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(Ph.D., M.D., LL.D., Sc.D., and Professor at the University of Jena)






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Copyright, 1904, by

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Published January, 1905.













The Science of Life





Unities of Life


Forms of Life












Mental Life


The Origin op Life

The Evolution of Life

The Value of Life





Moreover. Naturally." led to the publication of a vast number of criticisms and attacks. affords ample proof of the intense interest taken by even the general reader in the object of the work ophy — the of construction of a rational and solid philos- life. During the first twelve months more than a hundred reviews and a dozen large pamphlets appeared. in the autumn of 1899. already been sold. more than a hundred thousand This extraorcopies of this were sold within a year. ten THE publication of the present work on The Won- thousand copies were sold. and which had no particular charm of — — presentation. the clear opposition of my monistic philosophy. * The English translation met with almost equal success. — V . full of the most contradictory One of strictures and the most curious observations. which I wrote five years Within a few months of the issue of this study ago. based as it was on the most advanced and sound scientific knowledge. of the monistic philosophy. Nearly one hundred thousand copies of the cheap edition have Trans. the publisher having been solicited on many sides to issue a popular edition of the work. to the conventional ideas and to an outworn "revelation.^ dinary and as far as I was concerned unexpected success of a philosophical work which was by no means light reading.PREFACE ders of Life has been occasioned by the success of The Riddle of the Universe.

" which has occupied the thoughtful and I base my inquiring mind for thousands of years. Heinrich Schmidt. gave a sumcriticism of them in his Der Kampf urn die in my Weltrdthsel. between a real knowledge of nature and an alleged "revelation. What I have said in this convi . they would subordinate them to the fantastic ideas which they have reached by faith in a supernatural world of spirits. autumn of 1900. calumny. or faith and revelation! — For this reason I do not propose to make any further reply to the opponents of The Riddle of the Universe. — sophistry. and denunciation. My dualistic opponents grant only a restricted value to these experiences. I and gave a brief reply to the chief of these attacks in April. However. monistic philosophy exclusively on the convictions which made. led to an ever-increasing agitation in every educated country of the Old and the New World. An honest and impartial con- be irreconcilable sideration of this palpable contradiction discovers it to either science and experience. It would be useless to go further into this con- troversy and meet the many attacks that have since been It is a question here of that profound and irreconcilable opposition between knowledge and faith. 1903. and I am still less disposed to take up the personal attacks which some of my critics have thought fit to make on me. In the course of this controversy I have grown painfully familiar with the means with which it is sought to silence the detested free-thinker misrepresentation. the went on to assume gigantic proportions struggle the when twelve different translations of the Riddle appeared. ' ' ' ' Critical philos- ophers of the modern Kantist school vie in this with orthodox theologians.PREFACE the ablest of mary and literary pupils. in the appendix to the popular edition of the Riddle. I have gained during fifty years' close and indefatigable study of nature and its harmonious working.

it afforded a very welcome proof of the lively sympathy of a large number of readers with the aim of the monistic philosophy. which I had cursorily and inadequately touched both in The Riddle of the Universe and The History of Cre- remedy these deficienand give a general reply to my interrogators was the immediate cause of the writing of the present work on The Wonders of cies of ation. in the appendix to the cheap German edition of the Riddle. but I had at length to content myself with sending a printed slip with the intimation that my time and strength did not permit me to make an adequate reply. of Berlin. to attack and calumniate my person as they will. of Godesberg. and the metaphysician Paulsen. they will not hurt the sacred cause of truth in which I labor. However. though this correspondence was very exacting.PREFACE nection of the theologian Loofs. Of these I have already received more than five thousand. Most of the inquiries related to biological questions. I especially noticed that the same remarks and questions occurred in many of these five thousand letters. of Halle. applies equally to many other opponents These heated partisans may continue of the same type. and particularly since the appearance of a popular edition. of Kiel. The natural earlier desire to my writings Life. the philologist Dennert. and a very interesting insight into the mental attitude of the most varied classes of readers. I was confirmed in this design by the circumstance that another scientist. had published two works in which he had treated vii . the botanist Johannes Reinke. very often expressed in the same terms. At first I conscientiously replied to each of these correspondents. Much more interesting to me than these attacks were the innumerable letters which I have received from thoughtful readers of the Riddle during the last five years.

which I have further treated in the second and fourteenth chapters of The Riddle of science make — — the Universe. a supplementary volume to The Riddle of the Universe. the universality of the law of substance and the substantial unity of nature.works are well written and present the principles of dualism and teleology with admirable conas far as this is possible it seemed to me sistency that it was desirable to give a thorough exposition of my own monistic and causative system. viii. Hence the present work on the wonders of life is. While the latter undertook to both — — a comprehensive survey of the general questions of as cosmological problems in the light of the monistic philosophy. Moreover. the present volume is confined to the realm of organic science. in strict accord with the monistic and mechanical principles which I laid down in 1866 in my In this I laid special stress on General Morphology. and xvi.. illustrations in many should much have liked to add parts of the text to make the subI ject plainer. It seeks to deal connectedly with the general problems of biology. as the title indicates.. As these. or the science of life.PREFACE the general problems of natural philosophy. but this would have led to a considerable xi. especially as regards chapters vii. from a purely dualistic and teleological point of view. increase in the size and price of the book. life of the vast material for this study of has been modelled on that of the I have retained the division into larger and smaller sections and the synopses of the various chapters.. especially of biology. Thus the whole biological content falls into four sections and twenty chapters. there are now many illustrated works which will help the reader to go more fuhy into the various sections of viii . these works were his Die Welt ah That (1899) and Einleitimg in die theoretische Biologie (1902). . The arrangement the wonders of Riddle.

1899f 1904). my of History of of Creation (EngHsh translation) and Evolution translation also this Man (EngUsh will course preparation) be will found helpful in this way. I beg the reader to consider that this work on the wonders of life is a necessary supplement to the widely circulated Riddle of the Universe. said. in the preface to The Riddle of the Universe in 1899. with loo tables. at least century. call this Nature or Cosmos." I can only offer studies of unequal value and incomplete workmanship. other men. Among now in others. A subjective theory of the world such as this can. work. as in the earlier one." counter to this observation. There still remains the great design of embracing all the exuberant phenomena of organic life in one general scheme and explaining all the wonders of life from the monistic point of view. like that of all validity. and that I felt bound to write it in response to the In this second inquiries of so many of my readers. Hence. and that I am wholly a child of the nineteenth century. I make no pretension to give the reader a comprehensive statement of my monistic philosophy in the full maturity it has reached for me at the close of the nineteenth personally. find The German reader many illustrations to elucidate the text of book in my recently completed work. and with its close I draw the If I now seem to run line under my Hfe's work. World or The twenty chapters of The Wonders of Life were written uninterruptedly in the course of four months ix . naturally.PREFACE the study. as forms of one great harmoniously working universe — — — whether you God. even in this "biological sketch-book. that I proposed to close study of the monistic " I had my system with that work. never hope to have a complete objective My knowledge is incomplete. Kiinstor men der Natur (lo parts.

afforded such ample material biological studies. such a situation did not allow a comprehensive survey of the boundless literature which has been evoked by the immense advances in every branch of biology. most of which came from unknown readers of The I When completed i6th. the countless inhabitants of which had. But I should be especially gratified if they would regard this work on the wonders of life as an expression of my thanks. However. In the revision of the text. letters. to whom also I am indebted for the careful revision of the spectacle of me with — proofs. I If my Riddle of the Universe in all parts of the world. I beg to tender them in these lines. and as a literary gift in return. On the other hand. of the blue Mediterranean. and other gifts. and solitary walks in the wild gorges of the Ligurian Apennines. I had to restrict myself to occasional additions and improvements. Heinrich Schmidt. In this I had the assistance of my worthy pupil. The quiet Hfe in this tiny coast -town of the ItaHan Riviera gave me leisure to weigh again all the views on organic life which I had formed by manysided experience of life and learning since the beginning which of my academic studies (1852) and my teaching at Jena To this I was stimulated by the constant sight (1861). on the shore of the blue Mediterranean. telegrams. thanks have not yet reached any of them. on which I was engaged during the summer at Jena. May my readers be moved by it to penetrate X . for for fifty years. my seventieth year at Rapallo.PREFACE I spent at Rapallo. the work is not intended to be a systematic present manual of general biology. and the moving my my its forest-crowned mountain altars. flowers. Dr. inspired a feeling of the unity of living nature a feeling that only too easily fades away in the study of detail in the laboratory. on was overwhelmed with a mass of conFebruary gratulations.

Goethe: "What greater thing in life can man achieve to Than that God-Nature be revealed Jena. and to reach the insight of our greatest German natural philosopher. 1^04.PREFACE deeper and deeper into the glorious work of Nature. June 17. him?" Ernst Haeckel. .




observation. and thought. or philosophy in the proper sense of the word. Without prejudice and without fear. This great question has occupied thoughtful of men for thousands of years. myriads of truths and untruths. more WHAT the is truth ? t5." and attain a full vision of the truth. Nay. and elicited myriads of attempts to answer it. philosophy would tear the mantle from "the veiled statue of Sais. even ''world-wisdom" itself. is nothing but a connected effort to unite the general results of man's investigation. truth. reflection. Every history of philosophy gives a longer or shorter account of these countless efforts of the advancing mind of man to attain a clear knowledge of the world and of itself.THE WONDERS OF LIFE I TRUTH Truth and the riddle of the universe Empiricism and speculation — Experience and thought — Natural philosophy — Science — Empirical science — Descriptive science — Observation and experiment — History and tradition — Philosophic science — Theory of knowledge — Knowledge and the brain — ^stheta and phroneta — Seat of the or organ of — thought: phronema Anatomy. H. and phylogeny of the phronema — metamorphoses — Evolution of consciousness—Psychological dualistic theories Monistic and of knowledge — Divergence of the two ways of attaining the — soul. physiology. ontogeny. H!LL North Carolina state College LIBRARY . and bring them to a common focus.

" — chemical law of the constancy of matter (Lavoisier. under of experience — the direction of reason.THE WONDERS OF LIFE True philosophy. but the most violent attacks were directed against my monistic theory of knowledge. 1842). in order to make In the first chapter I dealt its aim perfectly clear. These and highest objects of scientific inquiry have been comprehended under the title of The Riddle of the Universe. and I gave this name to the work I published in 1899. lead to the attainment of truth. and the physical law of the constancy of force (Robert Mayer. taken in this sense." and in the twelfth chapter I endeavored to show that they may all be reduced to one final of late "problem of substance. may proudty and justly style itself "the queen of the sciences. 1789). has met with a good deal of agreement. as a search for truth in the highest sense. and establishment of the unified law of substance. This monistic association of the two fundamental laws." When philosophy. The only paths which I had recognized as profitable were those and thought or empirical knowledge and I had insisted that these two methods speculation. the ways of emotion and re vela- . with what have been called "the seven great briefly cosmic problems. the answer to which varies according to the degree of culture and the point of view of the inquirer. supplemented each other. or against the method I followed in seeking to solve the riddle of the universe. thus unites our isolated discoveries and seeks to weld them into one unified system of the world. it comes at length to state certain fundamental problems. which dealt with them." or one great "riddle of the The general formulation of this problem is effected by blending the two chief cosmic laws the final universe. At the same time I had rejected as false two other muchfrequented paths which purported to lead directly to a profounder knowledge. but also with some opposition. and that they alone.

' I expressed in these words the general result of my monistic studies in 1866 (in the twenty-seventh chapI then laid it down as ter of my Gcnerelle Morphologic) the fundamental principle of the monistic system that the unity of nature and the unity of science follow absolutely from any connected study of modern philosophic science. ' demand ." I endeavored to establish these theses conclusively in the first book of the Generelle Morphologie. Analysis and Synthesis. a critical and methodological introduction to this Not only are those methods considered "which must necessarily supplement each other" (I. but also those "which necessarily exclude each other" (IV. Thoughtful experience. and I expressed my conviction in these terms: "All human science is knowledge based on experience. since they a behef in miracles. Teleology and Causality. "All natural science is philosophy. V. which contains philosophic (p. 108) science. if the title be preferred. ago and so I may refer the interested reader to that work. Dogmatism and Criticism. empiricism. The Riddle of the Universe is in the main an attempt to introduce to the general reader in a convenient form the principles chief points of the monistic ever. or empirical philosophy. Empiricism and Philosophy. All true science is natural philosophy. 3 . or thought based on experience. both of these are in opposition to reason. Howwhich has been aroused by the me of general philosophic observations of the Riddle compels to give a further explanation of the chief features my theory of knowledge. or. which I developed there thirty-eight years have only been confirmed by my subsequent labors. Dualism and Monism). the opposition system I established. or Vitalism and MeThe monistic chanicism. III. Induction and Deduction). II. VI. is the only way and method to be followed in the search for truth. and all true philosophy is natural science.TRUTH tion.

the empirical and descriptive school would reduce the whole task to experience. on the other side." says Kant. induction and deduction. thought and consciousness make up together the cerebral function we call reason. Hence this one-sided sensualism. and in the internal sense-centres of the cortex of the brain these impressions are subjectively transformed into presentations. On the one side. Starting from the correct principle that all science originally has its source in experience. The external world is the object that acts on man's organs of sense. philosophic speculation is nothing more than an idle play of ideas. without calling in the aid of philosophy while philosophic speculation. the representatives of "experimental science" affirm that their task consists solely in the exact observation of "facts" and the classification and description of them. or association centres. "Only in experience is there truth. On the contrary.impressions. years are still far from being generally appreciated. we find them combated by the extreme representatives of both tendencies of science. the recognition of which I have described for thirty eight as the first condition for solving the riddle of life. and that — — . as Condillac and Hume especially maintained it. affirmed that the whole action of the mind consists in a manipuThis narrow empirical lation of sense . would dispense with experience and endeavor to construct the world by pure thought. the formation of clusions arguments and concepts. These long familiar and fundamental truths. The thought-centres. . and consists of conclusions that have been reached by a rational connection of these experiences.THE WONDERS OF LIFE All true science that deserves the name is based on a collection of experiences. of the cortex (whether or no one distinguishes them from the sense-centres) are the real organs of the mind that unite these presentations into The two methods of forming these conconclusions.

particularly in the second half. after dethe observed phenomena. Oustav Kirchhoff. and description of facts. The famous disclassed in official — — coverer of spectrum analysis says in his Lectures on 5 . to pass on to trace scribing them to their causes that is. No science of any kind whatever consists solely in the Hence we can only regard description of observed facts. he said that the sole aim of science is "the knowledge of facts. the objective investigation of The former poHtician natural phenomena in detail. The majority is that their task accumulated observations." As if in both cases we had not. has claimed that description is the final and the highest task of science. it — as a pitiful contradiction in terms when we find biolog}^ documents to-day as a "descriptive science. are regarded by them Rudolph Virchow strongly emphasized In his this narrow empirical tendency ten years ago. speech on the foundation of the BerUn University he explained the "transition from the philosophic to the scientific age". among the rapidly advancing sciences. all far-reaching philosophic conclusions from especially labor. the creation of cellular pathology. and their with suspicion. was a philosophic construction the formation of a new" and comprehensive theory of disease by the combination of countless observations and the conclusions deduced therefrom. that his own great achievement. it was favored by the specialism which grew up in the necessary division of of scientists are still of opinion confined to the exact observation and All that goes beyond this. to explain them by means of rational inferences! But it is even more regrettable to find that one of the ablest scientists of Germany.TRUTH conception spread very widely during the nineteenth century." and physics opposed to it as an "explanatory science." seemed to forget that he had maintained a precisely opposite view forty years before (at Wiirtzburg).

Kirchhoff's statement is in flagrant contradiction to his own great achievement. two great scientists have done a great deal of harm. For thousands of years true science has been.THE WONDERS OF LIFE Mathematical Physics and Mechanics (1877): "It is the in work of science to describe the movements perceived Nature. The distinguished thinkers of classic . is certainly a great advantage that modern science has over all earlier efforts to attain the truth. not merely a simple description of individual facts. but this is equally true of the description of facts. But the master-builders of to physics is new paths in as sad a plight as science cannot be content with the collection of dead material they must press on to the knowledge of causes by a rational maniptilation of their facts. but an explana- — tion of them by tracing them to their causes. supported by careful experiment. for the extraordinary significance of this does not lie in the discovery of the wonderful facts of spectroscopic optics and the "complete description" of individual spectra. The accurate and discriminating observation of facts. It is true that our knowledge of them is always imperfect. or even hypothetical. antiquity were far superior to most 6 modern scientists ." There is no meaning in this statement unless we take the word "description" in a quite unusual sense unless "complete description" is meant to include explanation. as they have widened still more the deep gulf between It may be of some service if science and philosoph}^ a few thousand of the thoughtless followers of "de" scriptive science are persuaded to refrain from attempts at explanation of facts. these statements of the precarious a principle. that he has drawn from them have opened out entirely and chemistry. Hence KirchhofiF Virchow when he formtilates so However. but in the rational grouping and The far-reaching conclusions interpretation of them. in the most complete and simplest fashion. the founding of spectrum analysis.

which she must herself answer a kind of observation under defiits tion. as the dominant creed demanded only faith and the recognition of and philosophers all or supernatural revelation. and has led to many an error. The great improvement in these instruments during the nineteenth century. have led to triumphs of observation in this "century of science" that surpassed all anticipation. and depreciated observaThe great importance of this as a foundation of real knowledge was first appreciated by Bacon of Verulam. as it were. whose Novum Organon (1620) laid down the principles of scientific knowledge. obtain the utmost accuracy in objective observation has often led to a neglect of the part which is played by the subjective mental action of the observer." which is hardly three hundred years old. the subtler processes of thought. Bacon became the founder of modern empirical investigation. in opposition to the current scholasticism derived from Aristotle and his Organon. This more rigorous method of "exact observation. and the support given by other recent inventions. this very — refinement of the technique of observation has its draw- The effort to backs. and were barely acquainted with experiment. However. — and deliberate conditions. not only by making careful and exact observation of phenomena the basis of all philosophy. but also in demanding the supplementing of this by experiment.TRUTH in regard to judgment and reasoning. but they were superficial and unpractised observers. by this experiment he understood the putting of a question to Nature. In the Middle Ages scientific work degenerated in both its aspects. was very strongly aided by the inventions which enable the nite human eye to penetrate into the farthest abysses of space and the profoundest depths of smaller bodies the telescope and microscope. his judgment and reason have been depreciated in comparison 7 .

the experimenter loses himself in meaningless efforts. yet the latter is in observation) the former. in histological much more important and correct than But the greatest fault has been that many "exact" observers have refrained altogether and judgment on the phenomena oband have neglected subjective criticism. case of experiment ditions — as of simple observation that important just — or observation under But it is as in the artificial con- be undertaken and carried out with a sound and clear judgment. Frequently the means has been turned into the end of knowledge. Like observation. In the modern it. and tinctly proposed. pathology. Nature can only give a correct and unambiguous answer to the question you put her when it is clearly and disThis is very often not the case. presenting all parts of the object with equal plainness. have made aschemistry.THE WONDERS OF LIFE with the acuteness and clearness of his vision. Equally foolish is the conduct of those biologists who would transfer the experiment that is valuable in physiology to the field of anatomy. with the foolish hope that "something may come of The modern province of experimental or mechanical embryology is especially marred by these useless and perverse experiments. experimentation has been wonder- from reflection improved of late years. where it is rarely profitable. it is that so often a number of observers of the same phenomenon contradict each other. has been more valued than the subjective design that reproduces only what is essential and leaves out what is superfluous." controversy about evolution the attempt 8 is frequently . while each one boasts of the "exactness" of his observations. of these many cases (for instance. physiology. hence served. In the reproduction of the thing observed the objective photograph. fully — — it tounding progress. etc. The experimental sciences which make most use of it experimental physics.

and its organic population. Natural history. furnish an abounding empirical material from which critical judgment can draw a host of conclusions. Later still (1866) were laid the foundations of the science of organic evolution. . and migrations. also. attempt to apply experimentation to historical problems where all the conditions for a successful application are lacking. of peoples and states. and weapons. was not founded until the beginning of the eighteenth century. and that no man of science can give an Nor is it less perverse to absolute definition of it. The knowledge which we obtain directly by observaand experiment is only sound when it refers to presWe have to turn to other methods for the ent events. generation to generation. However. and documents. — has been investigated for thousands of years. the earth. and the subjective interpretation of them is often no clearer than their objective validity. is much more recent than the history Immanuel Kant was the first to lay the of mankind. and did not assume a definite shape until the time of Hoff and Lyell (1830). tion investigation of the past to history and traditions and This branch of science these are less easily accessible. the oral and written tradition from concerned. or the story of the evolution of the earth. Geology. etc. and their customs. as the documents are usually imperfect. the door to error lies wide open here. or the study of the origin and past history of the universe. and Laplace gave mathematical shape to his ideas in 1796. 9 in his theory of . the ancient monuments.TRUTH made is species.. when Darwin provided a sound foundation. properly so called. languages. foundations of a mechanical cosmogony in his remarkable Natural History of the Heavens (1755). is In this. as far as the history of man and civilization. laws. to prove or refute experimentally the origin of It is quite forgotten that the idea of species only relative.

This error led to the further statement that the foundations of science are metaphysical. which is favored by most men of science in our day. incapable of proof.THE WONDERS OF LIFE theory of descent which Lamarck had proposed fifty years before. which proved so injurious to the whole of subsequent philosophy. though man can attain a certain knowledge of phenomena by the innate forms of space and time. and insisted that all knowledge is obtained by pure reason. ^ ^ I " and by the discoveries of cerebral physiologists. Hence. reached by the deductions of pure reason. he defended its immortality as a practical postulate. He regarded the human mind. with its innate quality of reason. independently of experience. lay in the absence of any physiological and phylogenetic base to his theory of his i knowledge. he had no suspicion of the evolution lO . derived from experience. The purely speculative metaphysics which was built up on Kant's apriorism. and that the rest of our knowledge (as. for the — — length to reject the empirical method altogether. and made no inquiry into its historical development. independently of experience I I I Kant's chief error. As is known. this was only provided sixty years after death by Darwin's reform of the science of evolution. we have the purely speculative tendency which is current among our academic philosophers. Kant affirmed that only a part of our knowledge is empirical. as a completely formed entity from the first. for instance. In sliarp contrast to this purely empirical method. and that. or a posteriori that is. and which found its extreme representative in Hegel. The great regard which the critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant obtained during the nineteenth century has recently been increased in the various schools of philosophy. mathematical axioms) is a priori that is to say. came at selection. he cannot grasp the "thing in itself" that lies behind them.

that I do not under- Among cians. The "necessity" which Kant considered to be a special feature of these a priori propositions would be found in all other judgments if we were fully acquainted with the phenomena and their conditions. The charge is correct to this extent. which have been formed in man's vertebrate ancestors slowly and gradually." — — My assuredly very different from this. It is on the ground of these experiences that I have adopted the views on the nature of the human mind which are expounded in the second part of The Riddle of the Universe (chapters vi. have passed on my Riddle of the Universe. and therefore of a posteriori knowledge. to a priori knowledge is really the effect of the inheritance of certain structures of the brain.TRUTH of The curious predisposition man's soul from that of the nearest related mammals. The following are the chief points: is monistic theory of knowledge — II . and phylogeny on the remarkable results of these empirical sciences in the last forty years. the censures which the academic metaphysiGermany. especially in stand the current dualistic theory of knowledge which is based on Kant's metaphysics. and may be reduced to constantly repeated experiences and a priori conclusions derived therefrom. It is firmly and thoroughly based on the splendid advances of modern physiology.). by adaptation to an association of experiences. Even the absolutely certain truths of mathematics and physics. histological. histology. were originally attained by the phyletic development of the judgment. which are entirely ignored by the prevailing system of metaphysics. the heaviest is perhaps the charge that I know nothing whatever about the theory of knowledge. I cannot understand how their introspective psychological methods disdaining all physiological.-xi. which Kant described as synthetic judgments a priori. or phylogenetic foundations can satisfy the demands of "pure reason.

These regions are so distributed in the cortex that one part of them is directly connected with the organs of sense.THE WONDERS OF LIFE 1. intellect and reason. Like the functions of all other organs. is strictly reguby law. The arrangement and grouping of these psychic cells. the instruments of presenta- tion and thought. Within the cortex we have localized a number of different mental activities. 3. 2. or traced them to certain regions. or association-centres. and receives and elaborates the impressions from these: these are the inner sense-centres. 5. those of the brain are effected by the cells. or gray bed. 7. Between these central organs of sense lie the intellectual or thought-organs. which can only be explained by the common origin of the mammals from one primitive mammal (or pro-mammal brain of lated of the Triassic period). judgment and consciousness. the number of which runs into millions in the man and the other mammals. the earliest and foremost of the five embryonic brain-vesicles. are real nucleated cells of a very elaborate structure. because the various impressions re13 . or sensoria. of the brain. 8. cells. 4. their functions are extinguished. and is distinguished within this highest class of the vertebrates by several characteristics. 6. if the latter are destroyed. or neurona. These brain-cells. Those groups of psychic cells which we must regard as the agents of the higher mental functions have their origin in the fore-brain. The soul of man is — objectively considered— essen- tially similar to that of all other vertebrates. they are called the thought-centres. it is the physiological action or function of the brain. they are confined to that part of the surface of the fore-brain which anatomists call the cortex. which make up the organ. which are also known as soul- ganglionic cells.

view. E dinger. which compose both. it is not necessary to have this delimitation of the regions. and others." or aestheta) in the gray cortex seems to and ^. and united in harmonious thought by them." The anatomic determination of the two "psychic regions" which Flechsig first introduced was afterwards modified by himself and subThe distinguished works of stantially altered by others. which interests us at present. that the neurona. but the sound anatomic proof of it has only been furnished during the last ten years. of psychic action. perceived. that we can to-day anatomically distinguish between the two most important organs of mental life.TRUTH ceived from the sense-centres are associated. there is probably a dif^ Further particulars about the relations of the thoughtcentres to the sense-centres will be found in the tenth chapter of The Riddle of the Universe. The chief point holds. from the psychological point of of the brain. is the "principal brain. We 13 . differ histologically (or in finer structure) and ontogenetically (or in origin) and that even chemical differences (or a different relation to certain coloring matters) may be . Certain physioconsiderations had for some time suggested this logical distinction.^ The anatomic distinction between the two regions of the cortex which we oppose to each other as the internal sense-centres and the thought or association-centres me of the highest importance. and especially of the cognitive functions." or the "great occipitotemporal association-centre.our thought-centres ("associationor phroiieta) between these: the most imcentres." portant of the latter. may conclude from this that the neurona or psychic cells which compose both organs also differ in their finer structure. Weigert. combined. Hitzig. lead to somewhat But for the general conception discrepant conclusions. In 1894 Flechsig showed that there are four central sense-regions ("internal sense-spheres.

and the The thought-cells or thought-centres phronetal cells. the phronetal cells. but frequently overlooked. To this anatomic delimitation of the internal sensecentres and thought-organs in the cortex corresponds this difference. the specific task of reason. former are. The sensorium. By this important distinction we avoid the error of the older sensualism (of Hume. the plished by phroneta (or the various thought-organs that compose it) and their histological elements. the phronema of the thought-centres. Condillac. the custheta. and their nerves and centres.he important.) namely. and their organic units. the intermediaries between the external sense-organs and the internal thought-organs.THE WONDERS OF LIFE ference in the complicated fibrils which extend in the cytoplasm of both organs. the impressions received from the external world by the sense-organs. anatomically and physiologically. or the central sense-instruments that make up the sen- sorium. but. or sense-centre. circumstance that there is in advance in the phronetal cells of the civilized i"'W*"J*-^ -• -""" 14 . although our coarse means of investigation have not yet succeeded in detecting In order to distinguish properly beI propose to call the sensory-cells or sense-centres cFsthetal cells. in order to have real knowledge and thought. Then there is_t. prepare the sense-impressions for thought and judgment in " This work of "pure reason is accomthe proper sense. tween the two sets of neurona. that all knowledge depends on — It is true that the senses are the sense-action alone original source of all knowledge. the cesthetal cells. bringing about an association or combination of the pre- pared impressions. works up the external sense-impressions that are conveyed by the peripheral sense-organs and the specific energy of their sensory nerves. must be combined in the association-centres and elaborated in the conscious thought-centres. etc. their physiological differentiation.

or those who are devoted to physical studies. its this is the phronerna. the speculative representatives of what is called mental science and philosophy. in man and the other mammals. which means a preto. impartial and critical study of the action of the brain in various scientific leaders shows that. 15 . there is a certain opposition. If we take the ambiguous term "soul" {psyche or anima) in the narrower sense of the higher mental ponderant tendency we may assign as its "seat" (or. and thus the individual is equipped for the highest mental achievements. as a rule. while the latter regard the play of ideas of the former as an unscientific and speculative dissipation. which means a greater disposition and capacity for the observation of phenomena in detail. According to our monistic theory. Hence it is that metaphysicians usually look with disdain on "materialistic" scientists and observers. and Johannes Miiller. more correctly. It is only in natural philosophers of the first rank. organ). On the other hand. which was originally engendered by the actual sense-action of the aesthetal cells in the course of generations. have a pre- many An ponderant development of the sensorium. have the phronema more strongly developed. and capacity for. that part of the cortex which contains the phroneta and is made up of the phronetal cells. such as Copernicus. The empirical representatives of science. a comprehensive perception of the universal in particulars. or of metaphysical studies. that both sections are harmoniously developed. between the two sections of the highest mental power.TRUTH man a valuable quality in the shape of inherited potential nerve-energy. Newton. Darwin. a short and convenient name for power. or an antagonistic correlation. Lamarck. This physiological antagonism may be traced histologically to the comparative development of the assthetal and the phronetal cells in the two cases.

i6 . feeling. only dwelling in the brain (like a snail in its shell) for a time. who insured the widest acceptance for Plato's dualistic mysticism. and consonant with experience. on this theory (which we can trace to an immaterial entity. It has a strictly dualistic conception of the human soul as a being apart. the current metaphysical psychology regards the brain as the seat of the soul. after the fashion of Plato. is own account. According to Descartes. At the death of the brain it is supposed to live on. thinking. Moreover. and acting independently. and then deserts it. The well-known "pianotheory" compares the soul to a musician who plays an interesting piece (the individual life) on the instrument of the body. and indeed for all eternity. physiology. and only using the material body as a temporary implement. principles the answer to this question is very simple. has yet formulated a plausible theory of the connection of mind and body and On our monistic the nature of their reciprocal action. a posterior section of the middle-brain (the second embryonic cerebral vesicle). In opposition to this biological and empirically grounded theory. and phylogeny. the proper habitation of the soul in the brain in the musicroom is the pineal gland. ontogeny. only in a very different sense. or the heart the central organ of circulation.THE WONDERS OF LIFE the phronema is the organ of thought in the same sense which we consider the eye the organ of vision. it is advisable to devote at least a few lines to the consideration of the phronema in the light of — — anatomy. In view of its extreme importance. With the destruction of the organ its function disappears. the pineal eye (which is still found in certain reptiles). to live forever on its soul. The in immortal Plato). The famous pineal gland has lately been recognized by comparative anatomists as the rudiment of a single organ of vision. not one of the innumerable psychologists w^ho seek the seat of the soul in some part of the body.

moreover. in the same sense in which we conceive the eye as a purIt is true that posively arranged apparatus of vision. and consciousness we may at once lay down the principle that there is an anatomical unity of organ corresponding to the physiological and generally admitted unity of When we — — As we assign to this consciousness. cells form the several stations of this telephronetal graphic system. we phronema may call it the organic apparatus of the soul. we are only just beginning to penetrate into the marvellous structure of the phronetal to and their complicated grouping. or the "living substance. 17 . and." has produced in the course of millions of years. we have as yet only made a beginning of the finer anatomic analysis of the phronema. acquaints us with the long and gradual development which the phronema has undergone within the higher class of the vertebrates. from the amphibia and reptiles up to the birds and mammals. human brain seems to us to-day to be the greatest marvel that plasm. as the of the central instrument of thought. reason. Comparative anatomy.TRUTH conceive the phronema as the real "organ soul" in the strict sense that is to say. With the most improved means of modern histology. the most perfect microscopes and coloring methods. from the monoThe tremes and marsupials up to the apes and men. and thousands of millions of the finest nerve-fibrils represent the wires which connect the stations with one another and with the sense-centres on the one hand. Yet we have advanced far enough to regard it as the most perfect piece of cell-machinery and the highest product of cells Millions of highly differentiated organic evolution. and with the motor-centres on the other. and are not yet able thought and mark off its field decisively from the neighboring spheres of sense and motion. a most elaborate anatomical structure. within the last class. knowledge.

now there are still intermediaries between the aesthetal and phronetal cells. this dualistic attitude is shared by a number of distinguish- ed modern physiologists. no mental life. they take the soul to be.THE WONDERS OF LIFE last The remarkable progress which has been made in the few decades in the anatomic and histological investi- gation of the brain does not yet. Unfortunately. not as a natural science. and that without it there can be no reason. no thought. make and no knowledge. in the older and phylogenetically more Even distant stages they were not yet differentiated. Since we regard psychology as a branch of physiology. assume that there is no sharp distinction in the lower stages of the vertebrate soul. a supernatural entity. We must. anH'examine the whole of the phenomena of mental life from the same monistic stand-point as all other vital functions. in the Descartes a Cartesian sense. but as a mental science. pupil of the Jesuits only applied his theory to man. who observations and experiments i8 . throw more and more light on these complicated structures. the fundamental fact is now empirically established that the phronema (the real organ of the soul) forms a definite part of the cortex of the brain. in fact. But the — — theory is know from innumerable quite absurd in modern physiologists. it is true. In the next chapter we shall see that this position is wholly unjustified. enable us to a clear delimitation of the region of the phronema and its relations to the neighboring sensory and motor spheres in the cortex. But we may expect with confidence that further progress in the comparative anatomy of the brain will. it follows that we can make no exception for knowledge and reason. In any case. and regarded animals as soulless automata. which regard psychology. who otherwise adopt the monistic principles. with the aid of embryology. In this we are diametrically opposed to the current systems of psychology.

and the dread of being decried as "materialists" if they abandon it. This maxim is especially applicable to mental diseases. Hegel. and not in kind. The same most perfect and enigmatic function. has imposed on them.. or by the mirroring of knowledge in knowledge. of the nature and seat of the by psychiatry. and partly by a concern for the current belief in immortality. from that of the ape. Although us to believe confidently that the lofty selfconsciousness of man differs only in degree. etc. or psychic organ. as be partly explained by the perverse theory knowledge which the great authority of Kant.TRUTH that the brain. As I do not share this beUef I examine and physiologists of modern may . in man behaves just it does in the other mammals. or the science mental As an old medical maxim Patkologia physiologiani illustrat the science of disease throws light on the sound organism. and especially the This paradoxical dualism of some of our primates. localization of — runs. The chemistry of the neuroplasm determines the vital function of the phronema. for they can all be traced to modifications of parts of the brain which The discharge definite functions in the normal state. the other to the law of substance. Hence we must regard the chemical processes in the ganglionic cells of the cortex as the real factors of knowledge and all other psychic action. dog. and other higher leads mammals. horse. nevertheless the use of the comparative method in psychology said of its must be consciousness. phronema diminishes the disease in a definite part of the or extinguishes the normal mental 19 . this greatest wonder of life is only directly accessible by the introspective method. Our monistic conception soul of is strongly confirmed disease. appreciate the physiological work of the phroneta just as impartially as I deal with the organs of sense or the I find that the one is just as much subject as muscles.

activity is determined by the normal constitution of the relevant part of the brain. and execute automatic or reflex (and in part purposive) motions. and in 1882 W. And although we have in this way only succeeded as yet in showing the functional dependence of a certain part of the mental functions on the respective parts of the cerebrum. They are like vertebrates from which the cerebrum has been partly or wholly removed in the laboratory. pitiable but that is not the case. mental function in them.THE WONDERS OF LIFE ftmction which is discharged by this section. These may live for a long time. no unprejudiced physician doubts to-day that it is Each special mental equally true of the other parts. or other . and has been an general way object of keen interest to all observant parents and teachers. but it was not until about twenty years ago that a strictly scientific study was made of this remarkIn 1884 Kussmaul able and important phenomenon. the destruction of the visual region (in the occipital convolutions) does away with the power of sight the lesion of the temporal convolutions destroys hearing. in the third frontal convolution. The embryology for published his Untersuchungen iiber das Seelenleben des neugeborenen Menschcn. destroys the power of speech. be artificially fed. a section of the phronema. reason. and who have accordingly to remain throughout life at a low stage of mental These poor creatures would be in a very capacity. of the child-soul has been known in a thousands of years. without our perceiving a trace of consciousness. Very striking examples of this are afforded in the case of idiots and microcephali. the unfortunate beings whose cerebrum is more or less stunted. Preyer pub20 . Nature herself here conducts delicate experiments which the physiologist could only accomplish very imperfectly or not at all. condition if they had a clear consciousness of it. Thus disease of the speech-centre.

they convince us that the phronema is undeveloped in the new-born infant. such as speech. As the whole course of embryology is. or the development of the "soul" and its organ the — — — phronema. Among the latter. laughing." as is done in even modern legal works. but is also deaf. careful manuals which these and other observers have published. and of mammals on the other. it is clear that the new-born infant not only has no reason or consciousness. the formRecent anatomic obing of concepts and words. and from these again to the amniota. Dr. Within the ranks of the vertebrates we find to-day a long series of evolutionary stages which reach up from the lowest acrania and cyclostoma to the fishes and dipneusta. cannot rationally be classed as in selecting the bravest "murder. only by gradual contact with the outer world that these functions successively appear. We ought rather to look upon it as a practice of advantage both to the infants destroyed and to the community. from these to the amphibia. moreover. etc. we must say the same of psychogenesis. etc. according to our biogenetic law. later still come the power of association.TRUTH Mind of the Child [English translation. and Hence the destruction of abnormal newconsciousness. the various orders of reptiles and birds on the one hand. born infants as the Spartans practised it. and so we can no more speak in this case of a "seat of the soul" than of a "human spirit" as a centre of thought. servations quite accord with these physiological facts. an abbreviated repetition of the history of the race. for instance. Taken together. and only lished his It is gradually develops its sense and thought-centres. show us how the higher psychic powers have been developed 21 .. From the Sully has several works on the same subject]. Comparative psychology comes next in importance to embryology as a means of studying the ancestral history of the soul. J. knowledge.

the apes. the duration of which is estimated by many recent geologists at from twelve to we find the same eversummit are the primates — — fifteen (at the least three to five) million years. I had made several allusions to the works of the distinguished English zoologist. Romanes. The gradual development of the cerebrum and its chief part the phronema took place during the Tertiary period. step The most interesting and important part of which relates to the highest developed this is that class — the mammals.-ix. as it has been attacked with particular vehemence by my critics. yet we find every intermediate stage between the two. of the Riddle. it was natural to retain a turned out that there had certain reserve. into the chief results of the modern study of the brain and its radical importance for psychology and the theory of knowledge. really However. Romanes partly retracted his monis- tic convictions shortly before his death. To this physiological scale corresponds exactly the morphological gradation revealed by the comparative anatomy of the brain. At its (man. a zealous Eng- lish theologian [Dr. in chapters vi. within this class advancing gradation. I need only refer the reader thereto. There is just one point I may touch here. Gore]. A wide interval seems to separate these intelligent mammals from the lower placentals. who had made ment work a careful comparative study of mental developin the of animal and man. As this conversion was only known at first through one of his friends. We do not find in the latter the high quantitative and qualitative development of the phronema which we have in the former. then the carnivora. a part of the ungulates. and adopted mystic religious views. it been in this case (just as in the case of the 22 aged . and the other placentals. and the half -apes).THE WONDERS OF LIFE by step from the lower. As I have gone somewhat fully. the marsupials and monotremes. and had continued the Darwin.

as one wonders of life.TRUTH Baer) one of those interesting psychological metamorphoses which I have described in chapter vi. As in similar cases where deep emotional disturbance. and not of the emotions or of any supernatural But for revelation. and may be reduced to physical and chemical processes in the cells of the cortex.' Of all the wonders of life. consciousness may be said to be the greatest and most astounding. In face of this. The well-known embryology of the eye teaches us ' how sight — the perception of images — Trans. to be in a normal condition. in many respects." 23 . English readers who are acquainted with Romanes's posthumous Thoughts on Religion will recognize the justice of this Romanes speaks expressly of the acceptance of analysis. and must insist that in this case again embryology is the best guide to a comprehension of the subject. we must still hold that it is the place of the latter. I must refer the reader to the monistic theory of consciousness which I have given in chapter x. and not a natural phenomenon. Romanes suffered a good deal from illness and In this congrief at the loss of friends in his last years. painful experiences. It is hardly necessary to point out to impartial readers that such a conversion as this does not shake his earlier monistic views. Nevertheless. to attain a knowledge of the truth. of the Riddle. and exuberant hope have clouded the judgment. Christianity entailing "the sacrifice of his intellect. It is true that to-day most physiologists are agreed that man's consciousness. is a function of the brain. some biologists still cling to the metaphysical view that this "central mystery of psychology" is an insoluble enigma. of the Riddle. like all his other mental powers. the phronema. Sight of the is next to consciousness. dition of extreme depression and melancholy he fell under mystic influences which promised him rest and hope by belief in the supernatural. such attainment it is necessary for the organ of mind.

Both these the peripheral senseorgans and the phronema. and is partly quite independent of experience and a priori. and that it must have its organs like all other psychic functions. tion we have made is the conviction that all knowledge was originally acquired a posteriori and from experience. and the action of the phronema is just as reducible to chemical and — — physical processes as the action of the organs of sense. though we are still far from enjoying a complete anatomical and physiological — The most important acquisiinsight into their details. is a natural physiological process. the same way the conscious soul. of Kant has lent enormous prestige to this mystic thority and supernatural view. the aim of all science. These organs have been revealed to us so fully in the advance of biology during the last half-century that we may be said to have a generally satisfactory idea of the natural character of their organization and action. From this thorough and unprejudiced appreciation of the biology of the phronema it follows that the knowledge of truth. the internal mirror of the mind's own action. or central psychic organ. are subject to the law of substance. In diamietrical opposition to our monistic and empirical theory of knowledge. and the academic philosophers A "return of our time are endeavoring to maintain it. and that its first sources are the impressions made on our organs of sense. by the development of a transparent lens.THE WONDERS OF LIFE from the external world has been gradually evolved from the simple sensitiveness to light of the lower In animals. the prevailing dualistic metaphysics assumes that our knowledge is only partly empirical and a posteriori. or due to the original conThe powerful austitution of our "immaterial" mind. to Kant" is held to be the only means of salvation for 24 . has been produced as a new wonder of life out of the unconscious associations in the phronema of our earher vertebrate ancestors.

Knowledge. The organ of knowledge. of the human brain knowledge is engendered exclusively is a definite and limited part of 5. . like the neighboring and correlated sensory and motorcentres. phronema. as a transcendental process. a compound of innumerable soul-cells or neurona. Knowledge is a physiological process. in my opinion it should be a return to nat- As a fact.TRUTH philosophy ure. is not subto the law of substance. which seems to act as organ of knowledge is really only the instrument the cortex.centres). These have a most elaborate finer structure. the brain is the most wonderful structure in nature. regard the brain. as Kant did one hundred and twenty years ago. not a miracle. The part which ual. whitish-gray. or the phronema. or the phronema (the sum of the association . 25 to: M. but a purely spiritject process. process. of the 4. edge Knowledge is a n atural process. 3. a miracle. The part in human brain 4. First Table ANTITHESIS OF THE TWO WAYS OF ATTAINING DuALiSTic Theory of Knowl1. 2. and it is in close relation with these. 2. THE TRUTH Monistic Theory of Knowl1 . cortex. and are thus fitted to accomplish the highest mental functions.centres. the 5. the significance of which as an instrument of the mind But for modern biology is very enigmatic and obscure. are combined in a vast psychic apparatus by thousands of interlacing nervefibrils. is merely a part of the sensory and motor centres in the neighboring instrument of mind. The organ and the of knowledge. Knowledge. HILL LIBRARY . pulpy mass. Knowledge is not a physiological. differs by its special histological structure from that allows the spiritual process to appear. is subject to the general law of substance. the return to Kant and his famous theory of knowledge is an unfortunate "crab-walk" on Our modern metaphysicians the part of philosophy. as a mysterious. with the brain for its 3. as a natural edge Knowledge is a supernatural process. consists of the association . anatomic organ.

THE WONDERS OP LIFE ANTITHESIS OF THE TWO WAYS OF ATTAINING THE 6. TR\JTU~Continued The innumerable cells which make up the phronema the phronetal cells are the elementary organs of the cognitive process: the of knowledge depends on their normal physical texture and chem- — — The innumerable phronetal cells. and transcendental a priori knowledge. The phj^sical composition. partly (direct directly experience. transcendental processes. the first sources of which are knowledge consists in the combination or association of presentations. by means of the organs of sense. Hence all knowledge origexinally comes from perience. 8. indispensable instruments of the cognitive process. it is true. certainty. observation. and are partly supersensual. its axioms differing partly indirectly ical (histor- and indirectly trans- mitted past experiences). as the microscopic elementary parts of the phronema. process instrument. which are only partly traceable to sense-impressions. and experiment of the present). the impressions transmitted to the sense-centres. but not its real factors merely finer parts of its possibility — ical 7. and a . are. independent of experience. Mathematics especially belongs to the latter class. Hence knowledge kinds: is empirical of two and a posteriori knowledge. of The metaphysical process of knowledge consists in the combination or association of presentations. All knowledge (even mathematical) origin is from empirical their truths by absolute of empirical posteriori. obtained by experience.

and the latter known as inorganic bodies. and function — — Life of crystals— Crystalloid and colloid substances Growth of crystals —Waves of growth — Metabolism — — Fermentation — Biogenesis — Vital force — Old Catalysis life • and new vitalism — Palavitalism — Anti vitalism — Neo- vitalism. and a knowledge of the truth concerning them.II LIFE Definition of —Comparison with a flame—Organism and — Machine theory of Hfe —Organisms without organization — — organs: monera Organization and hfe of the chromacea — — Stages of organization Complex organisms Symbolic organisms — Organic compounds — Organisms and inorganic bodies compared in regard to matter. the object of this work is the critical study of the life. this is always connected with a particular chemical 27 . peculiar." abiotik. periodically repeated. The chief difference between the two provinces is that organisms accomplish AS wonders of i. and apparently spontaneous movements. Hence life may be conceived as a special Recent study has shown that process of movement. — — . between living and lifeless bodies the former are called organisms. or anorgik. thousands of years men have appreciated the difference between life and death. form." or miracle. we must first of all form a clear idea of the For meaning of "life" and "wonder. . which we do not find in inorganic matter. Biology in the widest sense is the name of the science which treats of organisms we might call the science which deals with the inorganic "abiology.

THE WONDERS OF LIFE substance. as long as we do not interfere with the gas or the environment. and so compared the organism to a torch. hence the darkness we find here. This peculiar form of the flame. But in the 28 . but that the two kingdoms are profoundly and inseparably united. is solely due to the fact that the grouping of the molecules of the gas and the oxygen at various parts of the flame is constant. none is so much like it externally and internally as the flame. there is still complete darkness. Max Verworn has lately employed this metaphor with great effect in his admirable work on general physiology. a few molecules of oxygen have combined with the molecules of the gas: we have a faint light as the result. and has especially dealt with the comparison of the individual life-form with the familiar butterfly shape of the gas-flame. At the base. plasm. Panta rei all things are in a state of flux. or metabolism. with its characteristic features. though the molecules themselves change every moment. immediately above the burner. over this is a blue and faintly luminous zone. modern science has shown that the sharp distinction formerly drawn between the organic and the inorganic cannot be sustained. and consists essentially in a circulaAt the same time tion of matter. Heraclitus of Ephesus first broached the idea of evolution in the two words. At the base of the flame the molecules of the gas are so thickly pressed that the oxygen necessary for their combustion cannot In the bluish zone penetrate. This important comparison was made two thousand four hundred years ago by one of the greatest philosophers of the Ionic the same thinker who school. The butterfly-shape of a gas-flame has a very characteristic outline. which are permanent. Of all the phenomena of inorganic nature with which the life-process may be compared. and over this again the bright flame expands on either side like the wings of a butterfly. Heraclitus shrewdly conceived life as a fire. He says: The comparison of life to a flame is particulariy smtable for helping us to realize the relation between form and metabolism. a real process of — — combustion.

" and Hence he word "organism" belongs inorganic body. that this consists of various parts. Thus we get the permanent flame. We call them organs. we compare the organism ganization. is the anorganic or word "organism." has long been familiar both in poetry and popular parlance. but according to a preconceived and rationally initiated design. of late. been made the base of false duaHstic principles. the exchange of matter (metabolism) between the outpouring gas and the surrounding air is so regulated that we always find the same molecules in the same body quantity at the same spot. and that these parts are put together for the evident purpose of accomplishing the vital functions. In the sense in which science usually employs the in which we employ it here. with all its characteristics. in most organisms we find. The scientific soundness of this metaphor is all the more notable as the phrase. because now the disposition of the molecules on both sides is Thus the study of the gas-jet gives us. to physiology. its metabolism. The modern "machine-theory of 29 . apparently on a definite plan. when we examine their structure closely. even in detail. is their orIn this respect. However. and has. and the manner in which they are combined. the shape of the flame changes." equivalent opposite to it. the features we find in the structure of the cell. The has given familiar comparison of an organism to a machine rise to very serious errors in regard to the former. and reproduction. in the broad sense. nutrition. "the flame of life. and connotes essentially the visible lifeactivity of the body.LIFE of the flame the molecules of the gas are so freely combined with the oxygen of the atmosphere that we have a lively combustion. it is The to "living thing" or "living body. to a machine in which some one has similarly combined a number of (lifeless) parts for a definite purpose. different. However. But if we alter the circulation by lessening the stream of gas.

and the slightest accident to a single wheel suffices This figure was particularly to throw it out of gear. Of late years it has been much used by Reinke in the support of his theosophic dualism. which is of great importance in the question 30 . He described God. In this he entirely overlooks the immense difTerence between the "raw material" in the two cases. who saw "an incarnate thought of the Creator" in every species of animal and plant. the human intelligence which the watch-maker has put into the elaborate structure of the watch with the "cosmic intelligence" which the Creator has put in the organism." but ascribes to this mystic immaterial being the same attributes that the catechism and the preacher He compares give to the Creator of heaven and earth." as the "cosmic intelligence. to a The organism is then very freely compared watch or a locomotive. and insists that it is impossible to deduce its purposive organization from its material constituents. which fulfil f^ha-rdness. employed by Louis Agassiz (1858).THE WONDERS OF LIFE which is raised thereon demands an inteUigent design and a deliberate constructing engineer for the origin of the organism. their purpose in virtue only of their physical properties The organs of the living elasticity. perform their functions Their chiefly in virtue of their chemical composition. organism. the highly elaborate molecular structure of which is the historical product of countless complicated processes of heredity and adaptation. In order to secure the regular working of such a complicated mechanism. on the other hand. The "organs" of the watch are metallic parts. This invisible and hypothetical molecular structure must not (as is often done) be confused with the real and microscopically discoverable structure of the plasm. or "the world-soul. soft plasma-body is a chemical laboratory. it is necessary to arrange for a perfect co-operation of all its parts. just as we find in the case of the life" machine. etc.).

does not say a word about their Biitschli. the monera. for these are really organisms without organs and of organization. he doubts the existence of cells without nuclei. and has given it considerable support by his own thorough study of plasma- structures and the artificial production of in oil and soapsuds. tumble to pieces when we study the simplest organisms known to us. but accidentally discovered in the course of experiment. the more I have felt their importance in solving the greatest questions of biology the problem of the origin of life. who shares my monisgeneral significance. and say that the molecules of charcoal. and an intelligent natural force" for cause. tic conception of life. The whole of this favorite machine-theory of life. sulphur. Hertwig devotes one page of his three .page book on cells and tissues to them. I therefore proposed to give them the general title of monera. these primitive little beings are O.LIFE is disposed to assume for this simple chemical substance. who has himself shown the existence of unnucleated cells among the bacteria (beggiatoa). If one a molecular structure — without organization I endeavored in my Gcnerelle Morphologic (1866) to ! nuclei! — since of biologists to these simplest and lowest organisms which have no visible organization or composition from different organs. like many writers. The more I have studied these structureless beings cells without draw the attention — that time. — Unfortunately. Reinke. a " deliberate design. them other that the "composition of even the simplest 31 . one is bound to do the same for powder. the nature of life. and the far-reaching dualistic conclusions drawn from it. believes. and saltpetre have been purposively combined to produce an exIt is well known that powder was not made plosion. according to a theory. ignored or neglected by most biologists to-day.hundred . and so on.

they form thin. usually bluish -green coats or jelly-like deposits on damp rocks. chroococcacea (chroococcus. These and other writers suppose that the nucleus has been overlooked in the protoplasm of the monera I have elementary This may be true for one section of them. Yet they are generally ignored because they do not square with the prevailing live at the dogma I of the cell. etc. Of the chroococcacea. are found throughout the world. etc. ascribe this special significance to the chromacea among all the monera I have instanced because I take them to be the oldest phyletically. which very frontier of the organic and inorganic are by no means uncommon or particularly worlds. can be explained on purely physical like the firmer surprinciples by "superficial energy" of a drop of rain. in which the nucleus is certainly lacking. difficult to find. on the contrar3^ they are found everywhere. or of a globule of oil swimface-layer — 32 . and are easy to observe.THE WONDERS OF LIFE organism from cell-nucleus and protoplasm" (the primitive organs of the cell) is indispensable. aphanocapsa. distributed irregularly in the common structureIn some species we can detect a thin structless mass. When a small piece of this jelly is examined carefully under a powerful microscope. their very simple forms correspond exactly to all the theoretic claims which monistic biology can make as to the transition from the inorganic to the organic. and especially the simplest forms of these. stones. gloeocapsa. bark of trees. the described. To this class belong the remarkable chromacea {phycochroniacea or cyanophycea). These plasmodomous (plasma-forming) monera. ureless membrane its origin enclosing the homogeneous particle of plasm. glceocapsa. but they say nothing about the other section.).. nothing is seen but thousands of tiny blue-green globules of plasma. the chroococcus. and the most primiIn particular tive of all living organisms known to us. etc.

but must conceive them rather as cytodes. we cannot discover in them any composition of dif- ferent organs (or organella) for definite vital functions. Such a composition or organization would have no in this case. Other species secrete homogeneous jelly- — chemically and morphologically distinct. nucleus.LIFE ming like purely chemical process. attained in the simplest fashion for the individual by metabolism. Modern and protists histologists have discovered a very intricate delicate structure in many of the higher unicellular and in many of the tissue-cells of the higher . the simplest conceivable form of reproduc- meaning these tion. and independent granules of plasm with real (nucleated) These cells. The whole life of these simple. This simplest form of reproduction is shared by the chromacea (and the cognate bacteria) with the chromatella or chromatophora." However. the green particles of chlorophyll inside ordinary Hence no plant-cells but these are only parts of a cell. the latter is by no means a real. which are found everywhere. When the latter passes a certain stage. while the inner part is colorless a sort of "central body. In some of the chromacea the blue-green coloring matter {phyocyan) is stored in the surface-layer of the particle of plasm. chapter x. anatomic and physiological facts may easily be observed The in the chromacea. Such a thing is completely lacking.) and the resulting growth. since the sole vital purpose of This is plasma-particles is self-maintenance. of the simplest chromacea is really nothing organism more than a stmctureless globular particle of plasm. — envelopes a in water. unprejudiced observer can compare these unnucleated . the homogeneous globule splits into two halves (like a drop of quicksilver when it falls). for the species it is effected by selfcleavage. motionless globules of plasm is confined to their metabolism (or plasniodomism.

this subject of catalysis. this lack of a visible histological structure in the plasma-globule of the monera does not exclude the On the possession of an invisible molecular structure. as in cially all all albuminoid compounds.THE WONDERS OF LIFE animals and plants (such as the nerve-cells)." The mere fact that the chromacea assume a globular form is no sign whatever of a morphological vital process. is neither anatomic structure nor a 34 . In my opinion. feature of the simplest organism. we are bound to assume that there is such a contrary. They wrongly conclude that this is universal. specific gravity with which it cannot mix (such as a olism. or "carbon-assimilation. But we also find this elaborate chemical structure in these. mixture of water and spirits of wine). drops of quicksilver and other inorganic fluids take the same shape when the individual body is formed under certain condiWhen a drop of oil falls into a fluid of the same tions. initiated by adaptation and transmitted The earliest ancestors of all to posterity by heredity. these elaborate nucleated cells were at first simple. many will lifeless show a metabolism bodies. the We which we call plasmodomism (formation of plasm). Briefly. such as we find to-day in the ubiquitous monera. this complication of the structure of the elementary organism is always a secondary phenomenon. structure. some of similar to that of the return subsequently to only difference between the simplest chromacea and inorganic bodies that have catalysis is in the special form of their metabsimplest organisms. the plasma-particles of the monera. the slow and gradual result of countless phylogenetic processes of differentiation. Naturally. unnucleated cytodes. and espeplasmic bodies. in fact. it immediately assumes a globular shape. We shall see more about them in the ninth and fifteenth chapters. Inorganic solids usually take Hence the distinctive _the form of crystals instead.

in a special chapter (vii. in the tissue-forming histona of it rises again in proportion to the distribution work (or ergonomy) among the various organs. nutrition. and tation. it is important to distinguish the individuality of the organism in its various stages of composishall treat this important question. greater in every respect than the difference between the organic monera and the inorganic crystals. physiological sense of the histona. The difference between the monera I have described and any higher organism is. the tissue-forming animals and plants. the first. oldest. — may fairly be regarded as greater in the simplest real cell we find the distinction between two different organella. From the morphological point of view they are made up of innumerable 35 cells. therefore. Nay. but solely the physiological function of plasmodomism a process of chemical synthesis. the cytoplasm of the cellbody accomplishes the metabolism. most important process of division of labor in the elementary organism. and adapHere we have. even the difference between the unnucleated monera (as cytodes) and the real nucleated cells still. Darwin has given us in his theory of selection a mechanical explanation of the apparent design and purconception of posiveness in this. which form ." The the internal nucleus and the outer cell-body. or "cell-organs. I think.LIFE certain shape. this is only true in the physiology. In order to have a correct monistic organization. about tion.). Even caryoplasm of the nucleus discharges t!ie functions of reproduction and heredity. We which there is a good deal of obscurity and contradiction. It suffices for the moment to point out that the unicellular beings (protists) are simple organisms both in regard to morphology and On the other hand. In the unicellular protists the organization rises in proportion to the differentiation of the various parts of the cell.

