zoning Key species management Research Education and awareness Visitation Stakeholder engagement, including sustainable use of resources Conflict resolution approaches Governance Financing needs 10. Monitoring and evaluation Monitoring and evaluation plans help managers evaluate the effectiveness of the management strategies, and create the data necessary for implementing adaptive management. They should focus on measuring the success of biodiversity conservation, contribution to mitigating major threats, the implementation of activities or tasks, and the results of management practices. They should logically flow from the management planning process and in many cases clear descriptions and information about protected area conservation targets and objectives will provide baseline data for the monitoring and evaluation scheme. 11. Financial plan The financial plan is a part of the general business plan that determines the protected area's funding requirements, including the amount and timing of that funding. Ensuring effective management and securing sufficient financial resources are vital if protected areas are to continue to provide benefits and fulfill their role in biodiversity conservation. The financial plan should articulate the budget needs for current and future management activities that are needed to achieve the objectives as stated in the management plan. Financial plans should be revisited frequently, keeping in view their availability and adaptive management needs.

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1 Adapted from: Thomas, Lee and Middleton, Julie, (2003). Guidelines for Management Planning of Protected Areas. IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. ix + 79pp.

IUCN- International Union for Conservation of Nature Islamabad Programme Office No. 21, Street 88, G-6/3, Islamabad, Pakistan. Tel +92 51 2271027-34

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