It is advisable also in ing scientific compounds to refrain from calling inorganic as such "organisms. It would be just as correct to call seeor running an organism. having a purely treatises may very well be used in poetry. herds of mammals. but in the social aggregations of the higher animals it is the ideal link of common interest that unites the individuals. the material substratum of which is plasm or "living substance" a nitrogenous carboncompound in a semi-fluid condition. we must take the word "organism" in the sense in which most biologists use it namely.THE WONDERS OF LIFE the various tissues. in order to avoid misunderstanding. whose breath is. as in swarms of bees. and take their food in common. re(God). The rhythmic wave-movement of the ocean may be regarded as its respiration." Like human polities. to designate an individual living thing." as. At a still higher stage of organization we have the trunk or stem (cormus). etc. the sea or the whole earth. Such names. the surge as its voice. called sprouts in the plant These histonal individuals are world and persons in the ani- mal world. whose countless organs have been arranged in an orderly whole by the world-reason symbolical value. which is made up of a of sprouts or persons. like the tree or the coralIn the fixed animal stems the associated individuals have a direct bodily connection. sometimes called "animal-states. gards the glowing heavenly bodies as "gigantic organisms. In the same way the physiologist. as is done sometimes in speaking of the number stem. colonies of These communities are ants. perhaps. Many scientists (like Fechner) conceive the whole earth Vv^ith all its organic and inorganic contents as a gigantic organism. they are organisms of a higher type. and so on. the glowing vapor 36 . It leads to a good deal of misunderstanding when separate functions are called organisms. Preyer. for instance. — — soul or of speech. However.

" The danger of this poetic application of the metaphorical sense of organism is very well seen in this instance.LIFE whose blood is liquid metal. and force on the other. that element being distinguished from all the others (some seventy-eight in of iron. not the cause. Niigeli some time afterwards declared similarly for the unity of nature in his able MechaniscJi-physiologische Bcgriindung (see the Riddle. is of the I gave a greatest importance for our whole system. as Preyer builds on it a quite untenable hypothesis of the origin of life (see chapter xv. I have already shown in the fourteenth chapter of the Riddle (and at greater length in the fifteenth chapter of my History of Creation) that the belief in the essential unity of nature.37 . justification of this cosmic monism in very thorough 1866. In the fifth chapter of the Generelle Morphologic I considered the relation of the organic to the inorganic in every respect.). they are not yet distributed into organs with definite purposes. the property of entering into an immense place. as I explained in my in 1866. and sulphur to form the most complicated albtiminoids chapter xiv. and especially of uniting with oxygen. By organic chemistry is generally understood the chemistry of the compounds of carbon. form.). of the life-process. varietv of combinations with other elements. and whose food maybe meteorites. element of the first — . It might even be called "the carbon-theory At first these organocreator of the organic world. pointing out the differences between them on the one hand. and their points of agreement in matter. hydrogen. Carbon is a biogenetic importance. In the wider sense the word "organic" has long been used in chemistry as an antithesis to inorganic. or the monism of the cosmos. Such organization is a result." genetic compounds do not appear in the organism in organized form that is to say. nitrogen. in the properties. number) by very important first It has.

that by its peculiar enters into the most diverse and complicated affinity combinations with other elements. and forces of bodies. Other elements may also calcium. be found in organisms bu t there is not a single biological element that is not also found in the inorganic world. from the monistic point of view of his system of energy. magnesium. potassium. . associated five other elements phosphor. nitrogen. recently done the same. I will give a brief summary once more of the chief points as regards the matter. and as. — — — . especially in the sixteenth chapter. analyzed is now put at seventy-eight but of these only the five organogenetic elements already mentioned which combine to form plasm carbon.THE WONDERS OF LIFE der Ahstamniiingslehre Wilhelm Ostwald has (1884). and iron. Without being acquaint- my earlier work. and produces the m. in his NaUirphilosophie. and sulphur are found invariably in living With these are generally (but not always) things.ost important of all substances. the chief organic element. He came to the same monistic conclusions that I reached thirtysix years ago. chapter vi. he has impartially compared the physico-chemical processes in the organic and inorganic worlds. partly adducing the same illustrations from the instructive field of crystallization. Chemical analysis shows that there are no elements present in organisms that are not found in inorganic The number of elements that cannot be further bodies. the albuminoids.). oxygen. especially. pecially. modern vitalism thrusts these inconvenient facts out of sight. Hence the distinctive features which separate the one from the other can be sought only in some special form And it is carbon esof combination of the elements. As most biologists continue to ignore them. ed with form. at the head of which the living plasm {cf. hydrogen. condition of the circulation of matter (metabolism) which we call life is the physical process of is An indispensable .

This absorptive property (or "imbibition-energy") of the plasm is connected with the colloidal character of the albuminoids. For this we need a flat bottle with side walls of india-rubber and bottom of parchment. as crystal or as colloid. As Graham has shown. plays a most important part in the life of all organisms. which is connected with the variations in the quantity of water in the hving substance and its power of The plasm. and tetrahedric hoemoglobin- crystals in many animal-cells (as in the blood corpuscles of mammals). after a time nearly all the sugar passes through the parchment into the water. forms hexagonal crystals in many plant-cells (for instance. as soluble salt — — which usually seems to be colloidal. mineral silicon. On the other hand. and an almost pure solution of gum remains in the bottle. This process of diffusion. which is of a spongy or viscous diffusion. Albumen. consistency. but it is by no means peculiar to the living substance. gum. through Hence we can easily separate by glue. These albuminoid crystals are distinguished by their capacity for absorbing a considerable quantity of water without losing their shape. dialysis two bodies of different groups which are mixed in a solution. can take in dissolved matter from without (endosmosis) and eject matter from within (exosmosis). and pour a mixture of dissolved gum and sugar into the inner vessel. we may divide all soluble substances into two groups in respect of their diosmosis crystalloids and colloids. which appears as quartz in an immense variety (more than one hundred and sixty) 39 . in the aleurongranules of the endosperm). Crystalloids (such — and sugar) pass more easily into water a porous wall than colloids (such as albumen. If we let this vessel float in a large one containing plenty of water. any more than the absorptive or viscous condition is. caramel). or osmosis. We may even have one and the same substance either organic or inorganic in both conditions.LIFE osmosis.

however important colloidal structure be for the plasm and its metabolism. It is true that the great majority seem to be conspicuously different from inorganic bodies by the mere fact that they are made up of many different parts which they use as organs for definite purposes of life. 1838 The comparison of by the founders cells with crystals was made in of the cell-theory. silicium (a Amorphous brown powder) (or non-crystalline) stands in relation to the black metallic silicon-crystals just as amorphous carbon does There are other substances that to graphite-crystals. Schleiden and 40 . discoid. or rod-shaped plasmic individuals. globular. r Nor is it possible to assign an absolute distinction between the organic and the inorganic in respect of morphology any more than of chemistry. The instructive monera once more form a connecting bridge between the two realms.THE WONDERS OF LIFE crystalline forms. But in the case of the monera there is no such organization. it can by no means be advanced as a distinctive feature of living stances.). which accomplish their peculiar vital function (simple growth and subdivision) solely by means of their chemical constitution. Inorganic crystals correspond morphologically to the simplest (unnucleated) forms of — the organic of organisms cells. In the simplest cases (chromacea. and forms very similar combinations. be either crystalloid or colloid in different circummay Hence. This is true both of the internal structure and the outward form of both classes of bodies of their individuality (chapter vii. may matter. bacteria) they are structureless. or their invisible molecular structure. interesting because silicium behaves in other ways very like of carbon.) and their type (chapter viii. is quadrivalent like it. is capable in certain circumstances (as metasilicon) of becoming colloidal and formThis fact is the more ing jelly-like masses of glue.

Still it is of importance. on the other hand. and take it only as a function of plasm. if a crystal of B is reraains in solution and B alone assumes the 41 . their stratified build. inorganic individuality. the crystalline flint and chalk skeletons of many of the sponges. and obtains these by a regular growth. Further. If we do not restrict the term "life" to organisms properly so-called. especially the flinty shells of the diatomes and radiolaria. by the — number of crystals we get comcrystal groups. When two different substances. corals. A and B. A A is put in the mixture. many of the protists. It has been much criticised by recent cytoland does not hold in all respects. To this regular external form of the crystal corresponds a definite internal structure which shows itself in their cleavage.LIFE Schwann. as the crystal is the most ])erfect form of ogists. etc. Midway between the organic plasma-products and inorganic crystals we have the bio-crystals. When a crystal is formed in a matrix. this is done by attracting homogeneous particles. we may speak in a broader sense of the life of This is seen especially in their growth. and bounded by straight surfaces which cut each other at certain But the same form is seen in the skeletons of angles. their silicious coverings lend themselves to mathematical determination just as well as the inorganic crystals. etc. phenomenon which Baer regarded as the chief character of all individual development. the branching orderly association of a pound — ice-flowers and ice-trees on the frozen window. are dissolved in a crystal of mixed and saturated solution. has a definite internal structure and outward form. their polar axes. the crystals. which are formed by the united plastic action of the plasm and the mineral matter for instance. The external form of crystals is prismatic. put in. only A is crystallized not B. and a out of it. which may be compared to the communities of protists for instance.

We find in crystallization. Every crystal grows in a supercall Bvit we 42 . globule suspended in a salt solution in which it is not dissolved may grow by intussusception. is detect internally an interaction of their parts. there are intermediary stages iutitssusception. When we cut off an angle in a forming crystal. But this difference is easily their difference in consistency. or the taking of new interior. also. In in a certain sense. the growth of all bodies follows the same laws — {cf. It was once the custom to restrict sensation and between to animals. and unite accord- movement ing to fixed laws. therefore. They are. chapters xiii. we find an instance of that excessive or transgressive growth which we reproduction in the case of living individuals. while the monera grow. A more important difference between the growth of crystals and monera is that the former only grow by apposition. the crystal by A colloid apposition and intussusception.THE WONDERS OF LIFE solid crystalline form. also possess sensation. but they are now recognized to be present in nearly all living matter. or the deposit of fresh solid matter at their surface. not altogether lacking in crystals. the difference is not absolute. the opposite angle like all cells. in fact.). as the molecules move in crystallization in definite directions. as we could not otherwise understand the attraction of the homogeneous particles. Moreover. then. restricted like the If growth the limit is passed and the conditions remain favorable to growth. find just the same kind of extension in the inorganic crystal. matter into their explained by being solid and the plasm semi-fluid. The growth of a crystal is of a moneron or of any cell. and xv. as in every chemical process. this choice assimilation. certain movements which are unintelligible without sensation unconscious sensation. In this respect. call many crystals we can only imperfectly formed. We may. they must. of course.

not only does a crystal slowly grow in it. who has made a determined by thorough comparison of the process of growth in crystals and monera. When this limit is reached a number of small crystals appear on the large one. but several young crystals appear on it. The exhaustive comparison of the growth of crystals and monera (as the simplest forms of unnucleated cells) is important. from a supersaturated solution of Glauber-salt." form is assumed by the bacterium if its supply of food is exhausted. they lose their crystal water. especially notices the striking analogy between a bacterium (a plasmophagous moneron) growing and multiplying in its nutritive fluid and a When the water slowly evaporates crystal in its matrix. if fresh food is by cleavage begins tals of Glauber-salt is again. But the powder loses this property when it is heated.LIFE saturated is medium only up its to a definite size. and when the chemical composition of the growing body and the cohesion of its molecules allow no further entheir — — largement by the assumption of new matter. but not power of multiplication. added. Ostwald. just as the dormant forms (or spores) of the bacteria lose their power of germination. 43 In order . Even the amorphous powder of the salt causes again the formation of new watery crystals when put in a supersaturated solution. the multiplication In the same way the crys- begin to decay when the solution evaporated. The division of the growing individual into several young ones must necessarily take place when the natural limit of growth has been passed. which chemical-molecular constitution. The analogy with the bacterium multiplying in its nutritive fluid can even be followed as This quiescent far as its permanent forms or "spores. because it shows the possibility of tracing the vital function of reproduction which had usually been regarded as a quite special "wonder of life" to purely physical conditions.

and divides to illustrate the limit of this transgressive two individuals. by their mere presence. sulphuric acid changes the starch in sugar without undergoing any alteration in itself. and the ball is thrust over the side of the basin. when it is lightly pushed aside it always returns to its original But when the push goes beyond a certain position. and it is just the same with the bacterium growing in a nutritive fluid when it passes the limit of its volume of growth. the ball does not return. Thus. apart from their chemical affinity. The crystal behaves just in the same way in a supersaturated solution when it exercises its power of forming new crystals. especially that form of it which we call fermentation. set other bodies in decomposition or composition without being themselves affected. As we can find no morphological and little physiological difference between the living and non-living. in the curious process of catalysis. we must look upon metabolism as the chief characteristic of orinto This process causes the conversion of food into determined by the vital force itself. It thus effects the nutrition and growth of the living being. As The distinguished chemist Berzelius discovered in 1810 the remarkable fact that certain bodies. ball is in a state of equilibrium in the basin. the formation of new living matter. and is plasm. Finely ground platinum brought contact with hydrogen-superoxide divides it into hydrogen and oxygen. point. built up high on one side. Ostwald imagines a ball placed The in a small flat basin. which is merely transgressive growth. I will do no more here than emphasize the fact that this vital process also has analogies in inorganic chemistry.THE WONDERS OF LIFE growth by a simple physical example. for instance. it is its reproduction. Berzelius called this process 44 . the balance is lost. I shall describe this metabolism fully in the tenth chapter. but falls to the ground. and therefore ganic life.

. of the group of noncoagulable proteins which are known as peptones. However large we suppose the colloid ferment molecules to be. 45 . — — isms. etc. Hofmeister. They have in however small a quantity the capacity to throw into decomposition large masses of organic matter (in the form of yeast. yeast-fungi. who discovered the cause of it to be the It was aftergave it wards discovered that catalysis of this kind is very fermentageneral. etc.action of the name of "contact -action. The recent investigations of Verworn. etc. Thus Franz Hofmeister (1901) says in his excellent work on The Chemical Organization of the Cell: The the cell belief that the agents of the chemical transformation in are catalysators of a colloid nature is in complete accord with other facts that have been directly ascertained. have shown that these catalyses j play everywhere an important part in the life of the plasm. When these ferments are free and unorganized they are called enzyma. in opposition to organized ferments (bacteria. What else are the chemists' ferments but colloid catalysators ? The idea that the ferments are the essential chemical ai^ency in the cell is calculated to meet the difficulty which arises from the smallness of the cell in appreciating its chemical processes. Ostwald. and that all the varied activities of life are connected with this fundamental vital chemistry.LIFE catalysis.) without them- — — selves taking part in the decomposition. Mitscherlich. This special form of contact-action which we call fermentation is always effected by catalytic bodies of the albuminoid class. though the catalytic action of the latter also consists essentially in the production of enzyma. putrid matter. and that a special form of it tion plays an important part in the life of organ- pecuHar surface . in fact.)." many bodies. there is room for millions of them in the smallest cell. Many recent chemnsts and physiologists are of opinion that plasm is a colloid catalysator. and.

Free oxygen is. While the enzyma hypothesis assumes that there are in each cell a great number of different of and each enzyma which are all co-ordinated. 46 . livered at Hamburg in 1901 he says: must recognize the enzyma as catalysators that arise in the organism during the life of the cells. and thus the biogen molecules. We In his further observations on catalysis and metabolism he says that they are both equally subject to the physicochemical laws of energy. the production of the necessary chemical energy by combustion at the expense of the oxygen in the air. and would be impossible without them. and seeks to explain them on his theory of energy by reference to the duration of chemical procIn the discourse "On Catalysis" that he deesses. the biogens." He simplifies the catalytic theory of the enzyma by tracing all the phenomena of life to the catalytic metabolism of one single chemical compound. the plasm.THE WONDERS OF LIFE In the same way Ostwald attributes the greatest significance to catalysis in connection with the vital processes. and by their action Not relieve the living being of the greater part of its duties. a very inert body at the temperature of the living body. the biogenetic plasm. the biogen hypothesis deduces all the vital phenomena from one compound. takes place with the explicit co-operation of enzyma. as is well known. which increase by division into parts. which only performs its little special work. and regards its active molecules. and the maintenance of life would be impossible without some acceleration of its rate of reaction. only are digestion and assimilation controlled by enzyma from first to last. "a critical and experimental study of the processes in living matter. but the fundamental vital action of most organisms. Max Verworn has given us a very searching analysis of the molecular process in the catalytic aspect of metab • olism in his Biogen Hypothesis (1903). as the ultimate chemical factors of the vital process.

chapter iii. When physiology began to win its independence. about the middle of the eighteenth century. As the theory of a vital force. orderly structure of the organism and the apparent purposiveness of the vital processes. converts an unlimited mass of sulphuretted acid into sulphuric acid without being changed itself. The idea was generally received. or vitalism. with the aid of air and water. and is then restored by the assumption of — oxygen. and Louis Dumas endeavored thoroughly to establish it at the beginning of the nineteenth century {cf. This was particularly due to the remarkable. and has been lately revived with great force. Hence.LIFE Verworn are the sole factors of biological catalysis. controlling the individual life and pressing the "raw forces" of inorganic matter into its service. muriatic acid. of the Riddle). the molecule of the nitromuriatic acid breaks up steadily by the giving-off of oxygen. The phrase can be interpreted in a 47 . The manifold and changeful phenomena of life and their sudden extinction at death seem to every thoughtful man to be something so wonderful and so different from all the changes in inorganic nature that from the very beginning of biological philosophy special forces were assumed to explain it. points out the analogy between this enzymatic process of metabolism and the inorganic processes of also for instance. has undergone the most curious modifications in the course of the nineteenth century. it explained the peculiar features of organic life by a specific vital force. plays an important part in the study of the wonders of life. in the manufacture of English catalysis A small and constant quantity of nitrosulphuric acid. in earlier days a special organic force {archcBus insitns) was assumed. we must give a short account of it in its various forms. In the same way a special formative impulse was supposed to preside over the wonderful processes of development.

In this we pass no opinion on their nature. There was then no such thing as the cell-theory or as physiological chemistry ontogeny and paleontology were still in their cradles. like his fundamental principle: an elaborate physical phenomenon. and of a transcendental character. and in the eighteenth. we might call the older form. in which the great biologist not only made a comparative study of the vital phenomena in man and the animals. particularly metabolism and heredity. by contrast. but sought to provide a sound basis for it in all its It sections by his own observations and experiments." However. 48 .THE WONDERS OF LIFE monistic sense. if we understand bv it the sum of the forms of energy which are especially distinctive of the organism. and supposed the wonders of life to be enigmatic phenomena only Hence we can that escaped physical explanation. But the position of Palavitalism changed in the second In 1833 appeared third of the nineteenth century. had been done "Life is to death. is essentially different from the ordinar}?forces of nature. because the physiology of the time was destitute of the most important aids to the founding of a mechanical theory. Johannes Miiller's classical Manual of Human Physiology. and do not say that they are specifically different from the forces of might call this monistic concepinorganic nature. The special form in which this theory of a supernatural vital force has is We been presented for the last twenty years often called Neovitalism. Lamarck's theory of descent (1809) . the usual metaphysical vitalism affirms in a thoroughly dualistic sense that the vital force is a teleological and super-mechanical principle. Palavitalism. tion "physical vitalism. The older idea of the vital force as a special energy could very well be accepted in the first third of the nineteenth century." easily understand how physiologists acquiesced in the vitalist hypothesis up to 1833.

and sought to detennine their complicated course in terms of mass and weight and formulate their discoveries as mathematically as possible. which Carl Ludwig and Felix Bernard led as regards the animal body.LIFE true that Miillcr retained to the last (1858) the current idea of a vital force. by close observation of the facts and careful experiments. and their followers). but as a natural force. as E. vital function — — — — cells which compose it. he did not regard it as a metaphysical principle (like Haller. and subordinate to is In his comprehensive study of every single the organs of sense and the nervous metabolism and the action of the heart. Miiller endeavored above all to and reproduction establish. and Julius Sachs and Wilhelm Preyer for the plant. In the same way Schleiden (1843) cut the ground from under vitalism in botany. speech system. as the supreme regulator of all the vital activities. However. they brought a 4 49 . subject. to fixed chemical and physical laws. the regularity of the phenomena. While these and other physiologists The physical explanation used the remarkable results of modern physics and chemistry in the experimental study of the vital functions. of the vital processes and the rejection of Palavitalism were general in the last third of the nineteenth century. Dubois-Reymond rightly observed in his brilliant memorial speech. Kant. he was rather the first physiologist to provide a physical foundation for the current metaphysical vitalism. By his celltheory (1838) he showed the unity of the multicellular organism to be the resultant of the functions of all the the whole. This was due most of all to the great advance in experimental physiology. Hence Johannes Miiller is wrongly described as he has been of late as a vitalist. and to explain their development by a comparison of the higher and lower forms. like all others. He really gives an indirect proof of the reverse theory.

one of the most obscure biological problems. Sceptical Neovitalism was first formulated by Bunge. without vitalism supposing that some intelligent artificer or creator had deliberately designed and produced it? The further development of Darwin's theory of selection in the last four decades. phylogeny. he was immediately silenced by the leading biologists of this country.vitalism. did much to establish the It took the shape more and monistic conception of life. which may be designated the sceptical and the dogmatic. Ray-Lankester (for zoology). While he This refers almost entirely to Germany. and the increasing support which has been given to the theory of descent in the great advance of ontogeny. Thiselton-Dyer (for botany). Sanderson Trans. met with a powerful opponent in Charles Darwin.THE WONDERS OF LIFE great number of the fixed laws that wonders of life under the same were recognized in the physics and chemistry of the inorganic world. and physiology. Professor E. On the other hand. the constantly repeated question: How can we give a mechanical explanation of the orderly structures of the living being ? How was this ingenious machine of the animal or plant body unconsciously produced by natural means. who sharply reiected vitalism.of Basle (1887). it is Hence find that in the course of the last tendencies. — 50 . more strange to twenty years the old vitalism that everybody had thought dead has lifted up its head once more.^ This modern vitalism comprises two essentially different of a definite anti. T. Burdon(for physiology). in the introduction to his Manual of Physiological Chemistry. comparative anatomy. The into partisans of the modern vital force are divided two groups. who solved. by his theory of selection. and Sir J. The reader will that. when Lord Kelvin endeavored to make theosophic capital out of this temporary confusion in German science. ^ remember Sir W. though in a new and modified form.

or the phenomena by physical and chemical forces of lifeless nature. which are devoid of any grasp of historical development. The World as Reality (1899). Reinke gives us "the outline of a scientific theory of the universe." The second work (1901) has the title. The vitalist writings of the latter. of his mystic first of these. has presented his transcendental dualism in clever and attractive form in two works which deserve In the notice on account of their consistent dualism. and as we both think ourselves consistent in developing them. 51 . Reinke. on the other hand. more recently by Richard Neumeister in his Studies of the Nature of Vital Phenomena (1903). and that there is nothing analogous to them in inorganic nature. Much the same (1888). only a supra-mechanical vital force can produce them. and this is transcendental and beyond the range of scientific was said later by Rindfieisch inquiry. and by Oscar Hertwig in the lecture on "The Development of Biology in the Nine- teenth Century. the chief actual representatives of which are the botanist Johannes Reinke and the metaphysician Hans Driesch.LIFE explanation of one part mechanical causes. The two works have the same relation to each other as my Riddle of the Universe and the present supplementary volume. he rejected it for the other half. As our philosophic convictions are diametrically opposed in the main issues. Introduction to Theoretical Biolof^y. delivered is at Aachen in This sceptical Neovitalism far surpassed by the dogmatic system. He insists that the latter cannot be explained mechani- granted the possibility of a of the vital full cally." which he 1900. have gained a certain vogue through the extraordinary arrogance of their author and the obscurity and contradictory speculations. the comparison of them is not without Reinke is an interest in the great struggle of beliefs. especially for psychic activities.

52 . stance. which controls and directs the physical and chemical forces of the 3. The energy of the plasm (as the sum-total of the forces which are connected with of life are or partly independent of the plasm. The energy force {vis vitalis). The living matter. and morphological character of the living matter. 3 . and physical 6. All the various functions of organisms have been produced by design. of Life (Biophysics) The phenomena of life are The phenomena w^holly merely functions of plasm. orderly structures having been created by adaptation and transmitted to posterity by heredity. is Reproduction is a mechanical consequence of transgressive growth. chemical. Nutrition is a physico-chemical process. Nutrition is an inexplicable miracle of life. of life to a supernatural miracle. of the plasm is the living matter) is subject to the general laws of physics and chemistry. w^iolly or partly subject to the immaterial vital force. it can only be explained by intelligent immaterial forces which are not subject to the law of substance. Second Table ANTITHESIS OF THE MONISTIC AND DUALISTIC THEORIES OF ORGANIC LIFE Monistic 1. 2. miracle without any analogy in inorganic nature. processes.THE WONDERS OF LIFE avowed supporter of dualism. 5. the evolution historical (or phyletic transformation) being directed to a preconceived ideal end. All the various cally functions 4. He reduces all the phenomena theism. conscious creation. Theory of Life DuALisTic Theory (Vitalism) 1. 6. determined by the physical. and cannot be understood by chemical analogy in inorganic catalysis. plication Reproduction plicable an of inexlife. the vital 2. and teleology. and determined by a special immaterial force. analogous to the elective multiof crystals. the metabolism of which has an 5. general regularity in the organization and in the vital processes it accomplishes is the outcome of 4. have thus been mechaniproduced. The obvious regularity of the vital processes and the organization they produce are the outcome of natural evolution their physiological factors (heredity and adaptation) are subject to the law of sub.

of organisms an inexplicable metalife. . of organisms can only be explained by ascribing a soul to them. The movement is not essentially different from in every form. dynaThere is no such mite). of orfj^anisms 7. ph3''sical all the movements of inorganic dynamos. immortal being that only dwells for a time in the body. an immaterial. After death this sj^irit liv^es an independent life. thing as an immaterial soul. Sensation is a general form of the energy of substance. The sensation and irritable inorganic objects (such as powder. not specifically different in sensitive organisms miracle of specifically different from inorganic mov^ements.LIFE ANTITHESIS OF THE MONISTIC AND DUALISTIC THEORIES OF ORGANIC LIFE— Cotttinned The movement is. 8.

" It has seemed necessary to translate it "wonder" in the title of the work. and of educated people (dualism) Religious belief in miracles Apostles' Creed Article relating to creation Article relating to redemption Article relating to im- — ers in miracles in the nineteenth century. In this sense it means the same as "supernatural" or "transcendental. theology. But we say a natural object or a work of art is wonderful when it is unusually beautiful and imposing when it passes the ordinary limits of our In this work I do not take the word in this experience. ordinary parlance the word "miracle means a numof different things. of — — — — — — miracles —Academic thinkmortality Philosophic and Free-thinkers — Dualism of Plato and Kant — Belief belief in Belief in miracles of savages (fetichsemi-civilized (idolatry). Trans. in modern meta« physics. of civilized (theism). The miraculous can only be accepted on faith. relative sense. — 54 . " IN ber ^ — * The German word wunder corresponds equally to the English "miracle" and "wonder. and politics.Ill MIRACLES Miracle and natural law ism). We say a phenomenon is miraculous or wonderful when we cannot explain it and trace its causes. but frequently as "miracle" in this chapter. but in the absolute sense in which a phenomenon is said to transcend the limits of natural law and lie beyond the range of rational explanation." We can know natural phenomena by our reason and bring them within our cognizance.

" narrower sense subsequently to express independence of dogma and prejudice. consist. We feel that our thirst for a knowledge 55 ." understood by this originally pendent of experience. as my opponents allege. and its practical value on the various sides of modern civilization. but mystic religious faith contradicts natural law. in the absolute recognition of fixed natural laws. to "know everything. to learn in the intelligent man. its theoretical value in the formation of a rational philosophy of life. I by no means claimed. there are narrow limits to our knowledge. the other ends in myths and superstition. presses us to fill up the gaps in our knowledge by faith. That relation of things to each other. The great triumph of the progress of science in the nineteenth century. In this sense term "pure "reason as indeThe phrase was used in a vogue for the we oppose pure reason to superstition. or reason's impulse constant demand to know causes. which we call causation. and always I had also expressly stated that the irresistible will be. makes it possible for us to understand and explain facts. But I must return to the vsubject here. wS belief in supernatural miracles is in contradiction which lays the foundations of all science. who won so great a reason. The one leads us to form hypotheses and theories. as what I said has given rise to a good deal of misunderstanding and criticism. I have dealt in the sixteenth chapter of the Riddle with the important question of the relations of knowledge and faith. vScientific faith fills the gaps in our knowledge of natural law with temporary hypotheses. above all. But time pointed out the contrast between I had at the same scientific (natural) and religious (supernatural) faith. and transcends its limits in the form of a belief in miracles. Kant." or to have In fact. as the base of pure and unprejudiced science.MI RAC LE The to pure reason. I said repeatedly that solved every problem.

2. of this To-day we convince ourselves by an impartial examination of mental culture at For this purpose I the various stages of civilization. i. while science and reason are its greatest Hence it is our duty and task to attack the friends. In the whole province of inorganic cosmology natural law is now generally recognized to be all-powerful. savages. I hold that superstition and unreason are the worst enemies of the human race. tory of faith on the one hand and of science on the other clearly shows that the advance of the latter has always been accompanied by an increasing knowledge of fixed natural laws and the shrinking of superstition into the race. and chemistry all phenomena reduced to fixed laws. barbarians. — belief in miiacles wherever we find it. or the organic section of up in opposiand the transgression of The behef in natural laws by supernatural forces.). take the four chief stages of mental development which Fritz Schultze has given in his Physiology of Uncivilized Races. in the interest of have to prove that the reign of natural law extends over the whole world of phenomena as A general survey of the hisfar as we can reach it. reason calls superstimiracles of this kind. and in the long-run to the allembracing law of substance. still Here we find miracles set tion to the law of substance. On the Origin and Growth of the Moral Instinct: i. ediicated races {cf. chapter The mental life of savages rises Httle above that 56 . 3. in astronomy. It is otherwise in biology. For my part. 4. We Jan ever-lessening area. which pure much more prevalent tion. physics.).THE WONDERS OF LIFE of the causes of things is contented when science points out the "sufficient reason" of them. civilized races. chapter xii. are geology. and Alexander Sutherland in his work. cosmology. the great law of the conservation of matter and force {Kiddle. is still very w^idespread than is usuahy thought.

but no intimate relation to each other. with which Their whole interest are genealogically connected.MIRACLES mammals. and a still higher intellectual development is shown by the next group (most of the 57 A Bushmen. Hottentots. the aboriginal . may work miracles favorite object. Their intelligence moves within the narrowest bounds. the roots of wild plants. and Akkas (of New somewhat higher stage is met in the middle Indians of North and South America. and the strength of their emotions. The lowest stage is found in the lowest races. Any bone. and one can no more (or no less) speak of their reason than of that of the more intelligent animals. Of art and science there is no question. Their impulse to dis- — cover causes is satisfied with the simplest association of phenomena which have a merely external connection. espefalse estimate of the cially hope and fear. Among the different savage races the belief in fetiches presents a number of stages. Thus arises their fetichisin. corresponding to the beginnings of reason. such as the Veddahs of Ceylon. and therefore honored. and the animals they fish in the water or catch on land. to the invisible spirit that dwelt in the particular object. their anthropoof nature. At first the worship was paid feared. they is restricted to the physiological functions of nutrition and reproduction. a stone or a as a fetich and exercise all is kinds of good or evil influence. Without fixed habitation. or the satisfaction of hunger and thirst of the higher in the crudest animal fashion. that irrational trust in fetiches which Fritz Schultze has traced to four distinct causes: their value of an object. and Tierra del Fuegians). especially the apes. races (Australian negroes. the imperfect association morphic conception of their ideas. and worshipped. but it was often transferred afterwards to the dead object itself. Tasmanians. the Andaman Islanders. constantly struggling for existence. they live on the raw produce of nature fruits. Guine).

They make a provident use of the productive forces of organic nature. 58 . demons. As demons or spirits. ten thousand and more years ago. spirits.). By barbarians we understand the races that are found between savage and first beginnings savages chiefly in keeping of cattle. heart. Modern comparative ethnography and evolution and prehistoric and anthropological research have shown us that our own ancestors. ^Civilized races are distinguished from barbaric by the formation of states with an extensive division of labor. etc. if we compare the lower. trees and animals. Their religion does not at first rise much above fetichism. Evolution again points out a long gradation of forms of faith. soul takes on innumerable forms among them. middle. the possession of agriculture and the civilized peoples. but soon reaches the stage of animism. but generally to living things. The idea of the immortality of the part of the body. these have a great influence on the fortunes of men. like the belief in the miracles which are worked by the gods. Worship is no longer paid to favorite dead objects (stones. were (like the prehistoric ancestors of all races of men) savages. it disappears at the death of the body and lives apart. or some other of They show the and are superior to civilization. artificially produce large quantities of food. At first this soul is conceived to be purely material. and especially to images of gods which have the form of animals or men. etc. and higher races. the seat of the soul is thought to be the lungs. etc. As the breathing and the beat of the pulse and heart cease when a man dies. and that their earliest belief in miracles was a crude fetichism. bones.). We find that they have the rudiments of art and science. lifeless objects in nature being credited with souls. and are thus enabled by the abundance of food to turn their minds to other interests. and are believed to possess souls.THE WONDERS OF LIFE inhabitants of India.

the working of mirrestricted. when empirical science assumed an enormous importance. A great advance is seen in regard to reHgion. geography. Modern civilization in the narrower sense. and these broke the chains of tradition and gave a fresh impetus to progress. and other sciences gained yoke of the papacy. printing and engraving provided an important means of spreading the new knowledge. Nutrition is easier and more luxurious. or to his and more priests and other men to whom he communicates the power. which now more and more rejected the inspiration dictation of the Church far and superstition. in philosophy it is more In the end. and finally subordinated to a chief god. New World and and independence. the numerous gods being generally conceived as manlike spirits. The belief in miracles flourishes greatly in poetry. natural history. This fresh impetus was chiefly of service to philosophy. in opinion.MIRACLES ful. opens. Men's own mental outlook was widened by the system of Copernicus and the Reformation freed them from the Shortly before. at the beginning of the sixteenth century. Art and science are well developed. organism is not only larger and more powercapable of a greater variety of achievements. medicine. At that time my took place some of the greatest achievements of human thought among civilized peoples. acles is limited monotheistically to one god. This was not generally possible until the nineteenth century. the discovery of the the circumnavigation of the globe had convinced men of the rotundity of the earth. as a contrast to the older civilization. the functions of the various states and classes of worksocial is The but ers being more highly differentiated and mutually complementary (like the cells and tissues in the higher animal body of the metazoa). though it was the fetters altogether. and in the ensuing period of speculation the physical conoff from casting 59 .

thus grounded on metaphysical. as in the preceding caseS. and so on. and received its final and present form in the Church of South Gaul in the fourth and fifth centuries. three founders of the great monotheistic Mediterranean religion Moses. Christ.communities of the second century. they run counter to the laws of nature and rational explanation just in the same way as the similar miracles of Buddha and Brahma in Hindoo mythology. science. When we compare civilized nations we the higher forms of religion of find the same emotional cravings and thought-processes constantly recurring. we distinreligious faith. the expiilsion of devils. If we examine the miracles of Christ as they are given in the gospels. and the belief in miracles developing in much the same way. entered into sharper conflict than ever with If. having direct intercourse with God in virtue of their special The — — and transmitting his commands to men in the The extraordinary authority they enjoy. and Mohammed were equally regarded as wonder-working prophets. and the hke. and recognized by both Church and State as compulsory. The same must be said of the belief in the miracle of the bread and wine in the Lord's supper. guish three stages in the development of modern civilization. has been obligatory for Christians for fifteen hundred years.THE WONDERS OF LIFE ception of the world gained more and more on the Pure knowledge. or of Mohammed in the Koran. This Apostles' Creed was also recognized in Luther's catechismi to be fundamental. and is taught in all Protestant and Roman 60 . is grounded for ordinary people on their migifts. shape which has given so much prestige to the religions they founded. The Creed which was — probably drawn up by the leaders of the Christian . raculous powers the healing of the sick. of laws. we recognize the progressive liberation from superstition by scientific knowledge. the raising of the dead.

The chief evil of such creeds is that children. are forced to learn 6i . descended into hell. its The first article of the Creed deals with creation. creating the material world out of nothing. it is necessary to point out their flagrant opposition to pure reason. who was conceived of the Holy Ghost. heaven (in the sense of the geocentric system) is imagined as a great blue vault spanning the earth. this childish and scientifically worthless idea is accepted " What is clear from his commentary on the first article that?" The second article of the Creed deals with the dogma of salvation in the following words: "I believe in Jesus Christ. no less than its glaring inconsistency with rational knowledge." article contain the chief points of the redemption theory. the Father Almighty. as an "Almighty Creator" and the Father of man. is That Luther wholly irrational and meaningless. on the third day rose again from the dead. his only son. and its great dinary prestige influence on the education of the young. and buried. and runs: "I believe in God. sitteth at the right hand of God. suffered under Pontius Pilate. but that the universe is eternal and the law of substance allGod himself is anthropomorphically conceived ruling. ascended into heaven. and are still treasured by millions of educated people. our Lord. born of the Virgin Mary. whence he will come to judge the As these dogmas of the second living and the dead. Creator of heaven and earth. the Father Almighty. immaterial being. of the Apostles' Creed. compel us to devote a few pages to a critical examination of three articles. — who are yet incapable of reflecting. dead. was crucified. The notion of this "personal God" as an intelligent." The modern science of evolution has shown that there never Avas any such creation.MIRACLES Catholic schools (though not in the Greek Catholic) as This extraorthe foundation of religious instruction.

resurrection. are also due to the narrow geocentric ideas of an myths uneducated people. Christ is believed to have suffered a painful death. is The myth of the conception and birth of Jesus Christ mere fiction. and is at the same stage of superstition Of the as a hundred other myths of other religions. commentary. parthenogenesis in the seventeenth chapter of the Riddle. parthenogenetically through the I have dealt with the physiology of Virgin Mary." which forms its headLuther has dealt with it in his ing [in Germany]. like many thousand other martyrs. rejects these articles of the Creed no less than Haeckel does. three persons who are mysteriously blended in the triune God. Haeckel's chief critic. for his conviction of the truth of his faith and teaching which reminds one of the more than a hundred thousand men who were done to death by the Inquisition and in the religious wars of the Middle Ages. remarkable that this second article of the Creed says nothing about "redemption. The curious adventures of Christ after his death. the son Christ is supposed to be begotten by both Father and Holy Ghost. glance at the pertinent articles in the Encyclopaedia Biblica will show how widely theologians now discard A these beliefs.THE WONDERS OF LIFE them by heart. is another outcome of a thoroughly and anthropomorphic attitude. —Trans. Troelslund has admirably explained the strong influence they have had in his interesting book. 62 . as many famous mediaeval pictures descent into hell. and one of the foremost German theologians. but not one of the childish It is — ^ The English reader may usefully be reminded that Professor Loofs. They then remain unchallenged as re- vealed truths. The Idea of Heaven and of the World} The idea of the "last judgment." with Christ sitting on the right hand of the Father. fantastic represent (notably Michael Angelo's in the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican). the and ascension.

especially the crude belief in the propitiatory power of human sacrifice. Whoever builds on this empty promise of a better life beyond may soothe himself with for those this hope. and reconcile himself to the defects of this world. increased The third and last article of the Apostles' Creed runs: "I believe in the Holy Ghost. the holy Catholic Church. This most powerful and still influential section of the Christian — Church. What is —which "man — meant by the "communion of saints" and the "holy Catholic Church" must be gathered in the light of their history especially the history of Romanism. But the man life who — thousand ills and who studies this as it really is will not find that the belief in re- demption has brought any real improvement. and life everlasting. It has. The whole of this story of redemption has sj^rung from the primitive. the In the resurrection of the body. succeeded in preaching the beneficent teaching of Christ in theory and doing just the opposite 63 . he said that own reason in Jesus Christ " cannot believe of his is very true but the Holy Ghost must lead him thereto with his grace. Want and misery and sin are as prevalent as ever. ethical ideas of uneducated races." is really a most pitiful caricature of pure primitive Christianity. our modern civilization has. It has no practical moral value except millions of ministers a scienbelieve in personal immortality tifically untenable dogma. but how the third person of the Trinity effects this enlightenment and sanctification he did not explain.MIRACLES who preach on it every Sunday seems to have shown a rational causal connection of this death with the alleged redemption from sin and death. the communion of saints. which especially claims the title of Catholic and "the one ark of salvation. obscure. with consummate skill." curious commentary that Luther made on this article in his catechism. indeed. the forgiveness of sins. many respects. in them.

and the political hierarchy dominates so much of civilization. and the fires of hell burned in the cellars below. This is equally true of Christian and Mohammedan pictures and of the of believers who take to be an "enlarged athanatist ideas that prevailed in other religions long before Christ was born. we are forced to this definite . and the heavens were thought to be a sort of blue glass bell.THE WONDERS OF LIFE in practice. this barbaric notion of a resurrection of the body and a last judgment could easily be maintained. even of the first rudiments of the belief in primitive races. and cosmology teach with regard to athanatism. Not only the crude older materialistic idea of eternal life. x^s^^chology." That this which still However. illumined by thousands of little stars and the lamp of the sun. the aerial flight of the happy souls of the blessed. and the torments of the damned in hell. v/hich closes with the words: "If we take a comprehensive glance at all that modern anthropology. conclusion. but also the refined new spiritualistic version. It is thus conceived eternal life still by the majority and improved edition" of life here below. As long as the geocentric theory prevailed. by third article is need only recall the Inquisition. we history of the far the most important clause in the the final expression of belief in "the resurrection of the body and life everlasting. The belief in the immortality of the human 64 . greatest "wonder of life" was originally conceived in a purely material form is evident from thousands of pictures in which famous painters have realistically depicted the resurrection of the dead. arching like a vault over the flat earth. has been rendered untenable by the progress of science in the nineteenth century. the dark Middle Ages. I have shown this in the eleventh chapter of the Riddle. But its roots were destroyed when Copernicus refuted the geocentric theory in 1545 and athanatism became quite untenable when Darwin shattered the dogmia of anthropocentricism.

and Democritus. and a little later. But even the majority of the philosophers were more or less subordinated to the influence. They made the first thorough attempt to explain the world on rational principles. If we theology and ecclesiasticism. Trans. p. and Anaximenes. Thales. It is true that a few great thinkers freed themselves by the use of pure reason at an early date from the prevalent superstition. However. Compare the opinion of the distinguished American psy" Science opposes to any doctrine of chologist. independently of all mytho- "handmaid" of examine the history — — logical * tradition and theological dogmas. Mimsterberg individual immortality an unbroken and impregnable barrier" {Psychology and Life. was chiefly seen in the crude superstition of the mass of the people. civilized nations by the Christian supported by the practical exigencies of the state. of philosophy in this light. Confessions of faith became as much a matter of routine as the latest fashion in dress or the latest custom. dependent on the dictation of authority. we find in it a struggle for twenty-five hundred years between two great tendencies the dualism of the majority (with theological and mystic leanings) and the monism of the minority (with rationahstic and naturahstic disposition). etc. and framed systems apart from tradition and the priests. Anaximander. Philosophy was the . for thousands of years. the traditions of the school. and the dogmas of the Church. Especially notable are those great Free-thinkers of classic antiquity who taught a monistic view of life in the sixth century before Christ the Ionic natural philosophers. But most philosophers could not rise to the altitude of these brave Free-thinkers they " remained "school-men in the literal sense."^ soul is most solid The great influence which has been exercised on beliefs.MIRACLES in hopeless contradiction with the empirical truths of modern science. Heraclitus. — 5 65 . 85). Empedocles.

and pointed out the idea in the entelechy.) succeeded in gaining general acceptance for this dualism and antithesis of physics and metaPhysics devoted itself on the ground of experiphysics. is its chief characteristic. (98-54 B. had foreshadowed in the fifth century the division of philosophy into two branches. or purposively acting principle. and has its highest unity in God.C. leaving their real essences (or noumena) that lay behind the phenomena to metaphysics.ena of things. and especially when Christianity (three hundred years afterwards) found in this dualism a welcome philosophic support of its own transcendental tendency. they form the metaphysical world of eternal ideas. of world and God. — — ideas. the superstition of civilized races 66 . The Eleatics. and which are usually dated from the fall of the Roman Empire (476) to the discovery of America (1492). Parmenides and Zeno.THE WONDERS OF LIFE these remarkable efforts to found a primitive monism. an eternal idea that dwells for a time in the passing human body. but Plato and his pupil Aristotle (in the fourth century b. In the course of the thousand vears which historians call the Middle Ages. These inner eSvSences are transcendental and inaccessible to empirical research.c. which found so finished an expression in the De rerum Lucretius Carus were shortly thrust out by the spread through Plato's curious dualism of the belief in the immortality of the soul and the transcendental world of natiira of the great poet-philosopher. with its sharp antithesis of this world and the next. This consistent dualism of Plato's system. as the Absolute. of body and soul.). It became all the more influential when Plato's Aristotle blended it with his empirical metaphysics. of every being. ence to the study of the phenom. The soul. which is independent of the real world. is immortal. pupil based on ample scientific experience.

and the freedom of dogmas — the human will. it was used by the dominant Church for its own purposes. In the face of the current enthusiasm for the romantic side of mediasvalism. the Crusades and Church art. Our clear modern insight into the regularity and causative character of natural processes.tales of the Bible added to its structure of dogmas. As long as the light of philosophical criticism in any form was extinguished. and drowning of witches. was seen much more in practical In the foreground of belief were the three central life. with all the gay coloring which the fairy . metaphysical dualism soon prevailed on to scientific inquiry its Especially inimical was the Christian contempt of nature belittlement of earthly life in view of the eternal life to come. religious wars. the immortality of the soul. what the practical result of this superstition was from the ghastly history of the Middle Ages. the immortality of the soul. we cannot lay too much stress on these dark and bloody pages of its chronicles. the flowerand garden of religious poetry flourished exceedingly and the We know idea of miracle was taken as self-evident. was paramount in philosophy. instruments of torture. with its Inquisition. greatest practical on the all sides. and the freedom of the 67 . of metaphysics.MIRACLES The authority of highest development. to which Plato had first given complete expression the personal God as creator of the world. and especially our knowledge of the universal reign of the law of substance. An impartial study of the immense progress made by science in the course of the nineteenth century shows established convincingly that the three central metaphysical dogmas by Plato have become untenable for pure reason. are inconsistent with belief in a personal God. But the reached its Aristotle influence of the Christian faith. As Christianity first laid the greatest theoretical stress on the stress two dogmas and the third.

This culminates in the distinction between the world of sense and the world of spirit. and we must stop to consider it for a moment. the author of the dualistic criticism of judgment. its existence (as the thing in itself) is. especially. In the appendix to the popular edition. the dogmatic discoverer of practical reason ?" These contradictions are partly due to the psychological meta. however. and is empirically knowable within certain limits. If we find this threefold superstition still widely prevalent. and can know. of the Riddle the profound opposition between my monistic system and Kant's dualistic philosophy.). assured by our emotional In this transcendental world dwells the power needs. the critical formulator of pure reason.. and xx. The sense world {mnndtis sensibilis) lies open to our senses and our intellect. nothing. partly to the perennial conflict between his scientific bias towards a mechanical explanation of this world and his religious craving (an outcome of heredity and education) and mystic belief in a life beyond." trace this remarkable fact chiefly to the great His so . of mysticism. prestige popularity than any other philosophy. morphoses which Kant underwent (Riddle. chapter vi. I have pointed out the glaring contradictions of his system. I have described in chapters xiv. there is question of his teaching one must ask: "Which Kant do you mean ? Kant I the founder of the raonistic cosmogony. . and even retained as by academic philosophers we must system — really a hybrid product of the crossing of pure reason with practical superstition— has enjoyed a greater an unshakable consequence of "critical philosophy.called critical of Immanuel Kant. or Kant II.THE WONDERS OF LIFE will. It is said to be the chief merit of Kant's system that 68 . which other philosWhenever ophers have often detected and criticised. But behind it there is the spiritual world (mundiis intelligihilis) of which we know.

first "How he reached the conviction that the most important and soundest of all knowledge namely. independent of all experience. is imperfect. sense-perceptions and expericritical Kant's much-lauded theory of knowledge is therefore just as dogmatic as his idea of "the thing in itself. without a posteriori judgments. All sound men believe. is really a phyloits its genetic ences. result of formed by a posteriori a long series of brain-adaptations. Seeing the very imperfect knowledge which human anatomy had of the complicated structure of the brain at the beginning of the nineteenth century. But and it by no means follows that it is a mere least of all that the external world exists only in our ideas. this proves a relative motion of the two heavenly bodies. and so the real 69 . its physiological mechanatomic organ. it extends only so far as the specific energy of the senses and the structure of the phronema admit. obtained through the senses." the unintelligible entity that lurks behind the phenomena. or an a priori quality. by a subtle analysis of his own mental activity. illusion. and development. This dogma is erroneously built on the correct idea that our knowledge. Kant regarded this highest faculty of the human mind as innate. it was impossible to have at that time a correct idea of its physiological function. the brain.MIRACLES he possible?" is knowledge clearly stated the problem: In trying to solve this jjroblem introspectively. and that pure science is only possible on condition that there are strict a priori ideas. mathematical consists of synthetic a priori judgments. and this space does really exist. that the stone they feel fills a certain part of space. and made no — — inquiry into anism. when they use their senses of touch and space. What seems to us to-day to be an innate capacity. of our phronema. When all men who can see agree that the sun rises and sets every day.

shows us in the first place an ever-increasing struggle between the rising young sciences and the paramount authority of tradition and dogma. interests of It is humanity. The a question of the highest struggle against supers ti- The remarkable history of philosophy in the nineteenth century. but necessary real features of things. and classification. perception. still so prevalent influence of dualistic metaphysics. the cell-theory. The increasing recognition of fixed natural laws which accompanied the growth of science in the nineteenth century was bound to restrict more and more the blind faith in miracles. provided scientists with such ample material that they attached little importance to speculative metaphysics. It was otherwise in the second half of the nineteenth century. nevertheless. and the pressure of the modern state in allying itself with the Church. There are three chief reasons the continued find this. The great advance of comparative anatomy. physiolog}^ embryology. existing quite independently of existence of time. when the light of true knowledge has driven out the belief in miracles and the prejudices of dualism. paleontology. the authority of the Christian Church. which has not yet been written with complete impartiality and knowledge.THE WONDERS OF LIFE Space and time are not merely forms of intuition for human knowledge. These three strong bulwarks of superstition are so hostile to pure reason and the truth it seeks that we must devote special — why we attention to them. Our modern civilization will only emerge from it in triumph. Soon after its commencement the 70 contro- . and we shall only eliminate the last barbaric features from our social and political life. ption and ignorance is a fight for civilization. In the first half of the century the various branches of biology made progress without coming into direct collision with natural philosophy.

in Moleschott (1852). which again builds on Kant. The pitiful condition of sort of verbal modern psychology is a characteristic result of this state of things. which mostly followed the paths opened out by Kant. the speculative philosophy of the schools 71 . Then Darwin especially initiated 1859 that vast reform in biology which brought to light the natural origin of species and shattered When the application of the miracle of creation. especially in the science to meet the difficulties creates for their transcendental idealism by a and they endeavor — gymnastic and sophistry. which biology. and the ontogeny and phylogeny of the brain have proved its natural origin. who think " more of the fiction of the "intelligible world than of the truth of the world of sense. Nevertheless. and Carl Vogt contended for tlie physiological dependence of the (1854) soul on the brain. the theory of descent and the biogenetic law to man was made by anthropogeny (1874). Behind all these metaphysical struggles there is still the personal element the desire to save one's immortality from the wreck. Most of the representatives of philosophy at the universities are narrow metaphysicians and idealists. and an anthropomorphic deity lost its last support. In this it comes into line with the prevailing theology. while Rudolph Wagner endeavored to maintain the prevailing metaphysical idea of its super- which natural character.MIRACLES versy about the immortality of the soul broke out. these three fundamental dogmas continued to find favor in academic philosophy. and his evolution from a series of other mammals was proved. While the empirical physiology and patholof the brain have made the greatest discoveries. the freedom of the in will. the ogy comparative anatomy and histology of the brain have thrown light on the details of its elaborate structure. the belief in the immortality of the soul. Biichner. They ignore the vast progress made by modern it of evolution.

and thus more of Christian superstiFinally. The Old and Nciv Faith (1872). 72 . many modern theologians (such as Savage. we shall not be surprised to find this in the case of official theology. especially those of the Tubingen school (Baur. the mythoIn his logical character of the whole Christian system.). though an admirer of Plato and his dualist metaphysics. and in its introspective analysis of the functions of the brain will not hear a word about the brain itself. etc. In the first third of the nineteenth century a rationalistic section of the Protestant Church attempted to rid itself of the fetters of dogma and reconcile its ideas with pure reason. Its chief leader. the dualistic theories established by Kant flourish at our universities as they did in the Middle Ages. Moreover. not surprising to find that structure. devoted themselves to the historical study of the gospels and their sources and development. Zeller. this honorable and gifted theologian finally abandoned the belief in miracles. of Berlin. Nevertheless. in his Life of Jesus (1835).THE WONDERS OF LIFE stands aside from it all. This work has lately been continued by Albert Kalthoff. still cling to the belief in miracles in spite of all the advance of empirical science. and more destroyed the base famous work. and open their minds to the streaming light of modem science. If the official philosophers. It would explain the working of a most complicated machine without paying any attention to its It is. Subsequent rationalistic theologians. the radical criticism of David Friedrich Strauss showed. tion. therefore. the sense of truth has prompted many unprejudiced and honorable theologians to look critically at the venerable stmcture of dogma. whose formal duty it is to study truth and natural law. approached very close to modern pantheism. and turned to natural knowledge and the monistic philosophy for the construction of a rational view of life on the basis of critical experience. Schleiermacher.

but because they think knowledge brings unrest. based on monistic or pantheistic views. most of them still believe in the myths and legends which fill the pages of the gospels. encouraged of late by the conservative and reactionary attitude taken up by many govern- ments on political grounds. The chief rulers instruction. whose columns and windows are still apparently everywhere adorned with miracles. and because docile and ignorant reforms. this conservative-Christian policy meets two obstacles in an increasing measure. not out of conviction of its truth. on the other hand. Most modern governments maintain the connection with the Church in the idea that the traditional belief in the miraculous is the best security for their own con- Throne and altar must protect and support each other. Pfleiderer. The great majority of modern theologians adhere to the traditional teaching of the Church. However. However. while discarding the belief in the miraculous. While a few liberal Protestants restrict their faith to the three fundamental dogmas. moreover. and reconcile them with theology.MIRACLES Nippold. one hand. and other liberal Protestants) have in various ways to obtain a certain recognition for the claims of progressive science. the ecclesiastical hierarchy is always trying to set its spiritual power above the seculai and make the state serve its own purposes. in speeches from the throne and at 73 . are still isolated and endeavored without effect. every occasion. the modern right of popular representation affords an opportunity to make the voice of reason heard and oppose the reactionary conservatives with opportune and the ministers of public a great influence in this struggle. generally favor the teaching of the Church. This orthodoxy is. and. On the tinuance. who have subjects are easier to rule than educated and independent Hence it is that we now hear so much on citizens. these rationalistic efforts.

Kant himself. which is As a rule. of the value of faith. Among the natural philosophers of the first half of the nineteenth century. in had a decided leaning to mysticism and positive dogmatism. Nevertheless. and the absolute freedom of the human will even in many of the other miracles which are found in God — the gospels. it is gradually passing into the cruder form of superstition which we find popular to-day as spiritism. and other servants of the state to profess a the three fundamental mysteries the triune — of the catechism. the Neo-Kantians. Schubert (in his History of the Soul 1Ar . The refined belief in the miraculous embodied in Kant's practical philosophy assumed many different forms among his followers. still basis for spite of what his is called occultism. continue to develop. They would give the palm to faith in its Thus we get this paradoxical struggle with knowledge. yet. approaching sometimes more and sometimes less to the conven- which Through a long series of variations. we may technical training its deadly enemy. the personal immortality of the and soul. situation in educated countries (such as Prussia). sacred legends. at the opening of churches and the unveiling of monuments. and which provides the tional beliefs. that encouragement is given at once to modern science and and to the orthodox Church. subtle and clear critical faculty. and compared this to his mundtis intelligihilis. teachers. in view of the spread of intellectual reaction in see it Germany. it is not stated in these florid orations to how many and what kind of miracles this precious faith must extend. Schelling (in his later writings). which showed itself especially in his later years.THE WONDERS OF LIFE banquets. He thought a good deal of Swedenborg's idea of the spirit world forming a universe apart. from able and influential speakers. and religious journals of our time. belief in made obligatory for at least all priests.

This spiritistic fraud is particularly dangerous when it clothes itself with the mantle of science. cabalism. astrology.interpretation. Modem spook-seeking has no more value than mediaeval magic. There are always thousands of spiritism We credulous folk in educated countries who are taken in by the performances of the spiritists and their media. but also (1888) a Monistic PsycholIn these ogy. necromancy. not only among the uneducated masses. and even assumes a monistic character. dream . must put at the same stage of superstition the and occultism we find mentioned so much in modern literature. which is dualistic from beginning to end. of the Riddle). chapter xvi. the materialization and photographing of deceased souls. — — popular writings lively imagination and brilliant presentation are combined with a most flagrant lack of critical sense and of knowledge of the elements of biology It seems that the heredi{cf. Spirit-rapping. but even among the most and sometimes among imaginative scientists. It on careless self-deception. makes use of the physiological phenomena of hypnotism. and sought to connect them with the physiological functions of the brain on the one hand and supernatural spiritual agencies on the other.MIRACLES the Dark Side of Science). has been proved without avail by numbers of impartial observations and experiments that these occultist performances depend partly on conscious fraud and partly cultured. table-turning. find credit.known occultist writers. one of the best . and invocation of the and Observations on (in his devil. Karl du Prel. has written. for instance. 75 . spirit -writing. and Perty mystic anthropology) especially investigated the mysterious phenomena of mental action. Mttndns vidt decipi "the world wishes to be taken in" as the old saying has it. and are ready to believe the unbelievable. not only a Philosophy of Mysticism and Studies of Scientific Subjects. Thus.

in whom the earliest religious ideas were wholly dominated by animism and fetichism. .THE WONDERS OF LIFE tary bias towards mysticism and superstition is not yet eliminated even from the educated mind of our time. It is to be explained phylogenetically by inheritance from pre-historic barbarians and savages.

— — bi- nineteenth century. Many new branches have established themselves independently. and in of em the natural connection of the various provinces knowledge. special biology Nature and spirit materialism. in the course of the THE broad realm of science has been vastly extended many new and most fruitful methods of research have been discovered. and their relation to the comprehensive whole. The this way of importation of new terms which are used in different senses by one-sided workers in the various fields of science has caused a good deal of misunderstanding and confusion. and have been applied with the greatest practical success in furthering the advance of modthought. have been partly or wholly lost sight of. But this enormous expansion of the field knowledge has its disadvantages. The extensive division of labor it has involved has led to the growth of a narrow specialism in many small sections. The vast structure of science tends more and more to become a tower of Babel.IV THE SCIENCE OF LIFE Object of biology Relation to the other sciences General and Natural philosophy Monism: hylozoism. in the lab3Tinthic passages of which few are at their ease and few any In longer understand the language of other workers. dynamism Naturalism Dualism Freedom and natural Physics Metaphysics law God in biolog}'Realism Idealism Branches of — — — — — — — — — — — — — Morphology and physiology — Anatomy and biology ogeny — Ergology and perilogy. 77 .

at the com- of our philosophic study of "the wonders of life.) we shall find that this division is not absolute." to form a clear idea of our task. This division of geology. which we . biology and abiology are connected branches of cosmology. etc. we often find (especially in Germany) a narrower application of the term. parasites. and the relation of its various branches to each other mencement We to the different systems of philosophy. hydrology. Twenty A^ears later others suggested the name of ethology. then contiast with it all the sciences which deal with in- We organic or lifeless bodies. ^loreover. fall within its domain.THE WONDERS OF LIFE these circumstances. biolog}^ is the whole study of organisms or living beings. customs. must carefully define the place of biology among the sciences. their I proposed habitat. but also anthropology (the science of man). may collectively call abiology (or anorganology) to this belong astronomy. physiologically abicgenesis (chapter xv. it seems advisable. and that organic life has been evolved from inorganic nature. or the science of the world. Hence not only botany (the science of plants) and zoology and (the science of animals). In the broadest sense in which we can take it. mineralogy. etc. enemies. the two great branches of science does not seem difficult in view of the fact that the idea of life is sharply defined by its metabolism and chemxically by its but when we comiC to study the question of plasm. To call this special study any longer biology in the narrower — 78 . or bionomy. the science of the relations of living organisms to the external world. long ago to call this special part of biology oecology (the science of home-relations). While the idea of biology is now usually taken in this broad sense in most scientific works and made to embrace the whole of living nature. Many authors (mostly physiologists) understand by it a section of physiology namely.

I have fully appreciated the service of Lamarck. Reinhold Treviranus (of Bremen) had made a suggestive effort to accomplish this difficult task on monistic principles in his Biology. Special importance attaches to the year 1809. The first comprehensive attempt to reduce to order and unity the ample biological material which systematic research had accumulated in the eighteenth century was made by what we call "the older natural philosophy" at the beginning of the nineteenth century. because it is the only name for the totality of the organic sciences. study of the wonders of We it as biological philosophy. which observation and experiment give us. who not only aroused a very wide interest in this science by his General Natural History. and Lorentz Oken (of Jena) his Manual of Natural Philosophy. As the latter. tion about living nature this is the subject of the present sense is we have . this special biology is often wrongly called the science forms the of classification. but also put forward some general observations of great 79 . or as empirical biology. might also describe aim of true philosophy must be the comprehensive survey and rational life. and seeks to effect in the system of nature a logical arrangement and summary grouping of the countless special forms of life. biology has a general and a General biology contains general informaspecial part. or Philosophy of Living Nature (1802). Like every other science. since the interpretation of all the general results of scientific The innumerable discoveries of detailed facts research. and which are combined into a general view of life in philosophy. in which Jean Lamarck (of Paris) published his PhilosopJiie Zoologique. in my earlier writings. I have also recognized the great merit of Lorentz Oken. the founder of the theory of descent. on the side of the organic world. first object of the science of life. form the subject of empirical science.THE SCIENCE OF LIFE very undesirable.

and 80 ." The most paradoxical feature of the situation was that purely speculative philosophy and idealist metaphysics had a great inin at the samie time. and their authors to an extent lost themselves in airy and fantastic The more scientists confined themselves speculations. As this work not only used the rich collection of facts already made in proof of the theory of descent. my General Morphology (1866). of The magnificent reform biology which Darwin initiated in 1859 by his epoch-making Origin of Species gave a fresh impulse to natural philosophy. and their it castles in the air. The World as Reality. the more became the fashion to look down on all "natural philosophy. is merely the fundamental idea of the theory of protoplasm and the These cell which was long afterwards fully recognized. but gave it a new foundation in the theory of selection (Darwinism properly so nature in a I made the first effort to do this in monistic system. and other services of the older natural philosophy were His "infamous " far partly ignored and partly overlooked. in the following half-century to empirical work and the observation and description of separate facts. I undertook in my History of Creation (1868) to make the chief points of the system accessible to the general reader. utterly destitute of biological foundation. As this found few embodiment called). About the same time (1899) there appeared the work of the Kiel botanist. because they went beyond the scientific horizon of the time. everything seemed to of the new conception of call for the supporters among my colleagues. were much admired. Johannes Reinke. The remarkable success of this book (a tenth edition of it appearing in 1902) emboldened me at the end of the nineteenth century to state the general principles of my monistic philosophy in my Riddle of the Universe. and the development of infusoria out of it.THE WONDER value. vS OF LIFE theory of a primitive slime.

in his excellent History of Philosophy.THE SCIENCE OF LIFE two years afterwards he followed it up with a supplementary volume. to which most philosophic systems belong. and so on. is now generally called hylozoism. or a more or less obscure combination of the two. sometimes as mind and matter. When we The survey this enormxous mass of philosophic systems from the point of view of general biology. Introduction to Theoretic Biology. a clear and compendious Fritz Schultze has published "tabulated outline" of them in thirty tables in his genealogical tree of philosophy. These are sometimes expressed as God and the world. according to which theie are two totally distinct principles in the universe. his ideas are diametrically opposed to my monistic and naturalistic principles. All other svstems are onlv variations of one or the other of these. we find that we can divide them into two main groups. Uberweg has given us. a thorough and im^partial account last three of these various systems. sometimes as the spiritual world and material world. congroup. As Reinke treats the general problenis of natural philosophy from a purely mystic and dualistic point of view. 6 8i . first and smaller group contains the monistic philosophy. The history of philosophy describes for us the infinite variety of ideas that men have formulated during the thousand years on the nature of the world and its phenomena. this antithesis of monism and dualism is the most important in the whole history of philosophy. and which I have advocated in my writings for thirty-eight years. and at the same time shown the phylogeny of ideas. all This expresses the fact that substance has two fundamental attributes as matter . In my opinion. The form of monism which I take to be the most complete expression of the general truth. stitutes the dualistic philosophy. which traces all the phenomena of existence to The second and larger one single common principle.

and denies But it is wrong when the existence of immaterial forces. Spinoza identifies his substance with nature and God. Hence it is important to distinguish very carebetween these two meanings of materialism. sensation to matter. A good deal of the infinite confusion that characterizes the conflicts of philosophers over their systems is due to the obscurity and ambiguity of many of their funda- mental ideas." are used in the most different and changing senses. — and thought with (unconscious) sensation. as a realistic do with and monistic philosophy. and his system is accordingly called pantheism. The words "substance" and "God. but is a special property of the higher animals and man.)." "sensation" and "matter. who gave the most perfect expression to this idea in his "philosophy of identity. personal idea of deity.THE WONDERS OF LIFE (hyle) it occupies space. and as force or energy it is endowed with sensation {cf. clothes it with two general attributes extension and thought. fully Theoretical materialism (or hylonism). Extension is identical with real space. and the strictures which are justly urged against the one are most unjustifiably applied to the other. is right in so far as it conceives matter and force to be inseparably connected. in ancient 82 . but it must be understood that he rejects the anthropomorphic. Spinoza. it denies all energy as a function of dead matter. chapter xix." "soul" and "spirit. This is especially true of the word "materialism. which has nothing to it." and most clearly treated the notion of substance (as the all-embracing essence of the world)." which is often wrongly taken to be synonymous with monism. The moral bias of idealism against practical materialism (or pure selfishness and sensualism) is forthwith transferred to theoretical materialism. and regards actual Thus. intelligence is not found in substance. The latter must not be confused with conscious human thought.

however. in turn. as the general source of all phenomena but they will not allow that these movements necessarily presuppose a kind of to the . and afterwards Epicurus.THE SCIENCE OF LIFE times Democritus and Lucretius traced all phenomena movements of dead atoms. these homogeneous particles of plasm (for instance. In my opinion. This practical materialism in its extreme forms (as Aristippus of Cyrene and the Cyrenaic school. sensual — pleasure. rialistic The prejudice against theoretical materialism (or matemonism) which still prevails so much is partly due to its rejection of the three central dogmas of dualist metaphysics. and at others spiritual pleasure. taught it) finds the chief end of life in pleasure at one time crude. Up to a certain point. as in the chemical synthesis in the moneron. the chromacea) rises very little above that of crystals. this must necessarily be assumed to explain the simplest physical and chemical Naturally I am not thinking of anything like processes. and this. this thirst for happiness and a pleasant 83 . we must rather descend the long scale of the development of consciousness until we reach the simplest proThe psychic activity of tists. in order to explain the orderly arrangement of the moving molecules in a definite structure. and chemists I have often found that guished physicists they will not hear a word about a "soul" in the atom. and partly to a confusion of it with hedonism. In conversation with distin(unconscious) sensation. This view is held to-day by most chemists and physicists. the monera (chapter ix. as did also Holbach and Lamettrie in the eighteenth century.). which is often bound up with consciousness. They regard gravitation and chemical affinity as a mere mechanical movement of atoms. so in crystallization we are bound to assume that there is a low degree of sensation (not of consciousness). the elaborate psychic action of man and the higher animals.

theologians. little disposed to material pleasures. many priests. of depreciating matter.THE WONDERS OF LIFE and enjoyable animal. and taught them that their life on earth was only a preparation for the future. 84 now often called . it only began to be censured as when Christianity directed the thoughts of men see life to eternal life. Impartial biology has taught us of late years that what we call "spirit" to is — as Goethe said long ago—inseparably bound up with Experience has never yet discovered any spirit matter. We shall afterwards. that this asceticism is unjustifiable and unnatural. Equally unjust is the habit. but is often idealists. and are On the other hand. and idealist philosophers. in favor of spirit. point out that this excessive thirst for pleasure in no way connected with materialism. ation is due to the special attractiveness of everything But it is utterly unjust to extend the that is forbidden. for instance) do not fall This paradoxical situfar short of the ancient models. are pronounced hedonists in In olden times many temples served at one practice. But as every legitimate enjoyment can become wrong by excess. and the same time for the theoretic worship of the gods and for practical excesses in the way of wine and love. still widely spread. apart from matter.). However. who preach theoretical idealism. and so sinful life is innate in every man and higher far just. and even in our day the luxurious and often vicious lives of the higher clergy (at Rome. so a narrow hedonism is to be condemned. pure dynamism. blameless lives. for instance) lead very simple. natural feeling against excessive and egoistic hedonism theoretical materialism and to monism. On the other hand. and every virtue be turned into vice. when we come to weigh the value of (chapter xvii. especially we must is when it allies itself with egoism. as such. found among Many (many convinced supporters of scientists theoretical materialism and physicians.

This work isT) purely monistic. and very ingeniously endeavors to show that the same forces are at work in the whole of nature.THE SCIENCE OF LIFE energism (and often spiritualism). he never gets rid of space-filling substance which is all we mean by "matter" and has to treat it and its parts. had come very close to the latter going into outsimilar spiritualistic views Ostwald's chief mistake is to take the right spiritism. dynamism takes its second attribute. electricity. to special forms of energy. and Fechner and Zollner have recently adopted it in part. especially Fechner and Zollner. and boasts of his Rcjiitation of Materialism (1895). and that these may all be comprised under the general head of energy. feeling." But Ostwald would deprive substance of the attribute of matter altogether. organic and inorganic. He would leave it only the one attribute. force Leibnitz most consistently developed this (dynantis). all -creating energy is. as well as the simplest physical and chemical processes (heat. system among the older German philosophers. thought. it — Certainly his universal. However. he is wrong when he supposes that his energism is an entirely new system^ The chief points of are found in Leibnitz. which we have also adopted in our "law of substance. Just as the latter takes one attribute of substance. It is especially satisfactory that Ostwald has traced the highest functions of the human mind (consciousness. and other Leipzig scientists. terms "energy" and "substance" to be synonymous. as the one chief cause of phenomena. The latest development of it is found in Wilhelm Ostwald's Natural PhilusopJiy (1902). or natural force. chemical affinity. in the main. and will). matter. energy. jjoints of force. as chemist and physicist. and reduce all matter to immaterial Nevertheless. etc ). the physical molecules and chemical atoms (even — — 85 . the same as the substance of Spinoza. is just as one-sided as pure materialism.

is physiologically nearer to the apes than to highly civilized men. our unprejudiced conviction.-v. the molecules and atoms. he is forced every day.out ' hypotheses.. daily as "vehicles of energy. one of its miost vehement critics. is best expressed as hylozoism." As a fact. may. to which we must assign a special Hence position on account of its extreme importance. usefully consider the idea of naturalism. in so far as this removes the antithesis of materialism and spiritualism (or mechanicism and dynamism). like every other exact scientist. but earlier from the cynocephali We The key and lemures).). attaches so much importance to this stricture that he thinks it as Monism dangerous as dogmatic clericalism. therefore. He was placental mammal of the order of primates. to the position is in our monistic anthropogeny.THE WONDERS OF LIFE only conceived as symbols). and unites them in a natural and harmonious system. and point out in what sense we accept it and identify it with monism. of "mian's place in nature. Savage man. a (chapters ii." Ostwald would reject even these in his pursuit of the illusion of a "science without hypotheses. all the sciences which relate to man and his psychic activity especially what are called the moral sciences must be regarded from our monistic point of view as — — 86 ." as we have established it in the first section of the Riddle Man is a purely natural being. to assume and apply in practice the indispensable idea of matter. Knowledge is impossible withif . Frederick Paulsen. and its separate particles. Anthropology (in the widest sense) is only a particular branch of zoology. evolved in the course of the Tertiary phylogenetically Peiiod from a series of the lower primates (directly from the anthropoid apes.. Our monistic system has been charged with leading to pure naturalism. as we have him to-day in the Veddah or Australian negro. supported by every branch of anthropological research.

when we consider the subject without prejudice. and indirectly with the phylogeny of the lower vertebrates. and the vocal cords of the larynx. any more than we find nature herself to be supernatural. which despeech pends on the combined action of the brain-cells of the phronema. The^ strict imagination of civilized man is ever seeking to produce unified images in art and science. or metaphysical speculations and dogmas. Philology studies in human a complicated natural phenomenon. and myths when they contradict the facts: this is the casQ deavors to fill creations of the J 87 . we do not find a single branch of human science that passes the limits of natural science (in the broadest sense). phronema with which we fill the gaps in our knowledge are called hypotheses when they are in harmony with the empirically established facts. The history of mankind (which we.THE SCIENCE OF LIFE branches of zoology and as natural sciences. psychology is inseparably connected with comparative animal psychology. All that is said of it in religious myths and legends. is mere poetry and an outcome of imagination. and this again with that of special Human the plants and protists. the muscles of the tongue. as much as the cry of mammals and the song of birds do. in our curious anthropocentric mood. Whether there is a realm of the supernatural and spiritual beyond nature we do not know. Just as monism. and when it meets with gaps in these in the association of ideas it en- These them with its own creations. embraces the totality of science. is connected by modern pre-historic science directly with the stem-history of the primates and the other mammals. monistic sense of Spinoza the ideas of God and Nature are synonymous for us. call the history of the world). or naturalism. and its highest branch. the history of civilization. Hence. so on our principles the idea of nature comIn the prises the whole scientifically knowable world.

chemical inquiry or phe- — in reality. But when we speak of man's mind as a higher psychic function. This higher psychic function is a natural phenomenon. "natural science. and has even given a fresh meaning and connotation to the term. or that particular part of the cortex of the brain call the phronema.THE WONDERS OF LIFE with religious myths. without regard to the qualitative differences of the elements. again. subject. spiritism. Hence. on account of the enormous growth of our knowledge in the nineteenth century and the rise of many new disciplines. etc. The old Latin word natura (from nasci. this is only a result. as it is now taught at the universities. however. like all other natural phenomena. of similar superstitions (animism. Physiology. we might justly describe it briefly as physical (in the wider sense). or organ of thought. like the corresponding Greek term physis (from phyo to grow) for the essence of the world as an eternal "being and becoming" a profound thought! Hence physics. to be born) stands. physics chemistry is the physics of the atoms. side with physics as of equal it is only a branch of nomenon.). we mean a special physiological function of the which we brain. a particularly 88 . in the broadest sense of the word. miracles. usually put side it is by importance. The study of the atoms and their affinities — . is. — is and combinations belongs to chemistry. has very much altered their relations to each other and to the whole. is usually understood only that part of inorganic science which deals with the molecular relations of substance and the mechanism of mass and ether. the atoms. Hence by physics. as a rule." The extensive division of labor which has taken place in science. which are expressed in the atomic weight of their smallest particles. etc. Even when people contrast mind with nature. to the law of substance. when we speak of a physico . As this province very extensive and has its special methods of research. the science of the physis.

from the physiological point of view. and called this physics. If we restrict the term "physics" to the empirical study of phenomena (by observation and experiment). an indispensable part of any rational To claim. If we understand by metaphysics the science of the ultimate ground of things. Since Aristotle dealt with the eternal phenomena of nature in the first part of his works. completely lacking among savages. In this sense the indispensable theories of physics (such as the assumption that matter is made up of molecules and atoms and electrons) may be described as metaphysical such also is our assumption that all substance is endowed . whose organ of thought rises very little above that of the most intelligent It is 89 .THE SCIENCE OF LIFE important branch of it. This monistic metaphysics. as a higher and late-developed function of the phronema. that philosophy of life. It could only arise with the complete development of the brain in civilized man. with sensation as well as extension (matter). science must be free from hypotheses is to deprive it of its foundations. the two terms have undergone many and considerable modifications. it can only be regarded. But it is very different with the current dualistic metaphysics. and which we find in a hundred forms as philosophic dualism. as Ostwald does. is. but confines itself to the study of nature and abandons inquiry into the supernatural. springing from the rational demand for causes. which holds that there are two distinct worlds. we may give the name of metaphysics to every hypothesis and theory that is introduced to fill up the gaps in it. and with their inner nature in the second part. or the physico-chemical study of the Uving body. which recognizes the absolute dominion of the law of substance in all phenomena. to which he gave the name of metaphysics. with all its theories and hypotheses. is in this sense the physics of Hving things.

for instance. But even in civilized communities it (like consciousness) is not found in early youth. and only gradually emerges. Many savages cannot count up to five. but would have seen that all that now seems to be a priori in civilized man was originally acquired by a posteriori experiences in the long evolution and science. Like all science. the concepts is at a very low level. The child has to learn to speak and think. the child reproduces in the various stages of its mental development the whole of the gradations which lead from the savage to the barbarian. many of the errors of the current metaphysical systems would have been avoided. who live in the forests of Ceylon. and psychology had been faithful to the comparative and genetic methods. and on to If this historical development the fully educated man. The laws been closely studied by of the psychic life of the savage have It teaches ethnology. and that their power of abstract thought and of forming Thus. the organisms." and to seek a profound distinction between man and the animal in the need for a metaphysic. Hence it is a great error for Schopenhauer and other philosophers to define man as a "metaphysical animal. of the higher human faculties had always been properly appreciated. In harmony with our biogenetic law. modem us tha-t the higher reason is not found in savages. biology is realistic that is to say. Veddahs.THE WONDERS OF LIFE animals. This craving has only been awakened and developed by the progress of civilization. it regards its object. Kant would not then have produced his theory of a priori knowledge. and from the barbarian to the half -civilized. they never reflect on the ground of their existence or think of the past or future. though they know and give names to individual trees. Here we have the root of the errors which are distinctive of dualism and the prevailof civilization ing metaphysical transcendentalism. as really existing — 90 . have not the general idea of trees.

with Plato. or the empirical world. with Kant. the eternal "idea. a function of the brain. the organisms (and all other things) exist only in our mind (in the images in our cortex). and denying that there tinction not. Hence is . and that there may be other features of organisms that he beyond our means of perception But it by no means follows from this that. and may even be definitely connected with the very opposite. Plato and Kant. so idealism is usually identical with dualism. Our pure monism (or hylozoism) agrees with realism in recognizing the unity of being of each things. The physiology and ontogeny of the brain (together with the comparative anatomy and histology of the phronema) prove that the soul of man is. we know that these cognitive organs. while the spiritual or transcendental world organism. experience. are imperfect. At the same time. The two most influential representatives of dualism. and the knowledge they bring us. altogether. dynamism or energism." or. As realism generally coincides with monism." Realism is not identical with materialism. the features of is any essential disbetween its knowable phenomenon and its internal hidden essence (or noumenon). The existence of the latter is known to us only by the emotions or by practical reason but we can have no idea of its nature. immortal and endowed with a priori knowledge.THE SCIENCE OF LIFE which are to an extent knowable through our senses {sciisoriuni) and organ of thought {phronema). immaterial being. the "thing in itself.physical 9? . The chief error of this theoretical idealism is the assumption that the soul is a peculiar. Natsaid that there were two totally distinct worlds. is alone accessible to our ure. like that of all other vertebrates. this idealist theory of knowledge is just as inconsistent with realistic biology as is the psycho . whether the latter be called. and inseparably bound up with this organ. as our idealist opponents say.

In correspondence with the long-established distinction between the plant and the animal. zoology and botany. I will briefly resume the chief points of it. philology. psychology. the two chief branches of biology. is often lost sight of in the specialization of study the philosophical task is neglected in favor of the empirical. there arose at the very beginning of scientific activity that field of inquiry which deals with human life in all its aspects the anthropological disciplines and the so-called "mental sciences" (history. Since the theory of descent has proved man's origin from vertebrate ancestors. and are represented by two different chairs in the universities. and uses them for worth in the education of the young. this common aim . may have a good influence for a time. have developed side by side. I went into this somewhat fully in my academic speech But on the development and aim of zoology in 1869.). which is in- have been developed independently in the course of the nineteenth century ought to remain in touch with one another. and thus anthropology has been recognized as a part of zoology. dependent of their theoretical untenability.THE WONDERS OF LIFE parallelism of Wundt or the psycho-monism of more recent physiologists. if they are to attain their high purpose of framing a unified science embracing the whole field of organic life. an immortal soul. we have begun to un- — 92 . with practical idealism. The con- fusion that has ensued makes it desirable to determine the mutual positions of the various biological disciplines. When this presents the symbols or ideals of a personal God. and the it their pedagogical free-will as ethical stimuli. The many branches of biology which Unfortunately. Independently of these. as this essay is little known. and co-operate with a clear apprehension of their task. which in the end issues in a comIt is otherwise plete dualism of body and mind. etc.

and to combine them in a comprehensive science of man. biology. and the work requires a — 93 . In each of these four fields we may then distinguish morphology (the science of forms) and physiology (the science of functions) as the two chief . or unicellular organisms. lowest unicellular representatives of both kingdoms. physics and chemistry are especially demanded the observation of vital activities and the attempt to discover the physical laws that govern them. or cytology. leads us to mark out four chief provinces of research: protistology (the science of One very important section The practical division of of it the unicellulars) botany (the science of plants). divisions of scientific work. on the tissue cells in the histon. The cell theory. It seems desirable to do the same for the science of the protists. as an elementary part of anat- both botany and zoology. according to the extent of the organic kingdom. are so intimately connected. and throw so great a light. omy. As a correct knowledge of human anatomy and physiology is indispensable for scientific medicine. The immense extent and the great importance of this science have justified the creation of late years of special chairs of anthropology. and anthropology (the science of man). as independent rudimentary organisms. the primitive plants (protophyta) and the primitive animals (protozoa). that we must regard as a sign of progress the recent proposal of Schaudinn to found a special institute and journal for the science of protists. The special methods and means of observation differ entirely in the two sections.THE SCIENCE OF LIFE derstand the inner historic connection between these various branches of anthropology. zoology (the science of animals). or multicellular organism. has the to be dealt with in but is bacteriology. In morphology the work of description and comparison is the most important as regards both outer form and In physiology the exact methods of inner structure.

The broad field of morphology may be divided into anatomy and biogeny. organism. Biogeny. etc. Tectology investigates the features of the structure in the organic individual. in other words. it traces the genealogy of species. and as metamorphology (or the science of metamorphoses) it follows the subsequent changes in postfoetal life (chapter xvi. and endeavors . studies both the external form and the inner structure. tissues. and fills up the gaps in this by . Anatomy.THE WONDERS OF LIFE particularly large apparatus.). and the composition of the body out of various parts (cells. — — . which we call 94 . comparative anatomy and ontogeny. or the science of the evolution of organisms. and organs) Promorphology describes the real form of these individual parts and of the whole body. but they are most intimately connected by the biogenetic law. orders. the study of the foniied organism.). of the chief divisions in the animal and plant worlds. to reduce them mathematically to certain fundamental forms (chapter viii. these two sciences have long been studied separately. as embryology it observes the growth of the individual within the foetal membranes. The science of the vital phenomena. The task of phylogeny is to that is trace the evolution of the organic stem or species to say. and the other with the developing. which we describe as classes. We may distinguish as its two branches the science of structures (tectology) and the science of fundamental forms (promorphology). and have been handed over to the medical faculty in the division of the academic curriculum. is also divided into two parts the science of the individual (ontogeny) and of the stem or species (phylogeny) each follows its own peculiar methods and aims. It relies on the facts of paleontology. Ontogeny deals with the development of the individual organism from the beginning of its existence to death. the one deals with the fully developed.

as it deals with geographical and topographical distribution). or the science of biological geography. Psychology is But the study of the directly connected with the latter. of ogy). this To distribution (also called (also recently called etholthe science of the domestic side of organic life. the life-needs of organisms and their relations to other and oecology or bionomy organisms with which they parasitism) . is for the most part the physiology of work. organic and inorganic. relations. live (biocenosis. activities of movement and sensation. / .THE SCIENCE OF LIFE physiology. or ergology. symbiosis. nutrition and reproduction animal ergology studies the animal . also belongs to physiology in the wider sense. it investigates the functions of the living organism. and has to reduce them as closely as possible to physical and chemical laws. Vegetable ergology deals with what are called the vegetative functions. or the physiology of belong chorology. relations of the organism to its environment. we call this part of it perilogy.

CO ON NO OO O o o pq .

are constant. or World-spirit. Substance alone is eternal and unchangeable. The law of substance teaches us that it reveals itself to us in an infinite variety of forms. it will also undeniably have an end. whether we call this all-embracing world-being Nature. and philosophy Maintenance of lot of — — — ImmortaHty — of the uni- — — death evil life is NOTHING perpetual constant but change! All existence is a is flux of "being and becoming"! That the broad lesson of the evolution of the world. but that its essential matter and energy. Life and death are united. or God. That will be the fate of the sun and its encircling planets. and of the organisms that now people the earth the fate of the bacterium and of man. Just as the existence of every organic individual had a beginning. — court.V DEATH Life and death Death of the protists and tissue-organisms cellulars Causes of physiological death Using up of the plasma Regeneration Biotonus Perigenesis of the plastidulcs: memory of the biogens Regeneration of protists and — — Individual — death tissue-organisms The life — Senile debility— Disease— Necrobiosis— — — — Chance — Optimism andProvidence — Suicideand fate Eternal and self-redemppessimism — — Medicine tion — Redemption from — Spartan selection. All individual forms of substance are doomed to destruction. However. or Cosmos. philosophers and bioloirrevocably hold very different views as to the real causes of gists this destiny. because they 7 have not a clear idea 97 of the nature of . Most of their opinions are at once out of attributes. taken as a whole or in its various parts.

or of the plasm. If death is the cessation of life. that " life consists in a continuous alternation between life which we shown us that it is. And if this conception is admitted. Recent physiologists. the natural causes of physiological death are fully described. and so can have no adequate idea of its termination The inquiry into the nature of organic instituted in the second chapter has the ultimate analysis. I have shown in the eleventh chapter of the Riddle that it is untenable. 98 . Among the numerous and contradictory views of recent biologists on the nature of death we find many errors and misunderstandings.THE WONDERS OF LIFE —death. living thing absolutely incompetent to discharge any further vital function until the whole of its plasma-molecules are destroyed. " miracle of life is in essence nothing but the metabolism of the living matter. in " life. in opposition to modern vitalism. not finally dead that is to say. particularly noticeable in the contradictory views which of reconstruction Hence a is — — have been elicited by August Weismann's theory (1882) of the immortality of the unicellulars. and as each of the molecules of pro- we have toplasm must break up again shortly after its formation. have pointed out. we must mean by that the cessation of the alternation between the upbuild and the dissolution of the molecules of protoplasm." In the exhaustive justification with which Kassowitz follows up this definition in the fifteenth chapter of his General Biology. especially Max Verworn and Max Kassowitz. a chemical process. due to a lack of clear distinction between the duration of the living matter in This is general and that of the individual life-form. in death to deal only with the definite cessation in the destroyed plasma-molecules. The the upbuild and the decay of the highly complicated chemical unities of the protoplasm. we may rightly say that we know what we mean by death.

and a part of the infusoria and rhizopods among the The immortality mann — . The chief of these is the important theory of the germ-plasm and the consequent opposition to the inheritance of acquired characteristics. the former immortal. The latter alone are mortal. "between the unicellular and the multicellular lies the introduction of physiological that is to say." We must say. cell the into individual life is destroyed when a splits two daughter-cells. but on the continuity the metabolic life-movement through a series of generations. of the unicellulars. interesting work gives most valuable support to the theory of evolution. protozoa. I am Precisely because this obliged to return to the point. for those which simply propagate by cleavage.) the diatomes and paulotomes among the protophy ta. not on the in- — — dividuality of the living matter. Weismann deduces from this a radical distinction between the unicellular and the multicellular organisms. But if the chief stress in the question is laid. that the physiological individuals (bionta) among the protista are just as limited in their duration as among the histona. and maintains Darwin's theory of selection and its consequences with great effect.DEATH But his theory as the distinguished zoologist has again taken up with energy in his instructive Lectures on the Theory of the Descent (1902). the chromacea and bacteria among the monera (chapter ix. normal death. on which Weishas laid so much stress. can only be sustained for a small part of the protists even in his own sense namely. I feel it is necessary to point out considerable weaknesses and dangerous errors in it. and has added to it erroneous observations on the nature of death. One might reply with Weismann 99 that in this case the . in opposition to this. Strictly speaking. it is just as correct to affirm a partial immortality of the plasm for the multicellulars as for of the unicellulars.

But that is not true of the majority of the protozoa. is smaller than the decaying outer portion. IOC .THE WONDERS OF LIFE dividing unicellular organism lives on as a whole in its offspring. and forms a "corpse. In the highly develciliata the chief nucleus is lost. Weismann's view of the secondary "introduction of physiological death in the multicellulars" is just as untenable as his theory of the immortality of the unicellulars. The curious conclusions which Weismann reached in developing this theory of v\^ould . and only use the mortal for rearing posterity. have been pointed out by Kassowitz in the forty-ninth chapter of his Gen- In my opinion. before there can be any further multiplication by simple cleavage. which is incompatible with its original immortalit}^ Natural selection thus kill the immortal and preserve only the mortal it would interfere with the multiplication of the immortals in the bloom of their years. which lives on in the offspring. no dead remains of the living matter. in most of the sporozoa and rhizopoda. left behind." In the large . which becomes the corpse. death. only introduced by selection when the multicellular organism has reached a — — certain stage of complexit}^ of structure. According to this opinion. the death of the histona both the metaphyta and metazoa is a purposive outcome of adaptation. this paradoxical theory of death has no more basis than the germ-plasm theory he has ingeniously connected with it. and that we have no corpse. We may admire the eral Biology. which generally propagate by spore formation. rhizopods (thalamophora and radiolaria) the sporeforming inner part. However. and there must be oped from time to time a conjugation fertilization of their of two cells and a mutual secondary nuclei. only one portion of the unicellular organism is used for this the other portion dies. and the striking contradictions to his of the own theory germ-plasm which he fell into.

we confine our attention to normal or physiological death without considering the innumerable causes of accidental or pathological death. or an apparatus in which the human intelligence has put together various parts for the attainment of a certain end. and only a few weeks or months in the arctic circle or on the snow-covered Alps. parasites. however. But the nearer we get to its foundations the less solid we find them. On the other hand. to be one of the soundest and most indispensable supports of the theory of descent. etc. The organism has been compared. the larger vertebrates are not uncommonly a hundred years old. This comparison is inapplicable to the lowest organisms. it is often offspring by heredity. mishaps. to an artificially constructed mechanism. with Lamarck and Darwin. the monera. and many trees live for a thousand The normal span of life has been determined in years. Moreover. which I hold. not one of the many supporters of the theory of germ-plasm has been able to make profitable use of it in the twenty years since it was first published.DEATH subtlety and depth of the speculations with which Weismann has worked out his elaborate molecular theory. many one-year plants and lower animals live only a summer in our temperate climate. Normal death takes place in all organisms when the limit of the hereditary term of life is reached. all species in the course of their evolution by adaptation to special conditions. protophyta and protozoa live only a few hours. and has then been transmitted to In the latter. others several months or years. by illness. which are devoid of such 101 . it has had an evil influence in so far as it denied the inheriting of acquired characters. On the other hand. on the modem "machine theory" of life. In discussing the question of the real causes of death. This limit varies enormously Many of the unicellular in different classes of organisms. subject to considerable modifications.

As soon as this In the case of ceases death takes place {cf. chapter ix. other organisms the comparison is useful in so far as the orderly co-operation of the various organs or parts accomplishes a certain task by the conversion of virtual into active force. and. — He says: "The biogens 102 are the real . On the other hand. the two have another important feature in common in the limited span of life which is involved A locomotive. or the recuperation of parts that have been rendered useless. telegraph. But the great difference between the two is that in the case of the machine the regularity is all due to the purposive and consciously acting will of man. chapter x.THE WONDERS OF LIFE a mechanical structure. whereas in the case of the organism it is produced by unconscious natural selection without any design. in spite of all So in the case of all repairing. in their being used up. we find it to be a universal vital function of the greatest importance. will last only a certain number of years. become at last useless. or the replacing of the plasma-particles which are constantly used up by dissimilation {cf. in the widest sense. this is equally true of the organella of the protist and the organs of the histon.). When we take the idea of regeneration. Verworn has given the name of hiogens to the hypo- which I regard with thetical molecules of living matter Hering as endowed with memory. or piano. but sooner or later they cease to be of service. ship.). organisms. and become the cause of death. and (1875) have called plastidules. All their parts are worn out by long use. In these primitive "organisms without organs" (chromacea and bacteria) the sole cause of life is the invisible chemical structure of the plasm and the metabolism effected by this. It is true that the parts may be repaired or regenerated. the various parts are sooner or later worn out and rendered useless. The whole metabolism of the living organism consists in the assimilation of plasm.

a comprehensive survey of the interesting field of fiir regeneration processes. on the other hand. we can hardly wonder that they reach the most absurd and contradictory conthese experimental embryologists have ing conclusions from their clusions. it falls below one. we Ent'ivickeliingsniechanik. discover a continuous series 103 . and have partly urged them as objections to Darwinism. especially on the side what is called "mechanical embryology." Many of drawn far-reachsomewhat narrow experiments. which expresses itself in the great variety of vital phenomena. been made the subject of a good deal of comprehensive experiment. The phenomena and have of of late years of regeneration are extremely varied. When the bio tone increases." The relation of assimilation (the building-up of the biogens) to dissimilation (the decay of the biogens) may be ex- pressed by a fraction to which the a|d. In generation or reproduction groups of biogens (as germ- plasm) are released from the parent in consequence of redundant growth. and finally death. In their constant decay and reconstruction consists the process of life. It is of radical life. Most of these efforts betray a notable lack of general physiological and morphological knowledge. we have growth. when. and take no account of the fundamental correlation of embryology and stem history.DEATH vehicles of life. and form the foundation of new individuals. name hiotoniis is given importance in the various phenom- ena of variations in the size of this fraction are the cause of all change in the life-expression of The every organism. Many examples we of this will be found in the Archiv make When. however. They imagine that they have disproved the theory of selection. As they also generally ignore the biogenetic law. and the metabolism quotient becomes more than one. we have atrophy. New biogens are constructed in regeneration. and the biotone decreases.

which have the power many of regenerating the whole multicellular organism. In many of the lower tissue-plants and tissue-animals the communal link is very loose and the centralization slight. and grow into new 104 . the existence of the dividing Each half regenerates individual comes to an end. in turn. until unnucleated portion itself. only one of which contains the nucleus. moneron (a chromaceum or bacterium) divides two equal halves. this one alone grows into a complete nucleated cell. the memory of the plastidule. or cell-state. cleated into the simplest conceivable way by assimilation it. Odd cells or groups of cells may be set loose. as the nucleus becomes active as the central organ and regIf an infusorium is cut ulator of the metabolism. Perigenesis of the my ^^ ^^^ most primitive kinds of the Plastidule.THE WONDERS OF LIFE of development from the simplest repair of plasm in the unicellular protists to the sexual generation of the histona. being unable to regenerate In the multicellular body of the tissue-forming organisms we must distinguish between the partial death of the various cells and the total death of the whole organism. unicellular protists we find the phenomena of death and When an unnuregeneration in the simplest form. 1875). plays the chief part (cf. or even single cells. mode of metabolism and growth which accompanies these processes of regeneration. But of the higher histona have also the capacity to produce new individuals by regeneration from detached In the peculiar pieces of tissue. into two pieces. which they make up. dies. The sperm-cells and ova of the latter higher are redundant growth-products. or the unconscious retentive power of the bio gens. the itself in and growth. protophyta and protozoa it is more complicated. without any danger to the life of the whole histon. reaches the size of the In the nucleated cells of most of the parent organism.

thousands of cells die every day. the slighter we find Even the regenerative faculty of the several organs. In these cases a number of constant cell-individuals remain with their nucleus throughout life. Nevertheless. epidermic cells at the surface of the skin. the tissue-cells. solid groundwork of conservative cells. scdiim) — hydra. parasites and other enemies. is a "cell-state" in another sense. — used-up cells may be removed and In our own human replaced by regenerated new cells. such as many of the nervethen. nay. higher animals and plants. accidents and disease. in the bryopJiylluin. for instance. the cells of the salivary glands or the mucous On lining of the stomach. The few individuals who escape these accidental causes of death find the end of life in of — 105 . sense-cells. although a used-up portion of their cell- body may be replaced by regeneration from the cytoThus our human body. there are tissues that have little or nothing of this repairing power. etc. Every day. like that of all the plasm. the other hand. isolation from their necessary environment. as. pass away. But the higher the organization is developed and the closer the correlation of the parts and their co-operation in the life of the centralized stock or person. the blood-cells. organism. and are replaced by new cells of the same kind. the descendants which secure the further regeneration. muscle-cells. and so on. and are replaced by others that have arisen by cleavage of similar cells. many cells. thousands of its citizens. closely related to the stone-crop. or as well as in the common fresh-water polyp. this uninterrupted change of our personal- There is always a ity is never complete or general. and other polyps every bit that is cut off is capable of growing into a complete individual. as in that of the higher animals.DEATH In many of the algaj and liverworts (even individuals. every hour. Most organisms meet their death through external or accidental causes lack of sufficient food. however.

Each metaplasm in the body favors the inactive break-up of protoplasm. of life. and so also the formation of new metaplasms. As Kassowitz has lately pointed out. in the tissues and their component cells. which changes first occasion the partial death of particular sections. As. the skin dry and withered. because the chemical energy of the plasm gradually falls off from a certain height. so the muscles lose their energy. the great majority of men pass away through illness long before this normal term of life is reached. The modifications of the living matter which produce disease and premature death are called necrobioses. They consist partly of histolyses that is to say. All these normal processes of senile decay are caused by chemical changes in the plasm.THE WONDERS OF LIFE old age or senility. The death of the cells follows. degeneration of the io6 — . While the gradual decay of the bodily forces and the senile degeneration of the organs must necessarily cause the death of the soundest organism in the end. acciThese cause dents. the bones become fragile. The plasm loses more and more the power to replace by regeneration the losses it sustains by the vital functions. and then the total death of the whole individual. in the mental life. The external causes of this are the attacks of enemies and parasites. to normal death. in which dissimilation gains conIn the end they inevitably lead stantly on assimilation. the acme. the receptivity of the brain and the acuteness of the senses gradually decay. The cause of this senility and the ensuing natural death species of organisms is by the specific determined for each nature of their plasm. by the gradual decay of the organs and dwindling of their functions. and unfavorable conditions of life. the elasticity and endurance of the movements decrease. the senility of individuals consists in the inevitable increase in the decay of protoplasm and the metaplastic parts of the body which this produces.

chalky. we are bound to point out that reason cannot detect the shadow of a proof of the existence and action of this conscious Providence. This discovery has cut the ground from under the older notion of disease as a special entity. Pathology is a part of physiology. for instance. controlling the fate of individuals and determining their death. a devil. or "loving Father in heaven." We read daily in our journals of accidents and crimes of all kinds that cause the unexpected death of happy human beings. withering (mortification). or colliquation. has shattered. not only all the old superstitious ideas about disease and death. We may envy the childish temper for the confidence and hope which it derives from this belief. a physiological process. Every year we read with horror the statistics of the thousands of deaths from shipwreck and railway acci107 . with its pain. but also a number of important metaphysical dogmas which built upon them. in his epochmaking Cellular Pathology (1858). or a divine punishment. the naive belief in a conscious Providence. a under injurious and dangerous conditions. or metamorphoses of the plasm fatty. the ultimate ground must be sought in the physical and chemical processes in the plasm. or — amyloid metamorphoses of the cells. It was the great merit of Rudolph Virchow that he proved.DEATH cells by atrophy. dissolution. I do not fail to appreciate the great subvalue which such a trust in a protecting Provijective dence has for men amid their countless dangers. that all diseases in man and other organisms may be reduced to such modifications of the cells which make up the is tissues. so in abnormal or pathological. As in all normal vital phenomena. which has been made possible by modern physiology and pathology. Hence life disease. Such was. The natural physical explanation of death. mucous. and partly of mctaplasmosisms. But as we do not seek to have our emotions gratified by poetic fictions.

the reasons which forbid us to accept the personal immortality of the soul. from numbers of letters I have received an4 io8 theologians. as regards his life on earth. . have given. where I have dealt with fate. aim. then we are asked to believe in a loving Providence that has decreed the death of each of these poor mortals! are asked to console ourselves in face of the tragedy with the hollow phrases: "God's will be done. Convinced that there is no eternal life awaiting him. there is no better ground for such an ac- cusation. earthquakes and landslips." Simple children and dull believers may soothe themselves with such phrases. in the eleventh chapter of the Riddle.THE WONDERS OF LIFE And dents." or "God's ways are wonderful. but gained much. depend on mere "chance. he will strive all the more to brighten his life on earth and rationally improve his condition in harmony with that of If it is objected that then everything will his fellows. When our monistic and rational conception of death is described as dreary and hopeless. who prefer a full and fearless knowledge of the truth. providence. When these are displaced by progressive culture and science. I must refer the reader for my reply to the close of the fourteenth chapter of the Riddle. we may answer that the prevalent dualistic view is merely an outcome of hereditary habits of thought and mystic training in early youth. end." instead of being controlled by a conscious Providence or a moral order of the world. wars and epidemics. And if it is further claimed that our realistic view of life leads to pessimism. and chance. it will be clear that man has lost nothing. convinced. But as the most vehement attacks have been made on this chapter by metaphysicians of the prevailing school and by Christian I scientific I am I must return to the question here. We They no longer impose on educated people in the twentieth century.

. ontogeny. in his Idea of chief feature. Modern cosmology. how this theory still dominates the metaphysics of the majority of men. Heaven and of the World. the nature of which Dualistic idealism. generally combines the two. which will compensate them for all the pain and In the picturing of this suffering they endure here. and geology entirely exclude these pretty fictions from science. and modern psychology. but in most systems the two are mingled. and in twelve hours reaches the precisely opposite direction. in spite of Copernicus and Laplace. Pure and consistent realism is It takes generally neither optimistic nor pessimistic. __ is neither good nor bad. future life the mediaeval geocentric idea still forms the Troelslund has shown. astronomy. physiology." Other believers endeavor to be still more concrete. sung daily in sermons and speeches and festive orations. and phylogeny rigor\ ously refuse an inch of ground for athanatism. and distributes them be/ I 109 . one or other of these tendencies is consistently systems and exclusively worked out. that no other dogma is so firmly established and highly valued as athanatism. however. the world as it is. the hope that a better life awaits them beyond the grave. The orator extends his right hand "upward" to the infinite starry space of heaven. or the belief in personal imMost men will not give up at any price mortality. and point out definite celestial bodies as the homes of immortal souls. heaven is still for most people the semicircular blue glass bell that overarches the We still hear the praises of our life in this heaven earth. Optimism regards the world on its good and bright and admirable side: pessimism looks to the shades and In some philosophic and religious tragedies of life.DEATH conversation with educated people of all classes. forgetting that the radius of the direction he is pointing towards changes every second. a unified whole. and becomes "downward.

that his infinite goodness. both practically and theoretically. would be more intelligible in the case of a one-sided and nebulous metaphysician like Hegel. " to the energism of Ostwald. The founder of systematic optimism was Gottfried Leibnitz. The man who knows the real features of the world. and almighty creator of the world") had with perfect consciousness created "the best of all possible worlds". of the dualistic religions." and the next as a glorious city of joy and hapThis view is a conspicuous feature in most piness. w^isdom.THE WONDERS OF LIFE two worlds it describes this world as a vale of tears. Leibnitz gave a compendious statement of his system in his Monadology {1^14. In his Theodicy (17 10) he taught that God (the "all-wise.). who has honestly confronted the tragic struggle for life that rules throughout living nature. but is reall}^ a form of dynamism. bind all toof . While the one holds the universe to be the best. He gether in a substantial imity. have only a limited capacity for development." Pessimism is the direct opposite of systematic optimism. but that the individual human being. on the minds of educated people. and has still a considerable influence. as the central monad. who held that "all that is real is rational and all that is rational is real. all-good. and power are seen everywhere in the pre-established harmony of things. or a monism somewhat akin tween its . can scarcely understand how an acute and informed thinker like It Leibnitz could entertain such optimism as this. and humanity taken as a whole. whose philosophy sought to achieve an ingenious harmony between divergent systems. no . who has sympathy for the infinite sum of misery and want of every kind in the life of men. taught that the world consists of an infinite number monads (which almost correspond to our psychic atoms) but this pluralism was converted into a monism by making God.

strict practical has drawn the conclusion from pessimism. He considers it " — can only survive by destroying one another." However. will to live. Edward Hartmann. Truly optimism cuts so sorry a figure in this theatre of sin. Both these Hindoo religions were orginally pessimistic. declaring that they were the most perfect of all religions. Most educated people III still look upon . This pessimistic conception has found expression in the and most popular religions of Asia. To the palpable sophistry of Leibnitz. and death that we should have to regard it as a piece of sarcasm if Hume had not given us an explanation of its origin (the wish to flatter God and hope for some result from it). in which the capacity for pain grows with knowledge. who would prove this world the best of all possible. and importing their leading ideas into his own oldest and a glaring absurdity to attempt to prove this miserable world the best of all possible ones this cock-pit of tortured and suffering beings. we can oppose a strict and honest proof that it is the worst of all possible. and at the same time atheistic and idealistic. The theist who regards life as a gift of God may hesitate to reject or return it although the offering of one's self as a victim for other men is considour — ered a high virtue. neither Schopenhauer nor the most important of modem pessimists. and so reaches its height in man. of all possible worlds. may of suicide as the logical consequence of serve as an occasion to glance at the curious and contradictory views that are expressed about There are few problems of life (apart from immortality and the freedom of the will) on which such absurd and contradictory things have been said even down to own time. who system. Brahmanism Buddhism. Schopenhauer especially pointed out this. and put an end to suffering by The mention pessimism it.DEATH the other regards it as the worst. suffering. That would be to deny the suicide.

blind chance plays an important part. not brand it pharisaically as "self-murder. Hence. of the Riddle. describe it as self -redemption. the real cause of personal existence is not the favor of the Almighty. therefore. — — intolerable suffering is really an act of redemption. without any fault of his. this contemptuous phrase 112 . but the reasons it alleges are ridiculously slight. there come only care and need." The advance of embryology in the last thirty years has it clear that the individual life of a man (and all other vertebrates) begins at the moment when the male In this sperm-cell and the maternal ovum coalesce. and look on it with Christian sympathy. should. and are not improved by having the mantle of religion wrapped about them. If. sickness and misery of every kind he has the unquestionable right to put an end to his sufferings by death." We As a fact. In the Middle England) Ages. from the fertilized ovum if. Every religion assents to this under certain conditions." It is true that the conventional morality condemns suicide under any circumstances.THE WONDERS OF LIFE and in some countries (such as the attempt is punished by law. As Schopenhauer says: "Clearly disgraceful burial. The voluntary death by which a man puts an end to scientific sense. as in so many other important aspects of life taking "chance" in the made — which I have explained in chapter xiv. very often this consequence of the act of love has been anything but desired. suicides were punished by a suicide as a great sin. then. there is nothing in the world to which a man has a It is simply plainer right than his own life and person. cast it from thee. but the sexual love of one's earthly parents. the circumstances of life come to press too hard on the poor being who has thus developed. instead of the hoped-for good. when a hundred thousand men were burned alive for heresy or witchcraft. ridiculous for criminal justice to deal with suicide. even Christianity when it says: "If thine eye scandalize thee.

we see thousands of contemptible characters prospering because they have been able to deceive their fellows by unscrupulous speculations. he usually deserves our sympathy. the promotion of hygiene and education and the bodily and mental welfare of citizens but we are still very far from the attainable ideal of general prosperity and happiness which reason dictates to every civilized nation. fully recognize the advance that social politics has made in improving the conditions of the poorer classes. or because they have flattered and served the higher authorities. On the other hand. with the best will in the world. they his life for his Modern as so often happens. contempt. Misery and want are increasing among the poor. It is no wonder that the statistics of suicide increase so much in the more civilized communities. they cannot find work. thousands are hungry because. scription. as the division of labor and over-population increase. while the suicide dies volunHence. But they never secure to each citizen the means of honorable existence of his personality development —not even the right to work by which and free he I may maintain himself and his family. . Our conventional morality is. full of senseless states have introduced con- other men that every citizen shall give up on command. No feeling man who has any real "Christian love of his neighbor" will grudge his 8 113 . and kill as many country as he can (an admirable commentary on the demand Scriptural "Love your enemies") for some political reason or other. and certainly not punishment. Thousands of strong and active men come to grief every year without any fault of theirs. since murder is the taking away of a man's life against his will. thousands are sacrificed to the heartless demands of our iron age of machinery with its exacting technical and industrial requirements. often precisely because they were quiet and honest.DEATH has no meaning. not tarily. contradictions.

Our asylums grow bigger and more numerous every year. as compassionate men." Luther explains this as a prayer to be saved "from all evil of body and soul" in this life and the next. But all this has caused a much number much has to bear a The brain greater expenditure of nerve-energy. The number and variety and gravity in civilized of these have grown in art communities all in the nine- teenth century. Some of these evils are quite incurable. and other diseases of the nerves.THE WONDERS OF LIFE suffering brother the eternal rest and the freedom from pain which he has obtained by his self -redemption. we have naturally to set aside the superstitious ideas of the Middle Ages regarding the future life. When we consider this in the light of our monistic principles. and we have sanatoria on every side in which the baited victim of modern civilization seeks refuge from his evils. and deal only with the petition as regards this evils life. neurasthenia. notwithstanding the progress we of have made and science and the rational reform our personal and social life. carry off more victims every year. especially. We can make our domestic and public life pleasanter. the body is more stimulated and overworked than it was a hundred years ago. and is worn out earlier. and avail ourselves of a far greater of luxuries. than was possible to our grandfathers a hundred years ago. The seventh petition of the Lord's Prayer. much greater strain. Many of these poor creatures look forward to their redemption from evil and the end of their miserable lives. Civilization has gained infinitely in value by the change we have made in our conceptions of time and space in this age of steam and electricity. which is repeated daily by millions of Christians. we should be justified 114 . is: "Deliver us from evil. and the sufferers have to meet a certain death in terrible pain. Many diseases of modern civilization are making appalling progress. The important question arises whether.

The precepts of Christian charity which the gospels rightly place in the very foreground of morality. noblest and finest functions of the human brain. I start from my own that sympathy is not only one of the personal opinion. They have their first roots in the sexual reproduction of the lower animals. Max Stirner. and this part of its system will survive long after its dogmas have sunk into oblivion. Christian teaching is most valuable. and. but they were successfully urged by him and his followers at a time when refined selfishness threatened the Roman civilization with decay. However." the higher vertebrates. this lofty duty must not be confined to men. to all animals whose brain-organization seems to point to the possession of sensation and a consciousness of pleasure and pain. commit a biological error when they would substitute their morality of the strong for universal charity. but also one of the first conditions of the social life of the higher animals. the sexual love and the care of the young on which the maintenance of the species depends. for instance. and when they ridicule sympathy as a weakness of character or an ethical blunder of ChristianIt is just in its insistence on sympathy that the ity. Thus. and. in fact. it seems advisable to deal with it here. This question is of great importance. in the case of the domestic animals which we use daily in our service.DEATH out their wish and ending their sufferings by a painless death. Hence] the modern prophets of pure egoism. but extended to "our relations. and which have an in carrying 115 . as opinions differ very much on the subject. both in practical philosophy and in juridical and medical practice. were not first discovered by Christ.. etc. Friedrich Nietzsche. and are even found among all the higher animals that live a social life. These natural principles of and altruism had arisen thousands of years sympathy before in human society.

and they ask for redemption from evil. I owe to it not only the solid empirical foundation of the special study of my life. very often this painless end is a blessing both to the invalids and their families. are rightly put to death and relieved from pain when they fall hopeIn the same way we have the lessly ill in old age. While I am dealing with this important and for the of medical conscience — — difficult question of social ethics. as I have found undoubted psychic care to affinity to ourselves. logical functions. have no scruple about cutting short the sufferings of the incurable by a dose of morphia or cyanide of potassium when they desire it. to put an end to the sufferings Some severe and incurable disease of our fellow-men. I may take the opportunity to consider the general attitude It is now half of physicians to the monistic philosophy. other physicians and most jurists are of opinion that this act sympathy and without dogmatic sympathy is not right. Many sicians. 116 . — happily for me and m}^ patients! human organism. medical men hold very different opinions on the matter. but the thorough acquaintance with the my its anatomic structure and physiowhich I then obtained has been of incalculable service to me. with which sufferings. who practise their profession in experienced phya spirit of prejudice. — I practised the profesexaminasion only for a short time after I had passed tions in 1857. if not the duty. right. should like to know why.THE WONDERS OF LIFE we must take and mitigate their Faithful dogs and noble horses. a century since I visited the wards in the Julius hospital It is true that at Wiirtzburg as a medical student. that it is the duty of the physician to maintain the life of his I patients as long as he can in all circumstances. makes life unbearable for them. increase their pleasures in conversation with them. we have lived for years and which we love. However. or is even a crime. However.

experienced. forced by his 117 . physiology. Religiously educated by pious parents. What would the immortal soul do on the other side of eternity when it is already utterly ruined in this life. but also the monistic tendency of my whole system. The psychologist is very instructive for the philosopher. or has placed him in an environment in which. the science of the diseased organism. which he sees accumulated before him every year in the It is lives of families and states. or was even bom as an idiot? How can a just God condemn the criminal to the fires of hell when he himself has tainted the man with an hereditary bias. The scholastic metaphysicians who still regard the chairs of philosophy at our universities as — ogy also their — monopoly would have avoided most of their if they had had a thorough training in human anatomy. and had then. ontogeny. dualistic errors who retain the conventional belief in the immortality of the soul and God. he was. and endowed with keen sensitiveness. seeing the absence of And how free-will. As the medical training in its widest sense inand so should include psycholcludes anthropology its value for speculative philosophy cannot be exaggerated. after long struggles. crime was a necessity for him? can this all-loving God answer for the immeasurable physicians of want and miser}^ and pain and unhappiness. a profound insight into the mental life which no speculative philosophy could There are few experienced and thoughtful give him. One of my medical colleagues was an old. acquires. cities and hospitals? no wonder that the old saying ran: Ubi ires medici. duo stmt athei (Of three doctors two are sure to be atheists). and sympathetic physician who had travelled all over the world. and phylogeny. Even pathology. as director of a large hospital.DEATH zoology. been sum a close witness of the sufferings of humanity. by the study of mental disease and especially the visiting of the asylum wards.

whose constant entertainment is an eternal and merciless play of being and becoming. and in 1888 there were 70. If it is true that an intelligent Deity rules the world. lepers.82 per thousand) thus." However. In France. and I have been just as unable to discover throughout the whole world a single trace of a moral order or a beneficent providence. and he said to me: "I have been unable to reconcile belief in the — immortality of the soul and the freedom of my psychological experiences. people with cancer. have a strong proof of this in the statistics of lunacy We and the growth asylums of (six of asylums and nerve-sanatoria.THE WONDERS OF LIFE medical studies to part with the faith of his boyhood We were talking like myself. building up and destroying. we do still find here and there informed and intelligent physicians who adhere the will with to the three central dogmas of the immense power metaphysics a proof of dogmatic tradition and religious of — prejudice. more than quite incurable (four thousand from paresis). dogma the widespread bound under all circumstances to maintain and prolong life. artificially and their sufferings are carefully prolonged. but an all-powerful demon.589 in the asylums (or 1. the absolute number of the unsound rose nearly 30 per 118 . — are kept alive in our modem communities.38 per thousand of the population). in the course of seventeen years. without the slightest profit to themselves or the general body. .443 (or one-tenth of them were them suffering 1. about the great mysteries of life shortly before his death. 51 In Prussia alone there were thousand . he cannot be a God of love. in his twenty-first year.048 lunatics cared for in the in Berlin) in 1890. etc. there were 49. belief that We must class as a traditional is man — of incurables — lunatics. in 187 1. even when it has become a source of pain to the incurable and utterly useless Hundreds of thousands of endless trouble to his friends.

as well as their mental energy and capacity. in the case of other incurables and great sufferers (from cancer. But I ask: What good 119 does it do to humanity .DEATH cent. five-sixths per If the total population of Europe is put hundred and ninety to four hundred millions. while the total population only increased In our day the number of lunatics in 5. and of these more than two hundred thousand are incurable. civilized countries is. what a huge private and public expenditure! How much of this pain and expense could be spared if people could make up their minds to free the incurable from thousand. advantages of this Spartan selection for the improveamong many savage ment Creation) there of the race in 1868 (chapter vii. of the History of was a storm of pious indignation in the religious journals. but be determined by a commission of competent and conscientious medical men. as always happens when pure reason ventures to oppose the current ]jrejudices and traditional beliefs. and under the control of an authoritative commission.6 per cent. at three torments by a dose of morphia! Naturally this act of kindness should not be left to the discretion of an individual physician. the "redemption from evil" should only be accomplished by a dose of some painless and rapid poison when they have expressed a deliberate wish (to be afterwards juridically proved) for this. for instance). (29. their bodily strength and beauty.6). We find the same custom to-day When I pointed out the races. So. we have at least two million lunatics among them. on the average. to the old custom of doing away with new-born children who were bom weakly or crippled. What an enormous mass of suffering these figures indicate for the invalids themselves. and what a vast amount of trouble and sorrow for their families. The ancient Spartans owed a good deal of their their indescribable famous bravery.

idiots. our life for our brethren." this is equally true of the social customs and morals on which laws and rights are founded. when it only causes The truth is. the useless pain to us and our friends. Sentiment should never be allowed to usurp the place of reason in these weighty ethical questions. That is well seen in Kant's dualism. It has no more to do with the attainment of the truth than what is called revelation. but a very dangerous. like an eternal sickness. however irrational and superstitious be its Pious morality of this sort is often really foundation. "Laws and rights creep on the deepest immorality. As I pointed out in the first chapter of the Riddle. etc. sentiment is a very amiable.THE WONDERS OF LIFE to maintain artificially and rear the thousands of are born every with an hereditary burden of incurable disease? year Is it not better and more rational to cut off from the cripples. deaf-mutes. first this who unavoidable misery which their poor lives will bring to themselves and their families ? It is no use to Christianity also bids us reply that religion forbids it.. opposition is only due to sentiment and the power of conventional morality that is to say. function of the brain. and to cast it from us give up when it hurts us that is to say. to the hereditary bias which is clothed in early youth with the mantle of — — religion. for his nmndtis intclligihilis is essentially an outcome of his religious sentimentality .

. archiplasm. or special modifications of the general matter. These are special varieties of the general idea of plasm. Hugo Mohl. we mean living_„matter. in the widesJLseasc of the word. but this older and historically important designation has suffered so many changes of meaning through the variety of its applications that it is better now to use it only in the narrower sense. who first introduced the 121 . which are formed from the word "plasm" with a qualifying prefix. and several new names have been invented. such as metaplasm.I PLASM Plasm — of proto— character — — — character — — structure of plasm — Work of plasm — Protoplasm and metaplasm — Structures of metaplasm — Frothy structure— Skeletal structure — Fibrous structure — Granular structure — Molecular structure — Plasma molecules — Plastidules and biogens — Micella and biophora — Caryoplasm and cytoplasm — Nuclear matter— Chromatin and achromin — Nucleolus and centrosoma — Caryotheka and caryolymph — Cellular matter — Plasma products — Internal plasma products — External membranes — Intercellular matter— plasma products — Definition the universal living substance plasm. Moreover. plasm.or all bodies that are found to constitute the material foundations of the phenomena of It is usual to give this matter the name of protolife. The botanist. the BY plasm. and so on. chemically and morpholoi^ically Physical Viscous condition Chemical analysis Colloid Albuminoid molecules Eleinentary of albumin is - Cell Cuticular matter. recent research on protoplasm has been greatly developed.

and often forms a varying net-work or skeleton in the watery is fluid in the cell. It was only discovered at a later date that the chemical composition of the nucleus is closely akin to that of the cell-body. the outer and softer mass which we now call the cell-body {cellctis or cytosoma) seemed to be a formless and only chemically — definable protoplasm. comes from a failure to formulate clearly the difference cell-theory The between the two essential elements of the modern notion of the cell the anatomic distinction between the nucleus and the body of the cell. and has led to great confusion. plasm. protoplasm that is to say. conceived it in a purely chemical." which — found on the inner surface of the cell-wall. raixing of the chemical and the morphological ideas of protoplasm has been very mischievous in recent It generally biology. early chemical idea of protoplasm or. It was also taken in this sense by Max Schultze. like Oscar Hertwig and other I intend to retain this recent cytologists. It is important to notice that Mohl. sense. the first (proton) or earliest formation of the organism. the viscous matter that Schleiden called ''cell-mucus. and introduced an important reform of the — — which we will see later.THE WONDERS OF LIFE name "protoplasm" in 1846. Mohl gave the name of "primordial skin" to this im- portant wall-layer (the chief element of the plant-cell). The internal nucleus (or car yon) had the appearance of a solid. the author of the name. morphologically distinct constituent of the cell. briefly. not a morphological. and called the material of it. as being chemically different from the other parts of the cell. and that we may properly associate the caryoplasm of the one with the cytoplasm of the other under the general heading of 122 . and exhibits characteristic movements. definite. who pointed out (in i860) its extreme significance and wide distribution in all living cells. used it to designate a part of the contents of the ordinary plant-cell namely.

it is best compared to a cold jelly or solution of glue. Active living protoplasm cannot strjctly be described as either fluid or solid in the physical sense. Hence we are for the most part dependent on the imperfect. but with the important difference that it is very variable in in the case of J23 . fluid. Just as we find the latter substance in all stages between the solid and the fluid.PLASM plasm. the other materials that we find in the living organism are products or derivatives of the active All plasm. In every case where we have with great difficulty succeeded in examining the plasm as far as possible and separating it from the plasma-products. which generally amounts to a half of its volume and The water is distributed between the plasma weight. and can never be had pure in any quantity. and often — ambiguous. and gaseous. tions of inorganic matter solid. so we find protoplasm. it can rarely be isolated in its purity. it has the appearance of a colorless. molecules. results of microscopic and microchemical research. The cause of this softness is the quantity of water contained in the living matter. especially the chemical ones. rendered somewhat dilhcult from the circumstance said) — its that the plasm is. In view of the extraordinary significance which we must assign to the plasm as the universal vehicle of all the vital phenomena (or "the physical basis of life. or the ultimate particles of living matter." as — Huxley all is it is very important to understand clearly This properties. It presents an intermediate stage between the two which is best — described as viscous. viscous substance. closely bound up with other substances the various plasma products. in most of the organic cells. in much the same way as it is in the crystals of salts. the chief physical property of which is its peculiar thickness and The physicist distinguishes three condiconsistency.

THE WONDERS OF LIFE quantity in the plasm. As I cannot deal here with the very extensive. elaborate." or a "mixture of a small quantity of solid " matter with a good deal of fluid As Richard Neumeister well observes: "We seek the nature of protoplasm very in the peculiar processes which take place in its conit is . this capacity of absorption has definite limits in each variety of plasm. which is very important for the performance of the vital actions. not a "mixture of different substances. — — 124 . In spite of the innumerable and careful investigations which have been made of it by the ablest physiologists and chemists in the second half of the nineteenth century. we must clearly understand that protoplasm in the most general sense in which we here take a chemical substance. through confusion of the chemical and and morphological features of plasm. living plasm limit. and the mobility of its molecules. we are still far from a satisfactory solution of this fundamental problem of biology. However. and contradictory literature of the subject. We can thus understand the contradictory views that are still put forward by distinguished chemists and physiologists. This is due partly to the extraordinary difficulty of isolating pure living plasm and subjecting it to chemical analysis. part of the whole of biological chemistry. I must be content to give a brief summary of the conclusions I have reached by my reading and my own studies of plasm (begun in 1859). To begin with. is lutely resists the penetration of not soluble in water. On this depends the capacity for absorption or imbibition in the plasm. and partly to the many errors and misunderstandings that have especially arisen through one-sided treatment of the subject. but absoany water beyond this The chemistry of living matter is the most important and interesting. but at the same time the most difficult and obscure. zoologists and botanists.

six to seven per cent. 125 . products of the vital process itself in the cell-body. substances behave in detail. from that we know of are embodied in it. The many characteristics which distinguish these nitrogenous carbon-compounds from all other chemical compounds their behavior towards acids and protoplasm and studied living matter belonged carefully recognized that this — bases. entirely reject Oscar Hertwig's conception " of a number of chemical of living matter as a "mixture elements. the general phrase does not imply that the substance may not have — a distinctive composition in each particular case. carbon. so pronounced. oxygen. When we do speak of the living matter or protoplasm. because chemistry applies this phrase to various gases and powdery substances which are completely a property which we certainly indifferent to each other not find in the constituents of protoplasm. fifteen to seventeen per cent.four per cent. are found in all the their decomposition-products. they always exhil)it the same general composition as the other albuminoids out " of the five organogenetic elements" namely. This is quite in agreement with the results of quantita- However differently the various plasmative analysis. that the highest chemical actions I must. whereas they are only secondary. and in all the other allmminoids. their peculiar color-reaction towards certain salts. The older biologists who it first introduced the name to the albuminous (or proteid) group. the error is plasm generally due to a confusion of the chemical idea with when we the morphological." my point of view. — twenty-one fo twenty-three per cent. in point of weight. in fact. fifty -one to fifty . nitrogen.PLASM stituent matter. etc — plasma-substances. And find many biologists still conceiving protoas a mixture of various substances. and to a belief that certain structural features of the plasm are primary. Protoplasm is for us a chemical matter.

Everybody is familiar with the appearance of ordinary albumm. However. unfortunately. or species of protein./ .'l ' M j\ ^r ^1 hydrogen. The carbon-compounds which we comprise under the title of the albumins or proteids are the most remarkable. that are to be found in the bodies of the various animals and plants. there is a good deal of variety and complication in the way in which the atoms of these five elements are combined in albumin and their molecules are grouped. this special form of albumin. chemical encounters extraordinary difficulties. in the first place. greater than in any other group of chemical compounds. However. the least known. from the transparent viscous albumin that surrounds the yolk in the hen's egg. Molecules are the smallest homogeneous parts into 126 . or uncrystallized jelly-like masses. is only one of the innumerable kinds of albumin. and solid mass when it is cooked. opaque. We have. The attempt to examine them closely of all bodies. and which becomes a white. Hence the question of the chemical nature of the plasma-substances compels us now to look for a moment at the larger group of albuminoids to which they belong. but also. the laborious research of chemists has yielded some general results which are of great importance for our purpose. 39). They are only rarely to be found in chemically pure form as crystals.V 'f Iff J " -iA THE WONDERS OF LIFE M ' . which we can get so easily in any quantity from the eggs of birds and reptiles. a general idea of their molecular constitution. although we have not yet succeeded p. sulphur. As a rule. Chemists have hitherto tried in vain to master the chemical structure of these obscure protein-compounds. they are in the colloid form. which offer a much greater resistance than cr3^stals to the passage through a porous medium by diosmosis (see However. and one to two per cent. in penetrating the molecular constitution of the albumins.

very changeable and easily altered. and at the same time very unstable that is to say. which following propositions: 1. all our ideas of their composition depend on general physical theories and special chemical hyNevertheless. further enables us to calculate approximately the relative size of the molecules and the number of atoms and the It are grouped together in them. we may still very reached certain formulate in the of albumin is unusually large. and remain far below the range of the most powerful microscope. science of the molecular structure of chemical compounds. between the molecules and their component atoms is As filled with imponderable and highly elastic ether. stereochemistry. the higher is its molecular weight. is not only a perfectly legitimate section of natural philosophy. 3. which are ascribed to bodies by all albuminous plasma- modern chemistry. The space pound. pound are its chemical Hence the molecules of every chemical commade up of two or more atoms of different The greater the number of atoms in each comkinds. but it yields the most important conclusions as to the mutual attractions of the elements invisible movements of the atoms in combining. has general conclusions. and their structural features are science obscure. the albuminoids present the greatest difficulty of all in this that calculation. The number of atoms composing it is very large' (probably much more than a thousand). Nevertheless. The molecule its ( therefore 2. and molecular weight is very high (higher than in most or all other compounds). — These characters. The disposition of the atoms and groups of atoms in the albuminous molecule is very complicated. even the largest molecules occupy only a very tiny space.PLASM which a^body c an be divided without altering character. the modern potheses. However. hold good 127 of all .

have prompted many observers of the last three decades to study the finest structural features of the elementary organism. has naturally excited a desire to penetrate in the same way the mystery of the elementary structure of the plasm. name of biogens insight which comparative anatomy has us into the significance and nature of organs. The improved methods of modern cytology. and given comparative histology into those of the cells. in other by the formation of ferments or enzyma of a colloidal structure. and on this foundation build hypotheses as to the elementary structure of protoplasm.. In so far as these structures affect the plasm as such. given the to these plasma-molecules. have a very serious defect. and the great progress which this science of the cell owes to the microtome and to microchemistry with its delicate coloring processes. according to the view of Franz Hofmeister and others. etc. but to the cell-body (or cytosoma). they relate to microscopic structures which do not belong to the plasm as such (as a chemical body). the chief active constituent of the cell. not as original and primary. This is caused. on physiological grounds. it must take 128 . are true in a higher degree of metaboHsm of the Hving matter causes a constant displacement of the atoms. Verworn words. outcomes of the manifold differentiations which the originally homogeneous and structureless plasm has The profound undergone in the course of many millions of years. but as acquired and secondary. and. threads. Hence I regard all these "plasma-structures" (the comb.THE WONDERS OF LIFE substances. in so far as they would explain the finer structure of pure plasm. the chief active constituent of which is certainly the plasm.). by catalysators these. etc. In my opinion. granules. but products of it. These microscopic structures are not the efficient causes of the They are phylogenetic life-process. in fact. as the — has. all these theoretical ideas.

perhaps. or a differentiated plasm. better to call this pure homogeneous primary plasm archiplasm. secondly. there are merely very fine granules regularly distributed in it which are believed to be products of metabolism. the originally homogeneous substance of which has acquired definite structures by phyletic differentiations in the course of millions of years. their protoplasm geneous and is best seen in many of the rhizopods. It is still found firstly. when we structure. cannot. and. have any anatomic We come meaning and is used in many different senses. in the body of many (but not all) of the monera. which thrust out strongly mobile feet from their 9 129 . without organs still actually exist. To this modified plasm we must oppose the original simple primary plasm. part of the chromacea and bacteria. in the body of many very young protists and tissue-cells. The name "protoplasm. There are large amoebae. in my opinion. or. at the most. as the term has now almost lost definite it is. In the latter case. especially the amoebae. The true protoplasm. however. modified by the Ufe-process itself. or viscous and at first chemically homogeneous subto consider the that very simple specimens of such organisms monera. there is already a chemical differentiation of the inner caryoplasm and outer cytoplasm." in the narrower sense. shall see. or secondary plasm. thalamophora.PLAS M the name of metaplasm. could very properly be retained for this originally homogeneous form of structureless plasm. and mycetozoa. When we examine these young cells under a high power of the microscope. and the protamoeba and — protogenes. stance. By far the greater part of the plasm that comes under investigation as active Uving matter in organisms is metaplasm. but. This ods. with the aid of the modern coloring meth- seems to be perfectly homostructureless. from the modification of which it has arisen.

We shall see later — 130 . particularly clear in those amoebae and mycetozoa in which a hyaline. is confined to that process of metabolism which . or organella. and non-granulated skin-layer (hyaloplasm) is more or less separated from a dark. they grow by the addition of fresh plasm obtained by it. and they split up into two equal globules of plasm when the growth passes a certain limit reproduction by clevage. They maintain their individuality by a simple metabolism. aphanocapsa. it is wholly taken up with the primitive work of their vegetal metabolism. Thus these chromacea have neither special organs. size. which represent the whole frame of these primitive pro- we tophyta (chroococcus. homogeneous and structureless globules of protoplasm. — — The call plasmodomism or carbon-assimilation. The whole vital activity of the chromacea. there cannot be any constant and fixed structural features in them. the simplest and oldest organisms that we know. in its lowest and simplest form is Organic life but a form of metabolism. etc. that we can distinguish in their simple plasma-bodies. nor different functions in their life-process. Moreover. broad. it is quite impossible to detect any structure in them and this is also true of the pseudopodia of the mycetozoa and many other rhizopods. the best methods of coloring. maintenance of the species.) in the simplest conceivable way. expend their whole vital power in the process of self -maintenance. as softer. and granulated marrow-layer (polioplasm) both of them are viscous and pass into each other without sharp limits. If they are killed and examined with the aid of .THE WONDERS OF LIFE unicellular body. flaplike processes of the naked cell body which constantly change their form. and therefore a nothing purely chemical process. the slow flowing movement of the fluid protoplasm shows clearly that there cannot be any composiThis is tion out of fine fixed elements in the body. and place. firm.

the highly organized metaphyta and metazoa. but particularly to its two chief forms. secondary plasma-structures the first causes of elementary organella of the cell. The very different interpretations of the micro- — — scopic pictures which this metaplasm affords have led to In this the desire to discover a good deal of controversy. has played a great part. the theory of the frothy structure (also called the 131 honeycomb structure) . secondary products of the life-process. Among the many different attempts to discover a definite structure in living matter. in the bodies of which millions of cells co-operate in the work of the various tissues and organs. or the real ure. All these theories of structure apply to plasm in general. the fibrous structand the granulated structure of the plasm. is The "end" of their existence. the skeletal structure. In the great majority of cells either the autonomous cells of the protists or the tissue-cells of the histona we can detect more or less definite and constant fine We must regard these always structures in the plasm. frothy structure. as phyletic. far greater when we extend the comparison to the histona. and it is. thecaryoplasm of the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell-body. the we compare this very rudimentary life-process of monera with that of the highly differentiated protists (diatomes. maintenance. naturally. and infusoria).PLASM this is a purely chemical process. something like catalysis in inorganic combinations. and for this neither on that special organs nor fine elementary structures in the plasm are needed. desmidiacea. or the formation of a crystal in its If mother-water. self- attained just as simply as in the catalysis of any inorganic compound. radiolaria. The most important of the theories that have been formulated are those of the in these vital action. the biological distance between them seems to be immense. and so call the differentiated plasm by the name of metaplasm.

Quite recently Ludwig Rhumbler. and then put a small drop of the stuff in a drop of water under the microscope. The resemblance of this to the natural produced "oil soap-suds" many and microscopically visible structures of kinds of plasm is strengthened from the fact that Butschli. with oily matter. have also observed similar flowing movements in both. has endeavored. frequently very different phenomena 132 are confused under . however. on the basis of many years of careful study and experiment. the latter penetrated into the . that logical functions. Georg Quincke. The small particles of sugar then exercised an attractive action by diffusion on the particles of water. it. to make it the foundation of his view of the plasm. and formed tiny vesicles As the vesicles of sugar do not mix with oil. and others. and polystriking by mutual artificially pressure. and other mechanical causes. Otto Biitschli.THE WONDERS OF LIFE has lately found the most favor. is much the most popular of the many attempts theory to detect a fine plasm-structure as the essential anatomic foundation of an explanation of the physioIt must be noted. especially. imbibition. released the sugar. there seemed a prospect of reducing the "vital" movements of the living and flowing plasm to purely physical forces. has endeavored to give in this sense a Physical analysis To-day the froth of the vital phenomena in the cell. and flatten each other by their pressure into In 1892 Butschli artificially propolyhedrical shapes. duced fine oil-suds by beating up cane sugar or potash in olive oil. It is undeniable that the living matter of many cells shows a delicate structure which may best be compared with fine soapsuds innumerable globules are crowded close together in a fluid. an authority on the rhizopods. of Heidelberg. of Gottingen. and as these apparently spontaneous movements can be explained physically and reduced to adhesion. they look like cavities isolated on hedrically flattened all sides.

causing coagulation in a thick solution of glue or albumin by adding alcohol or chromic It is unquestionable that there are these "plasmaskeletons" both in the nucleus and the body of the cell. Moreover. acid. of Kiel (1882). We can artificially produce such a skeletal structure by. was formulated in 1875 by Carl Frommann and Carl Heitzmann. It puts another interpretation on the net-like appearance of the microscopic It assumes that the plasma consists plasma-structure. the cytologist Flemming. both in the caryoplasm of the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell body.PLASM name.organs). and based on this his filar theory skeleton. distinguished from the finer plasma-structure which is visible under a powerful microscope. and others. an optical transverse action of a frothstructure or honeycomb. but they are generally ucts of organization (if not always) secondary prod- the elementary organism (or cell . and supported by Leydig. shows the same configuration as a fine We can hardly see any difference between the two. not primitive structures of its plasm. It is also compared to a sponge. for instance. but the limit between them is difficult to determine. especially the coarser froth-formation by taking up water in the living matter and the invisible Both these must be hypothetical molecular structure. Schwitz. We cannot accept the skeletal formation as a fundamental structure of the plasm. and is said to have a spongy this structure. and that these spread and cross in the body of the cell which is filled with fluid. believed it was possible to discover them in the plasm of all cells. A second view of the finer structure of the plasm. which had been greatly esteemed before the acceptance of the froth theory. of a skeleton of fine threads or fibrils combined in the form of a net. ^33 . examined as a flat surface in in the microscope. As we notice very fine threads in the plasm of many cells.

regard the thread formation as a general elementary structure of plasm. the granules are regularly structure (honeycomb walls distributed and arranged in these. Totally different from the three preceding theories of the finer structure of the plasm is the granular theory of Altmann (1890). hence the cells which are formed by the combination of these granules must be looked on as individuals of the second order. and also in the functions of highly differentiated cells. and sometimes oval. are homogeneous. He supposes that all living matter is originally made up of tiny round granules. The granules themselves.THE WONDERS OF LIFE He says that we must distinguish two chemiof plasm. and other products of metabolism. throws together the most different contents of the cell fat granules. However. and sometimes run separately. these filar formations play a great part. it is always a secondary phyletic product of living matter. sometimes globular. in my opinion. or of other shapes. in section)." the microscopic ultimate individuals. conditions of cell-life. or the bioblasts. and that these independently living hiohlgsts are the real "elementary organisms. the distinction between these substances is quite arbitrary. secretory granules. Between the granules of the granulated substance (the real active living matter) there is always an inter-granular substance. such as the But in many cases these plasma ganglionic cells. and never a primary feature of it. especially in indirect cell-division. The fine threads former are of different lengths. at other times are bound in a sort In certain of net-work {mitoma and paramitomd). in living matter the^ filar cally different kinds of plasm — (threadlike) and the of the inter-filar matter. and neither chemically nor morphologiUnder the head of granules Altmann cally well defined. be merely parts of a skeletal or frothy threads may we cannot In any case. pigment granules. Hence his granular — 134 .

and are in a state of very unstable equilibrium. mann's visible granules. the living have as yet no knowledge of the matter or plasm. like Flemming's threads and Frommann's skeleton and Biitschli's honeycomb. Since the great problem of heredity was forced by it is . As the special properties and activities of any natural body depend on its chemical constitution. this to be the case in the highest degree as regards the albuminoids and. We fundamental structure. it is a matter of the greatest interest in biology to form as clear and distinct an idea as possible of the nature and properties of the molecules of plasm. it is only possible to do this approximateof modem ly. But these real elementary parts are not microscopically visible. there was a idea of explaining the vital properties and functions of living matter by small separate constituents which make up the plasm. and this is. they belong to the molecular world. and move in a viscous medium. which lies far below In my opinion. As the hypotheses structural chemistry on the molecular formation of com- bound is plicated organic compounds are often very unsafe. are not primary structures. Darwin in 1859 into the foreground of general biology. features of its very variable chemical told The one thing that bio-chemists have us about that the molecule of plasm is very large. and to a slight extent. and made up of a great number of atoms (over a thousand) and that these are combined in smaller or larger groups. manv different hypotheses and theories of it have been framed. Unfortunately. Altthe limit of microscopic power. so that the life process itself causes constant changes in them. the namely. determined by the composition of its molecules. the most important of all. but secondary products of plasma differentiation. in the long-run. All these have in the end to trace it to molecular 135 .PLASM theory is now generally rejected. of it sound idea at the bottom —However.

(4) the germ -plasm theory of Weismann (1885). has given us a satisfactory and generally admitted idea of the plasma-structure. or to groups of molecules. two In my essay on "The Perigenesis of the Plastidules" (1875) I formulated the hypothesis that in the last instance the plastidules are the vehicles of heredity that is to say. With an eye to this latter difference. plasma-molecules which have the property — memory. and (5) the mutation-theory of De Bries (1889). Ewald Hering. In chronological order we have: (i) the pangenesis theory of Darwin (1868). By plastidules I understand simple molecules. None of these attempts.THE WONDERS OF LIFE features in the plasm of the germ-cells. has been of service to our ideas on the molecular structure of the plasm.cell that conveys the characteristics of the parents to the child. (2) the perigenesis theory of Haeckel(i875). expresses the common character of psychic memory (as a function of the brain). Hence the great progress that has been made recently in the study of conception and heredity. by means of a number of remarkable observations and experiments. who had declared in 1870 that "memory is a general property of organic matter. In this I found support in the ingenious theory of the distinguished physiologist. because it is this germ-plasm of the maternal ovum and the paternal sperm . in the plasm." which is common to both processes." I do not see still how heredity can be explained without this assumption The of ! very word "reproduction. We are not even clear as to whether in the last resort life is to be traced to the y several molecules. I have dealt with the chief of these theories in the ninth chapter of my History of Creation and must refer the reader thereto. and none of the later theories of heredity. (3) the idioplasm theory of NageH (1884). the homogeneous nature 136 . we may distinguish the plastidule and micellar theories as different groups of relevant hypotheses.

and convinced that in the simplest cases the plasm consists of homogeneous biogen-molecules. supposes that these micella are combined chainwise into molecules." of Weismann afterwards chemical and physiological properties which attributes to his hypothetical be ascribed to a single molecule just as hiophora may In the simplest forms well as to a group of molecules. made up of a molecules. The hypothesis of Nageli (1884) and Weismann (1885) is totally difi[erent from the hypothesis of the plastidules and biogens as simple molecules of the plasm. and all living matter must be made tion up cannot All A single molecule these groups of molecules. which he calls biogens. Max Verworn has recently (1903) formulated his biogenhypothesis in the same sense. can neither assimilate nor grow nor reproI do not see the justice of this observation." He also takes the active plasma-molecules. and that the variety of the many forms and functions of plasm is due to the different configura- and arrangement of these. groups of molecules are to is as the ultimate individual factors of the life-process.PLASM of the monera (both chromacea and bacteria and rhizomonera) and the primitive simplicity of their plasm in the life-functions do not dispose us to think that special be distinguished in these cases. this does not exclude a very complicated chemical of the 137 . duce. as a "critical-experimental study of the processes in the living matter. He micella. number of Nageli calls them and assigns them a crystalline structure. but groups dififerent micellar ropes. the monera (both the chromacea and the bacteria) the nature of their rudimentary life can be explained on the one supposition just as well as the other. the ultimate "vital unities" or individual vehicles of the life-process are not homogeneous plasmaof molecules. Naturally. live. Accord- ing to this. Weismann says: "Life can only arise by a definite combination of different kinds of molecules.

" I regard as the chief cause of this important differentiation of the plasm the accumulation of hereditary matter that is to say. In this way the inner nucleus — — became the organ of heredity and reproduction. both kinds of plasm arose by differentiation from the originally simple plasm of the monera. of the internal characteristics of the plastids acquired by ancestors and transmitted within the plastids while their to their descendants outer portion continued to maintain the intercourse with the outer world. "ultimate individualities. The plasm is chief process in the evolutionary history of the its separation into the inner nuclear matter When (caryoplasm) and the outer cellular matter (cytoplasm).THE WONDERS OF LIFE structure in the large plastidule or biogen as a single Verworn's biogen-hypothesis seems to me molecule. As these two chief forms of living matter are chemically different but nearly related. quite satisfactory when it represents the primitive molecule of living matter as really the ultimate factor of life. It was not by a sudden bound or transformation. we must suppose that the original severance of the two substances took place gradually and during a long period of time. but by a gradual and progressive formation of the chemical antithesis of caryoplasm and cytoplasm. during indirect cell-division and the partial caryolysis connected therewith) enter into the closest mutual relations. and the outer cell-body the organ of adaptation and nutriI put forward this hypothesis in 1866 in my tion. that the real nucleated cell from the unnucleated cytode (or primitive Both may correctly be comprised under the general head of plastids (or formative principles). as (cytos) arose cell). and as they may in certain circumstances (for instance. there also took place the morphological separation of the nucleus (caryon) and cell-body (cytosoma or celleus). 138 .

but to inhere in the whole of the homogeneous mass of the plasm.PLASM General Morplioloi^y: "The two functions of heredity and adaptation seem to be not yet distributed between differentiated substances in the unnucleated cytodes. the brothers Hertwig. tion significance of the nucleus in the life of the cell.) than the cytoplasm. etc. which propagate by simple cleavage." depends chiefly on the chemical its albuminous matter. This one indispensable nuclear element is chemically akin to the cytoplasm of the cell-body. and the former coagulates more quickly and firmly than the latter through acids (such as acetic and chromic acid). that in the monera (chromacea and bacteria). As a rule. conical. there is no sexual generafertilization . and others. the caryoplasm. spiral. the firmer nucleus then stands out sharply as a globular or oval particle of plasm." This hypothesis was afterwards (1873) confirmed by the discoveries of Strasburger. occasionally it has other forms (cylindrical. The caryoplasm seems to be originally quite homogene- and no The great nucleus. and also probably as "the soul of the cell. but differs from it in certain respects. as central organ of heredity. Hence we need only add a drop of diluted (two per cent. or branched).) acetic acid to cells that seem homogeneous to make perfectly clear the separation between the inner nucleus and outer body. The caryoplasm has a greater affinity for many coloring matters (carmine. properties of 139 . the inner nucleus taking over the transmission of hereditary characters and the outer plasm undertaking adaptation. while in the nucleated cell they are divided between the two active constituents of the cell. or the accommodation to the features of the environment. haematoxylin. with regard to cell-cleavage and it is particularly supported by the phenomena of caryokinesis (the movement of the nucleus) in Hence we can understand how it is sexual generation.

THE WONDERS OF LIFE ous and structureless. and is akin to the cytoplasm. in direct cell-division it enters into close relations with the latter. and the one of chief significance for their vital activity. The nucleolus is a small globular or oval particle. In a good many cells. and so this "colorable nuclear matter" is particularly regarded as the vehicle of heredity. Chromatin is generally found in roundish or rod-shaped granules (chromosomata). But in the great majority of cells the caryoplasm is divided into two or more different substances. but is the outcome of a cell-division. which owe their rise to a further differentiation of the caryoplasm. which exhibit very characteristic changes of form (loop formation. The achromin (or achromatin. Achromin is usually found in the form of slender threads. haematoxylin. the chief of them being chromatin and achromin. is that into two chemically different substances. but by no means universally. etc. and behaves somewhat differently towards coloring matter homogeneous caryoplasm. The chemical.) in indirect and morphobetween chromatin and achromin must not be regarded as an original property of cell nuclei (as is wrongly stated sometimes). Chromatin has a greater affinity for coloring (chromos) matter (carmine. physiological.). and — 140 . or linin) is either not at all or less easily colorable. The most common division of the caryoplasm in the cells of the animal and plant body. as we find in many of the protists and many young cells of histona (especially young embryos). and hence called "nuclear thread-matter" (linin). which are usually called chromatin (or nuclein) and achromin (or linin). which may be found singly or in numbers in the nucleus. we find two other constituents of the nucleus. logical difference very early phylogenetic differentiation in the originally this holds also of two other parts of the nucleus the nucleolus and centrosoma. etc.

When they have split up. and. As the "polar body in the division of the nucleus. gosin. The centrosomata grow independently and increase by cleavage. Hence many cytologists regard the centrosoma as a secondary product of differentiation in the cell-body. a number of recent chemical experiments have succeeded in producing centrosomata artificially (for instance. like the chromoplasts (chlorophyll particles. We and perhaps leading. on the very limit of visibility.). in spite of all efforts. etc." the centrosoma exercises a peculiar attraction on the granules distributed in the cytoplasm. in the cells of the animal and plant body are the nuclear membrane (caryotheca) and the nuclear sap (caryolymph). This is an extremely small than the closely related chromatin. A large number of soma 141 .PLAS M It has a special for acid aniline colors. in discovering a centroin the cells of the higher plants and many of the protists. the chemical comshould position of which is not known very well. but by no means universally. it is wanting in many of the unicellular The same may be said of the centrosoma. cells of the higher animals and plants as an independent constituent. "central body" of the cell. which arrange themselves radially about this centre. Two other parts of the nucleus that we find very often. etc. we have not succeeded. have paid no attention to this constituent of the cell (distinguished in 1876) if it did not play an important. by the addition of magnesium chloride) in the cytoplasm. in the second place. granule. not the nucleus. therefore. the great importance which modern cytologists have ascribed to it on this account is discounted by two circumstances. In the first place. been distinguished as plastin or paraThe nucleolus is especially found in the tissuennclcin. Its substance aflinity has. part in indirect cell-division. or protists. each of the daughter-microsomata acts in turn as a centre of attraction on its half of the cell. However.

The watery and usually clear and transparent nuclear sap (caryolymph) is formed by imbibition of watery fluid (like the frothy structure of the plasm in general).THE WONDERS OF LIFE not all have the appearance of vesicles. The separation of the nuclear membrane and nuclear due sap is not a primary property of the nucleus. As this great differentiation of the advanced elementary organism is incorrectly generalized by some recent cytologists and described as a universal feature of cells. the cytoplasm of the cell-body is originally a chemical modification of the simple and once homogeneous plasm (the archiplasm). threads. their unicellular organism presenting a much greater variety of stages of cell-organization than the subordinate tissue-cells in the bodies of the multicellular histona. parts. and frequently very numerous. The complexity of the physiological division of labor and the accompanying morphological separation 142 . However. This is clearly shown by the comparative biology of the protists. and is altogether wanting in the primitive organisms. the nuclear having The achromin then usually forms a frame-work of sap. in the great majority of cells the cytoplasm is separated into several. it is necessary to insist explicitly that it is a secondary phylogenetic develop- ment. which is altogether wanting in the simple homogeneous plasma granules of the monera. which have received diverse forms and functions in the division of labor. but is a secondary differentiation in the originally homoto geneous caryoplasm. with chromatin granules in its meshes or knots. a thin skin enclosing a liquid content. We then see very conspicuously the regularity of cell-organization. This very thin nuclear membrane (often only visible as its contour) or caryotheca may be regarded as the result of surface-strain cells — but — (at the planes of contact of caryoplasm and cytoplasm). Like the caryoplasm of the nucleus. within this round vesicle.

In the cells of the higher animals the myoplasts form the special contractile tissue of the muscles. When we wish to arrange them in a few large groups from a general point of view. On the other hand. chapter xvi. the former are due to a chemical metamorphosis of the living plasm. mostly globular or roundish. and so must be regarded as lifeless plasma-products. is purely hypothetical and without direct observation to support it. is . which produce starch (amylum). the latter lifeless excretions from it. Under the head of plasm-formations. the chloroplasts or chlorophyll-granules which form the green matter (chlorophyll) in the leaf. In most plant-cells special granules of plasm. which serves as the base of Weismann's untenable theory of the germ-plasm (cj. The former — 143 . and these undertake the work of metabolism. are developed. we comprise all formations that are due to partial metamorphosis of the living cell-body not lifeless excretions from it. and therefore chemically and morphologically differentiated from the primary cytoplasm. The infinite variety of parts of the cell which arise as excretions of the living active cytoplasm. and the chromoplasts which form color-crystals of various sorts. we may distinguish the active plasma-formations from the passive plasma-products. but living parts of its substance. may be divided into two chief groups internal and external. undertaking special functions. the distinction between the body-plasm (somoplasma) and the germ-plasm (germoplasma). called tropJioplasts.). and the neuroplasts the psychic tissue of the nerve-matter. or products of differentiation in the cytoplasm. To this class belong the amyloplasts. One of the commonest differentiations of this kind — the separation of the firm hyaline skin-layer (hyaloplasm) from the softer granular marrow-layer (polioplasm) though the two often pass into each other without clear limits.PLASM of parts is extremely great in the cytoplasm.

Internal plasma-products of common occurrence are the microsomata. The same may be said of the large and variously-colored pigment-granules. the firm capsules or protective skins which enclose the soft cell-body. and that it is not found 144 . besides other crystals of a sort. sometimes of other substances of which we do not know the chemical composition. the carti- accumulation of lages. with very regularly disposed alveoles. and often regarded as their chief constituent. In the first period of the cell-theory (i 838-1 859) such an integument was ascribed to all cells. The watery tant part in its many cell-sap (cytolymph) plays an imporof the larger cells. very small and opaque particles which are generally regarded as products of metabolism. It is formed by the fluid in the cytoplasm. sometimes of derivatives of albumin. When the cell-sap gathers in great abundance within the cell. and is found in frothy structure.THE WONDERS OF LIFE are stored within the living cytoplasm. like a snail in its house. of calcareous salts in many animalcells).granules of plants). the latter thrust out from it. etc. of oxalic-acid salts in many plant-cells. which are very common and determine the color of Also very common in the cytoplasm are large tissues. especially as protective organs. The large empty spaces which it forms are called vacuoles. in the majority of cells. They consist sometimes of fat.. we have first of all the cell -membranes. partly inorganic crystals (for instance. albuminous in the aleuron . partly very different crystals organic crystals (for instance. As external excretions of the living cytoplasm that have acquired some importance. accumulations of fat in the shape of oil-globules. but it was discovered afterwards that this protective skin is altogether wanting in many (especially animal) cells. we get the large vesicular cells which are found in the tissues of the higher plants. etc. fatcrystals.

in the very common among communities . the intercellular and the cuticular matter play a tlint shells of cells of greater part in these. but grows subsequently. As examples of naked we have the amoebae. matter in the body of the higher animals. the chalky the thalamophora and calcocytea. the common jelly-like envelope of the volvocina and many diatomes. in which a number of cells of the same kind are united such are the zoogloea of many of the bacteria and chromacea. show the extraordinary plasticity of the constructive cytoplasm {cf. are due to the manifold chemical modification and morphological differentiation which the cellulose membrane undergoes in the tissues of plants. . on the other hand. and many animal tissue-cells. and many of the infusoria. This is less frequently seen in the tissues of animals. shape. and the globular cell-communities of the polycyttaria (or social The chief part is played by intercellular radiolaria). the spermatozoa. chapter viii. naked cells (gymnocytes) and covered cells (thecocytes). These protective structures are of protists. the hard shells of fruit. etc. but. Among the histona the tissue-plants are remarkable for the infinite variety of shape and differThe familiar propentiation of their cellulose capsules. cork. lo 145 . The intercellular matter. composition. form of masses of jelly. cartilages. especially The in the rhizopods among the unicellular protists. and chemical character. cell-covering (cytotheca) varies very much in size.). is formed by the social cells in the tissues of the histona thrusting out in common firm protective membranes. the cellulose shells of the desmidiacea and syphonea.PLASM in many when We now cells distinguish between they are young. erties of wood. The the radiolaria and diatomes. bast. an important external plasma-product. in the form of mesenchyma-tissue the connecting tissue.. the spores of algae.

cockle-shells. The strongest formation is found in the invertebrate animals. mollusks (mussel-shells. When the socially joined epidermic cells at the surface of the tissue-bod}" thrust forth in common a protective covering.). which are often thick and In many of the metaphyta wax and flinty matter are deposited in the cellulose cuticles. etc. and the skins of spiders and insects). as in the calcareous shells of solid armor-plates. we get the cuticles. snail-shells. . and especially the coats of the articulata (the crab's coat of mail.THE WONDERS OF LIFE and bones owe their peculiar property to the amount and quality of the intercellular matter that is deposited between the social cells. where the cuticle often determines the whole shape and articulation.

which work more or THE dissection of the less mon independently therein. ory developed in the course of the last half -century. This funda- mental principle of the modern cell-theory was applied with great success by Rudolph Virchow to the diseased organism. person. like that of all the higher animals and plants. the common anatomic groundwork of all living forms was recognized in the cell. in his view. composed of millions of microscopic citizens. is a cell-state. and co-operate for the compurposes of the entire community. independent "life-uni- U7 . and led to most important reforms in medicine. The cells are.VII UNITIES OF LIFE Units of life Simple and complex organisms Morphological and physiological individuals Morphonta and bionta Stages of individuality: cell. when the cell-theple and complex organisms. body of the higher animal and plant into its various organs soon prompted comparative anatomists to draw a distinction between simThen. the individual cells. and the conception of the cell as the elementary organism led to the further belief that our own frame. stem Actual and virtual bionta Partial and genealogical bionta Meta- — — — — — — — Unnucleated — Plastids (cytodes and — Primitive —Organella and nucleated — communities (coenobia) — Tissues of histona organs) — Systems of organs— Organic apparatus — Histonal individuals (sprouts and persons) — Articulation of the histona (metamerism) — Stems of the histona — Animal membranes cells) physical individuals — Cells (elementary organisms) cells cells — — Cell cells (cell Cell states.

So it takes root and grows into an independent plant. But there are other organisms in which and where the question of the real individ148 . distinguish three stages of organic individuality. Each higher unity represents an inti- We — — This relation have quoted. relation to their mate union of lower individuals. If we detach such a branch and plant it in the ground. anatomic structure." and the unified life of the whole man is the combined result of the work of his component cells. are similar unities. this is Morphologically. but physiologically. they are subordinated to the former. therefore. but held together by com- mon interests. The tree is an individual. can. each of which has its own stomach and mouth with a crown of tentacles. the person (or sprout). each of which consists in like manner of an axial stem with leaves attached. one building upon the other the cell. ties or of which several thousand species are already known to us. and the communities of human beings. in latter are independent. with the difference that the individual persons or citizens are not physically connected. Their individual independence is at once seen in the permanently unicellular protists. Each several coral-individual is equivalent to a single living polyp Thus the stem (cormus) is a higher unity. On the other hand. In this way the c^ls are the real lifeunities of the organism. the swarms of bees and ants.THE WONDERS OF LIFE individual life-centres. (actinia). we find among the lower animals and the higher plants a composition of homogeneous parts. the coral-stem is made up of a number of individual animals or persons. Even the herds of gregarious animals. in respect of the lifeunity of the whole. both in the animal and the plant world. which represents a higher stage of life-unity. and the stejn or state (cormus). the is quite clear in the familiar examples I not so. but it is made up of a number of branches or individual sprouts.

or individuals made up of a number 1 the social morphonta. Thus. distinguish at once between morphological (niorphonta) and physioThe tree and the siphonological (bionta) individuals. and their Each multicellular organism ^cells to be morphonta. the cells. developed in the beginning from a single cell. and these again into their microscopic elements. each branch or person seems to be a bion. further study proved that each of these apparent organs is really a modified meThis dusa. from these few illustrations. to recognize floating animal-stems in the remarkable siphonophora. vital and psychic activity must. when we further dissect morphologically and physiologically. is very we came with a multiplicity of organs. and the whole united structure a stem. this is at once a morphon and a bion. ess of its sists in The whole procdevelopment into a multicellular organism con- a repeated cleavage of the stem-cell. The whole floating siphonophoron is. (morphologically) (physiologically). It is clear. But.UNITIES OF LIFE uality difficult to answer. is. the resultant 149 . the latter anatomically into their various organs. that the question of organic individuality is by no means so simple as it seems at first sight. and that it receives different answers according as we look at the form and structure respect of its vital activity). of similar branches or persons. the stem-cell (cytula) or fertilized ovum. therefore. however. fifty years ago. throws a good deal of light on the important example question of association and division of labor. . or social medusc'c. a simple individual both of the highest order. or medusa. or the We phoron are bionta. which had hitherto been regarded as individual animals. physiologically considered (in a harmoniously organized animal with a number of different organs but from the morphological point of view (in respect of form and structure) each dependent organ is really an independent medusa.

and when we have made an anthropological of the nature of the persons who have united. show us how this complex social organism is built up step by step. Three such stages may be at once distinguished: (i) the cell (or. therefore. must. this extremely complex "organism of the highest order. and the laws of their association and ergonomy. and the settling of the rank in the mass and the governing body. (2) the person (anim^al) or branch (vegetal). first establish the scale of We the morphonta. the cells. But we shall find that there are further subordinate It is only in the case stages under each of these three. and are in turn modified in the divers organs in the division of labor. — The complicated modern state. and the laws according to which these elementary organisms unite to form cell-communities and tissues. when we have a sociological knowledge of the various classes that compose it. may be regarded as the highest stage of individual perfection which is known to us in organic But we can only understand the structure of nature. according to which the several stages or conditions of morphological individuality build on each other. 150 . Their complex organism. and assuming different forms in consequence of the division of work. and the laws of their association and division of labor. the same laws. kingdom of the tissue-plants. which is made up from the separate individualities in human kingdom of the tissue-animals. can only be understood when we are acsociety or in the or the branches in the quainted with their constituent elements. study under and are distributed The familiar arrangement of these classes." and its social forms and functions. and (3) the stem or cormus. more correctly. the plastid).THE WONDERS OF LIFE I 1 I cells being joined in a higher unity. for the formation of a community in its various classes. with its remarkable achievements. composed of various organs and tissues. But we have to look in the same way on the cell-state.

marchantia among the crytogams and bryophyllum among the phanerogams) each portion of a branch or leaf. Thus. a virtual bion. the multicellular. and is. this is only so at the beginning of individual existence (at the As soon as the multicellular stage of the stem-cell). or the two combined sexual cells (ovum and spermium). in its mature condition. in the bath-sponge (euspongia) and similar sponges each piece of tissue. the fresh-water polyp (hydra) and cognate cnidaria each piece of the body-wall.UNITIES OF LIFE of the protists that the morphological unity is bound up with the physiological. while in the second case it remains at the lowest stage of virtual formation. and in many plants (for instance. has the power to develop into a mature organism. the cell- state. therefore. for instance. There are. These are separated parts of the body that live for a time after being cut off from the whole organism. A flower that has been . and that of the latter as a virtual bion. and has only the capacity of rising to the higher stage. it raised to the stage of a higher individuality. body is arises from this cytula by repeated segmentation. like that of all the higher animals. but a single cell at the beginning of its existence. Our own human frame is. the heart of a tortoise beats for a long time after being cut out. a very complete cell-state. exceptions. tissue-forming organisms. In the higher plants and animals only one cell of the organism. are the potential bion which may develop In into an actual one. From these virtual bionta (parts of the body that may grow into whole organisms) we must distinguish the partial bionta which have not this property. but then die off. the physiological individual or the life-unity has in the first case reached the highest stage of individual development that pertains to its species. In the case of the histona. however. We speak of the life-unity of the former as an actual bion. in other words.

this principle is useless. that came from an egg (the seed). but are originally descended from one impregnated ovum. to be parts of one individual. many It was at first thought to be an independent animal parasite. in 1855. swims about. dependent on the whole. etc. are one single individual. The in its view life-properties of these partial bionta are important of the general question of the nature of life and apparent unity in most of the higher organisms. In practice. Thus. but from a single sexually generated animal. etc. regarded all plants that arise by asexual generation (budding or segmentation) sprouts. We should have to say that the millions of plant-hce which arise parthenogenetically from unfertilized germ-cells. So also Huxley. pkilonexis. days. As a even here the cells and organs lead their separate individual life. in 1816.). Many attempts have been made in the course of the — — . as merely portions of a single individual bulbs. The samie thing happens with the remarkable foldlike dorsal appendages of a large naked snail (thetys). so also all the weepingwillows in Europe. however. considered the sum of all the animals that have been produced by asexual propagation. It has been attempted to answer this question of organic individuality in the sense of counting all organisms individuals which develop from a single fertilized ovum. keep fresh and alive for In some highly organized cephalopods one of the eight arms of the male develops into an independent body. animals The body of may be cut in pieces and yet many may of the lower live for weeks. the Italian botanist Gallesio. and accomplishes the fertilization of the female {hcctocotylus among the plucked may.THE WONDERS OF LIFE if put in water. branches. though they are subordinate to and fact. and creep about. because they all came from shoots of one single sexually-produced tree. slips. which get detached argonaiita.

in their one-sided anthropism. and a I far greater simplicity of construction on the other. physical philosophers when in complete ignorance of the real facts they rear the most extraordinary theories in their airy speculations on "the principle " of individuation Compare.UNITIES OF L I 1" E nineteenth century to give a generally satisfactory answer to this ditticult question of the coni£. Leuckart. and Victor Carus among the zoologists. Alexander Braun. the opinions of the school-men and those of recent thinkers such as Arthur Schopenhauer and Edward Hartmann. nists. None of these has found general favoi\ I have compared and criticised them in the third book of my General MorI there paid special attention to the views of pJwlogy. As a the question rule. would assign personal consciousness as the basis of the idea of inIt is obvious that this is not a practicable dividuality. we can understand that opinions are still very divided toHence we must not be too hard on the metaday. and Nageli among the botaGoethe. Many metaphysicians.nt and CDjanotation of the idea^of the organic individua l. to say nothing of the lower animals and plants. and to support it by It suffices to distinguish the the science of structure. have tried to show. make man here also the measure of all things. without much attention being paid to its material substratum — — — — — the anatomic basis of the organism. the easiest way to answer these complicated tectological questions. test even for the higher animals. and Johannes Miiller. When we consider the striking divergence of the views of such distinguished scientists and thinkers on so important a biological question. and to explain 153 . three chief stages I have mentioned. who. In these we have a far greater variety of individuality on the one hand. the psychological side of the problem of the individual soul is very promiinent. for instance. in my essay on " The Individuality of the Animal Body" (1878).

This divergence of views is partly due to the intricacy of the phenomena we find in the life of the cell. and so on. Both these scientists regarded the cell as essentially a vesicle. and partly to the many and extensive changes that have been made in the meaning of the term in the course of its employment. in 1839 he extended the theory to the whole organic world. histological. the firm mem- 154 . they notjced a certain build of the tissue that closely resembled the honeycomb. It was the great merit of Schleiden. and ontogenetic of the cell as the elementary organism. used the microscope for the first time anatomic study of plant structure. still difi. Nevertheless. we are still very far from having a general and clear agreement as to this univerOn the contrary. filled with honey.er considerably as to the nature of the biologists cell or the elementary individual. the animal tissues. finally. and. Let us first cast a glance at the various stages of its history. Every clearly their physiological significance and morphological on the other. The closely packed wax cells. on the one hand We work must build on the idea anatomical. the stock (or cornius).THE WONDERS OF LIFE will therefore consider the cell first. the real founder of the cell theory. to prove that all the different tissues of plants are originally composed of such cells Theodor Schwann soon afterwards proved the same for V(i838). physiological. the ablest sal and fundamental idea. are like the wood cells that contain the sap in the plant. its relation to the whole of the multicellular organism. which show a hexagonal appearance in Crew in the /" in section. Ever since the middle of the nineteenth century the cell theory has been generally and rightly considered one of the most important theories in biology. then the person (or sprout). of the hive. When in the last third of the seventeenth century a number of scientists. especially Malpighi in Italy and V ^ England.

They are naked cells without any membrane.UNITIES OF LIFE brane of which enclosed a fluid content. The soft flesh of with diffibe separated from the external firm skin or from culty. but a viscous. The distinguished anatomist also proved that the co-called sap" the real body of the cell is n^t a simple fluid. there was the strong outer (ii membrane. the hard stone within. as a fact. there was the fluid or semi-fluid con- . which R. when Max Sch\iJtze showed that the this fruit (corresponding to the cell sap) can. It is. as a individual. They compared the cell. cells of the animal body. the firm nucleus enclosed in the sap. altogether wanting in many. Felix Dujardin. which was not only regard^ed as a protective was a covering. Firstly. had described as sarcodc in 1835. to an organic crystal. especially young. and microscopic thought it aro^e by aTsort of crystallization in an organic medium (cytoblastema) in this the central nucleus would serve as starting-point like the nucleus of the smaller . of the cell. external mernbrane was an unessential and secondarily formed part of the cell. In the second place. albuminous substance. thirdly. In order to give a clearer idea of the relative thickness and disposition of these parts. crystal. tent (the sap). and. and a soHd body inside this. ^^^^^ Schultze further showed that this '*sarcode" was identical with the "cell mucus" of the ])lant cells which Hugo Mohl had designated "proto^sm" in 1846. Brown had recognized as the nucleus in 1833. the cell A^ was compared to a cherry or a plum. and which the first to study it carefully. the independent movements of which had long been known in the rhizopods. and "cell — — ~ 155 . In the it first twenty years (1839-59) of the cell theory fixed principle that there were three essential parts. but also credited with a great deal of importance as an element in the building of the organism. A great step in advance was made in i860.

THE WONDERS OF LIFE that this Hving matter vehicle of the must be regarded as the real phenomena of Hfe. This would be a good occasion to glance at the errors to which microscopic investigation and the conclusions based on it are liable. ^^^ had drawn attention to the existence of and had compared their movements (for instance. In the long controversy that "exact" observers sustained as to the presence or absence of a membrane. in lymph-cells) to those of the protoplasm in plant-cells. formulated forty years ago. is now generally accepted. ball. of secondary growth. this optical error the counted for a false interpretation of a sharp contour deal. consisting of protoplasm. As the membrane was now recognized to be non-essential. whereas they are really inferences from imperfect observations on which different interpretations may be put. and completely w^ an ting in some cases. talk of a protective membrane on a homogeneous glass . It is much the same with other conflicts of good " " "exact observers who give their "certain observations as facts. and the inner — firm nucleus. This new idea of the cell. 1. and the cell is defined as a granule or particle of protoplasm (= cytoplasm) enclosing a firm and definite nucleus (or caryon. consisting of caryoplasm). which I endeavored to confirm in my monograph on the radiolaria (1862). consisting of a similar substance called The original naked cell was now like a cherry nuclein. — — 156 . Remak naked in 185 cells. its outline is sharply defined. or plum without the skin. the majority of the leading microscopists clung for twenty years to the dogma that every cell must have a membrane the definite outline which even a naked cell must show in a different refxacting medium was taken to be the sign of a special and anatomically It would be just as correct to separable membrane. Although Kolliker in 1845. there remained only two essential parts of the cell the outer soft cell body.

On the ground of these observations. who afterwards studied simigenes). (2) the cell-body is a secondary growth from the primary nucleus. since the chromacea and been recognized as unnucleated cells. Cienkowski. or living matter. the plaspa. which were often repeated afterwards. raised the objection that their homogeneous plasma-body behaves. and out their great importance in solving some of pointed This importance has the chief problems of biology. living. which I hold. true. (3) the nucleus is a secondary development from the cell-body. Bearing in mind that these essential parts of the cell (in the view of most cytologists) are chemically related yet different from each other. but as caryoplasm (or nuclein). of late.UN1T 1 r: S OF LIFE Forty years ago (1S64) I tried in vain to detect a nucleus in the naked. lar unnucleated cells (Gruber. but nuclei without cell-bodies. of the earliest organisms on the earth (which can only be conceived as archigonous monera) was a 157 . I formed the class of the ni oncr a the simplest unnucleated my General Morphology in 1866. On the first view. the nucleus and chromacea are not cells without nuclei. been — in organjsms — much enhanced also it is bacteria have Biitschli has. not as cytoplasm. and so that these simbut to plest plastids correspond. were no more successful. not to the cell-body. we have three possible cases of the original formation of the nucleated cell from the unnucleated cytode: (i) The nucleus and cell-body have arisen by dififerentiation of a homogeneous plasm (monera). This idea agrees with my own in conceiving the plasma-body of the monera (apart from its molecular structure) as homogeneous and not yet advanced as far as the characteristic differentiation of inner nucleus and outer cell-body. mobile protoplasm of a few small rhizopod-like protists (protamocba and protoOther observers. On this view the bacteria of other cells. and others).

of caryolysis in indirect cell-division show us still how base of the cell. were not originally present. the which the founder of the cell-theory. Thus. and not by a miracle. Opposed to this view is the second. the organic population of our planet has arisen naturally. ment from it. as does also the third hypothesis. produced by the chemical process of archigony (spontaneous generation). two substances. in the main. could not be real nucleated cells.THE WONDERS OF LIFE homogeneous plasson or archiplasm that is tc say. the nucleus became the vehicle of heredity and the cell-body the organ of adaptation. which afterwards became so imThe phenomena portant. it was the outcome of a very early and most important division of labor. by this first ergonomy. the difference between the three hypotheses on the primary cytogenesis is not as great as it seems at first sight. however. At the bottom. as Reinke and other vitalists suppose. and that the nucleus arose secondarily by condensation and chemical modification of it. However. I am more inclined to adhere to the first it supposes that the physiological and chemical differences between nucleus and cell-body. the earliest elementary organisms. but unnucleated cytodes of the type of the chromacea close are the relations of the If 158 . that the unnucleated "protoplasm-body" (the outer cytoplasmbody) is the original formation. corresponds to that of Biitschli) raises a number of difficulties. . had put forward that the nucleus is the original — and the cell-body a secondary developThis opinion (which. Schleihypothesis den. a plasma -compound that was not yet differentiated into outer cytoplasm and inner caryoplasm. The rise of this chemical distinction and the accompanying morphowas due to a logical division of cell-body and nucleus phyletic differentiation. the outer cell- matter controlling the intercourse with the external world. The hered- — — — itary matter gathered in the nucleus.

equivalent mor159 . made up of numerous tissues. chapter ii. In that case it is a matter of simy^le logic to distinguish the older cytode (cf. developed by division of work in the plasm. of "plastids" — mentary organism The unnucleated (protocytos)." and had better describe them as organella (or organoids). I The two may then best be comproposed in vain in 1866) under the name that is.UNITIES OF LIFE real cell. infusoria). The nucleated it wig and others define from the prised (as later cell. the ele(formative principles) in the broader sense. and its two stages of development must be described by other names. can only have arisen by phylogenetic differentiation of nucleus and cell-body from the simple cytode of the monera. While no morphological organization whatever is discoverable in the homogeneous plasma-body of the chromacea and bacteria. and behave physiologically like the organs of But as the idea of "organ" the multicellular histona. as actual individuals. in the devel- oped condition. long gradation of cellular organization leads from the simplest primitive cells (monera) to the highest developed protists. The cell is then simply the living particle of plasm. the wrong modern idea of the cell must be altered.). we find a composition from different parts in the highly differentiated body of the advanced protophyta (diatomes. The manifold j^arts of the unicellular organism. A The great majority of the protists are. in the latter is morphologically fixed as a multicellular part of the body. siphonea) and protozoa (radiolaria. discharge various functions. as Oscar Hertto-day. and the nucleus-feature omitted from it. cell plastid might be called primitive cell and the ordinary nucleated one the nuclear (caryocytos). we cannot call these similarly functioning parts "organs of the cell. But if it is preferred to call the latter cells (in the broader sense).

the cells lying close together at its surface. an important embryological stage of the metazoa. The number of known and species. These are usually formed by the daughter-cells which arise from mals. at other times ly. Many other protists have abandoned this original solitary life. distributed in We irregularfind coenobia of this kind even among the monera. i6o . it. epithelial cell-layer at ." the cleavage of a mother-cell remaining united after the division. without actual contact. both named species is already as high as this in several distinct classes. or "hermitmay be called monohia. they follow their social instincts and form communities or colonies of cells (ccFnobia).THE WONDERS OF LIFE pliologically to real nucleated cells. The latter are particularly interesting because they resemble the blastiila. cells. in the diatomes of the primitive plants and the radiolaria of the primitive aniThese solitary living unicellulars. and remain associated in the — : common gelatinous mass. following are the chief forms of these coenobia 1. Spherical Ccenobia. The social cells secrete a structureless mass of jelly. touching each other or even forming a continuous layer such are holosphcura and volvox among the protophyta. magosphcera and synura among the protozoa. for instance. The cell-community forms — a sort of ball. tation to the most varied conditions By means of adapand the inheritance of the properties thus acquired such a variety of unicellular forms has been evolved in the course of millions of years that we can of distinguish thousands of living plasmodomous protophyta and plasmophagous protozoa. They are common among the protophyta and protozoa. The Gelatinous Ccenobia. and so on with the succeeding generations which come from their repeated segmentation. 2. as. such as the zoogloea of many bacteria and chromacea. Sometimes they are regularly. of which the simple.

and the carchcsinm among the ciliata. the codonocladium among the flagellata. with polymorphism of the co-ordinated cells. so in the case of the gomphoncma and other diatomes. Many of the lower protophyta (algaria and algetta) form the direct transition to the true alga^ among the metaphyta. Arboreal Ccenobia. of the cells which have combined to form independence II t6i the form dependent many — . assume different forms in the division of labor. cult to lay down a sharp limit between the ccenobia and the tissues as between the protists and the histona which possess them. The stable communities of cells which make up the body of the histona. or multicellular plants and animals. are called tissues (tela or hista). and subordinate themselves to the higher However. The cell-community forms a 4. the fixed cells secreting jelly-like stalks at their base and these forming branches. Among the diatomes we have the bacillaria. ciadophora) is only a higher development of the catenal coenobium. it would be just as diffiunity of the organ. We may also regard these articulated multicellular threads as the first sketch for the formation of tissues in the metaphyta. as examples. or "articulated threads. the links of which (the individual cells) are joined in a row. chain." even among the monera {oscillaria and nostic among the chromacea. They differ from the ccenobia of the protists in that the social cells give up their independence. Catenal Ccenobia. — The cell-community takes of a small tree or shrub. among the thalamophora nodosaria. leptothrix among the bacteria). We find chainlike cell-communities of this sort. is called the blastoderm membrane). At the top of each stalk or branch is an incell. the latter have been developed phyloThe original physiological genetically from the former.UNITIES OF LIFE the surface of the hollow sphere (or germinal 3. as the threadlike layer of the latter (for instance.

In general be brought under two primary and secondary. or phanerogams). they form conducting and vascular fibres and other highly differentiated forms of tissue (camones. fungi. and the differentiation and centraliza- Hence the various kinds tion of the tissue-organism. In these thallophyta there are none of the conducting or vascular fibres. more advanced vascular plants comprehend the two great groups of ferns (pteridophyta) and flowering plants Their body is always {anthophyta. or. which we may . only rudimentary their manifold tissue-forms may call chief groups. composed of two chief organs. However. the more they are dependent on each other. which have no vascular fibres. and the is state centralized. there are many exceptions and intermediate forms.THE WONDERS OF LIFE tissues is more completely lost in proportion to the closeness of their combination. the tissues of which show little or no division of labor. of tissue in the body of the histona behave like the various classes civilization and professions in a state. the complexity of their division of labor. the algae and fungi. 162 ." such as we have in the thallophyta (algae. the axial stem and the This is also the case with the mosses lateral leaves. and mosses) in these there are no conducting fibres. the formation of which is of great importance in the higher plants in connection with their These physiological function of circulation of the sap. In the lower tissue-forming plants. The secondary tissues are a later development from these. (bryophyta). The higher the and the more varied the classes of workers. The primary tissues are the phylogenetically older and histologically simple "cell-tissues. they lie between the two chief groups of the non-vascular thallophyta and the vascular cormophyta. at least. this histological and organological division of the two great groups of tissue-plants must not be pressed. the plant-body has the appearance of a layer of cells.

the phyletically older group of the coelomaria in the vast majority of the latter. and have been most intricately developed in virtue of the division of cellular labor. sponges. which are regularly adapted to discharge definite vital functions. into lower and higher sub-sections. as are also .). of the metazoa are the cpitclia. of these "derivative tissues" we chief groups of tissues. etc. etc. the may tissue. distinguish the three leading groups of connective muscular tissue. the ferns and flowering plants. simple layers of cells or forms of tissue directly derived from such (glands. These three great groups of tissue in the animal world may be subdivided.UNITIES OF LIFE bium. The former are phylogenetically and ontoThe primary tissues genetically older than the latter. In the bodies of the tissue-animals distinguish two we may similarly primary and secondary. and they are subject to the most extensive differentiation. it is true. The embryo of all the metazoa consists solely of epitelia (the germ-layers) at are developed from these afterwards by first. apotelia differentiation of the tissues. however. wood. the latter have. the great mass of the body is formed of apotelia. but are not (being parts of a cell) equal to the former morphologically. The coelenteria (gastraeads. cnidaria) are predominantly built up of epitelia. and nerve tissue. are the apotclia. The remarkable efficiency that we find in the structure of the various organs in 163 .). They make up the bodies of the more complex vascular plants. Comparative anatomy distinguishes in the multibody of the tissue-forming organisms a great number of different parts. evolved from the former by physiological change of work and morphological differentiation. They are called "organs" in the stricter sense in opposition to the organella (or organoids) of the protists. like the plant groups. Secondary tissues. a similar physiological purport.

While at the lowest stages the simple organ represents only a separate individual piece of primitive tissue. of the metazoa we may similarly distinguish: the skin- of the epidermis). This is not determined by the unity of the constituent tissue. system (with its conand vascular fibres). the vascular system (integument of the epidermis). we have the physiological conception of an apparatus of organs. The idea of a particular system of organs is determined by the unity of one tissue which forms the char- element in the totality of the organs that beOf such systems in the kingdom of the metaphyta we have: the skin-system (with the tissue acteristic long to it. Such an apparatus of organs is. their adaptive organization is — — explained mechanically by the theory of selection. In these apparatus the most diverse organs 164 . and the regularity of their construction in the unity of the histon in other words. the vascular sysof the blood and the muscular system (with the muscleblood-vessels).THE WONDERS OF LIFE view of the functions they have to discharge. the flowers and the fruit developing therefrom in the phanerogams. while the teleological hypotheses of dualistic biology (for instance. advance of the organs and their physiological division of labor have many analogies in the two kingdoms of the histona. we find special systems of organs and organic apparatus in the higher stages. the "intelligent dominants" of Reinke) comThe gradual pletely fail to account for their origin. In contrast with the histological idea of a system of organs. and the complementary ducting In the kingdom tissue system (with the basic tissue). but by the unity of the lifework that is accomplished by the particular group of organs in the histona. for instance. and the nervous system (with the neurona of tem (with the mesenchyma-tissue the nerve-tissue). tissue). or the eye or the gut of an animal.

the "histonal"). the leaves. on the other. presents in general the characteristic form of an axial central organ. is found in two principal forms in the kingdom of the metaphyta the lower form of the layer-sprout {thalliis) and the — higher form of the stalk-sprout {cnlniiis). made up of several histonals. The thallus predominates in the lower and older sub-kingdom of the layer-plants {thallo phyta) in the classes of the algas and fungi. 165 . the former having an unlimited vertical growth and the latter an unlimited basal growth. the culmus in the higher and younger sub-kingdom of the stalk-plants UoruiopJiyta). The thallus does not yet show this important . In the higher animals and plants we usually regard as the "real individual" (in the wider sense of the word) the tissue-forming organism made up of various organs and we may here briefly and instructively call this the histonal individual (or. and the higher stem. .UNITIES OF LIFE and systems of organs may be associated for the fulfilment of a definite physiological task. in the classes of The culmus the mosses. attached to this at the sides. as contrasted with the unicellular protist on the one hand. the stalk. with lateral organs. Zoologists give the title of "person" {prosopon) to the corresponding unity among the animals. ferns. Botanists call this individual phenomenon among the metaphyta a sprout (blastiis). I mean general by this to designate the definite physiological unity of the multicellular and tissue-forming organism. more briefly. and may be called "individuals of the second order. The two forms agree very much in their general features." if we take the cells to be the first and the stock the third stage in the hierarchy of or- In comprising them here under the ganic individuality. and flowering plants. The plant-histonal. which Alexander Braun especially clearly marked out and described as the sprout. head of histonals. or histonal individuals.

thus. higher leaves. which form a they thallus like many of the algae. the cavity of which opens outward by a primitive mouth. The diverse animal forms which develop along different lines from this common embryonic form of the gastrula may be (ca'lcnteria) grouped into two sub-kingdoms. exceptions large in both groups of the metaphyta." The whole body of the tissue-animal at this stage forms at first a simple gut-sac or gastric sac (the primitive gut). The and highly- developed fucoidea among the algae exhibit similar differentiations of organs to those we distinguish as stalk and On the other hand. the liverwort riccia fluitans is just like the brown alga Other primitive livei^worts (such dictyota dichotoma. A sim- ple poppy-plant (papaver) or a single-flowered gentiana ciliata." and the two germinal layers are its sole organs. for instance. is a good example of a highly developed culmus. i66 and the latter to the . and flower leaves. which has only one bloom at the top of its branchless stalk. the two primary germinal layers. To the plant-sprout corresponds in the animal world the person. are wanting in the lower liverworts. The former correspond in the simplicity of their structure in many respects to the thallophyta. however. foliage leaves. but most of them have a separation of the thallus into an axial organ (stalk) and several lateral organs (leaves). leaves in the higher cormophyta. the lower and the upper (ccelomaria) animals. The thin wall of the sac is formed by two superimposed layers of cells. or "cup-shaped embryo. as the antkoceros) have also a very simple thallus. In the distribution of labor among the leaves there then emerge the differences between the lower leaves. There are. All the tissue-animals pass in the course of their embryonic development through the important stage of the gastrida.THE WONDERS OF LIFE morphological division. This gastrula is the simplest form of the "person.

may be traced to the circumlarge part of the physiological advantages is A stance that the tissue-forming organism articulates that to say. into higher radial (star-shaped) persons. and the limb-forming artic- the worms five ulates and vertebrates. plants or labor among the thickly gathered leaves in a short section of a stem. and the sponges are formed by multiplication of the same stems of On the other hand. a leading factor of higher development. a more or less extensive division of work among them. which are generally without this meta- merism. and tunicates. far greater play is offered to polymorphic differentiation than in the thallophyta. While the articulation of the stem of the former proceeds and leaves are developed at the knots {nodi) between each two sections of the stalk. as a rule. the unarticulated moUusks. With this multiplication of groups of organs there goes. the two sections of the tissue-animals. the common stem-groups of the higher animal stems. and the platodes into lower bilateral persons. From the latter are derived {vcrnialia). the unarticulated and the articulate. divides on its long axis into several sections. In the kingdom of the tissue-plants the articulated cormophyta rise high above the unarticulated thallophyta. and morwhich the higher histona have. To the two groups of unarticulated and articulated sprouts in the kingdom of the tissue-plants correspond. In this — point also we see the biogenetic parallelism between the two great groups of the tissue-plants and tissue-animals. the cnidaria develop gastraeads. The two stems of 167 The formation of the bloom in the flowering phanerogams consists in a sexual division of . as phological perfection contrasted with the lower. echinoderms. in many respects. Of the four stems of the coelenteria (which have only a ventral opening and no gut-cavity) the gastrasads remain at the gastrula stage.UNITIES OF LIFE cormophyta.

but we find in some groups of the lower. The third and highest stage of individuality to which the multicellular organism attains is the stock or colony It is usually formed by a permanent associa{cormiis). metazoa a propagative metamerism. variety of their functions. But among the metazoa we find this form of individuality only in the lower (and generally stationary) stages of development. i68 . the acrania and cyclostoma. in which every member that is separated has the power to reproduce the whole chain of metamera. the amphibia and amniotes. On the other hand. determined by budding at the end. as in the arachnida and insects. is chiefly external — organism and the In the articulates the metaan articulation of the body their In the vertebrates it mainly affects the internal The organs. The same antithesis is found This metamerism in the lower and higher Crustacea. This is also the case with many of the annelids. the higher the organization the greater is the unlikeness of the members or articulated parts. such is the strobilation of the chain-worms and the scyphostoma The individual metamera (parts) that are polyps. In both stems the articulation is similar in the lower and upper forms. of the higher metazoa is of a motor character. having been acquired through the manner of movement of the lengthened body. and usually unarticulated. Here also vidual. the skeleton. as we find in the annelids and myriapods. tion of histonals that are produced by cleavage (imperfect segmentation or budding) from one histonal indiThe great majority of the metaphyta form complex plants in this sense.THE WONDERS OF LIFE the articulates and vertebrates metazoa by the perfection of rise above all the other merism wall. and the muscular system. released from the end of the chain in these cases immediately show their individuality. vertebration (articulation) of the vertebrates is not outwardly visible like that of the articulates.

the one without. division of labor among — the histonals. often controlled by a single leader. The history of civilization teaches us that its gradual evolution is bound up with three different processes: (i) Association of individuals in a community. the greater is the centralization of there the whole stock (as in the case of the siphonophora). of human societies is directly connected with the of sociology hold good for the entire organic world. Crustacea). swarms communities of free individbees. The same fundamental laws association throughout also for the gradual evolution of the several organs out The formation of the tissues and cell-communities. (2) division of labor (ergonomy) among the social elements. But in the higher grades they become unequally developed in the division of labor. or rigid organization of the community. as also the swarms of the higher articulates (insects. At the lower stages of stock-formation there is equality of the social histonals. and a consequent differentiation of structure (polymorphism). but held together by the ideal link of common interest. We may therefore distinguish two principal forms of stocks the homonomous and heteronomous. of especially communities of ants and termites. the packs of wolves. exhibit various stages of social formation. etc. . The herds of apes and ungulates. These organized uals are distinguished from the stationary colonies ot the lower animals chiefly by the circumstance that the social elements are not bodily connected. and the other with.UNITIES OF LIFE is a striking parallelism of development between the two chief groups of the histona. the flocks of birds. (3) centralization or integration of the unified whole. and the greater the differences between them become. and gregariousness of the nearest related mammals.

the scientific study of their relations. their structures.VIII FORMS OF LIFE Morphology Laws of symmetry Fundamental forms of animals and plants Fundamental forms of protists and histona Four chief classes of fundamental forms: (i) Centrostigma vesicles (smooth vesicle and tabular vesicle) Uniaxial (2) Centraxonia: typical forms with central axis (monaxonia. protists. and histona Fundamental form and mode of life Beauty of natural forms /Esthetics of organic forms Art forms in symmetry — — — — — — — — — nature. and are so difficult to explain without the aid of numerous illustrations. my They 170 . that I cannot think of science in ago. their origin and evolution. forms a special branch of biology. Bilateral-radial and bilateral-symmetrical fundamental forms Asymmetrical fundamental forms. I expounded the principles of ^this General Morphology thirty-eight years are so remote from the ordinary curriculum of education. double-pyramidal and pyramidal) (3) CenBilateral troplana: fundamental forms with central plane — — : — — — — . equipolar and un-equipolar) Transverse-axial (stauraxonia. realm THE infinite variety of of organic life in suggesting the problem of their origin and connection. (4) Anaxonia: irregular fundamental forms Causes of formconstruction Fundamental forms of monera. forms which we observe in the not only delight our senses with their beauty and diversity. . While the aesthetic study of the forms of life provides inexhaustible material for the plastic arts. the science of forms or morphology. but also excite our curiosity.

A-f. 49). both in the animal and plant worlds. the . with the number of each. The distinction between protists and histons is much more important than the familiar division of organisms into plants and animals.FORMS OF LIFE In the present chapter I going fully into them here. only briefly describe those features of living things which relate to the difficult question of their ideal fundamental forms. unicellular organisms (without tissue) exhibit a much greater freedom and variety in the development of their fundamental forms than the histons. the multicellular tissue-forming organisms. In the protists (both pro171 . The unity itself of the organic structure. The infinite mental forms. 9. in the everywhere things and in which expresses fundamental features of living the chemical composition and constructive is power in of their plasm. in respect of their fundamental forms and their configuration. and the bilateral-radial form is the same in the violet and the sea-urchin (clypeaster. For the protists. In the following pages the respective plates are indicated by the letters A-f. plate 6). The dorsiventral or bilateral-symmetrical form of most green leaves is repeated in the frame of most of the higher animals (the coelomaria) the distinction of right and left determines in each the characteristic antithesis of back and belly. be reduced to a few principal groups or classes of fundatheir typical forms. The lily has the same regular typical form as the hexaradial coral or anemone (A-f. and these show no difference in the two kingdoms (cf. the laws of their symmetry. tion to crystal -formation. and their relawill I have treated these intricate questions somewhat fully in the last (eleventh) part of Art-forms in Nature. also seen in the laws of symmetry variety of the species may. 30). The hundred plates contained in this work may serve as illustrations of morphological relations.

and in the possibility of distinguishing certain ideal axes and planes cutting each other at measurable angles. In this respect many organic forms are like inorganic The important branch of mineralogy that crystals. and gives therr^ 173 . the most interesting and varied group of living things is the class of the radiolaria. made up of socially combined cells. determines the symmetry of the typical form and the special form of its supplementation. sand forms of them. without any trace of symmetry. that determines this. in my monograph on the Challenger radiolaria [translated]. the individual cell. which we may call "symmetry" in the wider sense of the word. but in the histons (both metaphyta and metazoa) a number of On it is the plasticity of the tissue.THE WONDERS OF LIFE tophyta and protozoa) the constructive force of the elementary organism. as the morphological system in the seventh table shows. The great majority of organic bodies show a certain regularity both in their outer configuration and the construction of their various parts. the ground of this tectological distinction we may divide the whole organic world into four kingdoms (or sub-kingdoms). Only a very few organic forms seem to be quite irregular. All the various fundamental forms that can be distinguished and defined mathematically are found realized in the graceful flinty skeletons of these unicellular sea-dwelling I have distinguished more than four thouprotozoa. as we find. for instance. in the amoebae and the similar amoeboid cells of the Plasmodia. and illustrated by one hundred and forty plates. The regularity of this symmetrical construction often expresses itself at first sight in the arrangement side by side of similar parts in a certain number and of a certain size. describes these crystalline forms. or constantly changing their formless shape. In respect of the general science of fundamental forms (promorphology).

and take due account of the relations of the ideal axes and their poles. These two branches of investigation have the common aim of detecting an ideal law of symmetry in the bodies they deal with and expressing this in a definite matheis matical formula. promorphology. There a parallel branch of the science of biological forms. is called crystallography. On this basis we make a first distinction into four classes or types: (i) the centrostigma have a point as the natural middle of the body. have no distinguishable middle or symmetry. and all axes drawn through the centre are of equal I. We may. Formerly it was thought sufficient to distinguish two or three chief groups: (i) radial (or actinomorphic) types. however. the smooth sphere and the flattened sphere. and (4) the centraporia (acentra or anaxonia). Centrostigmatic Types. and that is the most regular of all. The classes. also cells that develop freely We animals 173 . that of man and the mammals) the pollen cells of many plants. the wholly irregular forms. we are led to distinguish the nine groups or types which In this promorphological are found in the sixth table. in which all points at the surface are equally distant from the centre. — \ length. differences of these types more closely. (2) the centraxonia a straight line (axis). smooth sphere {holospJia'ra) is a mathematically pure sphere. only one form is of this type. which has been greatly neglected. to which we reduce the symmetries of the innumerable living may organisms. of ideal fundamental forms. The natural middle of the body is a mathematical point. (2) bilateral (or zygomorphic) types. many and find this realized in its purity in the ovum of (for instance. and (3) irregular (or amorphic) But when we study the distinctive marks and types. distinguish two subthe sphere or ball. (3) the centroplana a plane (median plane). is comparatively small. the determining factor is the disposition of the system parts to the natural middle of the body.FORMS OF LIFE mathematical formuke. The number / . Properly speaking.

r These facetted all other axes (drawn through the facets). the globular central capsule of many spheroidea is enclosed in a concentric gelatine envelope. Inorganic fluids (drops of quicksilver. On the other hand. as drops of oil do. etc.work (A-f. biconvex.) similarly assume the purely spherical form. which are drawn through sphere. axis.THE WONDERS OF LIFE floating in a liquid. The natural middle of the body II. because it is the only absolutely regular type. divides the body into two corresponding halves. A spheroids. sometimes irregular. frequently starlike silicious needles rise from the knots of the net. and larger than . horizontal section. 91). that is to say. mental forms consists of two classes. double cones. plants also often assume the form of facetted spheres. passing through the middle of the vertical chief axis. ellipsoids. the sole form with a perfectly stable equilibrium. The pollen bodies in the flower-dust of many flowering 51. the principal axis. The upper pole or vertex differs from 174 In the monaxonia the form is determined by a single fixed the principal axis. or facetted sphere {platnosphcBra) is as an endospherical polyhedron. etc. the angles and the centre. the spherical coenobia of the volvocina and catallacta. smooth sphere is particularly important. Centraxonia Types. and at the same time the sole organic form which is susceptible of direct physical explanation. cutting the first at right angles. . The known flattened sphere. the two poles may be either equal To the isopola belong the {isopold) or unequal {allopola). The meshes of this net are sometimes regular (generally triangular or hexagonal). many of the parts are unequal in size and shape in the allopola. for instance. are all unequal. i. This large group of fundais a straight line. or other fixed transverse axes may also be distinguished. on the round surface of which we find a net-work of fine silicious threads. water. transverse-axial. and the The corresponding pure embryonic form of the hlastula. the simplest forms of the radiolaria (actissa). according as each axis is the sole fixed ideal axis of the body. spheres are frequently found in the globular silicious skeletons of many of the radiolaria. a manysurfaced body. familiar simple forms which are distinguished in geometry as . We call the former uniaxial {monaxonia) and the latter transThe horizontal section (vertically verse-axial {staiiraxonia) to the chief axis) is round in the uniaxials and polygonal in the — . cylinders. all the corners of which fall in the surface of a The axes or the diameters. when put in a watery fluid of the same specific weight (as a mixture of alcohol and water).

Wc may 175 . one of the simplest forms of the octahedron. twelve needles (the four equatorial and eight polar) lie in two meridian planes that are vertical to each other. and the eight tropical needles lie in two other meridian planes which cross the former at an angle of forty-five degrees. the double pyramids. 21. the which twenty radial needles (consisting of silicated shoot out from the centre of the vertical chief axis. In most of the acantharia (the radial acanthometra and the mailed acanthophracta) there radiolaria in chalk) are few exceptions this remarkable structural law of twenty radial needles is faithfully maintained by heredity. This form is exhibited very typically by most of the acantharia. Both sub-classes of the monaxonia. but on each side (in north and south hemispheres) the points of four needles fall in the tropical zone.FORMS OF LIFE the basal pole or ground surface. in this wise: two pairs cross at right angles in the equatorial zone. etc. for instance. a fundamental form that plays an important part in the configuration of organic bodies. 84). Of the stauraxonia isopola we have. Its origin is explained by adaptation to a regular attitude which the sea-dwelling unicellular body assumes in a certain stage of If the points of the real needles are equilibrium (A-f. as in many diatomes and desmidiacea (A-f. as with the inonaxonia. the cone. 41). — — connected by imaginary lines. These twenty rays are (if we imagine the figure of the earth with its vertical axis) distributed in fiv^e horizontal zones. corals. we get a polyhedrical body. Unequipolar stauraxonia are the pyramids. 4. etc. and the points of four polar needles in the polar circles. medusae. the allopola (conoidal) and the isopola (spheroidal) are found realized frequently in organic forms. It is more rarely found embodied in the may tissue-cells of the histona. which be reduced to the form of a regular double pyramid. pendently living protists (A-f. with four needles each. the planoconvex lens. Such are the regular blooms of flowering plants. according as the poles of the principal axis are eaual or unequal. This typical form of the equipolar stauraxonia is also found in other protists with a plastic skeleton. the hemisphere. we may regular or radial. They were formerly described as regular or fundamental forms. isopola and allopola. distinguish two sub-classes. as we find in the oval form. This is the case in the forms which were formerly generally classed as Here also. In the stauraxonia the vertical imaginary principal axis is cut by two or more horizontal cross-axes or radial-axes. 24"). both in the tissue -cells of the histona and the inde. the regular echinoderms.

47.THE WONDERS OF LIFE distinguish several groups of them according to the number of the horizontal transverse axes that cut the vertical main axis in the middle. 28. 48. 40. are characterized by having as their basis a rhombus instead of a regular polygon." most of the star-fish.). etc. Centroplane Types. which it inherited from craspedote medusfe. and the six-rayed "regular corals" (A-f. 69). etc. the four-rayed medusas (A-f. as in the three. has become bilateral by the development of different organs to the right and left from those before and behind. the five-rayed "regular echinoderms. draw two imaginary transverse axes. 60). — . a special group of pyramidal types. Two totally different divisions of the pyramidal types are the In the regular pyraregular and the amphithecta pyramids. sometimes four. Its chief axis is unequipolar. through the ground-surface. Closer study shows it to be a rhombus-pyramid.rayed blooms of the iris and crocus. where it is quite general. therefore. 176 . many The name of the corals and other cnidaria. as the two In this lies the chief difference from the cenare equipolar. dorsal and ventral pole). the median or chief plane {planum medmmim or it divides the bilateral body into two symmetrical sagittale) With this is associated the halves. and the ground-surface (or base) is a regular polygon. III. but of unequal One of the two may be called the sagittal axis (with length. sea-urchins. The originally four-rayed type. bisected pyramid in a very perfect form in the class of the We . "two-edged" which is given to this special type is taken from the ancient two-edged sword. vertical to each other. and sometimes eight-rayed-symmetrical. in which only the lateral axis find the is equipolar. and also the two broad surfaces (dorsal and ventral. 27). both equipolar. (A-f. but the two edges left and right are equal (poles of the lateral axis). 9. mids the transverse axes are equal.rayed and bilateral. Similar rhombo-pyramidal forms to those of the ctenophora are also found in some of the medusae and siphonophora. We ctenophora (or comb-medusae. troplane and dorsi ventral forms. The natural middle of the body is a plane. and many flowers. the right and the left. and the other the transverse axis (with right and left pole) but the distinction is arbitrary. The amphithecta (or two-edged) pyramids. 10. the sagittal axis being unequipolar. joined by the sagittal axis). The striking typical form of these pelagic cnidaria is sometimes called biradial. the handle being at the basic pole and the point at the verticel pole. i6. may. A-f.

and its hinder pole is the aboral or caudal (tail) The shortest of the three enthyni is. is ambiguous. in the former the radial (pyramidal) form is combined with the . this is defined by the sagittal and transverse axes. and divides the body into cwo symmetrical halves. and divides the The third normal plane is dorsal half from the ventral half. The first of these normal planes is the median plane. the bilateral-radial and the bilateral-symmetrical. one pole being called the right and the other the left. the five-rayed blooms of the radial structure is 177 . Further. The various parts which make up the two halves of the body have relatively the same disposition in each half. the pole. The third axis the transverse or lateral axis is equipolar. in botany this type (found. the The second normal plane is the frontal plane. sagittal (arrow) or dorsiventral axis. It is used in five different senses. the principal one (axon principalis) its fore pole is the oral or mouth pole. but not in the latter. in relation to the middle plane) they are oppositely arranged. 74). its upper pole is at the back and its lower pole at the belly. It divides the head half (or the vertical part) from the tail half (or the basal part). in most green leaves) is called the dorsiventral. in our body. of these three straight axes (enthynt) two are unequipolar and the third equipolar. For our present general purpose it suffices to distinguish two orders of centroplane types. the cingular (waist) plane. the centroplane or bilateral forms are also characterized by three vertical axes which may be drawn through each of the normal axes. as I pointed out in 1866 in an exhaustive analysis and criticism of these fundamental forms in the fourth book of the General Morphology. — — bilateral. vertical ." which is especially applied to the centroplane and dorsiventral types. the centroplanes may also be called tri-axial (triaxonia) In most of the higher animals (as in our own frame) the longest of the three axes is . it is defined by the chief axis and the sagittal axis. right and left. and in zoology the bilateral One characteristic of this important and in the narrower sense. this passes through the chief axis and the transverse axis (which is parallel to the frontal surface in our body). The name "bilateral symmetry. for instance. but absolutely speaking (namely. to each other.FORMS OF LIFE characteristic antithesis of back (dorsum) and belly (venter) hence. wide-spread type is the relation of three different axes. The bilateral-radial type comprises those forms in which the combined in a very characteristic fashion with the bilateral. Hence. We have striking examples in the three-rayed flowers of the orchids (A-f.

freely.) the ventral side is underneath. the first glance. These high and narrow and flattened boney-fishes have a perfect bilateral symmetry when young.THE WONDERS OF LIFE labiate and papilionaceous flowers. what is more curious. etc. A-f. and the dorsal side upward. Special notice must be taken of those bilateral forms which were originally symmetrical (by heredity). but have subsequently become asymmetrical (or of unequal halves). etc. or the composition from three to five or more raylike parts (parainera). The bilateral-symmetrical type animals which move about . sides (right and left) the head (with the sense organs. annelids. articulates. the brain. turbots. The most familiar example among the vertebrates are the flat-fishes (plciironectides). etc. and often marked with a design (sometimes a protective very like the stony floor of the ocean coloring). But. etc.. other causes that have produced the predominance of this type in green leaves the relation to the supporting stalk. while it has disThere are. which are arranged bilaterally round a common is central plane. soles. and the mouth) faces frontward and the tail behind. while the side the flat-fish lies on remains without color. flounders. exposed to the light. Afterwards they form the habit of laying on one side (right or left) at the bottom of the sea. and in consequence the upper side. is dark colored. For thousands of years all artificial vehicles (carts on land and Selection has ships in water) have been built on this type. as is also the radial structure. creeping. among the higher The body consists of two general antithetic parts {antitnera) and has no trace of radial structure. or swimming animals (vertebrates. 30) in the animal In these cases the bilateral symmetry is recognizable at world. against the ground. . the eye — 178 . to the sun-light that falls from it to be the best rest. clypeastrida. in the plant world: and in the five-rayed "irregular" echinoderms. recognized carded the and preserved it. like ordinary fishes. — above. This form is clearly the most useful and practical of all conceivable types for the movement of the body in a definite direction and The burden is equally distributed between the two position. In the free moving. the bilateral sea-urchins (spatangida. by adaptation to special conditions of life. mollusks. however.

this interesting metamorphosis of the of the pleuroncctidcs gives us an excellent instance inheritance of acquired characteristics. and this was accompanied by considerable displacement and modification of the neighboring In most snails one of the parts. prettily colored and marked. to one side. especially the gills. At the same time. kidneys. unequal growth. Naturally. can only be explained by our biogenetic law. covered with the shell. chanical factor — the The cause 179 . while the bones of the skull and the softer parts of each side of the head grow quite crooked. succeeds to the early complete symmetry of each individual.) grew more stronglv on one side than the other in consequence of this. snail's house is in essence a spirally coiled tube. and often of their shells. by the two sides of the body having an of it was a purely mesinking of the growing visceral sac. and the two eyes Ue together on one side (tlie right or left).FORMS OF LIFE from the under side travels to the upper side. : moUusk can at any The comparative anatomy and ontogeny of the snails teach us that this spiral shell came originally from a simple discoid or rical cylindrical dorsal covering of the once bilateral-symmetmoUusk. this in which a striking lack of symmetry ontogenetic process. as a consequence of constant oecological habit. explain We have another striking example among the inverte- The great majority brates in the snails {gasteropoda). one part of the viscera contained in it (the heart. etc. closed at the upper end and open at the lower moment withdraw (or mouth) the into its tube. of these moUusks are characterized by the spiral shape This variously shaped. it a rapid and brief recapitulation (determined by is heredity) of the long and slow phyletic process which the flat-fish has undergone for thousands of years in its ancestral history to bring about its gradual modification. liver. it It is quite impossible to on Weismann's theory of the germ-plasm.

An impartial and thorough study of organic forms has convinced me that their actual. we may instance as quite irregular the soft and ever-changing plasma-bodies of many rhizopods. infinitely varied configurations may all be reduced to the few typical forms I have described. — Few organic forms are com- axes. mycetozoa. But the question arises as to logical transformation. and give 1 80 . There are also many examples of this asymmetry of bilateral forms in the plant world. as usually the attracpletely irregular tion to the earth (geotaxis) or to the nearest object determines the special direction of growth. most familiar example is the common bath-sponge. and customs. The conspicuous lack of symmetry between the two halves of the body which resulted from this finds expression in the spiral form of the snail's shell. and so the and without — — are completely which we regard as stocks of gastraeads irregular in structure. us. or vice versa. and gills affords a very fine instance of the inheritance of acquired characters. The Centraporia. Comparative anatomy and ontogeny further teach us that the countless modifying processes which have led to the appearance of the various species have acted by adaptation to different environments. Nevertheless. habits. such as the green foliage-leaves of the familiar begonia and the blooms of canna. in conjunction with a physiological explanation of this morphoheredity. the Most of the sponges also amoebinae.THE WONDERS OF LIFE and kidneys and the ventricle of the heart corresponding to these have disappeared altogether. and the latter have moved from the right side to the left. IV. etc. This remarkable ontogenetic metamorphosis also can be fully explained by a corresponding phylogenetic process. the formation of an axis in some direction or other. only those of the opposite side remaining.

and the cause of their divergence. which lead us from the simplest protists. The unicellular organisms exhibit the greatest variety from the promorphological point of view. the monera. and to meet the errors of duahsm.FORMwS OF LIFE the origin of these few geometrically definable types. In order to understand this monistic position thoroughly. and therefore consciously acting final causes. I have ever maintained the view that the action of familiar physical forces mechanical efficient causes fully suffices to explain the origin and transformation of these fundamental types. They contend that only a wise creator. and also the long chain of advancing stages of development. This find all imaginable geometrical is seen in a glance at the one I hundred and forty plates on which thousands of these graceful little have depicted protozoa in my mono- i8i . construction of these types we must postulate a deliberate creative thought. think that they are justified here in appealing to a supernatural creation of forms. as well as for all other biological and inorganic processes. we must bear in mind always the radical processes of growth which control all organic and inorganic configuration. So say Nageli and Alexander Braun. In direct opposition to this. In this important and ditlicult question we find a great variety of opinions and a strong leaning to dualistic and mystic theories. who have only a partial and imperfect acquaintance with the biological facts. to the most and that at least for the first fundamental — — advanced organisms. could produce such structures. a design. following a rational and conscious design. Educated laymen. In the single class of the radiolaria we types represented. . or some such teleological cause. Even distinguished and informed scientists lean in this matter towards mystic and transcendental ideas they believe that the ordinary natural forces do not suffice to explain these phenomena.

i. sphere. its fundamental form is the simplest of all. In my Art-forms in Nature I have given a selection of their most beautiful forms (diatomes. and aphanocapsa are quite the most primitive of all organisms known to us and at the same time the organisms that enable us — life by spontaneous The whole organism is merely generation (archigony). coelosphaerium. radiolaria. 4. and one stationary with a globular shape. 71. it may assume the most varied and often most complicated forms. 31. In this respect the class of the radiolaria among the protozoa. bluish-green globule of plasm. But when the conjunction. hand. the structureless organisms without organs that live on the very frontier of the inorganic world. vol. 41. Among the well-known and widely distributed chroococcacea.THE WONDERS OF LIFE On the other graph (Challenger Report. or only surrounded by a thin membrane. 182 . 11. 51. Many protists are found in two conditions. the monera. the chromacea. 84.). separate living cell begins to form a firm skeleton or protective cover for itself. 95). They consist of simple primitive (unnucleated) cells joined to each other. one mobile with very varied and changeable forms. A-f. are very Especially interesting in this connection are simple. 21. surpass all the other groups of the diversified realm of the protists. and the class of the diatomes among the protophyta (both of which have flinty shells). The most remarkable and most important fact about them is that the artistic builders of these wonderful and often very ingenious and 22. which have the appearance of thin. a tiny. the centraxial smooth Next to these are the oscillaria and nostochina. which have hitherto been so unde- servedly and so incomprehensibly neglected. at the lowest stage of organic life. best to understand the origin of social chromacea. they seem often to be flattened into a discoid shape as a result of close bluish-green threads. without any structure. xviii. A-f. the chroococcus. 61.

since in the case of the latter the simple unicellular body produces for itself alone the whole form and vital action of the organism. and so number of ideal types exhibited by the organism combine to form the sprout (cnlmus) in the plant they kingdom and the person in the animal kingdom. or dorsiventral form preponderates in most free-moving •83 . The same may be said of the stock (cormtis) in both kingis the — doms — that is is which constituted to say. or the social combination of a number of different cells. of fundamental forms is limited. cially classes of fundamental forms which are espefound in the plant sprouts or the animal persons are the radial and bilateral. and On the other hand. corals. The one is determined by life. configuration of the independent living cells and the protective cover it forms among the histona the number . which make of The configuration up the always tissue body. The two the stationary the other by free movement in in a cer- tain attitude and direction water or creep(swimming Hence we find the radial form (as ing on the ground). but the number of the different tissues which they make up is small. pyramidal) predominant in the blooms and fruits of the metaphyta. while in the histona this is done by the cell state.FORMS OF LIFE intricate flinty structures are merely the plastidulcs or micella. the bilateral regular echinoderms. Hence the ideal type which we can define in the actual histonal form has quite a different significance from that in the unicellular proIn the latter we find the utmost diversity in the tists. It is true that the cells themselves which make up the tissues may exhibit a great variety in form and structure. the histona differs essentially from that of the protists. the molecular and microscopically invisible con- stituents of the soft viscous plasm (sarcode). and the persons of the polyps. of the higher individual unity by the union of several sprouts or persons.

a wooden sphere makes an agreeable im184 . depends for the most part. in the mode of their fastening to and distribution on the stalk (for the green foliage leaves). on the feeling of pleasure we experience in looking at them. Direct or sensible beauty (the subject of sensual aesthetics) is the direct perception of agreeable stimuli by the sense-organs. hence their typical form is generally more or less irregular. orchids. for instance. . The causes of this pleasure and joy in — the beautiful and the naturalness of its development are explained in aesthetics. Thus. we may direct and indirect. The interest which we take in natural and artistic forms. on their beauty that is to say. . or the aesthetic neurona or sense-cells of the brain. and so on. and rarely bilateral. in the relations with the insects. if not altogether. The complex individuals of the first order. But in indirect or associational beauty these impressions are combined with an excitement of the phronetic neurona the rational brain cells which effect presentation and — — thought. When we combine this science with the results of modern cerebral physiology. and which has for thousands of years prompted men to reproduce the former in the latter. and others that Here we have to seek the are fertilized by insects). are more dependent in their growth on the spatial conditions of their environment than the sprouts or persons.THE WONDERS OF LIFE animals though it is also found in many flowers (papilionaceous and labial flowers. the stocks (cormi). Simple beauty (the subject of primordial aesthetics) the pleasure is evoked by the direct sense-impression of a simple form or color. We may distinguish the following stages of its perfection: i. distinguish two classes of beauty In direct or sensible beauty the internal sense-organs. cause of the bilateralism in different features. are im- — mediately affected with pleasure.

the pleasure is excited by the orderly arrangement of three or more homogeneous . The aesthetic impressions in indirect associational beauty ics) (the subject of associative or symbolical aesthet- are not only much more varied and complex than those we have described. The anatomic condition for this higher physiological function is the elaborate construction of the brain in the i8s . 3. The familiar experience of the kaleidoscope shows how amply the simple radial constellation of three or more simple figures may delight our aesthetic sense (in music we have the simple harmony rical of several simultaneous notes). the five radial-pieces in the star-fish. 4. we get a symmetrical figure which makes an agreeable impression on our natpleasure is ural sense of space or equilibrium. 84. a sky-blue or goldenyellow spot as compared with a greenish-blue or dull- the serial repetition of some simple form for instance. figs. music a simple pure bell-tone as com2. 7 and 9): in music a tasteful Actinal beauty (the subject of radial aesthetics). yellow one pared with subject of caused by (in a shrill whistle). a chainlike community of monera (nostoc) or of cells (diatomes.simple forms about a common centre. the mutual completion of two similar halves (the When we fold a piece of paper right and left parts). Symmet(the subject of bilateral aesthetics) the beauty .-f. a regular cross or a radiating star. for instance. caused by the relation of a simple object to its like. but they also play a much more important part in the life of man and the higher animals. from which they radiate. A. a crystal as compared with a stone. the three counter-pieces in the iris-bloom. Rhythmic beauty (the . linear aesthetics) the aesthetic sensation — is series of simple notes. the four paramera in the body of the medusa. a pearl necklace.FORMS OF LIFE pression as compared with a shapeless piece of wood. over an ink-stain in such a way that it is equally impressed on both halves of the fold.

etc. and thus. the sensual aestheta acting in conjunction with the rational phroneta. by ment complex associations of ideas. We may higher and more indicate four chief groups of this associational or indirect beauty." regards his own organism as the chief object of beauty. have evoked an infinite number of aesthetic creations in every branch of The art relating to the antithesis of man and woman. their bionomic relations. or psychic cells co-operate. hair. a butterfly) excite our organs aesthetic interest by association with their physiological significance. : 6. of anthropomorphic aesthetics): man. or physiologically (beauty of movements or positions). or psychologically (the expression of the emotions in the physiognomy). as (the subject "the measure of all things. and so on.THE WONDERS OF LIFE higher animals and man. a flower. and anthropomorphically regards other beings in the light of them. and particularly the developof the special association-centres (thought-centres. the sexual selection powerful that is associated with reproduction. reason-sphere) and their differentiation from the interIn this millions of different neurona nal sense-centres. 5. flesh-tint. their movements. much valuable functions arise. As man transfers to the objective world this — personal gratification he experiences from self -consideration.). of erotic aesthetics) the pleasure is caused by the mutual : attraction of the sexes. Biological beauty (the subject of botanical and zoological the various forms of organisms and their aesthetics) (for instance. The supreme importance of other organisms. mouth. this anthropistic aesthetic obtains a 7. Anthropistic beauty their practical use. Sexual beauty (the subject far-reaching significance. either morphologically considered (beauty of the whole body and its various organs the eyes. which is caused by the bodily and mental special pleasure affinities of the sexes can be traced phylogenetically to love in the life of man and most 186 . the influence of the passions.

or the attraction of 8. of regional aesthetics) the pleasure which is caused ject by the sight of a fine landscape. and the living figures in the foreground. clouds and the water. Landscape beauty (the subthe sperm-cell to ovum. is much younger than the other branches of the science of the It is very remarkable that absolute irregubeautiful. the first condition for the beauty of a landscape (as contrasted with architecture. they seem tedious. rising from the simple to the complex. as a double row of poplars or houses) or radial (such figures (a flower-bed or artificial wood) do not please the landscape. This scale corresponds to the evolution of the sense of beauty in man. and richer than any of the individual objects in nature which are beautiful and inThe varying forms of the teresting in themselves. larity. the outline of the blue mountains in the background. and the beauty of separate Symmetrical arrangement of things objects in nature).FORMS OF LIFE the cell-love of the two sexual cells. the is absence of symmetry and mathematical forms. are among the most perfect achievements of organic This "regional aesthetics. any other is more comprehenIn point sive than that of aesthetic sensations. from the lower finer taste for A to the higher. scientifically the laws of landscape beauty. of space the object is larger excite in the mind of the spectator a number of different impressions which are woven together into a harmonious whole by a most elaborate association of ideas." which has to establish life. ontogenetically from the child to the adult. the woods and meadows in the middle-distance. comparative survey of these eight kinds of beauty in natural forms discovers a connected development. The physiological functions of the nerve-cells in the cortex which effect these aesthetic pleasures. and that finds satisfac: tion in modern landscape-painting. phylogenetically from the savage to 187 . and the interaction of the sensual aestheta with the rational phroneta.

we have corresponding to this evolutionary series the scale of the typical forms which lie at the root of the real forms of bodies both in nature and art. On the other hand. also finds an application in the history of aesthetics and ornamentation. emotion. It teaches us how feeling. which explains to us in anthrothe gradual rise from lower to higher forms by pogeny the interaction of heredity and adaptation. man and The stem-history .THE WONDERS OF LIFE the civilized of man and the art critic. and art have been gradually evolved. taste. his organs.

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which has in a short time attained a considerable rank. and cells Actual monera life — the two classes. pursues a method in opposition to this principle. cytodes. such as minerals. and the development of the compound from the simple. in many of the higher protists (such as the ciliata and infusoria) and many of the higher tissue-cells (such as the neurona) has led to the erroneous ascription of a 190 . protogenes. etc. the manner of their combination. It is also of genartificially constructed machines. the fungi. and the protozoa — Rhizomonera (protamoeba.IX MONERA The simplest forms of lar organisms: — — —Chromacea (cyanophyceae) — Chromatophora — Coenobia of chromacea: vital phenomena — Bacteria — Relations of the bacteria to the chromacea. — Problematic monera— Phytomonera (plasmobathybius) doma) and zoomonera (plasmophaga) — Transition between Cell theory and cell dogma Precellumonera. and the origin of the former by historical development from the latter. The intricate composition of the unicellular organism. the study and explanation of all complex phenomthe first thing to do is to understand the simple parts. The modern science of the cell (cytology). eral application in biological work. This principle ena IN applies generally to inorganic objects. protomyxa. The efforts of com- parative anatomy are directed to the comprehension of the intricate structure of the higher organisms from the rising scale of organization and life in the lower.

therefore. Every cell comes (and has come) only from a mother-cell.MONERA highly complex organization to the cell in general. The modern treatment of the science. or of a number of cells and tissues." or made up of several chemically and anatomically different elementary constituents. up living things are either unicellular. and it is added that these organella differ constantly both in 191 . but always "organized. and which we must resent on account of its dogmatism. culminates cell is in something like the following theses: 1. The matter in each of these cell-organs — caryo- plasm of the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the body — is never homogeneous (or consisting of a chemical substratum). and consider them to be so danreasons. all made 2. consistently resisted them for thirty -eight years. more correctly. This elementary organism consists of at least two different organs (or. I have. the internal nucleus and the outer cell-body (or cytoplasm). The nucleated the general elementary or- ganism. therefore. a morphonot a chemical. First. One would be justified in saying that of late the cell-theory has established itself in the dangerous and misleading position of a cell-dogma. they are incompatible with the theor^^ of 4. 5. It is now generally defined (in accordance with the second thesis) as being composed of two essentially different parts. {oninis celliila e cellula These five theses of the modem cell-dogma are by no means sound. (or protoplasm) is. and every nucleus from a mother-nucleus omnis nucleus e niiclco). organella). as we find it in numbers of recent works. the nucleus and the cell-body. even in some of the most distinguished manuals. let gerous that I will briefly give my us clearly understand the modern definition of the cell. — evolution. The plasm logical. the 3. unity.

during a stay in the Canary Islands. As they must necessarily have preceded the real cells. elementary organism. pp. morphology. that is really so. and described theminmy General Morphology {vol. Fifty years ago I made the first careful observations of living monera {protama^ha and protogcnes).) as structureless organisms without organs and Soon afterwards. but differed in having no nucleus." The earliest organisms to live on the earth. The description of this orange-red 1Q2 . which behaved like a very simple mycetozoon. and joined them with the real nucleated cells under the general head of "plastids. we should have a miracle at the beginning of organic life on the earth. There are still living to-day very simple protists I which do not tally with this definition. xxii. with which the wonderful drama of life began. — p. they may also be called " precellular organisms. The theory of natural evolution clearly and distinctly demands that the cell (in this sense) is a secondary development from a simpler. can. in which there was not yet the division of nucleus and cell-body which characterizes the real cell... and physiology. and in 1870 I described in my Monograph on the Monera a number of protists which do not tally with the above definition. only be conceived as homogeneous particles of plasm biogens or groups of biogens. i. primary. vol. a homogeneous cytode. " " I gave the name cytodes to these unnucleated cells in 1866.ii. I have reproduced the picture of it in the first plate of my History of Creation. 133-5.THE WONDERS OF LIFE If respect of chemistry. and which designated monera in 1866. I succeeded in following the continuous life-history of a related organism of the rhizopod type. the cell cannot possibly be the primitive organism." I also endeavored to prove that such cytodes still exist in the form of independent monera. if it were. in the present condition of biological science. the real beginnings of organic life.

growing by plasmodomism (formation of plasm) and multiplying by simple cleavage as soon as their growth passes a certain limit of individual size. some of them being very widely distributed. the chroococtants of the earth. It was afterwards proved of some of them that there was a nucleus hidden within the homogeneous particle of plasm.MONERA globule of plasm {protomyxa aurantiaca) appeared first my Monograph on the Moncra. and the existence of unnucleated organisms was denied altogether. cacea. the former being unnucleated protophyta and the latter unnucleated protozoa. Nevertheless. On the ground of this important chemical difference. and the latter plasmophagous=:plasma-feeding). I distinguished two principal groups of the monera in my Systematic Phythe phytomonera and the togeny twenty years ago zoomonera. Most of the organisms whicli I comprised under this name exhibited the same movements as true rhizopods (or sarcodina). and this circumstance had prevented me for some time from counting the chromacea as monera. therefore. was wrongly extended to the whole of the monera. they this discovery must be regarded as real cells. Among living organisms the chromacea are certainly the most primitive and the nearest to the oldest inhabiTheir simplest forms. but at the same time may be 13 193 . However. in and But that. I became convinced afterwards that the formation of a protective cover of this kind around the homogeneous particle of plasm may indeed be regarded from the physiological stand-point as a "purposive" structure. the former with vegetal and the latter with animal metabolism (or the former plasmodomous = plasma-forming. Many of them are surrounded by a thin membrane or somewhat thicker gelatinous covering. The chief examples are the chromacea and the bacteria. there are living to-day several kinds of these organisms without organs. are nothing but small structureless particles of — plasm.

or violet. wood. violet. living in the sea. tissue-forming plants. for instance. because they (as simple. . the flaky masses of which. chapter xv. as it gives us the simple key to the solution of the great question of spontaneous generation (or archigony. which are Other chromacea multicellular. It is because only a part of firstly. these protophyta are blue. incorrect.e. from the purely physical stand-point. as the interesting trichodesmium erythrcutim. blue algae). The the water looked as if it were strewn with sawdust. cyanine blue. the physiological character of these plasmodomous monera is especially important. for two reasons. of or reddish surface of yellow . or reddish deposits on rocks. are red. it is name "Red Sea" on the Chinese coast. secondly. trichodesmium. a good deal in the various species of chromacea (of objects. as a result of superficial strain. The chromacea are to-day found in every part of the earth.THE WONDERS OF LIFE looked upon. primitive plants without tissue) must be distinguished from the real algae (phyceae). On the other hand. which more than eight hundred have been distinguished) in the native species it is generally blue-green or sageHence green. sometimes blue. Their tint is due to a peculiar coloring matter (phycocyan). and. 1901. sometimes in fresh water and sometimes Many species form blue-green.. Sunda this Straits on March accumulations. 194 colossal several the boat sailed through miles in width. cause at certain times the yellow or red coloring of the sea-water in the tropics. c/. stones.). these that are responsible for the the Arabian and "Yellow Sea" on When I passed the equator in the lo. the common name cyanophyceas {i. orange. or yellow in color. which is chemically connected with the substance The shade of this color differs of the plasma-particle. and other In these thin gelatinous plates millions of small homogeneous cytodes are packed close together. gathering in enormous quantities.

and split into two equal daughter-globules. and are developed. The real algae excluding the unicellular diatomes and paulotomes. very refractive. which — — green plant-cells.MONERA In the same way. or separated plasma-formations which arise In the embryonic beside the nucleus in the cytoplasm. which have the most important function in the plasmodomism or carbonassimilation of the plant. a chemical process. from the firm layer of plasm which immeAfterwards they are diately surrounds the nucleus. and multiply in turn in the same way. as solid. all To be more by segmentation is very important and interesting. are unnucleated cytodes of a lower and earlier stage of plant-life. these green granules of chlorophyll must be regarded as organella of the plant-cell. If one would compare the chromacea with algae or other plants at all. These daughterplastids grow. which belong to the protophyta are multicellular plants that form a thallus or bed of a certain form and characteristic tissue. but merely with the chromatophora or chromatella. cells of the germs of plants and in their vegetation points the chromatophora are as yet colorless. The fact that the green chlorophyll granules grow independently within the living plant-cell and multiply are found in contents. It is clearly quite illogical to regard the chromacea as a class or family of the algae. by phyll granules or chloroplasts. the surface of the Arctic Ocean is often colored brown or reddish-brown by masses of the brown procytclla prhnordialis (formerly described as protococciis niarinus). the comparison cannot be with their constituent cells. The globular chloroplasts are constricted in the middle. as is still done in most manuals of botany. into the green chloroconverted. and form part of their precise. The chromacea. or roundish granules. which have not advanced as far as the real nucleated cell. 195 . globular.

) cleavage of the rapidly multiplying cytodes always follows the same direction. But the majority of the chromacea form firm. On the strength of this significant comparison. ubiquitous chroococcus. threadlike cell communities or As the transverse chains of plastids (catenal coenobia. as in the oscillaria and nostochina. or communities or colonies of cells. of Brazil. and are flattened into discoid shape. one of our ablest and most open-minded scientists. and live their lives apart. In the glceocapsa. When the tiny plasma globules have split into two equal halves by simple segmentation. most species live in common. jelly-like bodies. and in the text). the constituent cytodes cover themselves immediately after cleavage with a fresh gelatinous envelope. Fritz Muller-Desterro. and the new daughter-cytodes remain joined at the cleavage surfaces. they separate. we get stringlike formations or articulated threads of considerable length. This is the case with the common.green companions {cf. Many species of the simplest chromacea live as monobia (individually). In view of the extreme importance which 196 attach to . in which numbers of blue-green plasma globules are irregularly distributed. my Anthropogeny. irregular. In the simplest case (aphanocapsa) the social cytodes secrete a structureless gelatinous mass. I attain the size of a plum. pointed out in 1893 that we may see in every green vegetal cell a symbiosis between plasmodomous green and plasmophagous not . the plasma granules forming more or less thick coenobia. and these run together into large masses. 277 and 278.THE WONDERS OF LIFE Hence they behave within the plant-cell just like the free-living chromacea in the water. as in the common They " shooting - star jellies" (nostoc communis). which forms a thin blue-green gelatinous deposit on damp walls and rocks. When a number of these threads are joined together in gelatinous masses. However. we often get large. figs.

it is necessary to put clearly the following facts with regard to . 6. 8. is on a level with the physical process of crystal growth. of the cytodes. or plasmodomism = carbon assimilation). which is secreted by many 5. x. 2. threads.their anatomic structure and physiological activity: 1. of 4. is 3. The sole essential vital function that is common to all the chromacea is self-maintenance. and it shows no trace of purposive construction or definite architecture. The original globular form of the plasma particle the simplest of all fundamental types.MON E RA the chromacea as the earUest and snnplest of all organisms. etc. in virtue of their continuous plasmodomism.). The reproduction of the chromacea by simple cleavage is merely the continuation of this simple growth process. this purely chemical process is ( on a level with the catalysis of inorganic compounds (chapter 7. when it passes the limit of individual size. The gelatinous envelope of the chromacea is also formed by a simple physical — (or chemical) process. which are to be seen 9. The organism of the simplest chromacea is not composed of different organella or organs. and is also that assumed by the inorganic body (such as a drop of rain) in a condition of stable equilibrium. and growth by means of their vegetal metabolism. The homogeneous tinted plasma granule which makes up the entire organism in the simplest case (chroococcus) exhibits no plasma structure (honeycomb.) whatever. The formation of a thin membrane at the surface the structureless plasma granule may be explained as a purely physical process that of surface strain. All the other vital phenomena The growth in some of the chromacea can 197 also be explained by .

higher and lower temperatures. The nature's household bacteria in position has thus secured for these tiny the organisms the greatest scientific and practical interest. Not a single fact compels us to assume a "vital force. and resume their vital activity as soon as it thaws. with the aid of the best modern microscopes and methods of preparation and coloring. and then resume their life if put in pletely water after several years. Many chromacea may be comdried up. The biologist who studies the systematic 198 . and explaining their great importance for organic life — especially as — regards practical by bionomic careful experiments or economic and methods of of culture. However.THE WONDERS OF LIFE physical or chemical causes on mechanical principles. The special science which is concerned with them modern bacteriology has attained so important a posi- — — tion in a short period and theoretical medicine that it is now represented by separate chairs at most of the universities. determining their physiological properties. Other species may remain for a long time frozen in ice. etc. and the agents of fermentation." Especially noteworthy in regard to the physiological character of these lowest organisms are their bionomic peculiarities. etc. Next in order to the chromacea we have the bacteria. We may admire the penetration and the perseverance with which scientists have succeeded. in making so close a study of the organism of the bacteria. Many of the chromacea live in hot springs. we find that certain general views have been maintained by specialists in bacteriology up to our own time which are in curious contrast with these brilliant results. the remarkable little organisms which have been well known in the last few decades as the causes of fatal diseases. especially the indifference to external influences. with a temperature of fifty to eighty degrees centigrade. in which no other organism is found. putrefaction.

of Kiel. but unnucleated cytodes of the rank of the monera. a number of very small granules. which bacteriologists call "bacteria-cells. they are not real (tissue-forming) fungi. the differentiation of an individual." are not real nucleated cells. and the formation of their carefully consider the morphological species. who sought in vain to detect a nucleus in one of the largest and most easily studied genera of the bacteria. we are forced to the conclusion that I urged years ago in various writings: When we the bacteria are not real (nucleated) cells. or a as equivalent to a nucleus in — — beginning of. the beggiatoa. 199 . The individual organisms of the simplest kind. using aid. but simple protists. That is the clear negative result of a number of most careful investigations which have been made up to date with the object of finding a nucleus in the plasmabody of the bacteria. every modern technical His conviction that this important cell-structure is really lacking is the more valuable. and are strongly tinted under But even if the chemical certain coloring processes. their relations to other classes of plants. that are common to all true bacteria and properties compare them with other organisms." scientists (especially Schaudinn) have recently claimed. as it is very Other prejudicial to his own theory of "dominants. which are irregularly distributed in the plasm. some of the larger bacteria. Among recent exact investigations we must especially note those of the botanist Reinke. their nearest relatives are the chromacea.M relations of the bacteria NE RA from the modern point of view of the theory of descent is bewildered at the extraordinary views as to the place of the bacteria in the plant-world (as segmentation-fungi). identity of these substances which take the same color were proved which is certainly not the case and even if the appearance of scattered nuclein-granules in the plasm could be regarded as a preliminary to.

nitric acid. The plasmodomous. etc. or a special sharply outlined membrane on the plastid. are their metabolism. makes it very indifferent to external influences (such as a high temperature). In the long-bodied bacteria (the rod-shaped bacilli) the constriction always goes through the middle of the long axis. Many bacteria (but not all) have such a membrane. They form new plasm by synthesis and reduction from simple inorganic compounds water. The bacteria multiply. great majority of the bacteria differ so little morphologically from the chromacea that we can only distinguish these two classes of monera by the difference in The chromacea. as protophyta.). and undergoes a chemical change which . Hence the — 200 . and also the secretion of a gelatine envelope. therefore. Nor is this any more proved from the circumstance that in some bacteria (not all) we find a severance of the plasm into an inner and outer layer. permanent quiescent forms (without any multiplication of individuals) the central part of the plastid (endoplasm) condenses. and is. form new plasm. are plasmophagous. ammonia. separates from the peripheral part (exoplasm). they decompose it by analysis and oxydation. as soon as the structureless plasma-granule has reached a certain size by simple classes growth. simple transverse cleavage. or a frothy structure with vacuole-formation. but have to take it from other organisms (as parasites. as a rule. etc. like the nearly related chromacea. it is constricted and splits into two halves. Both have also in common an exclusively monogenetic reproduction. like the chromacea.THE WONDERS OF LIFE morphologically distinct nucleus. by simple segmentation. But the carbonic acid. as protozoa. bacteria. Many bacteria have also been said to multiply by the formaBut these so-called "spores" are really tion of spores. saprophytes. we should not yet have shown its independence as an organellum of the cell. They cannot.

in spite of the extreme simplicity of their outward appearance. and even of more than a thousand. we must not take mycetes (cleavage-fungi). they convert ammonia by oxydation into nitrous acid. micrococcus prodigiosus is blood-red. The number of forms that can be distinguished as species in the technical sense is very great in the case of the bacteria. many biologists speak of several hundred. which is expressed in the name "cleavage-plants" {schizophyta). is also found in many other protists. and within this distinguish as "orders" the blue-green chromacea as schizophyccce (cleavage algae) and the colorless bacteria as scJiizoHowever. using as their the carbonic acid gas in the atmosphere. species. combine both groups in a single class with the ingly name of schizophyta. this division too rigidly. and the absolute lack of a nucleus and tissue-formation separates the chromacea just as widely from the multicellular tissue-forming algae as the bacteria from the fungi. other Certain earth-dwelling bacteria purple. like the chromacea. But when we look solely to the outer form of the living 20I . and so on. and They are thus quite independent of organic substances. or red coloring matter (phycocyan) chlorophyll. on simple inorganic compounds.MONERA without the important green. Hence the ai^nity between the plasmodomous chromacea and plasmophagous bacteria is so close that it is impossible to give a single safe criterion that will effectMany botanists accordually separate the two classes. and feed. which tints of the chromacea. and is the real instrument the plastids of the carbon-assimilation. source of carbon this into nitric acid. there are exceptions in this respect: bacillus virens is tinted green with colorless bacteria are blue. The simple multiplication by the halving of the cell. bacteria {nitrobacteria) have the vegetal property of plasmodomism . However.

and tuberculosis.). or and often twisted like worms (3) (comma-bacilli) screw-shaped rods (vibriones . lengthened plastid. we are admit that the real cause of these maladies bound to must be sought in the peculiar molecular structure of the bacterium-plasm. (i) Micrococci. or rhabdo-bacteria (also called eubacteria. threefold difference in the forms of the cytodes. cocci). we can only distinguish three funda- mental types: spherobacteria (briefly. or bacteria in the narrower sense). then. and precisely on this account these microbes are of extreme importance. gelatine. hypochondriasis. the screw is slight. The construction and vibration of these serves for locomotion in the swimming bacteria. When we bear in mind how complicated are the relations of the various species of bacteria to the tissues of the human body. especially their different behavior towards organic foods (albumin. cylindrical. Besides this coils). others are altogether wanting. their chemical actions. and in many Since. neither the simple outer form of the - bacterium cytodes nor their homogeneous internal structure provides a satisfactory ground for the systematic distinction of the numerous species. when and spirochaeta when it has many or spirobacteria. etc. we have a ground of distinction in many bacilli and spirilla in the possession of one or more very thin lashes (flawhich proceed from one of both poles of the gella). in which they cause the diseases of typhus. but they are only found for a time in many species. (2) bacilli. or the particular arrangement of its molecules and the innumerable atoms (more than a thousand) 202 . No bacteriologist now doubts that all the vital activities of the bacteria are of a chemical nature.THE WONDERS OF LIFE plasma-granule. their physio- logical properties are generally used for the purpose. rod-shaped. and the various effects of poisoning and decomposition which they produce in the living organism. cholera. globular or ellipsoid. spirilla.

even under the highest power of the microscope. Nevertheless. here. which causes tetanus. as. But even these are not absolutely 203 . the distinction of the many species of bacteria is of interest in connection with the general question of the nature and constancy of a species. The chemical products of their call ptomaines. we have to look mainly to the physiological properties. I would particularly point out that this very justifiable statement is a pure hypothesis. ceeded in producing several of these poisonous matters mutual action are what we by artificial culture. in view of the vagueness or total lack of these characters. and these are based on the chemical differences in their hypothetical molecular structure. etc. were regarded as of any moment in the distinction of species. which are We have sucpartly very virulent poisons (toxins). We can see nothing whatever of the chemical molecular structure of the plasm. In thus declaring the action of bacteria to be purely chemical and analogous to that of well-known inorganic poisons. made up into special groups of molecules. no expert scientist has the slightest doubt of its existence. it lies far below the limit of microscopic perception. and isolating them and experimentally ascertaining their nature. or definable differences in outer form or inner structure.MONERA which are. for instance. or that the complicated movements of the sensitive atoms and the molecules and groups of molecules they make up are the causes of the vast changes which these tiny organisms effect in the tissues of the human and the higher animal body. in a very loose way. tetanin. typhotoxin. it is an excellent illustration of the fact that we cannot get on in the explanation of the most important natural phenomena without hypotheses. the in large quantities poison of typhus. Whereas formerly in biological classification only definite morphological characters. Moreover.

many bacteria lose their by progressive culture under changed food-conditions. many of the bacto form communities or cell-communities arise. we must particularly point out the wide gulf that separates the two groups. show a marked tendency These . or by the action of certain chemicals.THE WONDERS OF LIFE constant. which have a thin membrane and enclose a number of small nuclei in the colorless plasm. the two sub-classes of the real fungi. not only the growth and multiplication are altered. on the contrary. Like the closely related chromacea. By a change in the temperature and the nutritive field in which a number of poisonous bacteria have been reared. The real fungi (or mycetes) are metaphyta. an admirable example of the inheritance of effect is — — acquired characteristics. the mycelium. form peculiar fruit-bodies which generate spores (ascodia and basidia). Each fungus-thread consists of a row of lengthened cells. This poisonous specific qualities weakened. the ascomycetes and basimycetes. but also the injurious effect they have on other organisms by the generation of poisons. the so-called unicellular fungi or phycomycetes (ovomycetes and zygomycetes) class . this is composed of a number of interlaced and interwoven threads (or hyphens). as elsewhere. There is no trace whatever of these real characteristics of the Nor is it less incorrect to true fungus in the bacteria. As the bacteria are still often described as "cleavagefungi" and classified along with the real fungi. from the fact that the individuals. their multicellular body (thallus) forming a very characteristic sort of tissue. which multi204 teria cell-colonies. and what is most important the weakening is transmitted by heredity to the following On this is based the familiar process of generations. inoculation. them with the fungilli. these form a special class of protists which has the closest affinity to the gregarinae. Moreover.

on the other hand. we have the zoogloca (as in the case of the aphanocapsa and glceocapsa among the chro- macea). If. Hence we have to put them at the lowest stage of the protist kingdom. diatomes. social bacteria secrete large quantities of gelatine. usually in groups of four (as in mcrismopcdia). and remain distributed in this. if these threads go into Other coenobia of bacbranches. we get the knotted threads of Icptoihrix and heggiatoa (which may be compared with the oscillaria). and must regard the difference between directions of space (sarcina). The remarkable class of the fiagellata. into a plant kingdom and an animal kingdom. cellulars of 205 . we have cladothrix. or organisms without organs. to be the simplest of all living things. the cytodes dividing in a plane. or between a simple alga (ulva) and a palm. ciliated infusoria. or siphonea) as no smaller than the difference (in the realm of the histona) between a lower polyp (hydra) and a vertebrate. contains several forms which are only distinguished from the typical bacterium by If it is true that in some of the possession of a nucleus. or of cube-shaped packets when they are in all three teria and chromacea seem. kingdom (as Ehrenberg did in 1838) and the plasmodomous chromacea in the plant kingdom. have the appearance of disks. But if the kingdom of the pirotists is badly divided. And. the long-bodied bacilli remain fastened together in rows. real monera. The two classes of bacteria them and the most highly differentiated unicellular beings (such as the radiolaria. which includes ciliated uniboth groups. the only discriminating mark we have the difference in metabolism in that case we have to include the plasmophagous bacteria in the animal left is .MON E RA ply rapidly by continuous cleavage. on the older rule. remain joined toThis may hap])en in two ways. on account of their simple organization. When the gether. in the present condition of our knowledge.

On the strength of these recent discoveries many scientists claim that all the monera I described are true cells. or variable "false feet. giving the name of lobomonera (protamceba) to the amoeba-like monera with flap-shaped feet. pseudopodia. and so they have been proved to be true cells.THE WONDERS OF LIFE the protists which were counted as bacteria a real nucleus has been detected. arachmda. Of the genus of monera which we call protamoeba I have given an illustration in my History of Creation (tenth edition). This baseless assertion is much employed by the opponents of the theory of evolution in order to deny the existence of the monera altogether. and the name of rhizomonera {protomyxa. Several species (at least two or three) of this genus still exist. biomyxa. pontomyxa." from their surface.) to the gromia-like. real nuclei have ing monera. which I described as protamceba. and on which based the theory of the monera in my monograph. They resemble 206 . This discovery was I made possible by the improved modern methods of colthe nucleus which I had not the use of thirty years oring ago in my first observations. The monera which I described in 1866. belong to a different division of the protists from the These are the forms classes of bacteria and chromacea. and must have nuclei. like the (nucleated) real rhizopods ( = sarcodinae). to separate these unnucleated rhizopods from proposed the others. protogenes. and are distinguished by the shape of their flapformation and their method of motion. been detected in each of these large monera. but they differ essentially from the latter in the absence of a Afterwards (in my Systematic Phylogeny) I nucleus. which has been frequently reproduced. these must be separated from the others (unnucleated) and included in the nucleated flagellata. etc. root-feet formHowever. Their naked mobile plasma -bodies thrust out etc. protomyxa. of late years.

) in inland waters. not to have the significance ascribed to it. CienkowIn the zoological ski. and in the course of which the lowly inhabitants of our fresh water are regularly examined with the microscope. and only differ from these to in the absence of a nucleus. It always had the same form. Gruber has recently called pclomyxa pallida. multiplied by simple cleavage. since we have now a better knowledge of the much more important monera-forms of the chromacea and bacteria. The protamocha primitiva seems to be pretty widely distributed. moved about by the slow formation of any extent flaps at its surface. In the case of some of the protists I described in my Monograph on the Monera. Leidy. A larger num- ber of very fine granules (microsoma) that were irregularly distributed in the plasm. demonstrations which I have given at the University of Jena for forty years. ever. cannot be reckoned as clear equivalents of the nucleus in this or in similar cases. The large marine form of rhizomoneron to which Huxley gave the name of hathyhius Hccckclii in 1868. it is at present doubtful whether their plasma-body contains a nucleus or not. the protamccha primitiva has been found four or five times.) are concerned. which A. the much-discussed question of the bathybius is superfluous as far as our monera theory and the associated hypothesis of archigony (chapter xv. according to the latest investiHowgation. it has been found repeatedly by observers (Gruber. as I described it. etc. The same may be said of the larger marine form of rhizomoneron. they are probably products of metabolism. 207 .M ON E RA ordinary simple amoebae. and as to the real nature of which many opinions have been expressed. and were more or less colored by nucleus-reagents. seems. and showed no trace of a nucleus in its homogeneous plasmabody even with the most careful application of the modern methods of tinting the nucleus.

therefore. or the great general importance which I attach to these unnucleated living granules of plasm. such as protomyxa and niyxastrmn. This applies especially to the forms which only happened to come under observation once.THE WONDERS OF LIFE and. I may. that may be compared to the catalysis of inorganic compounds. I emphasize the fact that the structureless plasm-body of the simple monera has no sort of organization and no composition from dissimilar parts co-operating for definite vital aims. The whole vital activity of the simplest — — monera. Reinke's conscious "dominant" as well as Weismann's mechanical "determinants" have nothing to do here. In these obscure cases we must wait for fresh investigations and the application of the modern methods of tinting the nucleus. — — draw from it. in passing. . The chromacea alone the most important of all monera completely suffice to provide a base for the far-reaching theoretical conclusions which I cells . however. whether they are to be classed as true or cytodes. They serve as a solid foundation for the chief theses of our monistic biology. The simple formation of individuals in this primitive living matter is merely a question of the cleavage of plasma globules of a certain size (chroococcus) 208 . that these famous methods of nucleus-coloring give by no means the absolute certainty which is ascribed to them there are other substances which take color in the same way as chromatin. At the close of these observations will briefly recapitulate the on the monera I weighty inferences which we can deduce from their simple organization. As far as my monera theory is concerned. especially of the chromacea. and is therefore a purely chemical process. and they are inconsistent with the dualistic views of modern vitalists. point out. is confined to their metabolism. In the first place. it does not matter whether a nucleus is detected in these problematic monera or not.

it leads to the independent existence of the redundant growthproducts.MONERA and their primitive multiplication (by simple self -division) is only a continued growth (analogous to that of When this simple growth passes a certain the crystal). 14 . limit. that is fixed by the chemical constitution.

for another part of them we have not yet succeeded in doing this. rhizomonera) protophyta and metaphyta (cell-plants and tissue-plants) Nutrition of the metazoa Gastraea theory Gastro-canal system of the coelenteria (gastraeads. built up afresh. bacteria. of the word. In this chemical process plasm is used up. evacuation) Saprositism Parasitism — — — Symbiosis. circulaplatodes) tion. It is always THE wonder of life which we call. — — — — — Nutrition of the coelomaria (digestion.X NUTRITION Functions of nutrition Assimilation and disassimilation Plasmodoma and plasmophaga Phytoplasm and zooplasm Plasmodomism of plants Chlorophyll granules and nitroMetasibacteria Plasmophagism of fungi and animals Nutrition of the monera tism (conversion of metabolism) — — — — — — — — Nutrition of the (chromacea. impartial physiologists now agree that it is possible and that we have no reason to introduce 2lO . respiration. "nutrition" is the chief factor in the self-maintenance of the organic individual. and a corresponding circulation of force. sponges. Nevertheless. an organic metabolism (circulation of matter). cnidaria. A large part of the several nutritive processes are explained without further trouble by the known physical and chemical properties of inorganic bodies. The metabolism which lies at the root of this chemistry of food is the essential feature in the manifold processes of nutrition. in the wildest sense bound up with a chemical modification of the living matter. all in principle. and once more disintegrated.

and on the other the breaking-down of it — in consequence of its vital activity (disassimilation). in which many different functions and organs co-operate with the common aim of self-maintenance. we may look upon them as the outcome of two opposite chemical processes on the one hand the building-up of living matter by taking in food (assimilation). with the stream of energy that accompanies it. gastra^ads. and (4) excretion of unusable matter.NUTRITION a special vital principle. are subject to the law of substance. all these things it is the single cell that does in the simplest cases. of organs are differentiated for the At the lower stages of this division of labor is not found. they are distributed in four groups namely ( i ) Intussusception of food and digestion: (2) distribution of the food — : in the body. or exchange In of gases. either tissue-plants or tissue- animals. without exception. As in every case the plasm is the active living matter. a homogeneous plasma-globule. As a rule. again. lower polyps). 211 . is a very complex vital activity. or circulation. we must regard the latter no less than the former as physico-chemical processes. the entire proc- ess of nutrition being accomplished by a single layer of cells (lower algae. we may say: Assimilation (or plasma-production) consists in the conversion within the organism into the special of the particular species of food that has been plasm disassimilation (or plasmareceived from without. (3) respiration. sponges. the monera. itself. All the trophic (nutritive) processes. When we take the whole of the metabolic functions in organisms together. most of the histona. In all the higher plants and animals the chemical' process of metabolism. In the protists. a life number accompHshment of these tasks. As a long gradation uninterruptedly unites these lowest forms of nutrition with the more complicated forms.

plasmophagous. The more common and older meaning of assimilation in animal physiology is. carbonic acid. out of simple inorganic compounds (water. to build up). The plant kingdom is. which is the cause of its partial decomposition or breakdown. and from these new plasm. but this animal albumin-assimilation is totally different from the vegetal carbon-assimilation. the agent of assimilation. for the origin and maintenance of organic life is the constant reconstruction of plasm. Botanists {domeo have the habit of late of calling it briefly assimilation. and converting it into its own specific form of plasm. to these animal "plasma-eaters. the animal also accomplishes this. . what I call plasmocarbon . to form carbo-hydrates.assimilation in plants domism is only the first and original form of plasmaIt means that the plant is able. Plants are plasmodomous animals. It has to take organisms —plant-eaters its plasm in its food assimilation.THE WONDERS OF LIFE destruction) is the result of the work done by the plasm. in the widest sense. because the most indispensable. on the whole. the intussusBut the ception and preparation of the food received. or carbon-assimilation. the plasm received being resolved by oxydation. on the contrary. disassimilation preponderates. and the actual energy taken out of it by analysis being converted into heat and motion. 212 . Of all the chemical processes the miost important. We give it the name of plasmodomism =. nitric acid. forming new plasm by synthesis and reduction from In the animal world." In working up the foreign plasm it has eaten. and have thus caused a good deal of misunderstanding. We therefore give the title of plasmophagous directly. under the production. — — influence of sunlight. and ammonia) by The animal is unable to do synthesis and reduction. inorganic matter. In both respects there is a striking difference between the two great kingdoms of organic nature. from other and animal-eaters indirectly.

distinguish two chief groups of kinds of plasm: the phytoplasm of the plant. Every green plant-cell contains in its chlorophyll-granules so many tiny laboratories. aside these modifications. As a fact. and so we may confined to plasmophagy. in particular. is of great importance for the lasting maintenance It depends on a reversal of the whole organic world. and is composed of more than a thousand atoms. and by the vital is this analysis the is then broken up by energy needed for movements obtained. the synthetic plasm of the plant and the analytic plasm of the animal. The remarkable synthetic process of building up the plasm. These are in such an unstable equilibrium. and that of living albumin. with the synthetic property of plasmodomism. and the zooplasm of the animal. which is destitute of this property. The movement in the plasm. so complicated and impermanent an arrangement. the number and variety of kinds of plasm are immense. their green plasm being able to form new plasm 213 . or carbon-assimilation. physiological contrast which we thus find between the two principal forms of living matter. This is seen at once from the ontogenetic fact that the ovum and sperm-cell of each species (and each variety) have a specific chemical constitution. As I of the molecular mentioned in chapter v.NUTRITION The fresh-formed animal plasm oxydation.. to which we give the name of plasmodomism. gigantic. that the slightest push or stimulus suffices to alter them and form a new kind of plasm. comparatively speaking. offspring. In reproduction this setting is transmitted to the countless finer But. usually needs as its first condition the radiant energy of sunlight. the plasm. the intimate nature of which is just as little known to us as the chemical constitution of the albumins in general. modern physiological chemistry has good reason to believe that the invisible albuminmolecule is.

due to the separation of the carbonic acid. The latter have an especial interest for us. and phyocyan in the blue-green chromacea or cyanophyceae. though in a very small quantity. The water that is needed for this. because in the simplest specimens the is the assimilation — 214 . The most important part of the spectrum for this fjurpose is that containing the red. Its green color is then masked by some other color diatomin in the yellow diatomes. ammonia). besides nitrogenous compounds (nitric acid. As a rule. This is further used for the composition of the nitrogenous albumin by an as yet unknown synthetic process. the carbonic acid is taken from the atmosphere by the green leaves. The immediate products of the synthesis. as a rule. sulphuric acid. The carbohydrates that chiefly co-operate in this are glucoses and maltoses the mineral substances. orange. is. and phosphoric Iron is also found to be an important element in acid. a non-nitrogenous starch-flour (amylum). the process. with the aid of nitrogenous mineral free In this process of reduction the separated returned to the atmosphere. and compounds of these elements with nitric acid. the ferruginous chlorophyll can only form new plasm with the help of light-waves. and yellow waves. or ordinary carbonby chlorophyll. oxygen is : potassium and magnesium. and can be separated from their plasmatic substance by certain methods. phycophaein in the brown phasophyceae. phycorhodin in the red rhodophyceae. the wonderful green matter that amounts to only a very small percentage (about onetenth) of the weight of the chlorophyll-granules. The chief factor in plasma-formation in the organic world photo -synthesis. Even when the plant has some other color than green the chlorophyll is still the real plasmodomous substance.THE WONDERS OF LIFE out of inorganic compounds under the influence of light. is drawn from the earth by the roots. especially salts of compounds.

such as albumin. like the animals. but they have not the capacity of the green. The extensive class of the fungi (or niyccics) resembles a part of the bacteria in regard to metabolism. of them in the plasm of the plant-cells. Fungi 215 . and others). carbonic acid. "chemosyn- — means thesis. on account of its purely chemical nature. They have to take it from organic substances. of forming carbo-hydrates. have to derive their nitrogen from the latter." in opposition to the ordinary photosynthesis by of sunlight.. carboBut while the animals hydrates. by a peculiar synthesis out of purely inorganic compounds water. chlorophyllbearing plants to supply themselves with carbon from the carbonic acid in the atmosphere. the fungi can obtain it from inorganic matter in the earth.) that show various peculiarities of metabolism. and represent a transition from the vegetal chromacea to the animal bacteria. etc. number Another kind of plasm-synthesis. in the simplest forms of nucleated primitive plants {ali^aricc) many of the so-called unicellular algaj the metabolism is effected by a single — — There is usually a large grain of chlorophyll. The nitrobacteria (or nitromonades) are tiny monera (unnucleated cells) that live in complete darkness underground. quite different from the ordinary plasmodomism by chlorophyll and sunlight has lately been discovered in some of the lowest organisms (by Heraeus. etc. Their globular colorless plasma-bodies contain neither They have the remarkable chlorophyll nor nucleus. and from these capacity plasm. Pfeffer has called this carbon-assimilation. Winogradsky. organism is merely a globular bluish-green granule Moreover. The nitro-bacteria must belong to the oldest monera. These organisms are. ammonia. generally regarded as plants. purple -bacteria. There are also other bacteria (sulphur -bacteria. and nitric acid.NUTRITION entire of plasm. it is true.

the plants through changed food conditions. This "reversal of metabolism" is polyphyletic it has ." of phylogeny. which descend from the siphonea. in a certain sense. and the flesh plant kingdom. but we can make them grow in a food solution consisting of sugar and purely inorganic nitrogenous salts. The development of the animals from the plants was determined originally by a change in the method of nutrition which we call metasitism. clearly much younger than the plant kingdom. In the same way the real multicellular fungi (ascomycetes and basimycetes) may be traced to the tissue-forming algce. The chemical modification of the living matter which All true animals connected with the loss of plasmodomism in other words. We 216 . as the older natural philosophy put it four hundred years ago.THE WONDERS OF LIFE cannot support life without the addition of organic compounds. feeders indirectly. We find this process even among the unicellular protists in the phycomycetes. have to derive their food from the the vegetal feeders directly. Thus they are on the border that separates the plasmodomous plants from the plasmophagous Like the latter. Hence the animals are. From the point of view ''parasites of the plant world. the fungi have evolved from animals. therefore. instead — of giving itself the trouble of building it up out of see this particularly among inorganic compounds. the conversion of the reducing phytoplasm into oxidizing zooplasm must be regarded as one of the is — — most important changes in the history of organic life. the animal kingdom is. when they consume vegetal feeders. been repeated many times in the course of biological history. and has taken place independently in very different groups of the organic world whenever a plasmodomous cell or group of cells ( = tissue) had occasion to feed directly on ready-made plasm.

(See under "Parasitism. form new like true cells." or conscious and purposive vital forces. In the same way we can derive the ancestors. In their oldest forms. growing by means of its plasmodomous power. conoflagellata). the process is also found in many of the higher parasitic plants (orchids. finally. orobanches. there is absolutely nothing to be done by Reinke's "dominants. and splitting up as soon as it reaches a certain stage of growth. they only manner of nutrition. which are color- and have no chlorophyll (monodina.NUTRITION The longer plasmophagous less. from which closely resemble in they are descended (volvocina. and. flagellata. plasma particle. form new plasm sunlight enables the of the same 217 . these may behave alternately as protozoa or protophyta. and nitric acid). But there are also complete intermediate forms between the two for instance. the whole body is merely a blue-green. the chroococcacea. On the other hand. We may look upon this In this case process as a special kind of catalysis.). so for the function of metabolism we find a starting-point in the lowest and simplest group of the protophyta. the fungi from the algae. the chromacea. to The blue-green phytoplasm kind out of inorganic compounds (water. plasm by photosynthesis — phycomycetes by metasitism from the siphonea. their the green or yellow mastigota. ammonia. The colorless flagel- lata feed on ready -formed plasm. There the miracle of globular life consists merely of the chemical process of plasmo- domism by photosynthesis. carbonic acid.") As is the case with every other vital function. form and movement the older plasmadomous and chlorophyll-bearing mastigota. which they obtain either by means of their lashes or by a special cell mouth in their cell body. peridinia) differ in the . structureless. the chrysomonades and the groups gymnodinia. etc. the unicellular protists in the independent ciliated cells.

real nucleus can be discovered in the structureless plasma body. This is especially true of their metabolism. and the zymogenetic fermentation. or the and the same may be said secrete. no differentiated physiological functions in these organisms without organs. . The very fine granules which are found in some species. Morphologically. without any visible orOthers move about by means ganization or movement. many of the bacteria cannot be distinguished from their near- and direct ancestors. Many of them are simple. in many respects. quite apart from the ordinary vital phenomena of the higher organisms. may very well be compared to the simple growth of inorganic crystals. The saprogenetic bacteria cause Finalputrefaction. up oxyhydrate of iron (by the oxydation of carbonic protoxide of iron). or rod-shaped plasma particles. which has the most striking peculiarities.THE WONDER There vS OF LIFE are. The nitro-bacteria we have mentioned previously are plasmodomous the anaerobe bacteria (of butyric acid and tetanus) only flourish where oxygen is excluded the sulphur bacteria (beggiatoa) secrete by the oxydation of sulphuretted hydrogen pure regulation sulphur in the form of round granThe ferruginous bacteria {leptothrix ochrocea) store ules. No of one or more very fine lashes (like the flagellata). growth. the chromacea. and the vacuole-formation that we see in others. and no anatomically distinct members. globular. differfrom them only in the absence of coloring matter in ing est relatives the plasm. as yet. membrane thicker gelatinous envelope which many of the bacteria This makes all the more remarkable the peculiarity of their chemical constitution and the metabolism determined thereby. 218 . and so their one vital activity. ellipsoid. — — . It has been pointed out repeatedly that the remarkable monera which now play so important a part in biology as bacteria stand. may be regarded as products of the thin of metabolism.

The unicellular protophyta exhibit the same form of metabolism and plasmodomism as the familiar green cells of the tissue-plants but in most of the protozoa we find special features of nutrition and plasmophagy. These structureless plasma bodies show unmistakably that their vital activity is a purely chemical phenomenon. cholera. Their how manifold and complicated must great variety proves be the molecular composition of the plasm. toxins festering. diphtheria. even in these simplest organisms. especially the simplest algae. 219 . tetapoisons nus. typus. great class of the rhizopods is distinguished by the fact that their naked plasma body can take in ready-fonned On the other solid food at any point of its surface. which form their most rudimentary tissue are quite homogeneous. etc.NUTRITION we have the very interesting pathogenetic bacteria which cause the most dangerous diseases Vjy the secretion ly. On account of their great practical importance. a cell-anus {cytopyge). The lowest and oldest thallophyta. and. The . most of the infusoria have a definite mouth-openhand. Metabolism in the tissue plants (metaphyta) forms a long gradation from very simple to very complicated arrangements. tuberculosis. are merely The social cells definitely grouped colonies of cells. small-pox. and someBesides this cell-mouth times a gullet-tube as well. like these. in this department have pointed out the extreme theoretical significance which these zoomonera have for the of special — — important questions of general biology. are not far removed from the communities of protophyta. bacteriology. (cytostoma) we usually find also a second opening for the discharge of indigestible matter. these bacteria have of late been taken over by a special branch of biolBut only a few of the many experts ogy. with no differentiation beyond that of sex. ing in the outer wall of their unicellular body.

because they have complex fibres or sap vessels. number — — — — among different functions. There is also a trophic differentiation. consisting of rows or chains of homogeneous cells (so conferva among the green. for instance) approach the cormophyta. and have been evolved to discharge them. into root. and the thallus divides. This is equally true of the crytogam ferns (pteridophyta) and the phanerogam flowering plants (anthophyta). and calOther algse (such as lithamnion among the red algae). Their nutrition level. a of homogeneous cells lying side by side along a In the larger algs compact tissue-bodies are formed. as in the cormophyta. the iilva) form thin leaf -shaped forms of the thallus. These organs for conis accordingly distributed special organs 220 . stalk. While most of the cell-plants either live in the water (algae) or are very simply organized on account of their saprophytic or parasitic habits (fungi). and have to adapt themselves to much more complicated conditions. and mosses comprise under the title of "cell-plants" (cytophyta). fungi. the vascular plants mostly live on land.THE WONDERS OF LIFE The thallus or bed-formation consists in the simplest specimens of plain or branched fine threads. ectocarpus among the brown. This distinction has a phylogenetic significance similar to the division between coelenteria and coelomaria in the animal kingdom. The most important later acquisition which distinguishes both groups from the lower cell-plants is the possession of vascular or conducting fibres. Many botanists these lower plants algae. the fibres undertaking special functions of nutrition (the conduction of the sap). in which frequently firmer rows of cells exhibit the rudiments of fibres. Their lowest forms {ricciadincB) are close akin to the algae. the highest mosses (the mnium and polytrichum. The same must be said of the mosses (bryophyta). and oppose the higher plants ferns and flowering-plants to them as "vascular plants" (angiophyta). and leaves.

etc. ofif. But these pores also serve for the breathing of plants. ever. and of water that oxygen be given off in respiration. formed by the combination of rows of cells the cells themselves die . one single system of organs. division To an . through these air-spaces. rises The stream constantly in these tubes is taken up the roots. and by given of? (transpiration) by the pores of the leaves. zoa are chiefly distinguished by the circumstance that catching and the European drosera and particularly note the organs for digesting insects in the insect-eating plants. Finally. being connected with the air-containing intercellular passages. we find once more in each great Howcharacteristic types of organization. conducted by the fibres to all parts.). many of the vascular plants have special glands that serve for In the higher flowering secretion (of oil. while in the coelomaria they are usually distributed among four different systems of organs. and their plasma content disappears. and the tropical and dioncea. nepcnthas The long scale of evolutionary forms which we find in the tissue animals (metazoa) leads up uninterruptedly from the simplest to the most elaborate physiological functions and a corresponding morphological complexThe two principal divisions of the metaity of organs. comparative ontogeny teaches us that all these 221 organs. Among the many remarkable structures that have been developed conditions in this way by adaptation to special we may titricalaria. resin. which serve for the aeration of the higher plant-body.NUTRITION ducting water pass through the entire body of the vascular plant in the shape of long tubes. plants this division of work among the various digestive organs gives rise to a very complicated apparatus for nutrition. discharges the whole (or most part) of the partial functions of nutrition. each of which is made up of a number of in the co^lenteria extent. the gastrocanal system. air and moisture can enter.

I gave this view in my Biology and I developed and established of it my Studies of the Gastrcea Theory in 1873. which admits the food by its opening and digests it. sideration of the simplest sponges (olynthtis) and cnidaria {hydra). the alimentary or gastric canal had led to the erroneous — — belief that in several groups of the metazoa it owed its origin to very different growth-processes. The older research into the origin of the nutritive apparatus in the metazoa especially its chief part. it clothes the simple cavity of the sac. The inner layer of cells (entoderm or gastric layer) serves for nutrition. The whole body of these lowest and oldest of the coelenteria is in essence nothing but a round. and that particularly in the higher vertebrates (the amniotes) it was a comparatively late product of evolution. the comparative study of the embryology of the lower and higher animals led me thirty-four years ago to the opposite conclusion. or cylindrical gastric vesicle. In the latter book I also worked out the important conclusions in that follow from this monistic reform of the theory of germinal layers for the phylogenetic natural classificaI began with the contion of the animal kingdom. . . The outer layer (the ectoderm or skin-layer) is the covering layer of the external skin (epidermis) it is the instrument of sensation and movement. a digestive sac.THE WONDERS OF LIFE various structures have been developed from one simple fundamental form. and that all the different forms of it had been developed from the this primitive type. This opening is the primitive mouth (prostoma or blastoporus). the inner cavity itself the primitive gut (progaster or archenteron) I proved that there was the same composition in the 222 . the thin wall of which consists of two simple layers of cells. Sponges in 1872. oval. that a simple gastric sac was the first and oldest organ of all the metazoa. On the other hand. as I have shown in my theory of the gastrsea (1872).

in virtue of the biogenetic it is the palingenetic reproduction of a corresponding ancestral form (the gastrcca) maintained It was not until much until the present by heredity. To this I gave the name of the "cup-embryo" or gastric larvae (gastrula). While the simple digestive gut is the sole organ of nutrition in the stem-group of the gastraeads. the vascular system. The classes of the lower animals which we comprise coelenteria (or coslenterata in the widest under the sense) generally agree in having all the functions of nutrition accomplished exclusively (or for the most part) name by a or gastrosingle system of organs. The simplest living forms of the sponges (olynthus) and the cnidaria (hydra) only differ from this hypothetical primitive form of the gastraea by a few secondary and subsequently acquired features. and concluded. have three features in common: (i) The gastric canal — or tube has only one opening the primitive mouth. fig. All cavities that are found in these lower animals besides the digestive gut-cavity are direct processes from it (with the exception of the nephridia in the platodes). we find 223 . later (1895) that Monticelli discovered a modern gas- law. the gastro-canal From their common stem-group. (3) there is also no trace of a vascular system. which serves at once for admitting food and ejecting there is no indigestible matter. 287). cnidaria. there is no anus. three different stems have and platodes. that traead (pcmmatodiscus) which corresponds completely to this hypothetical ancestor (see the last edition of my Anthropogcny.NUTRITION young embryos or larvae of many of the lower animals. All these coelenteria sponges. (2) distinct from the gastric body-cavity (cooloma) special — tube. been evolved the gastra^ads. and showed that the manifold and apparently very different embryonic form of all the higher animals may be reduced to the same common type.

and is traversed by branching gastro-canals these convey the nutritive fluid to all parts of the body. The characteristic stem of the sponges is distinguished by the piercing of the wall of the gastric vesicle with several holes.Hence we may regard the whole spongebody as a gastraead-stock {cormus). . The best-known of the sponges is the common bathsponge (euspongia officinalis). bringing with it the small particles of food which are received and digested by the ciliated cells of the entoderm the water emerges again by the mouth-opening {osculmn). Through these water pours into the body. the horny skeleton of which we use daily in washing. In these and most other sponges the large. In these and all the other stock-forming animals the nutrition is communistic all the food that the individuals get and digest is conducted by tubes to the common fund and In all the larger cnidaria the bodyequally distributed. Most of the polyps form stocks (cormi).).THE WONDERS OF LIFE other structures co-operating in the rest of the coelenteria. as does our common green fresh-water polyp {hydra viridis). While the fundamental type in the cnidaria is radial (determined by the crown of radiating feelers or tentacles . tiny gastraea. chapter vii. produced by the multiplication of a simple gastric vesicle of the primitive sponge Each of these ciliated chambers is really a (olynthus). number of branching canals. which only differs from the gastraea by a few variations in tissue and the formation of a crown of feelers about the mouth. The large group of the cnidaria offers a long series of evolutionary stages. a "person" of the simplest character {cf. unshapely body is traversed by a . Some of them remain at a very low stage. on which there are thousands of tiny vesicles. wall becomes thicker. from very small and simple to very large and elaborate forms. 224 . the individuals shooting out buds which remain joined to the mother animal.

the mouth and the anus. 3. Here we have a second organ of nutrition. it is bilateral-symmetrical in the platodes or "flat-worms" {plathchiiinthcs). which conduct the nutritive sap from the stomach to distant parts of the body. the gut tube. as excretory organs. four groups of organs.NUTRITION that surrounds the mouth). the gut atrophies in the tape-worms {ccstodes) as these parasites live in the intestines or other organs of animals. have a special body-cavity (cccloma) this is quite separate from the gastric canal. as in the corals. which are not yet differentiated . remove from the body the unusable products of metabolism. (gastric of . 2. added to In the lower platodes this remains very the first. the urine. IS 225 . The more highly organized coclomaria differ from the simpler coelenteria chiefly by the greater complexity in the structure and functions of their apparatus of nuAs a rule. the platodaria gastrsea. in the larger coil-worms On the (turbcllaria) and suction-worms {trcmatodcs). organs of digestion circulation (vascular system). these functions are divided between trition. and 4. they all openings. other hand. As a rule. they can obtain their nutritive sap directly from them through the surface of the skin. which is suspended in it. organs of breathing (respiratory system). and as in the case of the latter branched canals. organs of excretion (renal system). the lowest forms. in the coclomaria the gastric canal has usually two Finally. organs system). In this animal-stem. (also called cryptocccla and accela) come very close to the But most of the platodes are distinguished rest of the ca'lenteria from the by the formation of a pair of nephridia (renal canals or water-vessels). the hollowing out of the mouth. moreover. formed in the embryo by the hollowing out and cutting in : the coelenteria — namely i . Moreover. grow out of the stomach. and It is serves for the formation of the sexual cells. a gullet tube (pharynx) is formed by simple. thin tubes which.

the last large section of the alimentary canal. then passes into the small intestine {ileum). and then coalesce. the pouches touch. while the other (the glandular stomach) produces the The liquefied food (chylus) dissolving gastric juice. and from this through the narrow esophagus into the This most important part of the alimentary often divided into several sections. is alimentary canal. they have very varied and often lowest complicated features. composed. In the great majority of the coelomaria the gastric system forms a highly differentiated apparatus. the most important of them being the liver. ground up by the jaws or the teeth. as If a part of the their division . and softened with saliva. wall remains. which often has glandular appendages. of a number of different organs. and is as a rule the longest section of the stomach. The last portion of it is called the recttmi. which the salivary glands pour into the cavity of the mouth. which has to absorb it. and this removes the indigestible remnants of the food (fcEces) through the anus. 226 . which have been evolved from these. one of apparatus which (the masticating stomach) is armed with teeth and prepared for a further triturition of solid pieces. The food is usually taken in by the mouth. groups of alimentary organs remains very simple in the off of and oldest coelomaria. A number of different digestive glands open into this intestine.THE WONDERS OF LIFE a pair of sacs (coelom-pouches) from the gut near the mouth.walls break down. the worms {vernialia)\ but in the other higher animals. From the mouth the pulpy food passes in swallowing into the gullet. into this also a number of glands and blind intestines open. as in man. The small intestine is often sharply distinguished from the large intestine (colon). it serves as mesentery to fasten dividing The action of the four the gut to the body-wall.

and grass-eating ruminants. which consist hard rods and represent modified bones. still closely resemble their platode ancestors. as in the acanthoccphala among the vermalia. the lowest forms of these. atrophy. the entoconcha among the mollusks. they are shortest and simplest in parasitic coelomaria. Thus the mollusks have a characteristic masticating apparatus. which grinds against a hard upper jaw. which is to most of the coclomaria in its chief features. as it depends to a great extent on the nature of the food prepared.NUTRITION This general plan of the alimentary system. the turbellaria. The higher type of animal-stems which have been evolved from them are partly distinguished by special structures. the vermalia. The greater the extent of the body. and the saccidina among the Crustacea. chemical energy tal diet. But the construction of the various sections of the gastrocanal also varies a good deal in the small groups of the coelomaria. The vertebrates and the closely related tunicates are distinguished ticulates this of by the conversion of the first sections of the alimentary canal into a characteristic respiratory apparatus (gills). on their tongue there is a hard plate (radiila) armed with a number of teeth. and the conditions in which it is got and The largest expenditure of mechanical and is needed for a voluminous solid vege- Hence the alimentary canal and its many appendages are longest and most complicated in the plant-eating snails. and especially the gastrotricha. and the more 227 . In most of the ar- work is done by side-jaws. and so breaks up the food. the rotifers. is very much modified in the various groups of these animals and adapted to their several conditions of nu- common The simplest structures are found in many of trition. On the other hand. leaf-eating insects. which derive their fluid food already prepared from the contents of another aniIn these cases the gut may altogether mal's intestines.

The interchange of gases in the organism. This blood generally is . are called capillaries. The finest branchlets of both kinds of vessels. They take up the filtered and chemically improved food-fluid. Origi- nally two of these skin-vessels were developed in the abdominal wall a dorsal vessel in the upper and ven- — the lower wall (as in many of the verThe heart is formed from the dorsal vessel in malia). The blood-cells of the lower coelomaria are usually colorless (leucocytes). which transudes through the intestinal walls. these immediately effect the interchange of matter in the tissues by osmosis. but are formed independently of it in the surrounding parenchyma of the mesoderm. a contractile tube. In the accomplished by the gastric canals (side branches from the gut. the moUusks and articulates. those which conduct it from the body to the heart are the veins.THE WONDERS OF LIFE complex the organization of the higher animals. The bloodvessels co-operate very closely with the respiratory tral vessel in organs. work contains millions of in cells. the more necessary it is to have an orderly and regular distribution of the nutritive fluid to coelenteria this all parts. The arteries are the vessels which conduct the blood from the heart. opening into its cavity) but in the coelomaria it is done much better by These canals means of blood-vessels {vasa sanguijera) do not communicate directly with the gastro-canal. The circulation of the blood in most of the coelomaria is effected by a heart. which form the connecting link between them. which are of great importance metabolism. while those of the vertebrates are mostly red (rhodocytes). which we 228 . but from the ventral in the tunicates and vertebrates. and conduct it in the form of blood to all parts of the body. which contracts and beats regularly by means of its muscular bands. formed by the local thickening of a skin-vessel.

or (as parasites) in some fluid that contains air. Both are richly provided with blood-vessels which bring the blood from the body for the purpose we Cutaneous or external gills are especially found in the vertebrates. gills for breathing in water and lungs for breathing on land. pencils. They to the nature of the en- vironment. and the smallest specimens of the mollusca and articulata). in which atmosphere air is contained in solution. and accomplish a very peculiar chemical fall work into two groups according as the localized organs of respiration. and the former from the water. higher animals this is rarely found. leaves.. distinguish the two chief forms. special call — and giving out — of the complished by epithelial cells. there are usually a pair of comb-shaped 229 gills near the . The instruments of water-respiration which we call gills (branchicu) are generally attenuated parts or processes of the outer skin or the inner gastric skin hence . The majority of these coelomaria attain a considerable size. in the form of threads. the exchange of But in the gases is accomplished at the same time. external and internal gills. tufts of feathers. and afford a wide surface for the interchange of In the mollusca gases between the body and the water.NUTRITION breathing or respiration the taking in of oxygen does not require of carbonic-acid gas In these it is acorgans in the lower animals. only in the small animals of simple construction (such as the rotifers and other vermalia. etc. which clothe the surface body the ectoderm of the outer skin layer and — the entoderm of the inner gut-covering. these afford a larger surface for the exchange of gases in the limited space. combs. of aeration. which are drawn out from the entoderm as local processes of the outer skin. The latter take the oxygen directly from the atmosphere. and as these fluids are constantly pouring in and out of the body. and so require special organs. As nearly all these coelenteria live in the water.

in general. and fishes) the gills are the sole organs of is breathing. the sea-urchins special leaf -shaped ambulacral gills. which takes in the sea-water and returns porites). In these the fore-gut or head-gut the enteropneusta. This is one of the most interesting of the palingenetic facts that prove the descent of the amniotes (including man) from the fishes. cyclostoma. an extensive water-duct. that live in the air. converted into a gill-organ. feeling. In the lower aquatic vertebrates (acrania. repeated Gastric or inin the different segments of the body. in the higher animals. serve at once for movement. lungs (pulmones). with a small group of the vermalia. in the articulates there are several pairs. Nevertheless. Like the organs of water-breathing. the water that has been taken in by the mouth passes away through the outer openings of these fissures. they fall into disuse. it by special openings (skin-pores or madreThe many branches of these water-vessels or fill ambulacral vessels feelers or feet. The organs of air-breathing are called. and their place is taken by lungs. and breathing. the wall of which is pierced with gill-fissures. they But many of the echinoderms have also special gills the star-fish have small finger-shaped cutaneous gills on the back. though they have long since ceased to have any function. heredity is so tenacious that we find from three to five pairs of rudimentary gill-clefts in the em- bryo right up to man. The group of the aquatic echinoderms has some very Their body possesses peculiar features of respiration. Cutaneous or external lungs are found in several groups of the 230 .THE WONDERS OF LIFE heart. the sea-cucumbers internal gastric gills (tree-shaped — branching internal folds of the rectum). especially the tiny which extend from the skin in thousands. ternal gills are peculiar to the vertebrates and the nextrelated tunicates. with water. they are formed sometimes from the external and sometimes from the internal covering of the body.

Among the mollusks the land - dwelling lung-snails have acquired a lung-sac by change in the work of the gill cavity: among the articulata the lungspiders and scorpions have two or more trachea-lungs. They have a number of clusters of short air-tubes disit is tributed over the whole skin. This air-filled bladder. and their fishThese internal lungs are like ancestors. the amphibia and amniotes. They take the air from without by special air-holes in the skin {stigmata and spiracida). in the fishes. return to an aquatic life (as happens with the larvae of various groups of insects). it rises to the top by 231 . the outer air-holes close up. a sac-shaped appendage of the gullet.NUTRITION vertebrates. formed originally from sac-shaped the swimming-bladder (jiectocystis) of the fishes by change of function. The oldest and lowest tracheata are the primitive air-tube animals. In the other air- breathing articulates (tracheata) we find. folds of the fore-gut. and function. the dipneusta. clear that these of have been evolved from simple skin-glands by change Gastric or internal lungs are only found in the higher animals. and form the link between the older annelids and the myriapods. by varying the specific weight. which take the air from the surrounding water by osmosis. to which we give the name of quadrupeds (or tetrapoda). instead of these simple or branched. When the fish wishes to descend it contracts the bladder and becomes heavier. merely serves the purpose of a hydrostatic organ. and often bushlike. pairs. or protracheata. air-tubes (trachecu). The myriapods and insects generally have numbers of air-holes. the spiders only one or two. which spread through the whole body and conduct the air direct to the tissues. cutaneous sacs. in which are enclosed fan- wise a number of trachea-leaves. When these air-tube animals rarely four. that is to say. more and new thread-shaped or leaf-shaped trachea-gills are formed.

THE WONDERS OF LIFE The lungs were formed by the adaptainflating it again. The function of removing unusable matter is not less important to the organism than breathing. In the latter funnels into the 232 . and so out through the anus. Just as breathing gets rid of the poisonous carbonic acid. have a pair of nephridia in each segment of the body. these are partly acid (uric acid. The wind-pipe {trachea not to be con- — is fused with the organ of the same name in the tracheata) formed by the lengthening of their stalk and strengthening of it with cartilaginous rings. etc. tion of the blood-vessels in the wall of the swimmingbladder to the interchange of gases. an special coelomaria. cavity divides early into a pair of sacs {dipnenmoncs. consists of three sections. guanine. The oldest articulates. sometimes (secondarily) to the rectum. as this is accomplished (like breathing) by the stream of water that is constantly passing through the whole body. each renal canal. the coelomaria special organs for removing these would be superfluous. In most of etc. a pair of simple and ramified canals which lie on either side of the gut. But with the platodes we begin to find important excretory organs in the nephridia. and open outward. or segmental canal. and by these to the higher stems of the they generally open by inner body-cavity. Their outer opening sometimes (primarily) goes through the outer skin at the back (excretory pores). In the oldest living {ceratodtis) it is still a simple sac {mono= onQ-hingQ6.). which serves as first receptacle for the urine.). the important organ of voice and speech. two-lunged). At the anterior end of the trachea we find already formed in the amphibia the larynx. the annelids. so the kidneys remove fluid and solid excreta in the shape of urine. hippuric acid. These primitive renal canals are transmitted by the platodes to the vermalia.) in the others the simple gulletpneumones lung-fishes . partly alkaline (urea.

have generally a pair of renal canals.NUTRITION inner funnel which opens into the body-cavity. and mammals. a middle glandular section. the funnels of which open internally into the heartpouch (the remainder of the reduced body-cavity). and insects. instead of these. To this belong especially the saprosites and parasites. Among the unicellular class saprosites 233 . The disposition of the renal system in the internally articulated vertebrates is very similar to this. Malpighi tubes. The latter are only reached in the three highest classes of vertebrates. funnel-shaped glands that arise from the entodermal rectum. sometimes a number in a cluster. On the other hand. birds. reptiles. a pair to each joint The rest of the inherited from their annelid ancestors. The Crustacea also at the back they open outward. the protracheata (the stem-forms of the air-tube animals) have segmental nephridia. sometimes one pair or less. and an external bladder that ejects the urine by contraction. which are made up of a number of branching nephridia. Three generations of kidneys succeed each other. and most animals plasmophagous. spiders. Mollusks also have a couple of compact kidneys. there are nevertheless in both organic kingdoms a number of species (especially the lower) whose metabolism has assumed peculiar forms by their relations to other organisms. or the decomposed matter which is unfit for the food of higher animals. the myriapods. By are understood those plants and animals which feed entirely or mostly on the corpses of other animals. but now complicated structures begin to appear. tracheata. a pair of compact kidneys (roics). — . While most plants are purely plasmodomous. as phylogenetic first the primary fore-kidneys stages of evolution in the middle the secondary primitive {protonc pJiros) kidneys {niesonephros). and last the tertiary afterkidneys {metanephros). have. They are developed from a pair of nephridia.

ing. among the metaphyta the fungi (mycetes). many of the bacteria. while many of them cause putrefaction. belongs) and many orchids (neottia. we understand. breaking up. The fungi feed for the most part on the decayed remains of plants and the products of putreIn this faction which accumulate on the ground. and some of the higher animals. Among the metazoa many of the vermalia. and their modifications are of great interest in connection with evolution. teeth. as a secondary habit. especially. I have already spoken of the many peculiarities of metabolism in the ubiquitous bacteria. character of scavengers they play the same important part on land as the sponges do at the bottom of the sea. turned to saprositism. and among the metazoa the sponges. No other circumstance has so profound an influence on the organism as adaptation to a parasitic existence. only those organisms which live on others and derive their nourishment from them. Moreover. they have lost their decayed chlorophyll and green leaves. Among the metaphyta we have especially the monotropea (to which our native asparagus. coral- As they find their plasm directly in the matter in the woods. nionotropa hypopitys.. They are numerous in all the chief divisions of the plant and animal kingdoms.THE WONDERS OF LIFE protists class. But a number of small groups of the higher plants and animals have. there is 234 . have been entirely or mostly lost by Many of them form a transitional type parasites. etc. live on putrid matter. such as the rain-worm and many tube-dwelling annelids (the mud-eaters. limicolcE). belong to this and also many fungilla (pJiycomycetes). jaws. digestive glands) these saprosites. The organs which their nearest relatives use for obtainlorhiza). in the By in narrower sense. they at the same time feed on the parts of other organisms which have died. modern biology. to the parasites. and digesting food (eyes.

class of the sporozoa or fungilla {gregarince. and show Hence clearly the mechanical nature of the process. which have adapted themselves in various ways to parasitic habits. the most dangerous enemies of the higher animals and plants. good many of them are "cell-parasites. As we count these unnucleated the oldest and simplest organisms. such are the hoemosporidia. the coelum. which destroy the blood-cells in man. Among the multicellular metaphyta it is particularly the fungi that have taken to parasitism in various ways. The various 235 . real nucleated cells. especially in the articulates) others in the tissues (for instance.). which they destroy. and so cause inter- mittent fever. and provides an abundance of the most striking proofs of the muchcontested inheritance of acquired characteristics. the bacteria are the most conspicuous instances of manifold adaptation to parasitic habits. the course of the degeneration which is caused. as is known. instead of going through the laborious process of carbon assimilation themselves protozoa trace among them directly This is also true of the large in the hereditary fashion. the muscles of mammals. etc. Among the unicellular organisms. or other organs of the higher animals (the gregarinae. the science of parasites parasitology is one of the no other section — — soundest supports of the theory of descent. coccidia." and live inside the cells of other ani- A mals. Even a part of the monera (in which group we must place the bacteria on account of their lack of a nucleus) found it convenient and advantageous to prey on other protists and assimilate their plasm directly. Many of them are. step by step. it is very probable that they turned to parasitism very early in the history of life. the coccidia and myxosporidia in the liver of vertebrates). the sarcosporidia in .NUTRITION in which we can follow. Many of them live in the rectum. and by metasitism to the plasmodomous chromacea.

suctorial cups. These various kinds their of flowering-plants often is grow they to resemble each other by convergence (that to say. and the platodes. they evolve special clinging apparatus (haustoria. potato. and penetrating into their tissues.THE WONDERS OF LIFE species of fungi cause certain diseases by their poisonous (chemical) action on the tissues of their host. loranthus). etc. aristolochiacea. more than a yard in diameter. rafffesiacea. It is probable that the fungi have been evolved polyphyletically by metasitism from the algas. live on. It is well known how our most important cultivated plants. Frequently rudi- mentary leaves are left on them in the form of colorless For the purpose of clinging to the plants they scales. Real parasites are not numerous among the sponges and tremaria). etc. are threatened by fungoid diseases. Among the higher metaphyta we find parasitism in many different families. by common adaptation to parasitic life) lose their green leaves. coffee. Their stalks and roots are also modified in a creepers). corn. The whole productive force of these is expended on their sexual organs. The mollusks and echinoderms show the least disposition for it. and this is also true of many of the lower and higher animals. lathraca). convolvulacea {citsciUa). is 236 / . characteristic way. Parasitism in the metazoa (in all groups) is even more frequent and interesting than in the metaphyta. the plasmodomous chlorophyll of which is of no further use to them. Even among the gastrasada. loranthacea (visctim. rhinanthacea {orobranche. especially orchids. . vermalia.. we find parasites (kyemaria and gas- parasites The protection they find inside their hosts the reason why these oldest of the metazoa probably have remained unchanged to the present day. rafflesia has the largest flowers there are. the common ancestral group of the metaphyta. and articulates the most. the vine.

NUTRITION But they are very numerous among the The suctorial worms {trcmatodcs) Uve partly externally (as ectoparasites) on other animals and partly inside them (as endoparasites). swimming. The younger Crustacea all proceed from the same characteristic form of the nauplhis. forty years ago. As these their organs of sense are highly developed. have lost their gastro-canal they are nourished by imbibition through the skin. and produce serious diseases in them. platodes. and of progressive heredity and the biogenetic law. . worms sitic (acanthocephala) {entoconcha) snails among the vermalia. For Dancin (1864). their organs of sense and locomotion atrophy. the turbellaria. and acquired The tape-worms (ccstodes). generation together Crustacea generally move about very rapidly and living ingeniously. The class of Crustacea affords the most numerous and most instructive examples of degeneration through it is found polyphyletiand families. are no longer used when they take to parasitism. and are descended from the suctorial worms. the paraamong the moUusks. The same degeneration is found in the itchcnidaria. they atrophy and gradually disappear. when they settle down to parasitic habits. etc. and the root-crabs {rhizocephala) amon'g the Crustacea. digging. climbing. These facts are the more important as the crab undergoes the same de- parasitism. because in this class cally in very different orders their highly organized body 237 . later. As Fritz MiiUer-Desterro showed in his famous little work.). and because shows every stage of deThe freein the different organs. their numerous bones are well jointed and excellently adapted for the most varied methods of locomotion (running. the Crustacea afford most luminous proofs of the theory of descent and selection. clinging apparatus instead. and swim freely about. They have lost the vibratory coat of their free-living ancestors. which live entirely in the interior of other animals.

In the latter case it is the fundamental feature of a whole class of plants. which repays protection. They receive home from the radiolaria. water polyp {hydra viridis) owes its green color to the zoochlorella which live in great numbers on the ciliated In cells of its entoderm (the digestive gut-epithelium). sociation of two living things for their mutual benefit. are protophyta or (as it is said) "unicellular algae" of the class of paulotomea {palmcllacea).THE WONDERS OF LIFE generation by parasitic habits in a orders and families. . These host. however symbiosis is rarer in the metazoa than in the metaphyta. In the gelatinous envelope (calymma) which encloses the central capsule of their unicellular bodies we find a number of motionless yellow cells {zooxanthella) scattered. the service by providing food. xanthella or green zoochlorella are found as symbionta Our common freshin the tissues of many animals. plasmophagous fungus.assimilation goes as food directly to protection and a the radiolarium-host. general. being very wide-spread among the radiolaria. number of different From parasitism we must entirely distinguish that intimate life-union of two different organisms which we Here we have an ascalled symbiosis or mutualism. sometimes an alga) and a The latter affords a home. the lichens. A large part of the starch-flour and the plasm which they form by carbon . the other part of the xanthella Similar yellow zoogoes on growing and multiplying. grow plasmodomously. and multiply by rapid segmentation. Each lichen consists of a plasmodomous plant (sometimes a protophyte. and water to the green alga. while the parasite lives entirely at the expense of his Symbiosis is found among the protists.

the species is temporary. individual. The rise of new individuals by reproduction from parent organisms is a natural phenomenon with definite time-restriction. ever. as the earth itself is not eternal. The succession of individuals. reproduction insures that of the organic species. it either dies or is converted by modification into other forms. or the group of definite forms which we All distinguish from others by the name "species. howspecific form itself to last for ages. it has no "eternal life. makes it possible for the In the end. and 239 . It cannot have continued from eternity on our planet. connected by reproduction and belonging to a species.REPRODUCTION Reproduction and generation Sexual and asexual reproduction Superfluous growth Monogony Self-cleavage Budding Formation of spores Amphigony Ovum and spermcell Hermaphrodite formation and separation of the sexes Hermaphrodism and gonochorism of the cells Monoclinism and diclinism Monoecism and dioecism Alternation of sex-division Sexual glands of the histona Hermaphroditic glands Sexual ducts Generative organs HeteroParthenogenesis Picdogenesis Metagenesis genesis Strophogenesis Hypogenesis Hybridism Generation of hybrids and the species Graduation of forms — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — - — — — — of reproduction. more or less restricted and die off after the lapse in the duration of of a certain time." WHILE ganic nutrition secures the maintenance of the or- individuals are their lives." After existing for a certain period.

But in many of the lower animals and most of the plants we find also asexual multiplication. and confine myself to the study of tocogony. or spontaneous generation. monogony is a universal life-process. etc. I leave it for the present. and many of the protists. surface of the glowing planet had suffiUntil cooled for liquid water to settle on it. Strictly speaking.THE WONDERS OF LIFE even long after ing organic sible life its on formation was incapable of supportThis only became posits surface. living things. It is important to emphasize this because. and that amphigony was secondarily developed from it. and sulphur) which led to the formation of plasm. is a cellular monogony. even the ordinary cell-cleavage. fungi. the monera age or budding. This amphigony (or generatio digenea) is the sole form of reproduction in man and most of the higher animals. The various forms of tocogony. and on the other the complex form In asexual generaof sexual generation (amphigony). on which depends the growth of the histona. in a special chapter. or the reproduction of . In sexual generation it is necessary for two different individuals to unite in order to produce a new being from themselves. tion the action of one individual only is needed. or when the parental generation. are generally divided into two large groups on the one hand there is the simple form of asexual gen- eration (monogony). ciently this stage carbon could not enter into those combinations with other elements (oxygen. or monogony. nitrogen. As I intend to deal with this process of archigoiiy. hydrogen. the latter is the only form of propagation. not only older 240 . by cleav- In the lowest organisms.. Hence historical biology must say that monogony is the and more primitive form of parental generation. this providing a product of transgressive (redundant) growth which develops into a new organism.

and the dependence on the outer environment. become intelligible to us when we compare them with the simpler forms of asexual generation at the lowWe then learn that they are by no est stages of life. regard sexual generation as a universal function of organisms. The complex and frequently very intricate phenomena of sexual generation. and declare that it dates from the very beginning of organic life. building up a part of it into a whole. in the form of gravitation.REPRODUCTION of the older writers. gressive growth takes the form of reproduction. we do away with another of the boundaries which people would establish between organic and inorganic nature. Asexual or monogenetic tocogony (also called "vegetative multiplication") is always effected by a single organic individual. but even some recent ones. Reproduction is a kind of nutrition and growth of the organism beyond the individual standard. and so must be traced to its transgressive growth. This limit of individual size is determined for each species by two factors the inner constitution of the plasm. as we hnd them in the higher organisms. which grows no further. may The is form of energy which lies at the root of all tocogony growth (crescentia). Every species of crystal has also a definite limit of growth. new crystal-individuals are formed mother-water on the old individual. And as this phenomenon is also the cause. which is inherited. the whole dividing into two or more equal parts. of the formation of crystals and other inorganic individuals. — when in the this is passed. which controls When this limit has been passed. When this affects the entire body as a total growth. i6 we call the monogenetic process division (or scg241 . which. like all others. the transadaptation. be traced to the action of simple physical forces. means unintelligible and supernatural marvels. but nat- some ural physiological processes.

chapter xi. holds good both for protists (unicellulars) and histona (multicellulars). which is often overlooked. which are in consequence often comprised under the title of "cleavage-plants" (schizophyta). moreover. or when this special part separates from the generating organism in the form of a bud (gemma). and less frequently with a diagonal axis (oblique-cleavage). When the segmentation of a cell proceeds so rapidly that the transverse-cleavage follows immediately on 242 . the process is called budding or gemmation {gemmatio). It is. sometimes with the transverse axis. not only in many of the protists. difference between division and gemmation. (See above. fects only a part of the individual. The fact that in division the individual as such is destroyed is a sufficient refutation of Weismann's theory of the immortality of the unicellulars. and also the Riddle. medusae). . the sole method of propagation for most of the monera. plane of division cleavage). the body splitting into two equal halves. Self -cleavage is also among the higher multicellular organisms namely. The found — is sometimes indefinite (fragmentarysometimes coincident with the long axis (length-cleavage). but also in the tissue-cells which compose the tissues of the histona. Hence the essential difference between the two forms of generation is that in division the parent disappears in its partial products (children) these are of the same age and form. it is This important larger and older than the young bud.THE WONDERS OF LIFE But when the growth is partial. the cnidaria (polyps. It is the normal form of monogony. It usually takes the form of division into two parts (dimidiatio or hemitomy). But in budding the generating parent retains its individuality.) Reproduction by division is by far the most common of all forms of propagation. both chromacea and bacteria. and afmentation). vertical to the long axis (transverse-cleavage).

and in the embryonic sac of the phanerogams. corals). and Terminal budding takes place at the end of is not far removed from transverse division (for instance. it determines the branching of trees and generally of complex plants. and also of the tree-shaped stocks of sponges. Lateral budding is much more common. The layer and shoots of tissue-plants are detached buds. Asexual propagation by budding is chiefly distinguished from segmentation by the fact that the determining transgressive growth is only partial in the one The bud produced is. cnidaria (polyps. twofold division is changed into fourfold division. the long axis. tissue-animals (coelenteria and successively without losing this is — Most stocks (cormi) are formed by a sprout vermalia). Propagation by budding is rare among the protists. or person shooting out buds which remain united to it. bryozop. stock-forming.REPRODUCTION the length-cleavage. the strobilation of the acraspedae medusae and the chain tape-worms). we have manifold division (polytomy) as in the spore .3 . . A third form of asexual reproduction is the formation in great of spores or "germ-cells. succession. etc. then detached from it.formation of the sporozoa and rhizopoda. the latter may replace the lost part by regeneration and produce a number of buds simultaneously or and total in the other. needing fertilization. And when the process is repeated in quick and tlie body falls at last into a number of small and equal pieces. therefore. its individuality (whereas destroyed in division). and the two are at length made to coincide. with most of the tissue-plants and the lower. and smaller than the parent from which it younger issues." which are usually produced numbers inside the organism. and developed into new organisms without The spores are sometimes motion24. and more common among the histona that is. The two chief kinds of gemmation are terminal and lateral.

This monogenetic propagation is very common among the protists. we of find in . The lescence of arises essential feature of sexual generation is the coatwo different cells. of spores.) are remarkable for the passing away of the whole unicellular organism in the formation and in many of the rhizopods the process coincides with manifold cell{mycetozoa) In other cases (radiolaria. a female ovum (egg-cell) and a male sperm-cell. at times in the tissue-animals (in the fresh-water sponges) in this case the sporangia are called gemmulcB.spores or planospores). both . protophyta and protozoa. that is connected with a rejuvenescence of the plasm. coccidia. thalamophora) only division.THE WONDERS OF LIFE less (rest-spores or paulospores) sometimes they have one or more lashes which enable them to swim about (rambling . Among 244 . the larger female body is called . the latter is enabled to propagate by repeated cleavage through the mixing of the two different plasma-bodies on either side (amWhen these two gameta become unequal and phimixis) differ in size and shape. many tiation it is foreshadowed places the beginnings of sexual differenin the blending or copulation cells. The simple new cell which from the blending of these is the stem-cell (cytida) the stem-mother of all the cells that make up the tissues of the histon. or zygosis. It is found . the macrogameton or macrogonidion. In the flowering plants spore-capsules (sporangia). (anthophyta) sporogony has disappeared. and the smaller. male part. two homogeneous the gameta. as a peculiar and very favorable kind of growth. a portion of the parental cells is used for the production of spores Spore-formation is very common among the cryptogams here it usually alternates with sexual propThe spores are generally formed in special agation. the microgameton or microgonidion. We may con- ceive this process. Among the latter the sporozoa (gregarinae. etc. But even among the unicellular protists . in this case .

composition. sex-cells are formed) into two different in- the ovum and the sperm-cell are produced in one and the same individual. (Cf. two gonocyta. which is called sexual chemoThis "sex-sense" of the taxis or erotic chemotropism. is the first (and often the only) condition of amphigony. are located in the cytoplasm of the two sexcells. movement. As a rule the latter is a very mobile ciliated cell. and vii. etc. we call them monosexual. or the chemical difference between the ovoplasm of the female and the sperm-plasm of the male cell.REPRODUCTION the histona the first is called the egg-cell {ovttlum). the former an inert or amoeboid cell. or elective affinity of the male androplasm and the female gynoplasm. and the movements it stimulates. It leads further to the distribution of the germmal regions (in which the dividuals. and when they are formed in two dif- When (male and female). In accordance with the ferent individuals 245 . The vibratory move- ments of the sperm-cells serve for approaching the ovulum in order to fertilize it. and the latter the sperm-cell {spcrmiiwi. the Antliropogeny. sense-function. or spermatozoon).) The sexual difference between the two forms of gonoplasm. and later in their increasing diver- gence as to shape. The qualitative difference between the two copulating sexual cells (goiwcyta). akin to smell or taste. a peculiar double form of sensitive perception and an attraction based thereon. is noticeable at the very beginning of sexual differentiation in the different sizes of the copulating gameta. or gonochorists. we call this an hermaphrodite. chapters vi. subsequently we find in addition (in the higher histona) a very elaborate apparatus of secondary With this chemical difference is associated structures. is the cause of mutual attracIt is very probable that this sexual tion and union. while heredity is the function of the caryoplasm of the nucleus. the ovoplasm of the female and spermoplasm of the male cell.

into the body of the opposite cell they then coalesce with the deeper lying standing-nucleus. and connect for a time by place meant the and momentary union two different and permanent A part of the nucleus of of a bridge of plasm. Maupas. are distinguished by ganized having a separation of male and female plasm within the Some groups The ciliata propagate.). The two rehave once more acquired the power to cells. and has to cleavage). as a rule. By conjugation of is partial unicellulars.THE WONDERS OF LIFE various stages of individuality which we distinguished above (chapter vii. while copulation is a total When two ciliated infusoria conjugate they coalescence. which distinguishes the ciliated infusoria and some other protists. When a fresh nucleus has been thus formed (by amphimixis) in each of the . is especially interesting because it proves that the chemical difference between the female gynoplasm and the male androplasm can be found within a 246 . a rejuvenation of the plasm. especially the highly orciliated infusoria (ciliata). of protists. and which we now know in its smallest details through the investigations of Richard Hertwig. copulating cells. one of which functions as the female standing-nucleus (paulocaryon) means and the other as the male travelling-nucleus (pianoThe two mobile nuclei enter the plasm-bridge. we may indicate the following stages of hermaphrodism and gonochorism. which is effected by the conjugation of two different cells and the partial deunicellular organism. caryon). each has already divided into two portions. This peculiar hermaphroditic formation of the cells they again separate. in large struction of their nuclear matter. and others. be interrupted from time to time by amphigony. pushing against each other. juvenated propagate for a long time by division. and move through it. themselves side by side. numbers by repeated division (by indirect cellBut this monogony has its limits.

which have adopted sedentary (and to an extent parasitic) habits. This kind of in "individuals of the second order" is In many of monoclinism ("one-beddedness"). organs this is gonochorism of individuals of the second order. as a food-store. called the higher plants (monoecic stocks) and most of the higher animals we have diclinism (" two-beddedness") in other words. penetrating different cells. for instance. and is. are for the most part gonochoristic individuals. suctorial worms. the one sprout or person has only male. thus. wondersnails). on the other hand. Monoclinism is generally associated with sedentary life (and often necessary for it).REPRODUCTION This erotic division of labor is so important that formerly it was universally ascribed to two Recent accurate research. The cytoplasm of the cell-body. serves the purposes of adaptation and nutrition. 247 . into the smallest visible processes of fertilization. and generally forms a vibrating lash. and diclinism with free movement. portions (hereditary parts) of the male and female nuclei the caryoplasm of the two copulating cells is the vehicle of heredity from the parents. Adaptation to parasitic habits also favors monoclinism. Many intestinal parasites among the lower animals (such as tape-worms. but the creeping crabs {cirripedia). while the cytoplasm of the sperm-cell is very small. have become hermaphrodites in con- hermaphrodism — — sequence. has shown that the essential feature in the formation of a single cell. with ovulum which it moves along and seeks the ovum. fresh individual (the stem-cell) is the blending of equal . and other nutritive matter provided (food-yolk). fat. the crabs. In most of the plants the female and male cells are produced by the same sprout. which live isolated lives inside other animals. and in many of the lower animals by one and the same person. As a rule the cell-body of the is very large. and the other sprout or person only female. very richly with albumin.

which of the two forms of sex-division is original. and so with many other moUusks. are incapable of fertilizing themselves and have to receive this from insect visitors which carry the pollen from one flower to another. the oyster is usually gonochoristic. 248 tunicates. and some of the siphonophora. . although they have both sorts of sex-organs. A comparative study of the features of hermaphrodism and sex-division in the plant and animal worlds teaches us that both forms of sex-activity are often found in closely related organisms of one and the same group. vermalia.THE WONDERS OF LIFE have to be hermaphroditic and able to fertilize themselves On the other hand. this is the case with most of the siphonophora and some Dicecia (" two-housedness") is less comof the corals. It is certain that in many cases hermaphrodism represents the original feature. Hence. Thus. or without relation to the stage of individuality and the place in classification of the group under discussion.za?aa ("one-housedness ").). polyps. the union of sex-cells iological advantages of crossing if : of different individuals —favor — progressive sex-division in the higher organisms. Individuals of the third order. but sometimes hermaphroditic. the species is to be maintained. in most of the lower plants and many of the stationary animals (sponges. When male and female diclinic sprouts or persons are found side by side on the same stock. and articulata. we call this hermaphrodism of the cormi mo. platodes. for instance. is hardly susceptible of a general answer. the question often raised. etc. also exhibit varying features in the sex-persons which compose them. many hermaphroditic flowers. as in poplars and osiers. mon in this one stock has only male and the other only female sprouts or persons. for instance. sometimes even in different individuals of the same species. which we call stocks cormi) in both the plant and animal worlds. most The physof the corals.

and have clearly been developed from gonochoristic structures in lower 249 . nevertheless. bryozoa. in most of the sexual ducts (i^onodnctus) higher organisms. in the shape of sexual glands (gonadcs). they are of secondary origin. as in siphonophorae. a few cases in which the sex-cells are formed directly and together from one and the same These glands are called hermaphroditic glands. cases the hermaphrodism is clearly secondary in the sense that the hermaphrodites descend originally from gonochorists. on the other hand. and ovaries in the metazoa. there are. nnccllus (formed from the macrosporangia of the pteridophyta) in the phanerogams. the ovula (as products of the ovaries) are discharged directly outward. as in a few groups of the lower algae and in the sj^onges. These bear special names in different groups of the histona. gland. The male glands are called antheridia in the crytogams. pollen-sacs (formed from the microsporangia of the ferns) in the phanerogams.REPRODUCTION find exceptions in these groups. It is equally certain. cirripedia. and mollusks. While the two kinds of sexual glands are usually located in different parts of the generating organism. In many cases. But. Such structures are very notable in several highly differentiated groups of the metazoa. and mostly in groups. that in other cases the separation of the sexes is Where we the primitive arrangement. As a rule they are formed only at definite positions and in a special layer of the tissue-body. special have been formed to conduct both kinds of the gonocyta out of the organism. and testicles (as spcrmaria) in the metazoa. ctenoIn these phorae. especially in aquatic lower animals. It is only in a few sections of the lowest histona that the two kinds of sex-cells arise without a definite location in different parts of the simple tissue. The female glands are called archegonia in the crytogams.

and forms ovaries at one border and testicles at the other.THE WONDERS OF LIFE forms. Still the two kinds of sex-cells lead separately outward. which probably descend from hydromedusae (or craspedota). fall directly into the water. The class of crested medusae. which our with a common garden snail (arion) and vineyard snail Here we have a hermaphroditic gland number of tubes. each of which forms ovaries in its outer part and sperma in the inner. come together higher. when they are ripe. But whereas the latter have very simple gonochoristic structures (four or eight monosexual glands in the course of the radial canals or in the gastric wall). . or ribbed medusae (ctenophorae). In most of the lower and aquatic histona both kinds of sex-cells. sea-dwelling cnidaria of a peculiar and complicated build. organisms special especially exits or conducting canals have been formed for the sexproducts. . and there. and . (helix) and air-breathing belong. In the viviparous histona special canals serve for the conveyance of the sperm to the ovum. lung-snails (pulnionata) . such are the neck of the archegonium in the cryptogams the pistil in the phanerogams and the vagina At the outer opening of these conductin the metazoa. to a ciliary streamer. land dwelling. 250 . which remains inside the mother's body. Still more curious are the to hermaph- roditic glands of the highly organized. as a rule. contains glasslike. the sexual ducts (gonodtictus) in the metazoa the female have the general name of oviducts and the male spermaducts (or vasa deferentia). and of the Each canal corresponds these are so arranged that the eight intercostal fields (the spaces between the eight streamers) are alternately male and female. But in most of the the terrestrial. ing canals special copulative organs are developed. in the ctenophorae the eight hermaphroditic canals run in a meridian arch from one pole cucumber-shaped body to the other.

or the goat's horns have also an aesthetic interest. etc. great part in this. TJie Life of Love in I will Nature. and mollusks) there are also formed a number of glands and other in auxiliary organs which co-operate in the copulation. and vice versa. the woman's breasts. special structures have to be formed to convey the fertilizing sperm from the male to the female body. articulates. The manifold and intimate relations which exist. and that are not directly connected with the sexual organs such as the man's beard. that I need only refer the reader to it. the History of Creation). That is par- — — 251 . as sexual love it becomes. the humming-bird. vertebrates. have given rise to plenty of "wonders of life. as weapons of The feeling of beauty plays a female. mals (namely.REPRODUCTION When the ejected sex-cells do not directly encounter each other (as in many aquatic organisms). the beautiful colors and forms which we admire in the male bird of paradise. In various groups of the histona the male sex has become superfluous in the course of time. as Darwin showed. especially in birds and insects.. the lion's mane. which may cause extreme psychic excitement. been acquired by sexual selecthe male in the struggle for the tion. the pheasant. have been formed by sexual selection {of. the butterfly. one of the most powerful In many of the higher anisprings of vital activity." These characteristics of one sex that are wanting in the other. man and only mention the great significance of what are called "secondary sexual characters. articulates). This process of copulation becomes important. they have. in the higher animals (especially vertebrates and between their sexual life and their higher psychic activity. the ovula develop without the need of fertilization." Wilhelm Bolsche has so ably described them in his famous and popular work. man and the higher animals. as it is associated with characteristic feelings of pleasure.

it. the 252 . We are. When Siebold proved at Munich tiiese facts of miraculous conception in various insects. however. especially the medusae. in parthenogenetically developing In the higher animals the complete maturity and development of the specific form are requisite for reproduction. like all other vertebrates. It is found in the process dissogony ("double-generamany of the cnidaria. In the bees we have the remarkable feature that it is only decided at the moment of laying the egg whether it is to be fertilized or not in the one event a female and in the other a male bee is formed from it. as yet. reproduce exclusively from impregnated ova. But if larvae propagate by unfertilized ova. and so reproduce their kind parthenogenetically.THE WONDERS OF LIFE ticularly the case in many of the platodes (trematodes) and articulates (crustacea and insects). And when these larvae have afterwards reached maturity and reproduced in this form. to point out Virgin Mary. but in many of the lower animals it has been observed recently that ovula and sperm-cells are even formed by the younger specimens in the larva stage. If impregnation takes place under these conditions. in which we have succeeded unfertilized ova. he was visited by the Catholic archbishop of the city. the antennaria alpina and the alchemilla vulgaris among the flowering plants. ignorant for the most part of the causes of this Some light has been thrown on lapse of fertilization. who expressed his gratification that there was now . by recent chemical experiments (the effect of sugar and other water-absorbing solutions). larvae of the same form are born. to him that the inference from the parthenogenesis of the articulate to that of the vertebrate was not valid. and that all mammals. unfortunately. We also find parthenogenesis among the metaphyta. as in the chara crinita among the algae. we call tion"). a scientific explanation possible of the conception of the Siebold had.

REPRODUCTION process It is is known as pccdogcncsis ("young-generation"). while the sexual is the moss In the case of the plant with stalk and leaves {cithnns). and small In fore-germ {protJialliiim) is sexually differentiated. the chain-salpa of the former are smaller and differently shaped than the large individual salpa of the This latter. Often the two generations differ con- Thus. etc. which again generate chains by budding. in the closely related doliolmn) a sexual generation alternates with two (or more) neutral ones. as it was in 1819 by the poet Chamisso. generates by budding medusas. simple. and this polyp. when he sailed round the world. in the platodes (treniatodcs) found particularly and some of the insects (larva) of cccidomyca and other flies). While in real metagenesis (alternation of generations in the strict sense) the asexual generation propagates by budding or spore-formation. The explanation of these various forms of alternating generations is given in the laws of latent heredity (atavism). special form of metagenesis was the first to be observed. on the other hand. division of labor. and especially by the bio- genetic law. Among the we find this alternation of generation in the sporozoa. which reach sexual maturity. and among the metazoa in the cnidaria. the mosses the asexual generation is the spore-forming moss capsule {s porogoniiini) . In a large number of lower animals and plants sexual and asexual generation regularly protists alternate. In other cases (for instance. the latter is spore-forming and monogenetic. tunicates. and metamorphosis. in turn. this is done partheno- 253 . most of the cnidaria a small stationary polyp is developed out of the ovum of the free-swimming medusa. among the metaphyta in the mosses and ferns. ferns. platodes. while the thallus-formed. in siderably in shape and degree of organization. In the tunicates (salpa) a sexual social form alternates with an asexual solitary form.

p. these travel. but in the alternation of generations each group produced is made up of a number of bionta. in the following spring the first parthenogenetic generaThe two heterogenetic tion issues from the winter eggs. chap. which we find in the ontogeny of most of the higher histona. and are afterwards converted (inside another animal) into distoma once more. inside which cercaria are generated from unfertilized ova. which live as independent — 254 . are very different in the parasitic suctorial generations worms (trematodes). causes of the species in a short time. 104) the name of strophogenesis to the complicated process of cell-reproduction. ii. that propagate in great numbers during warm weather by It is not until the autumn unfertilized "summer-ova. However. In these there is not a real alternation of generations. both phanerogams and ccelomaria." that males appear and fertilize the large "winter-ova". I have given {General Morphology.THE WONDERS OF LIFE genetically in the cognate process of heterogenesis. and form a generation of sexual cells. and the Crustacea the water-fleas (daphnides). bles metagenesis in so far as the ontogenetic construction consists itself in a repeated division of the cells. Many generations of cells proceed by cleavage from the one stem-cell (the impregnated ovum) before two of these cells become sexually differentiated. as the multicellular tissue-forming organism develops directBut the process resemly from the impregnated ovum. especially in an immense increase many of the articulates. From the fertilized ovum of the hermaphrodite distoma we get simply constructed nurses (paedogenetic larvae).. This it is which. Among among the insects we have the leaf -lice (aphides). the essential difference consists in the fact that all these generations of cells in — the body of both the higher animals and the flowering plants remain joined together as parts of a single bion (a unified physiological individual).

to ovum in one and the same bion or physiological individual. and depends on the unknown laws of sexual affinity. and served the purpose of It was said: defining the loose idea of the species. "When two animals or plants can have fertile offspring they belong to the same real species. The younger forms which arise temporarily in the latter case. However. which once afforded support to the dogma of the con- stancy of species. only organisms of the same species seem most of the higher animals and plants. This was formerly a rigid dogma. and are distinguished from the sexually ripe form by the possession of the provisional (and subsequently disappearing) organs (for instance. although it has started from the fern (by abbreviated heredity). As a rule. the disposition to hybridism varies considerably. 255 . are comprised under the general head of larvas. We now know by numbers of sound experiments that not only two closely related species. This sexual affinity must be based on the chemical properties of the plasm of the copulating cells. but it seems to show a good deal of different genera." This principle. have fertile offspring. may to have sexual union and generate fertile progeny. but even two species of may have sexual intercourse in certain and that the hybrids thus generated can circumstances. All simple forms of sexual reproduction without alternation of generations are comprised under the title of The generative cycle proceeds from ovum hypogenesis. has long been discarded. either by union among themselves or with one of the parents.REPRODUCTION forms — often so different from each other that they were formerly thought to be animals of separate classes. such as the polyps and medusae. Hence we must not describe the reproductive circle of the phanerogams as an alternation of generations. the tadpole or the pupa). This form of development is it usual with — larva organs proceed with or without metamorphosis.

vagueness in its effect. As a rule, hybrids exhibit a combination of the features of both parents. It has been proved by many recent experiments that hybrids have a more powerful build and can reproduce more strongly than pure offspring, whereas pure A selection has generally in time an injurious effect. freshening by the introduction of new blood seems to be good from time to time. Hence, it is just the reverse of what the former dogma of the constancy of species

The question of hybridism has, affirmed. speaking, no value in defining the species.



so-called "true species," which have relatively constant features, are really only permanent hybrids. This applies especially to lower sea-dwelling animals, the sexual products of which are poured into the water and swarm together in millions. As we know of various species of fishes, crabs, sea-urchins, and vermalia, that


their hybrids are very easily

produced and maintained

by impregnation, there is nothing to prevent us from believing that such hybrids are also maintained in the natural state. The short survey we have made of the manifold
is sufficient to give an idea of the extraordinary wealth of this world of wonders. When we go more closely into details we find hundreds of other remarkable variations of the process on which the maintenance of the species depends. But the most important point of all is the fact that all the different

varieties of reproduction

forms of tocogony may be regarded as connected links of a chain. The steps of this long ladder extend uninterruptedly from the simple cell-division of the protists to the monogony of the histona, and from this to the complicated amphigony of the higher organisms. In the
simplest case, the cell-cleavage of the monera, propagation (by simple transverse division) is clearly nothBut even the preing more than transgressive growth.


liminary stage of sexual differentiation, the copulation of two equal cells (gamcta), is really nothing but a special form of growth. Then, when the two gameta become unequal in the division of labor, when the larger inert macrogameton stores up food in itself, and the smaller, mobile microgameton swims in search of it, we have already expressed the difference between the female ovum and the male sperm-cell. And in this we have the most essential feature of sexual reproduction. The reproduction of the organism is often regarded as a perfect mystery of life, and as the vital function which most strikingly separates the living from the lifeless. The error of this dualistic notion is clear the moment one impartially considers the whole gradation of forms of reproduction, from the simplest cell-division to the
of sexual generation, in phylogenetic It is obvious all through that transgressive connection. growth is the starting-point in the formation of new But the same must be said of the multipliindividuals. cation of inorganic bodies the cosmic bodies on the When a larger scale, crystals on the smaller scale. sun passes a certain limit of growth by the rotating

most elaborate form

constant accession of falling meteorites, nebulous rings are detached at its equator by centrifugal force, and

form into new planets.

Every inorganic

crystal, too,

has a certain limit of individual growth (determined by and molecular constitution). However its chemical much mother-water you add, this is never passed, but new crystals (daughter-crystals) form on the motherIn other words, growing crystals propagate. crystal.


Mechanics as the science of motion (kinematics and phoronActive and omism) Chemistry of vital movement passive movements Undulatory movement Mechanism

Autonomous and reflex movements Will Mixed movements Movements of growth willing Direction of the crystalDirection of the vital movement Direction of cosmic motion Movements of lizing force
of imbibition


myophenous, hydrostatic, secretory, vibratory movements: cilia and lashes Movements of Locomotion of tissue histona, metaphyta, and metazoa animals ciliary motion and muscular movements Muscles of the skin Active and passive organs of movement Radiata, articulata, vertebrata, mammalia Human moveprotists


— —

— —

— —

— —


things in the world are in perpetual motion. universe is a perpetuunt mobile. There is no real rest anywhere; it is always only apparent or relative.


Heat itself, which constantly changes, is merely motion. In the eternal play of cosmic bodies countless suns and In planets rush hither and thither in infinite space. every chemical composition and decomposition the atoms, or smallest particles of matter, are in motion, and so are the molecules they compose. The incessant metabolism of the living substance is associated with a constant movement of its particles, with the building up and decay of plasma-molecules. But here we must disregard all these elementary kinds of movement, and be content with a brief consideration of those forms of

motion which are peculiar to organic
parison of
organic bodies.

and a comof in-

them with the corresponding motions

The science of motion, or mechanics, is now taken in very different senses: (i) in the widest sense as a philosophy of life [generally called mechanism or mechanicism in England], equivalent to either monism or materialism; (2) in the stricter sense as the physical science of motion, or of the laws of equilibrium and movement

whole of nature (organic and inorganic); (3) in the narrowest sense as part of physics, or dynamics, the science of moving forces (in opposition to statics, the science of equilibrium; (4) in the purely mathematical sense as a part of geometry, for the mathematical
in the





movement; and



the biological sense as phoronomy, the science of the movements of organisms in space. However, these definitions are not yet universally adopted, and there is a good deal of confusion. It would be best to follow the lead of Johannes Miiller, as we are going to do here, and restrict the name phoronomy to the science of the vital movements which are peculiar to organisms, in

contrast to kinematics, the exact science of the inorganic of all bodies. The real material object of is the plasm, the living matter that forms the material substratum of all active vital movements. On our monistic principles the inner nature of organic life consists in a chemical process, and this is deter-

movements phoronomy

mined by continuous movements of the plasma-molecules and their constituent atoms. As we have already considered this metabolism in the tenth chapter, we need do no more here than point out that both the general phenomena of molecular plasma-movement and
their special direction in the various species of plants and animals can be reduced in principle to chemical laws,

and are subject to the same laws


mechanics as


chemical processes in organic and inorganic bodies. In this we emphasize our opposition to vitaUsm, which sees in the direction of plasma-movement the supernatural
influence of a mystical vital force or of

some ghostly

agree with Ostwald, who also reduces these complex movements to the play of energy in the plasm that is to say, in the last instance In regard to the to modifications of chemical energy. visible movements of the living things which concern us at present, we must first distinguish passive and active, and subdivide the latter into reflex and autonomous.

"dominant" (Reinke).


Many movements of the living organism which the inexpert are inclined to attribute to life itself are purely passive; they are due either to external causes which do not proceed from the living plasm, or to the physical composition of the organic but no longer living substance. Purely passive movements, which play an important part in bionomy and chorology, comprise such as the flow of water and the rush of the wind; they cause considerable changes of locality and "passive" migrations of animals and plants. Purely physical, again, is what is known as the Brownian molecular movement which we observe with a powerful microscope in the


both dead and living cells. When very fine granules (for instance, of ground charcoal) are equally

distributed in a liquid of a certain consistency, they are

found to be in a constant shaking or dancing movement. This movement of the solid particles is passive, and is due to the shocks of the invisible molecules of the fluid which are continually impinging upon each other. In the rhizopods the remarkable protozoa whose unicellular organism sheds so much light on the obscure wonders

we notice a curious streaming of the granules in of life the living plasm. Within the cytoplasm of the amoebae


up and down





the long thin plasma-threads 260


pseudopodia which

stream out from the unicellular body of the radiolaria and thalamophora, thousands of fine particles move about, like promenaders in a street. This movement does not come from the passive granules, but from the active invisible molecules of the plasm, which are always


changing their relative positions. Thus also the moveof the blood-cells which we can see with the microscope in the circulation of a young transparent fish, or not due to the action of the blood-cells themselves, but to the flow of the blood

in the tail of a frog-larva, are

caused by the beat of the heart. An important factor in the life of many organisms, especially the higher plants, is the physical phenomenon called imbibition; it consists in the penetration of water between the molecules of solid bodies (drawn to them

by molecular attraction), and the consequent displacement of the molecules by the fluid. In this way the volume of the solid body is increased, and movements
are produced which

may have

The energy

of these

the appearance of vital imbibitional bodies is

notoriously very powerful; we can, for instance, split large blocks of stone by the insertion of a piece of wood dipped in water. As the cellulose membrane of plantcells has this property of imbibition in a high degree (either in the living or the dead cell), the movements it causes are of great physiological importance. This is especially the case when the imbibition of the cell wall In conis one-sided, and causes a bending of the cell.

sequence of the unequal strain in the drying of many fruits, they split open and project their seeds to some distance (as do the poppy, snap-dragon, etc.). The moss-capsules also empty their spores as a result of imbibition-curving (in the teeth of the openings of the The hygroscopic points of the heron-bill spore-cases). curl up in the dry state and stretch out when {crodiiim) moist; hence they are used as hygrometers in the con261

The so-called "resurstniction of meteorological huts. the rose of Jericho, and rection plants" {anastatica,
selaginella lepidophylla), which close up like a fist when dry, spread their leaves out flat when moistened (the

no more

There is leaves imbibing strongly on the inner side). real case of "resuscitation" (as many believe)
than in the mythological resurrection of the body. However, these phenomena of imbibition are not active vital processes; they are independent of the living plasm, and due solely to the physical constitution of the dead cell-membranes. In contrast with these passive movements of organisms, we have the active movements which proceed from In the ultimate analysis, it is true, the living plasm. these may be reduced to the action of physical laws just But the causes of as well as the passive movements. them are not so clear and obvious; they are connected with the complicated chemical molecular processes of the living plasm, of the physical regularity of which we are

in these cases



though their complicated mechnot yet understood. We may divide into two groups the many different movements, which are called vital in this stricter sense, and were formerly regarded as evidences of the presence of a mystic vital force, the sensation of which is according as the stimulus caused by the movement is directly perceptible or not. In the first case, we have stimulated (or reflex or paratonic) movements, and in the second voluntary (autonfully convinced,

— —

As the will apor spontaneous) movements. to be free in the latter, they have been left out pears of consideration by many physiologists, and handed over


to the treatment of the metaphysical psychologist.


a grave error; nor is it " when " psychonomism appeals to a false improved theory of knowledge. On the contrary, the conscious will (and conscious sensation) is itself a physical and 262

our monistic principles this


chemical process like unconscious and involuntary movefeeling). They are both equally to the law of substance. However, only the subject external stimuli which cause reflex movements are known to us to any great extent and experimentally recognizable; the internal stimuli, which affect the will, are mostly unknown, and are not directly accessible to investigation. They are determined by the compHcated structure of the psychoplasm, which has been gradually acquired by phylogenetic processes in the course of

ment (and unconscious

millions of years.

The great problem of the will and its freedom the seventh and last of Dubois-Reymond's world-riddles has been dealt with fully in the Riddle (chapter vii.). But as we still meet with the most glaring contradictions and confusion in regard to this difficult psychological In question, I must touch upon it briefly once more.
it is best "will" to the purposive and conscious movements in the central nervous system of man and the higher animals, and to give the name of impulses (tropisms) to the corresponding unconscious processes in the psychoplasm of the lower animals, as well as of the For it is only the complicated plants and protists. mechanism of the advanced brain structure in the higher animals, in conjunction with the differentiated senseorgans on the one side and the muscles on the other, that accomplishes the purposive and deliberate actions

the first place, to restrict the


would remind the reader that


which we are accustomed to call acts of will. But the distinction between voluntary (autonomous) and involuntary (reflex) movements is as difficult to carry out in practice as it is clear in theory. We can easily see that the two forms of movement pass into each other without any sharp boundary (like conscious and unconscious sensation). The same action, which seems at first a conscious act of the will (for instance, in

walking, speaking, etc.), may be repeated the next moment as an unconscious reflex action. Again, there are many important mixed or instinctive movements,

the impulse to which comes partly from internal and To this class belong partly from external stimuli. especially the movements of growth. Every natural body that grows increases its extent, fills a larger part of space, and so causes certain move-


of its particles; this


equally true of inorganic

But there are imliving organism. crystals portant differences between the growth in the two cases.
place, crystals grow by the external apposition of fresh matter, while cells grow by the intussusception of fresh particles within the plasm (cf. chapter

and the

In the

In the second case, in growth, which determines the whole shape of the organism, two important factors always co-operate, the inner stimulus, which depends on the specific chemical constitution of the species, and is transmitted by heredity, and the external stimulus which is due to the direct action of light, heat, gravity, and other physical conditions of the environment, and is

(phototaxis, thermotaxis, geotropism, etc.). A peculiar property of many vital movements (but by no means all) is the definite direction they exhibit; these are generally called purposive movements. For the teleologist they afford one of the chief and most

determined by adaptation

welcome proofs of the dualistic theory of the older and the modern vitalism. Baer, especially, has laid stress on the purposiveness of all vital movement. It has been given a more precise expression recently by Reinke. His "dominants" are "intelligent directive forces," essentially different from all forms of energy or natural These forces, and not subject to the law of substance. metaphysical "vital spirits" are much the same as the immortal soul of dualistic psychology or the divine

emanations of ancient theosophy. They are supposed not only to regulate the special development and construction of every species of animal and plant, and direct it to a predetermined end, but also to control all the
organs down organism and its " hyperenergetic forces are equivalent to the "organizing principle" and the "unconscious will" of Edward Hartmann, the "arranging and controlling protoplasmic forces" of Hanstein and others.


of the

to the cells.


All these metaphysical, supernatural, and teleological ideas, like the older mystic notion of a special vital
force, rest on a perversion of judgment by the apparent freedom of will and purposiveness of organization in the higher organisms. These thinkers overlook the fact

to simple physical

that this purposiveness can be traced phylogenetically movements in the lower organisms. overlook or deny the definite direction Moreover, they

of inorganic forms of energy, though this is just as clear in the origin of a crystal as in the composition of the whole world-structure, in the direction of the mind

Hence it is important to as in the orbit of a planet. bear in mmd always these two forms of mechanical energy, and emphasize their identity with the direction
of vital


force of gravitation which is at work in crystalformation in the simple chemical body exhibits just



which appears in the plasm In this and other respects the comparison of the cell with the crystal, which was made even by the founders of the cell-theory, Schleiden and
as definite a direction as that

Schwann, in 1838, is thoroughly justified, though it is not correct in some other aspects. When the crystal is formed in the mother-water, the homogeneous particles of the chemical substance arrange themselves in a perfectly definite direction and order, so that mathematical planes of symmetry and axes arise within, and definite

spar in the hexagonal. although our knowledge of this is still very We can calculate the distances and speeds incomplete. and movements of the planets round the sun with mathematical accuracy. modern angles at the surface. But we do not know either the first impulse to these complex movements or their can only conclude from the great disphysics. like it. supported by spectrum analysis and celestial photography. the same subcrystals.THE WONDERS OF LIFE On the strength of this. to the law of substance. consistently. to control the order and direction of the particles in its formation. and as arragonite in the rhombic If Reinke would be consistent. carbonate of lime crystallizes as calc. for instance. mathematically determine the direction of the constructive force in the crystal just as well as in the cell. that the universal law of substance on the one side and the law of evolution on the other control the gigantic movements of the heavenly bodies just as they do the living swarm of tiny organisms that have inhabited our little planet for milHons of years. If we comprise under the head of cosmokinesis the whole of the movements of the heavenly bodies in space. crystallography distinguishes six different systems of But. and we gather from our astronomical observations and calculations that a similar regularity prevails in the movements of the other countless bodies in infinite space. Reinke ought. final goal. we cannot deny that they have a definite direction in detail. he ought to system. He makes the curious statement (in 1899) that direction "is not a measurable magnitude" like energy. in different conditions. and so is not We can subject. to admire the cosmic intelligence of the Supreme Being in these movements of the cosmic masses and its emanations. postulate a "dominant" for every crystal. We coveries of modern 266 . stance may crystallize in two or even three different systems (dimorphism and trimorphism of the crystal) thus.

chrooWe can see no vital movement in these coccacea. which we regard as corresponding animal forms. exceeding the limit of individual size for the homogeneous plasma . or calcocytea) that plicated from call "vital movement. The internal molecular movements of the living matter.. as regards movement. we have to look upon movements as direct effects of their chemical molecular structure. The reproduction itself. as much as he does in the plasma-flow in the tiny organism. the simplest forms of the chromacea. which in its simplest form of self -cleavage. both among the protophand the protozoa. Apart these. seems to be merely a redundant growth. The manifold gradation of vital movement which we find everywhere in the higher organisms is not without In this respect expression even in the protist realm. however. and the bacteria. in indirect division. chapters and x. the simplest forms of vegetal monera. lie beyond our vision. the chromacea. developed from the former by metasitism." in the actual direction of their movements. But the same must be said also of their their of nucleated cells. paulotomea. we need structureless particles of plasm except slight changes of form. detect any purposive organization in these unnucleated cells. in so far as both the nucleus itself and the surrounding cell-body exhibit. The great majority of the protists have the appear- 267 . only in this case the structure yta is less simple.). As microscopic scrutiny fails to are of great interest.globule {cf. and it is impossible to discover different organs in homogeneous plasma-body." On the border between the organic and inorganic worlds we have.g. ix. effect their simple plasmodomous metabolism and growth. which occur when they multiply by cleavage. there is nothing to be seen in many unicellular beings (e. com- a number movements in the plasm (caryokinesis).MOVEMENT the "dominants.

and in the endoplasm of many of the protophyta and protozoa The slow displacement of the molecules of plasm of the which is at the bottom of these plasma-movements also causes a variety of external changes of form in simple naked cells. the two enter into close mutual relations during the remarkable process of partial resolution of the nucleus (caryolysis). division. the radiolaria and thalamophora. during indirect cell- — complicated movements (the signifias yet entirely unknown). and others. It has lately been attempted to explain them on purely physical The same may be said of the internal flow principles. and which are comprised under the head of nuclear movements (caryokinesis). Richard Hertwig. It is more difficult to do this in the case of the most highly differentiated of the protozoa. With these is connected the variable movement of the larger rhizopods. As they are best observed in the common amoebae (naked nucleated cells of the simplest kind). they are called amoeboid movements. nucleated cells. such as Biitschli. number of recent experts on the rhizopods. In this modification and partial dissolution of their constituents we observe. and their branching and netlike structure (without definite direction). in which hundreds of fine threads A radiate from the surface of the naked plasma-body.THE WONDERS OF LIFE ance of real. 268 . have attempted to trace to purely physical causes this varying formation of pseudopodia. certain cance of which is plasm which we find in the plasmodia of the amoebae and mycetozoa. Hence we have to distinguish two different forms of movement in the unicellular organism the inner movement in the caryoplasm of the nucleus and the outer in the cytoplasm of the cell-body. Rhumbler. the infusoria. that are accomplished by both the granules of chromatin and the threads of achromin." lobopodia) appear on their surface. Variable processes like folds or fingers (the "fold-feet.

tentacles. On the other hand. like the muscular fibres of the metazoa. contractile structures are formed.MOVEMENT With movement of the unicellular profarther advanced through the formation of permanent hairlike processes (long single lashes in the these the free is tozoon flagellata. and bones of the higher animals. body of the infusorium may be altered in various ways by the autonomous contraction of these. so (ciliata) show the highly differentiated infusoria great a resemblance to the higher animals in their dift'erentiated and autonomous movements that they have been credited with the possession of "free-will. which may be compared to the muscles of the metazoa. The apparent spontaneity and various modulation in the ever-changing movements of these cell-feet is. like the limbs. These myophaena or myonema form. in many of the infusoria. and these have. tween the various kinds of living movement is already very considerable before we leave the kingdom of the On the one hand. In a large section of the higher protozoa differentiated organs of movement are developed." There is no such thing as a sharp division. the lowest monera (chroprotists. a special thin layer of parallel or crossed fibres underneath the exo- The metabcell. both ciliata and flagellata. so like the autonomous voluntary movements in the metazoa that several experts on the infusoria have been moved on this account to ascribe individual (and even Hence the difference beconscious) souls to them. In the cytoplasm threadlike. the power to contract and expand again in definite directions. macea) join on directly to inorganic phenomena. Special instances of these myophaena are the myopJirisca of the contractile threads which surround the acantharia plasm or the hyaline skin-layer of the olic — 269 . in many of the infusoria. and a number of short lashes in the ciliata) on the cell-surface and the movement of these by contraction and expansion.

is traversed by a number of water. They usually creep about in the slime at the bottom. but in certain circumstances rise to the surface of the water. heavier and sink. carbonic vacuoles. acid may be secreted or pure water (without the salt of the sea-water) be imbibed in these vacuoles. As Wilhelm Engelmann has shown. Their unicellular (originally globular) body is divided by a membrane into a firm inner central capsule and a The latter. which specific gravity. the specific weight of the cell-body.THE WONDERS OF LIFE radial needles of these radiolaria like a crown. known as the soft outer gelatine covering. 270 . by this means the specific gravity of the cell is lessened. Among the simplest fresh-water protozoa are the arcellina or thecolobosa {difjittgia. and so lessen the protophyta and protozoa have the power of autonomous and independent locomotion. calymma. The same method is followed by the pretty radiolaria which live floating (as plankton) at various depths of the sea. Many of the aquatic expands their unicellular body like an air-balloon. little rhizopods that are distinguished from the naked amoebae by the possession of a firm envelope. and it When it desires to make itself rises to the surface. the vacuoles discharge their lighter These hydrostatic movements of the radiocontents. they accomplish this hydrostatic movement by means of a small vesicle of carbonic acid. arcella). which is of itself heavier than water. They are found in their outer gelatine envelope. have been developed in the acantharia) attain by simple means the same end that is accomplished in the siphonophora and fishes by air-filled and voluntarily contractile swimming-bladders. laria (for which the myophrisca. and this often has the appearance of being voluntary. still more complicated structures. the calymma. is sufficiently lowered by this. and by their contraction extend it.vesicles or As a result of an osmotic process.

This secretory locomotion is found. it is probable that the sliding movements of many of the diatomes are due to fine processes (vibratory hairs?) in the plasm. and serve not only for swimming or creeping.MOVEMENT of the unicellulars alter their position very characteristically by secreting a thick mucus at one side If the of their body and fastening this to the ground. of whiplike threads are formed. but also for feeling and securing food. Numbers secretion continues. form movement is found in some of the bacteria. they are called vibratory hairs. among the protophyta. in the desmidiacea and diatomes. are set in vibratory motion (apparently often (flagella) voluntary) in various ways." in the mastigota among the protophyta. starting from one pole of the long axis These whips of the oval. or long cell-body. On the other hand. usually packed an extensive layer at the inner or outer sur271 . and the flagellata among the protozoa. lashes (cilia). they are called whips Flagelli(flagella). a longish jelly-like stalk is produced by which the cell slowly pushes itself along. and in some of the gregarinae and rhizopods among the The peculiar rolling movements of the osprotozoa. cillaria (threadlike chains of blueish-green unnucleated cells. like a boat with a rowing-pole. we have in these cases one or two (rarely more) long and very thin whipshaped processes. if many short ones. Especially important in the easy and rapid locomotion many unicellulars is the formation of fine hairlike processes at the surface of the body. closely related to the chromacea) are also effected by the secretion of mucus. in the broadest If only a few sense. As a rule. but especially in the mastigophorous "whip-infusoria. Similar whip-cells (cclluhc flagcllatcc) are also found very commonly together in in the body of tissue-animals. round. which proceed either out of the seams (raphe) of the bivalvular silicious shells or through the fine pores in them.

like the infusoria. — brates. and so on. which When their lively tapers into a long and thin thread. continuing their infusoria. non-tissue forming protists. the spermatozoids of the cycadea) have. and resemble the more highly developed ciliated movements were infusoria (ciliata). If single cells are released from the group. that similar vibratory cells are found in many of the plants (algae. — animals. all the movements seem to be active functions of the plasm 272 . and have accordingly assumed different forms Some of the cilia are used for running or swimming. a number of short lashes (cilia). because the many short lashes found on them are used for different purposes. It was a long time (sixty years ago) before we learned that they are detached glandular cells. having an oval or pear-shaped (though often also rod-shaped) head. others for grasping or touching. they were thought to be real independent animalcules. and oviducts of vertein the division of labor. in the lungs. first noticed in the male seminal fluid (each drop of which contains millions of them) two hundred years ago. Many of the latter (for instance. and so obtained their name of seed-animals (spermatozoa). nostrils. they time. which have the function of ferIt was discovered at the same time tilizing the ovum.THE WONDERS OF LIFE face (ciliated epithelium). vital In the unicellular. The ciliary movement of the infusoria is held to be a more perfect form of vibratory movement. mosses. rule they are cone-shaped. and ferns). of may independently for some movements and resembling free live many As a ciliated The same may be said of the travelling spores and of the most remarkable of all cells the spermia or spermatozoa of plants and of the algae. In social combinations we have the ciliated cells of the ciliated epithelium of the higher animals for instance. instead of a few long whips.

first directed. they are the outcome of the combined movements of the many cells which compose Careful anatomic study and experimental the tissue. When we start from this point. which have developed in the highest degree the power of definitely directed contraction and In most of the metaphyta. the chief part of the movements depend on the strain of the living plasm.MOVEMENT but in the histona. however. The is movement special mechanism of the oralso very different in the two In most of the metazoa the chief motor organs groups. we find striking differences. to clearing up the nature and activity of the special cells which compose the tissue. in the sense that at the lower stages the chemical and physical character of the motor processes can be clearly shown and can be traced to an interchange of energy in the plasm of the cells that make In the higher stages. and survey the manifold active motor phenomena of the histona as a whole. are the muscles. the tissue itself. up the tissue. therefore. and then the structure and functions of of the single cell. the multicellular tissue-forming organisms. Moreover. in the case of the histona. we see at once an essential agreement in the phoronomy of the two kingdoms of the metaphyta and metazoa. physiological scrutiny of the motor processes are. and thus the great problem of the freedom of the will is added to the purely physiological questions of stimulated movement. on the other expansion. etc. the movements of the metazoa are much more varied and complicated than those of the metaphyta. the voluntary character of many autonomous movements being very conspicuous in the higher animals. growth-movement. in consequence of the higher differentiation of their sense-organs and the centralization of their ner- vous system. hand. The former have generally free locomotion and the gans of latter not. or what is called the turgor z8 273 .

and due to external stimuli. "sleep. Only a few of the higher plants exhibit autonomous or spontaneous movement. the osmotic pressure of the internal cell-fluid and the elasticity of the cellulose wall. are fixed in one spot for life. without any external cause they complete a circle in a couple of minutes. which describes more than one hundred and twenty defly flower . corals." We 274 . Nevertheless.THE WONDERS OF LIFE This is effected by or expansibility of the plant-cells. Similar spontaneous movements of the leaves of several species of clover (trifolium) and sorrel {oxalis) The are performed only in the dark. are young. especially. polyps. Voluntary and autonomous turgescence-movements of this kind are only observed in a few of the higher plants.known or nyktitropic movements. terminal leaf of the meadow-clover repeats its rotation. They have not free locomotion. in the ultimate analysis. bryozoa. They are mostly reflex or paratonic. the stimulating cause of which is unknown to us. have. cal cause of these spontaneous "variation The mechanimovements" seems to lie in variations of expansibility. The metaphyta. like a pair of arms swinging. the well . The lateral feather-leaves of an Indian butter- {hedysarmn gyrans) move in circles through the air. with few exceptions. or only mobile for a short time when they In this they resemble the lower metazoa. in both cases and in all "vital" phenom- ena — the — real cause of the process is. the chemical play of energy in the active plasm. Variations in the intensity of light have no effect on them. of many plants. not in the light. The motor phenomena which we find in them affect only special parts or organs. the sponges. etc. which is thus expanded. every two to four hours. and which may be compared to the apparently voluntary actions of the higher animals. grees of an arc. but stimulated movements that are accomplished by the same mechanism are very common in the vegetal world.

). Other stimuli besides light (heat. the actinia among the tunicates. When water is withdrawn again from one of these swollen or turgescent cells. which spend the greater part of their life at the bottom of the water. consists in the co-operation of the osmotic pressure of the internal cell-fluid and the elasticity of the strained cell-membrane enclosing the cytoplasm. It is. A number of classes of the coelomaria have also adopted the stationary life. famihar examples are the flesh-eating fly-trap {dioncea may produce of musciptila) and the sensitive plant {mimosa pudica). and the tissue looser. The mechanism of turgescence. etc. such as the tube-worms (tubicolcu). such as the bryozoa and the spirobranchia among the vermalia. which effects these swelling movements. pressure. pressure. wanting in some of the lower classes. shaking. When darkness comes on they contract. the cell becomes smaller. 275 . polyps. and. certain reflex movements (or paraconsequence The most striking and tonic variational movements). and the calices of the flowers close.MOVEMENT Many leaves and flowers hold themselves vertically to the streaming rays of the sun. and even higlily organized articulata. Hence these were formerly held to be vegetable thus the — sponges. many mussels (oysters. electricity) these expansional variations. their contraction is caused by mechanical stimuli. and corals among the coelenteria. Most of the higher animals have the power of free and voluntary locomotion. and the elastic strained membrane stretches from ten to twenty per cent. Many flowers are open for only a few hours a day. The strain of the outer cellulose membrane on the plasmatic primordial sac within it grows so much on the accession of osmotically active matter that the internal pressure is equal to several atmospheres. the membrane contracts. like plants. the sea-lilies (crinoidea) among the echinoderms. or the touching of the leaves. as a it. however.

and have been considerably modified. the turbellaria. the bones. But in many of the smaller metazoa they also serve the purpose of locomotion. and swim about in the water as gastruke. They have taken only gradually to stationary habits. and often greatly degenerated. The vibratory apparatus reaches its highest development in the ctenophora. They are arranged in eight longitudinal rows which from the mouth to the opposite pole. it also shows the great value of free locomotion for the higher sensitive and intellectual develop- ment In the of the animals and man.THE WONDERS OF LIFE among the annelids. in consequence. the rotifera. for instance. All these stationary metazoa move freely in their youth. Each oarblade consists of the long hair-lashes of a group of stretch epithelial cells glued together. 276 . and the crawHng crabs {cirripedia). in the loss of the higher sense-organs. gastraeads. Flagellated epithelium is especially found in the cnidaria and platodes ciliated epithelium mostly in the vermalia many of the lower aquatic body is — . metazoa the surface of covered with vibratory epithelium that is to say. the nemertina. or in some other larva form. with a layer of skin-cells which bear either one long whip (fiagellum) or several short lashes (cilia). The extremely delicate and soft body of these gherkin-shaped cnidaria swims slowly in the water by means of the strokes of thousands of tiny oar-blades. and even of the whole head. among the Crustacea. they first of all effect respiration through the skin. As the lashing motion of these hairlike processes brings a constant stream of fresh water to the surface of the body. and the young larvae of many other metazoa. The study of these retrogressive metamorphoses is very important for the theory of progressive heredity and selection. Arnold Lang has shown this very clearly in his excellent work on the influence of stationary life on animals. as in the and mollusca.

which has the appearance under the microscope of a transverse streaking of the long is cells. In many fly- — ing insects (gnats.MOVEMENT The chief motor organs in the metazoa are the muscles which constitute the "flesh" of the body. according to Zuntz. an energy thousand kilogrammetres that would suffice to lift to a height of one metre a weight of twenty thousand kilogrammes. In parts of the body to which its ends are attached. 277 . as in the polyps. When the muscular cell contracts. and the more pronounced the difference between the doubly refractive The muscular particles from the simple refractive. This layer consists of muscular cells. the lower metazoa the muscle-cells have. but in the higher animals the contractile plasm undergoes a peculiar differentiation. it becomes shorter and its diamThis brings nearer together the two eter increases. a work of about twenty in other words. as a rule. This mesenchymic muscle is less common than In most of the askeletal vermalia the epithelial muscle. no particular structure. In the lower and higher classes of the metazoa the muscle amounts to no more than a thin layer of flesh underneath the skin. cells are developed from the connective-tissue cells of the mesoderm. striated muscle is "the most perfect dynamo we know of" (Verworn). of with the sole property of contraction. The more vigorous. The normal heart of a man accomplishes every day. as in the ctenophora. for instance) the flying muscles make three hundred to four hundred contractions a second. and definite is the contraction of the muscle. On this ground a distinction drawn between striated muscles and simple nonstriated or smooth muscles. Muscular tissue consists of contractile cells cells — that is to say. the more marked is the streaky character. which come originally from the ectoderm in the form of internal contractile processes of the skin-cells In other cases the musclethemselves. the middle skin-layer. rapid.

of a pair of the anterior cuttle-fishes four or five which grow into long and very muscular "head-arms". as in the belly-side of the crawling worms and mollusks. The keel .snails (pteropoda) swim un.snails (heteropoda) swim by (pelecypoda) of a "keel-foot. one pair of upper (dorsal) and a pair of lower — At those parts of the body (ventral) muscular bands. . and vertebrates. are the three stems of the echinoderms.THE WONDERS OF LIFE subdermal muscle divides into two layers an outer deposit of concentric muscles and an inner layer of longitudinal muscles. this fore-foot divides into pairs of folds. solid ground it grows into a muscular "flat-foot" (gasteropoda) in the mussels which cut like a plough through the soft slime it forms a sharp "hatchet-foot" . the numbers of strong suckers on the In all these nonlatter have also special muscles.) the latter fall into four longitudinal bands. which are especially used for locomotion the muscle is more strongly developed. in which we find this relation to a solid jointed skeleton that becomes a passive motor apparatus. in the cylindrical worms (nematodes. It is otherwise in the higher animals. which develop from the side of In the highest mollusks. articulates. as well as a support and protection for the whole body. steadily (like butterflies flying) by means head-folds." which works like the screw means of a ship the floating . sagittae. 278 . articulate mollusks and vermalia hard skeletons are wanting or (like the external shells of the mollusks) they have no functional relation to the motor muscles. (cephalopoda). The higher groups of the animal kingdom in which a either altogether characteristic solid skeleton is developed and forms an important starting-point for the muscles. etc. This muscular surface develops into a kind of fleshy "foot" {podium)] it assumes a great variety of forms in the various classes In most of the snails which creep on the of mollusks. the foot-section.

they clearly (even apart show chord-sheath {cf. chapter xxvi. differ very much in the three classes. and so shows. and left of the bilateral regularly developed to the right 279 . skeleton is formed from chalky deposits in the corium. In this onto- form of their individual — genesis two totally different forms appear successively the simple astrolarva and the elaborately organized and sexually mature astrozoon.). Anthropogcny. their active and passive motor organs and the curious development. The remarkable stem of the sea-dwelling echinoderms or "prickly skins" is distinguished from all the other animal groups by a number of striking pecu iarities prominent among these are the special formation of . and far surpass all the other stems of the animal world in the perfection locomotive apparatus. It moves by means of water-vessels or blood-vessels. and more fully in my essay on the amphoridea and cystoidea The little astrolarva has no muscles. The small. and are of their the chief factors in determining their characteristic from other radical that the three stems have arisen independifferences) dently of each other from three different roots in the In the echinoderms the calcareous vermalia . and the correlation of the muscles to it as active pullingorgans. the disposition and development of the skeleton as a passive support. that the original stem-form of the echinoderms (the amphoridea) belonged to this group of the vermalia. which are attached to special These arms are armlike processes at the surface.). in accordance with the biogenetic law. I have briefly explained these structures in the History of Creation (chapter xxii. in the articulates from chitine secretions of the epidermis.stem. and in the vertebrates from cartilage of an internal types.MOVEMENT All three groups are very rich in forms. However. vibratory lashes or bands. and no (1896). free-swimming astrolarva has the general structural features of the rotatoria.

70. apples). which develop from chalky As these calcareous needles deposits in the corium. By a very curious modification the small bilateral astrolarva is transformed into the totally different pentaradial astrozoon.) orate organization. 90. and 95. (See Art-forms in Nature. 40. touching. sucking. the echinoderms walk on them as if they were stilts Between these. the large sexually mature echinoderm with a pronounced fiverayed structure. and moved by little muscular needles. The latter find their support and attachment in solid calcareous needles. blood-vessels and water-vessels. we might say that 280 . — fashion at the — — (which are particularly conspicuous in the sea-urchin) movably in special protuberances of the calcareous plates of the cuticular skeleton. As these distinctive motor organs of the echinoderms both the ambulacral feet with their complicated watertubes and the movable needles with their joints and muscles — are found in hundreds. Their creeping motion is accomplished by two kinds of organs water-feet and skinmuscles. 80. on every individual five-rayed astrozoon. etc. a number of water-feet arise from inside thin tubes like the fingers of a glove. with muscles and cuticular skeleton. which are filled with water by an internal conduit-system (the so-called ambulacral system) and become stiff. and the sea-urchins (echinidea). however. It has a most elab20. These very extensible ambulacral feet. 60. often provided with a suctorial plate at the closed outer are set — — end. The other four extant classes creep about in the sea the sea-gherkins (holothuria). cystoidea (sea- — A and amphoridea (sea-urns) grow in stationary bottom of the sea. 30. section of the astrozoa the living crinoidea. serve for creeping. or sea-lilies. often in thousands. the star-fish (asteridea and ophoidea). plates lo.THE WONDERS OF LIFE symmetrical larva (which as yet shows no trace of the five-rayed structure). and grasping. and the extinct classes of blastoidea (sea-buds).

. in the essay I have mentioned. In each joint there is originally a knot of the ventral nervous system (the ventral marrow). since Richard Semon found. . in relation to paleontological discoveries. In a transverse section we see in every joint underneath the layer of concentric muscles a pair of dorsal and a pair of ventral muscles. Of the three great classes of the articulates the annelids are developed directly from the vermalia. the correct phylogenetic meaning of the curious embryology of the echinoderms dis- covered in 1845 by Johannes Miiller. There annelids. or "ringed-worms" (to which. especially the subdermal muscles. and tracheata. have mostly a very homoe. All three groups agree in the essential features of their organization. the rain-worms belong). geneous articulation their segments or metamera repeat the same structure to a great extent. especially in the external articulation or metamerism of the long bilateral body. independently evolved from two different stems of the The annelids. in the younger 281 . in the tubular worms a leather-like or calcified tube. in his ingenious pentactaea theory (1888).MOVEMENT the echinoderms have the most advanced and compUcated motor organs of all animals. and a corresponding group of muscles. a chamber of the dorsal heart. The two other and more highly organized classes. and also in the repetition of the internal organs in each joint or segment.g. are no bones in the oldest annelids. I endeavored in 1896 to establish it in detail. are younger groups. Their historical development is perfectly understood from its earliest stages. Crustacea. of which both the nematoda and nemertinae approach very closely to them. a chitine-ring of the cutaneous skeleton. the Crustacea and tracheata. Their epidermis has secreted a thin covering of chitine. The large stem of the articulata (the richest in forms of all the animal stems) comprises three chief classes — the annelids.

breast. The firm covering of chitine. The vertebrates 382 . etc. and the muscles are external to these supporting organs. the myriopods. spiders. to In are just the reverse in structure. breathing Crustacea (crabs. In the higher groups of both classes the number of limbs is usually not higher than fifteen to twenty and they are distributed in three principal sections head. inside which the motor muscles are atThe successive hard rings are connected by tached. gillorganization. Hence the typical character of the motor organs of the Crustacea lies in the circumstance that both in the body and the limbs the muscles are attached to the interior of hollow chitine tubes. intermediate rings. elasticity. which was delicate and thin in most of the annelids. and often hardened — . their case a solid internal skeleton is formed in the longitudinal axis of the body. is much thicker in most of the crustacea and tracheata. Then. so that the whole body combines firmness. it is only seen in the muscular system when the non-articulated skin has been removed. The articulation or metamerism itself is not visible externally in the vertebrates. are fixed in pairs on each segment. thin. and insects).) and the tracheata (terrestrial animals breathing through a trachea. by a calcareous deposit it forms a solid ring of chitine in each segment. unjointed The other two chief classes of the articulates develop bristle-worms long and jointed feet of very varied forms. and mobility in a high The structure of the long jointed legs. which degree. mobile. and go in these from member .THE WONDERS OF LIFE (polychcFta) one or two pairs of short feet {parapodia) are found in every joint. is the more pronounced the higher the whole onomy) This is equally true of the aquatic. even in member. and at the same time assume different shapes of limbs in the diviThis heterogeneous articulation (hetersion of labor. is very similar. and posterior part of the body.

both in the internal bony skeleton and the muscular system that encloses this and is attached to it.4. the three higher classes of the — — As I have vertebrates. These four lateral hind-legs (tarsomela) five-toed legs have a very characteristic and complicated articulation. Both parts of the motor apparatus. reptiles. the true fishes {pisccs). It is only with the solid. In this case there are not pairs of limbs. We * A translation of the latest edition of \y\e Anthropogenic. in their terrestrial descendbelly-fins. and From the two pairs of jointed legs fore-legs (carpomela) and are derived. in consequence of adaptation to the most different habits have only to compare the running and functions. and elastic axial rod {chorda). we see on each side a row of muscular plates (fifty to eighty in the amphioxus). third class of the vertebrates. the oldest amphibia of the Carboniferous Period. ants. under the title of The Evolution of Man. birds. will be issued very shortly by the Rationalist Press Association. and mammals. the cvclostoma (myxinoida and petromyzonta). the internal bony skeleton (the passive supporting apparatus) and the external muscular system (the active motor). the acrania. that two pairs of lateral limbs appear the breast-fins — these. I must and will only make refer the reader to that work.). and it is the same with the oldest craniate animals. with the full number of frrsh illustrations (thirty plates and five hundred and twelve wood-cuts)./thropogeny (chapter xxvi. the internal skeleton of which consists merely of a cylindrical. From the amphibia. 283 . exhibit a great variety of construction within the mammal class.MOVEMENT the lowest skull-less vertebrates. dealt with these important structures fully in my . and given a number of illustrations of them. this locomotive apparatus is transmitted by heredity to their descendants. the earliest quadrupeds.' a few observations on the mam- mals.

Among the characters of the locomotive apparatus which are earlier ancestors in peculiar to mammals we have. the fishlike swiraming sirens and In all these whales. and the concordant results of paleontology. Nevertheless. the leaping kangaroos and jerboas. prove convincingly that all living and fossil mammals. and the remaining orders of the mammals the whole regular structure of the motor apparatus is strikingly adapted to the habits of Hfe which have been formed by this adaptation itself. the corresponding muscles have naturally also undergone a considerable transformation. a pro-mammal. In harmony with this remarkable modification of the maxillary joint. This joint is temporal. the flying cheiroptera and bats. and so distinguished from the square joint of the other vertebrates. we see that the essential character of the inner organization which distinguishes the mammals as a class is not affected by this adaptation. These recognized facts of comparative anatomy and ontogeny. that lived in the Triassic Period. A distinctive muscle that is only found in the mammals and regulates their respiration is the dia284 . from the lowest ungulates and marsupials to the ape and man. its the Permian Period were reptiles. on the other hand. and climbing lemures and apes. the structure of the vertebral column and the skull.THE WONDERS OF LIFE carnivora and ungulata. but constantly maintained by heredity. between the hammer (the modified joint of the lower jaw. have descended from one common stem-form. and. amphibia. The latter is found in the mammals in the tympanic cavity of the middle-ear. In the skull we particularly notice the formation of the lower jaw and the joint by which it is connected with the temporal bone. on the one hand. and. in the Carboniferous Period. the formation of the muscles which are attached to these supporting organs. articulare) and the anvil (the original quadraUmi). the burrowing moles and hyperdaei.

The most striking difference between the movements of the two is due to man's adaptation to the erect posture. The many organs by means its ganism accomplishes the same as in the apes. form our internal bony skeleton. The human will is also not specifically different from that of the ape or any other mammal. bones. it is unquestionable that the former is an evolution from the latter. as a result of this their posture has become more or less erect. Both these. Among the birds we have an analo- gous case in the penguins (aptoiodytcs)] as they no longer use their atrophied wings for flight. the other hand. use only the strong hinder extremities. while the climbing of trees is the normal habit of the ape. still remain separate in the other vertebrates. also found between lower and higher races of men) are due to differences in growth of which our human ormanifold movements are just On in consequence of divergent adaptation.MOVEMENT phragm. they have developed an erect posture when on land. A double parallel to this modification is seen in the jerboa among the ungulates. which completely divides the abdominal and thoracic cavities. and in the kangaroo among the marsupials. in springing. and the mechanism of their The same two hundred action is in no way different. but only in swimming. and its microscopic organs. the same three hundred muscles The differences we find in the effect our movements. the neurona in the brain and the muscular 2«5 . form and size of the various muscles and bones (and which are. as is well known. from the blending of which it has been formed. the various muscles. and not the weaker fore-limbs. However. in the same order and composition. the complete agreement in the construction of the whole motor apparatus is explained by heredity from the common stem-form of the apes and men.

In the lower races these privileges of the civilized will are only found in a slight degree. art and science of the will for higher culture is in no way discordant — — to this monistic and zoologically grounded conception. ever. The distance between the lowest savage and the most civilized human being is greater. W. Hence immaterial for the moment whether one believes in the freedom of the will according to the antiquated creed of indeterminism. H.THE WONDERS OF LIFE cells in the flesh. Mallock's Religion as a Credible Doctrine']. Stout's recent and Paul Ree (1903) [also in manual of psychology and Mr. in either case the acts of the will and voluntary movements follow the same laws in man as in the ape.1902) little Dr. and are it is similarly subject to the law of substance. the ethical significance rality. or whether one holds it to be refuted scientifically by the arguments of modern determinists. the ample differentiation of speech and moin a word. . in this respect also. The high development of the function in civilized man. I refer the reader to the remarks I made at the close of the seventh chapter of the Riddle on the problem of the freedom of the will and the infinite literature The reader who desires to go further relating thereto. into this subject will find it well treated in the works of Traugott Trunk (. and some of them are wholly wanting among the lowest races. work with the same forms of energy. than that which Howseparates the savage from the anthropoid ape.

distinguished as its Natiircu: two chief characters "sensibility" and "irritability." The one he ascribed exclusively to the nerves. . During the eighteenth century it was generally believed that the function of sensation was peculiar to animals." Albrecht Haller. all the knowledge of his time relating to organic life up in his Elemcnta Physiologic^ (1766). — Sensibility and irritability is at all times SENSATION one of those general terms that have been liable to the most varied inter- pretations. This erroneous idea was subsequently refuted. and was not present This opinion found its most important exin plants. and feel. live. and in our own time irritability is conceived to be a general property of 287 all living matter. chemotaxis —Taste and smell — Erotic chemicotropism— Organic sensations — Sensation of pressure— Geotaxis — Sensation of sound — Electric sensation. sight — Sensation of warmth. and the other to the muscles. thermotaxis — Sensation of matter. still Like the cognate idea of the "soul." it is extremely ambiguous. in Linnd's System a pression in the well-known principle "Stones grow: plants grow and live: animals who gathered grow. phototaxis.XIII SENSATION Sensation and consciousness tion — Unconscious and conscious sensa— Reflex sensation — Sensation and living force — and Reperception of stimuli action to stimuli — Resolution of stimuli — External and internal stimuli — Conveyance of stimuli — Sensation and — Sensation and feeling — Inorganic and organic striving sensation — Light sensation.

ter of his book to the former and the sixth to the latter. At the same time he proved that sensation is a function of the organism as much as movement or nutrition. The famous investigations of Helmholtz and Hertwig on the physics of the senses.). and the great progress made in vegetal physiology by Sachs and Pfeffer. The view of the nineteenth of sensation that prevailed in the second half century was very different. On the one hand the experimental and comparative physiology of the sense-organs and the nervous system immensely enriched our exact knowledge by the invention of ingenious methods of research and the use of the great advance made by physics and chemistry. By 288 the application of the dif- . and thus put on a sound scientific basis that biological naturalistic conception of the place of psychology in the system which we now regard as the correct view. cal Manual of Human Physiology (1840) he established theory of the specific energy of the nerves and their dependence on the sense-organs on the one hand and He devoted the fifth chapthe mental life on the other.THE WONDERS OF LIFE The great advance made by the comparative anatomy and experimental physiology of animals and plants in the first half of the nineteenth century brought to light the fact that irritability or sensibility is a common quality of all organisms. his approaching particularly to Spinoza in his general psychological views. he treated psychology as a part of physiology. enabled us to realize that even the most mysterious of the wonders of life depend on physical and chemical processes. The greatest merit in connection with its experimental study In his classiattaches to the famous Johannes Miiller. and in physiological chemistry by Moleschott and Bunge. and that it is one of the principal characteristics of vital force {cf. of Matteucci and Dubois-Revmond on the electricity of the muscles and nerves. chapter ii.

to which the modern anatomic physiology of the brain laid special claim. is most Even the fundamental idea of curiously neglected.SENSATION light. The science of the stimuli and their effects acquired a strictly physical character. On the other hand. and chemical the various sensitive or irritable organs under definitely controlled conditions. who had for the starting point of their airy belief in an immortal soul and divine speculations the — inconvenient The psychologists readily abandoned the V)urden of experience and a posteriori knowledge. In many of the most valuable modern ferent action — to stimuli — manuals of physiology. sensation. heat. we see that the general conception of the various vital processes. to the metaphysichologists proper" cians. scientists succeeded in subjecting with exactness a great part of the phenomena of stimulation to mathematical measurements and formulae. containing long chapters on stimuli and stimulation. in most striking contradiction to the immense advance of experimental physiology. is disregarded more and more. that consciousness is not a natural baseless 19 289 . and especially of the inner nerve-action that converts the functions of the senses into mental life. ous and unjustifiable gulf that has once more been artificially created between physiology and psychology. As the "exact" physiologists found the study of the inner psychic processes which take p ace in sense-action and sensation inconvenient and unprofitable. As most physiologists share the view of Dubois-Reymond. The greatest and most fatal error committed by modern physiology in this was the admission of the consciousness. there is little or no mention of This is chiefly due to the mischievsensation as such. which plays the chief part in it. electricity. they gladly handed over this difficult and obscure field to the "psyin other words. dogma that all sensation must be accompanied by consciousness.

For its foundation they then take the "critical theory of knowledge. and dismiss the whole of psychology from their prov- ince their psychomonism readmits the soul as a supernatural entity. we think 290 . but a hyperphysical problem. naturally. it has just as much interest in the transcendental character of sensation as in the liberty of the will. nerves. and delivers it. painting or playing the piano we need months of daily practice in — — — become expert at it. and thus the whole of psychology passes from the empirical province of natural science into the mystical province of mental science. In this we experience every day hundreds of thousands of sensations and movements which are learned and repeated with full consciousness." from the yoke of the law of sub. When we learn an art for instance. we paint order to our picture or play our piano unconsciously. and the same may be said of the third principal function of the soul the will. stance. It is extraordinary that even distinguished monistic physiologists suffer themselves of their researches. The longer we continue the practice and the more we adapt and accustom ourselves to the And function.THE WONDERS OF LIFE it phenomenon. they leave and this inconvenient "sensation" outside the range This decision is. Impartial reflection on our personal experience during sensation and consciousness will soon convince us that these are two different physiological functions. the easier and less conscious it becomes." which ignores the results of the real the senses. in contrast with the "world of bodies. which are by no means necessarily associated . when we have practised the art for some years. and brain physiological organs and draws its "superior wisdom" from the inner mirroring of self by the introspective analysis of presentations and their associations. very agreeable to the prevalent metaphysics. — — to be taken in with this sort of metaphysical jugglery.

while the idea of it that is to say. be felt by the plasm before the corresponding stimulated movement (in the form of various manifestations of energy) will be produced. The plant that is caused to open its floral calyx by the 291 — . To bind up the ideas of consciousness and sensation inseparably is the more absurd. of property of reacting on stimuli in itself to changes in its enresponding by changes vironment. laboriously. and so on. must. The mere impulse of the will to paint the picture once more or no longer of play the piece again suffices to release the whole chain of complicated movements and accompanying sensations which had originally to be learned slowly." But it needs only a slight accident. eating. the most difficult piece if he has learned it and plays repeated it thousands of times "half in a dream. subtle shades of sensation and acts of will which were necessary in learning. clear consciousness. An experienced pianist full consciousness. speaking. and will. to bring back the wandering and with — — attention to the work.SENSATION all the small. however. or action of a foreign energy. as the mechanism or the real nature of consciousness seems very obscure to is perfectly clear: we know that we know. Hence the question whether this sensation is (in certain cases) associated with consciousness or (generally) remains unconscious is of a subordinate interest. feel. The stimulus. of The piece is now played with The same may be said of thousands sensations and movements which we learned at first consciously in childhood. These familiar facts prove of them- — is selves that consciousness a complicated function of the brain. The word "irritability" is generally taken by modem physiology to mean that the living matter has the us. such as a mistake or a sudden interruption. and then repeat daily afterwards without noticing such as in walking. by no means necessarily connected with sensation or will.

As we reject this distinction altogether on monistic principles. This elementary psychic function always depends on a conjunction of sensation and movement (in the widest The movement that the stimulus provokes is sense). always preceded by a sensation of the influence exerted. and must refer the reader thereto. leaving to psychology the privilege of dealing with the higher mental phenomena and metaphysical problems. on the other hand.THE WONDERS OP LIFE stimulus of light acts just as unconsciously in this as the coral that spreads out its crown of tentacles under the same influence. Modern physiology makes desperate efforts to avoid the~use of the word "sensation" and substitute for it "perception of "stimulus. and when the sensitive carnivorous plant {dioncea or drosera) closes its leaves in order to catch and destroy the insect sitting on them. sees itself compelled in a thousand ways to use the words "sensa- tion" and "sensitive. Moreover." The chief blame for this misleading expressioii^is due to the arbitrary and un- — justified separation of psychology from physiology. it acts in the same way as the sensitive actinia or coral when it draws in its crown of tentacles for the same object in both cases without consciousness! We call these unconscious movements "reflex actions. we cannot consent to separate sensation from the perception of stimuli whether this sensation be accompanied with consciousness or not." especially in the science of the organs of sense. in — spite of its desire to keep clear of psychology." I have dealt somewhat fully with these reflex movements in the seventh chapter of the Riddle. The latter is supposed to occupy itself with the material phenomena and physical changes. What we call sensation or perception of stimuli may be regarded as a special form of the living force or actual energy (Ostwald). modern physiology. Sensitiveness or irritability. is a form of virtual or potential 292 .

which is always bound up with corresponding changes in the psychoplasm. consciousness of the impression. we can the process of reaction is much more complicated. The share of the stimulus in this conversion is described as a "release" of energy. has its equilibrium disturbed. modified impression to the 3. however. psychological reaction." .SENSATION energy. 5. which is sensitive or irritable. 2. the conducting of the central organ. 293 . and so with a chemical conversion of energy. the interaction of two substances in chemistry is called a reaction. for instance. is in a state of equilibrium and indifTerence But the active plasm. stimulus is called "reaction" a term that is also used (in the same sense) in chemistry to express the interaction of bodies on each other. 4. The term "reaction" stands in general for the change which any body experiences from the action of another body. and distinguish several parts or phases of it: i. in principle from the reaction of the living organism to outer stimuli. and. the internal sensation of the conducted impression. Even here we must assume that the two bodies feel their different characters otherwise they could not act on each Hence every chemist speaks of a more or less other. that receives to its environment. But this process is not different "sensitive reaction. At each stimulation the — virtual energy of the plasm (sensitiveness) is converted into living or kinetic force (sensation). the reaction of the sense-organ. In this case. The living substance at rest. whatever be their chemical or physical And there is no more essential difference in nature. to take the simplest case. and corresponds to the change in its environment and its This response of the organism to a internal condition. and feels a stimulus. the outer excitation. Thus. In chemical analysis the word is used in a narrower sense to denote that action of one body on another which serves to reveal its nature.

relation at all to the smallness of the shock which led to In this we have the difference between the conversion. In the fertilization of the ovum by the male sperm the chemical conjunction of the two formative principles is sufficient to cause the growth of a new human being out of the microscopic plasma-globule. the flame causes an explosion. reactions a very slight shock suffices to provoke the largest effects in the stimulated substance. This shock. the In these and thousands of other stem-cell (cytula). but merely the occasion for In these cases we have always a bringing it about. In these cases physical science is often able to reduce the life-process to the laws of inorganic nature. and chemical action. such as light. and there is no stimulus. sound. of powder. is not the direct cause of the considerable result. vast accumulation of virtual energy converted into living The magnitude of the two forces has no force or work. pressure of the finger on the tense cord suffices to send out So also a sound the arrow or bolt on its deadly mission.THE WONDERS OF LIFE energy the term we give to the effect of the stimulus is also used in If we put a piece of burning wood in a barrel physics. or a ray of light that strikes the ear or eye suffices to bring about a number of complex effects by means of the nervous system. This is more difficult with the internal stimuli within the organism itself. stimulated action and the simple mechanical action of two bodies on each other. which are only partly 294 . The immediate effect of a stimulus on living matter can best be followed in external physical or chemical stimuli. electricity. In the case of dynamite a simple mechanical shock is enough to pro- The important idea of a release of — — duce the most enormous expenditure of force in the ex- When we discharge a bow the slight plosive matter. in which the quantity of the energy expended is equal on both sides. which we call a release of energy. heat. pressure.

In man and all the higher animals the stimuli are received by the organs of sense and conducted by their nerves to the central organ. especially by Fechner. the able founder of psycho-physics {cf. much is. Yet. or conveyed to the motor region. and particularly the mental activity of the brain. as the phenomena are too complicated. as the outer stimula- and are equally subject to in fact. 35) 295 . ascribe sensation to the constituent atoms of matter. and their conditions too little known in detail. But it can only discharge a part of this difficult task. where they provoke movements. The conduction of stimuli is simpler in the lower animals and the plants. depend just as tions on physical processes. In the brain they are either converted into specific sensations in the sense-centres. therefore. and thus that sensitiveness is really a fundamental property of all matter. true of reason the law of substance. p. all substance. comparative and phylogenetic physiology convinces us that even the most complicated of our internal excitations. has lately been very definitely urged. In the unicellular protists the stimulus which strikes one particular spot of the surface may be immediately communicated to the other parts of the unified plasmic body. the Riddle. We shall see in the course of our inquiry that the simplest form of sensation (in the widest sense) is common to inorganic and organic bodies. expressed long ago by Empedocles. or. We may. However. more correctly. in spite of all this. It is true that here also the task of science is to reduce all the biological phenomena to physical and chemical laws. This and consciousness.SENSATION exposed to physiological investigation. to say nothing of the crudeness and imperfectness of our methods of research. the tissue-cells either directly affect each other or are connected by fine threads of plasm. This fundamental thought of hvlozoism.

and feeling to the internal Hence we may define the difference (subjective) part. disinclination). psychic function. in the Spinozistic sense) always accompanies this universal property of In my opinion. the positive or negative action of the stimulus In this last and widest sense we (pleasure or pain). and bound up with the centralization of the nervous system. and employed in very different ways in both physiology and psychology. whereas in the case of sensation they have to admit the connection with bodily functions. analysis of hating atoms. may ascribe the feeling of pleasure and pain (in the contact with qualitatively differing atoms) to all atoms. finds expression in the one-sided action of a stimulus as a "directed movement" or "stimulated movement" {tropismus or taxis).THE WONDERS OF LIFE assumes that consciousness (or thought. in a general way by saying that sensation perceives the different qualities of the stimuli. Our monistic system (whether it be taken as energism or materialism. regard feeling as a purely psychic or spiritual function. The familiar ideas of sensation and feeling are often confused. or more correctly as hylozoism) regards all substance as having "soul" that is to say. and feeling only the quantity. especially sense-action. only found in man and the higher animals. In my opinion. consciousness is a secondary sensation. It . The metaphysical tendency which so completely separates the two sciences. and so explain the elective affinity in chemistry (syn- thesis of loving atoms. Hence it is better to speak of the unconscious sensation of the atoms as feeling (cDstJtesis) and their unconscious will as inclination {tropesis). and the physiological tendency which agrees with it. inclination. or only in the sense that sensation relates more to the external (objective) part of the sensory nerve-process. the two ideas are purely physiological and cannot be sharply separated. endowed — 296 .

various kinds of sensation which correspond to the various kinds of stimuli. and is provoked by the same stimuli.in the living matter occurs in the same way. the sensation of light that results.SENSATION with energy. we must demand a recognition that organic life is subject to the same In both cases the general laws as inorganic nature. oldest. In this we have the best means of joining consistent materialism or realism with consistent spiritualism or idealism. — — organic and inorganic bodies. outer world acts alike as a stimulus on the inner world We can easily see this if we glance at the of the body.. external and internal chemical stimuli. and this plasmodomism 297 is directly de- . and chief source of organic life. But. which regards one part of matter as "dead" and insensitive. In the chemical analysis of organisms we do not find any elements that are not found in inorganic nature. and the chemical changes of energy that follow. as a first condition of such a union. are of great might physiological importance in all organisms. pressure and electricity." It is just in this dynamic conception of substance that monism differs essentially from the materialistic system. all other exertions of force depend in the We long run on the radiant energy of sunlight. even say that sunlight is the first. Light and heat. as in inorganic matter. The one which oldest and most important function of plasm is carbonis at the same time a cause of its formation — — assimilation . All bodies are in a certain sense "sensitive.stimulus has on living matter. cause analogous sensations and modifications in their effect on . we find that the movements in organisms obey the same laws of mechanics as the latter we believe that the conversion of energ}. We are forced to conclude from these experiences that the perception of stimuli sensation in the objective and feeling in the subjective sense is also generally present in the two. The effect which the light .

it causes the particular form of stimulation which we This is of a positive call phototaxis or heliotropism. If it acts in a one-sided way. — eye has "wonder of life" —the long scale of the evolution of the — — 298 . deep-sea animals. many organisms which have grown accustomed to living in the dark are heliotropically negative. both of the light Everybody knows that flowers protists and histona. The essential difference between the real eye and a part of the skin that is merely sensitive to light is that the eye can form a picture of objects in the outer world. they shun the light and seek darkness. and many light. that are growing in the window of a room turn to the — — However. a bi-convex refracting body at a certain spot on the surface. character that is to say. we can see how an entirely new function and one of its principal functions. This faculty of vision begins with the formation of a small convergent lens. In other words. — an interesting bearing on many important of general physiology and phylogeny. such as the fungi. The principal organs of light-sensation in the higher animals are the eyes. many lucifugous mosses and ferns. Dark pigment-cells which surround it absorb of the the light-rays. they turn towards the source in the great majority of organisms. without any preconceived design or plan. see clearly how a very complicated and purposive apparatus can arise in a purely mechanical way. From this first phylogenetic form organ of vision up to the elaborate human eye there is a long scale of evolutionary stages not less extensive and remarkable than the historical succession of artificial optical instruments from the simple lens to the comThis great plicated modem telescope or microscope. they are wanting in many of the lower animals as well as the plants.THE WONDERS OF LIFE pendent on sunlight. vision has arisen in the organism by mechanical means. questions in this case. We can.

as the eye for the multifarious vital activities of sary the higher animals. the very lowest and Various species of oldest of the protists. has both the chromacea and the bacteria are heliotropic to different degrees. In these cases the photic stimulus produces partly chemical and partly mechanical changes. and have a direct knowledge through the eye of the forms and colors of the outer world ? Yet this invaluable structure is only the highest and most perfect stage in the long chain of evolutionary processes which its starting-point in the general sensitiveness to light. and have a fine sensitiveness to the strength of the light stimulus. we find a number of varieties and grades of this even among the unicellular protists." the painter of his "sensitive colors. and so have to be kept in the dark. after the brain. with a correin the sponding complexity of detail anatomic structure No other organ. the monera. In metaphysics sensation is held to be an essential property of the soul. The stimulating effect which light has on the homogeneous plasm of the monera is also found in a number of inorganic bodies. or the photic irritability of plasm. and." Many chemical compounds are so sensitive to light that they are destroyed at once in sunlight. indeed. What would the human mind be if we could not read. and especially for the mental life of civilized man and the progress of art and science. There is no other word but "sensation" to express the attitude of the atoms towards each other which becomes so conspicuous in these cases under the influence of sunlight. is so necesof the eye. It seems to me that this phenomenon is a clear justification of our hylozoic monism when it affirms that all matter is psychic.SENSATION of a great The advanced vision of the higher animals is made up number of different functions. However. the photographer speaks of his "sensitive plates. 299 . Every chemist speaks of substances that are more or less "sensitive" to light. and draw. write.

where the climate is very hot in the short summer and very cold in the long Thus the living winter. Many plants and animals in the tropics which have been accustomed for thousands of years to the constancy of the hot equatorial climate can endure only very restricted variations of temperature. coolness. Some protists (monera and diatomes) can stand a temperature of 200° C. This temperature must always be between the freezing-point and boiling-point of water. and causes the sensations. many of the inhabitants of Central Siberia. Arctic and High-Alpine plants and animals may be in a frozen condition for several months. warmth. but only for a short time. In the great majority of living things the vital activity is confined within narrow limits of temperature. yet live again when they are thawed. which we call the acts The sense-organ that temperature in subjective feeling of heat. On the other hand. for several days. At the same time. bacteria) can endure very high and very low temperatures. can stand great variations. some of the lower protists (chromacea. However. and the skin (epidermis) that protects the surface from the outer world in the histona. as fluid water is indispensable for the imbibition of the living matter and the molecular movements within the plasm. 300 . in the stationary animals and plants the temperature of the ground to which they are attached. In all living things the temperature of the surrounding medium (water or air) has a great influence in regulating body it is the life-processes. receives these impressions of is the surface of the unicellular plasmic the protists. the resistance to these extremes of cold lasts for only a limited time. and in the frozen state all vital functions are at a standstill. or cold. and others can be heated above boiling-point without being killed. sometimes pleasant and sometimes unpleasant.THE WONDERS OF LIFE In the same general way as light the heat-stimulus on organisms.

a degree of warmth which is most favorable to the solution of a given quantity of a On the whole. an optimum.sided action of the heat . like the light-stimulus. the law holds for solid body in water. As the various chemical compounds meet in water at very different temperatures. while lower ones paralyze it. mum thermotropism that is to say. the effect that follows from a one . The organism that falls below the minimum of temperature with cold. chemical compounds on each other is determined by the nature of the elements and their affinities. we have an optimum for many substances that is to say. the simple inorganic processes have a general resemblance to the complicated vital phenomena in the organic body. but the optiof (most agreeable point).SENSATION plasm has experienced considerable changes in its sense warmth through adaptation to different environments. There is a minimum. freezing is the minimum of the heat stimulus and boiling the maximum. we must — trace the variations in their conduct towards thermic stimuli to a sensation of temperature in the constituent atoms. again. both cases that higher temperatures increase sensation. and a maximum. for many chemical and is — said to be stiff above the maximum physical processes in the inorganic world. increase of temperature stimulates it. The heat-stimulus acts on inorganic as well as organic The law holds good in bodies. As far as the melting effect of water is concerned. while decrease lessens or paralyzes it. not only the maximum and the minimum. Here. is subject to very great This can easily be observed and followed experimentally in the phenomena of thermotaxis or variations. 301 . while the organism that rises is stiff with heat. the former have a stimulating and the latAs the action of the various ter a benumbing effect.stimulus. chemical processes that they are accelerated by high temperatures and retarded by low ones (like the human passions!).

sense-organs have been developed for these chemical As these are well known to us from our own stimuli. The numbers of different stimuli that act chemically on the plasm and excite its "sensation of matter" may be divided into two groups external and internal stimuli. from the simplest moneron up to the Since we regard most highly differentiated cell and on to the flower in the plant and the mental life of man. which they experience in the contact of other atoms (the "loves and hatreds of the elements" of Empedocles). "sensation of matter" or chemaesthesis the basis of it is the mutual relation of the chemical elements which we describe as chemical In this affinity we have the play of attractive affinity.THE WONDERS OF LIFE the whole of organic life as. In general the same law holds for these external chemical stimuli as for optical and thermic stimuli. selves. especially in the peculiar properties of their constituent atoms. merely a very elaborate chemical that chemical stimuli are process. and are felt as taste. sex- — In the higher animals special chemical impulse. and cause the internal "organic sensations". we will deal first with them. we can recognize a maximum limit of 302 . which are set in play by external or internal chemical stimuli. forces which lie in the nature of the elements them. an inherent feeling of pleasure and the reverse. in the ultimate analysis. human experience. the former are in the outer world. The excitation which they produce is called. The latter lie within the organism itself. the vital processes are dominated by chemical forces and conversions of energy. smell. etc. and this cannot be explained unless we ascribe unconscious sensation (in the widest sense) to the atoms. in a general way. and comparative physiology shows us the same structures in the higher animals. in point of fact. we shall quite expect And this is so the most important factors in sensation.

drinks and fluid or loose particles of food. no trace of this is found of the lower animals. covered with spindle-shaped "taste-cells. mouth are the gustatory papillae cup-shaped structures. The excitement that we see associated with this refined combination of rich foods and drinks. the superior and seat of the sense of smell In man and middle meatus). It is necessary for a sensation of smell 3^^ ." and having a narrow opening into the cavity of the mouth. has its philosophic root in the harmony of gustatory sensations and the varying play of stimuli that the delicate dishes and wines exercise on the organs of taste. and an optimum or stage in which their influence is strongest. in many the higher air-breathing vertebrates the is in the nostrils. their The important part played in human life by taste and the pleasure associated with it is well known. in these cases it is to lay down a line of demarcation between impossible taste and smell. The careful choice and preparation of savory food which has become an art in gastronomy and a branch of practical philosophy in gastrosophy was just as important two thousand years ago with the Greeks and Romans as it is to-day in royal banquets or the Lucullic dinners of millionaires.SENSATION action. touch the taste-cells. we may confidently assume that they have sensa- — — — tions of taste like man. a minimum below which they fail to stimulate. they excite the fine terminal branchlets of the gustatory nerve which enters the cells. in man it is especially that part of the mucous lining of the nasal cavity which we call the "olfactory region" (the uppermost part of the nasal dividing wall. However. the tongue and The microscopic organs of these parts of the palate. When sapid matters. and that finds expression in so many speeches and toasts. As we find that there are similar structures in most of the higher animals. and that they also choose their food with some care.

and even ungulates. When they touch the olfactory cells slender. But the acid fluid which serves for 304 . and the muscles in it are much stronger. It is well known that dogs and other carnivora. and have a common feature in the direct chemical action of the stimulus on the sensitive part of the skin.THE WONDERS OF LIFE that the odorous matter. be brought in a finely divided condition over the moist olfactory membranes. In these cases the nasal cavity. The nostrils of the air-breathing vertebrates have been developed from a pair of open nasal depressions in the skin of the head. A chemical sensation of matter that corresponds completely to the real taste-sensation in the higher animals is found in some of the higher carnivorous The leaves of the sun-dew (drosera rotundifolia) plants. The odorous matter is. have a much keener smell. the condition it is not perceptible to man). which is the seat of the sense. flesh-digesting juice. In many animals. the sense of smell has a much more important part in life than it has — — in man. division between the senses of smell and taste disappears These two "chemical altogether in the lower animals. not a raindrop) touches the surface of the leaf the stimulus acts in such a way on the tentacle heads as to contract the leaf. sticky hairs that secrete fish's an When a solid body (but acid. in these cases. especially mammals. like the sensation of taste. in whom it is relatively feeble. is much larger. rod-shaped cells with very fine hairs at the free end they excite the ends of the olfactory nerve which are connected with the cells. and are armed at the edge with knob-like tentacles. But in these aquatic vertebrates the chemical action of the olfactory stimuli must be of a different character. or olfactory stimuH. brought into contact with the olfactory membrane in a liquid form (in which In fact. senses" are closely related. are very sensitive insect-traps.

in the human blood have a special "taste" for these bacteria-poisons. diatomes. is In the broader sense. Max Verworn. and others. stimuli In unicellular plants and animals the action of chemical is especially conspicuous when it is one-sided. by means of their amoeboid movements. to which they digestion. Repeated experiments of Wilhelm Engelmann. Many pathogenetic bacteria secrete poisonous substances which are very injurious to the human frame. The movements of unicellular organisms that are provoked by chemical stimuli and are known as chemotropism (more recently as chcmotaxis) are particularly interesting because they show the existence of a chemical sensitiveness. somewhat resembling taste or smell. and in this way they act as sanitary officers in keeping poisonous infection out of our organism. have a similar sense of taste. they move towards certain acids (for instance. If the leucocytes prove the stronger in their struggle with the bacteria. are indifferent. and even in the homogeneous plasm of the monera. leucocytes. infusoria. rhizopods. and other protists. they destroy them. The active white blood-cells. in the lowest organisms. definite and provokes movements in one particular direction (chcmotaxis). in fact.SENSATION and corresponds to the gastric juice in the only secreted by the corpuscles if the solid Hence foreign body is nitrogenous (flesh or cheese). and distinguish it from other solids. they plunge into the richer parts of the earth which yield more nourishment. and avoid the poor parts. at those parts of the body where they are secreted. ao 305 But if the . a drop of malic acid) or a bubble of oxygen that lies on one side of the drop of water in which the protists are under the microscope. we may describe the points of the roots of plants as organs of taste. and concentrate in large quantities. animal. the leaves of these insectivorous plants taste their meat diet. have shown that many bacteria.

Conception depends on exactly the same erotic chemotropism in the fertilization of all the higher disposition for union. are 306 .THE WONDERS OF LIFE win the battle. The remarkable phenomena of impregnation. This has been proved by the splendid experiments of Pfeffer. and swims towards the large immobile ovum in order to blend with it. Erotic chemotropism must be regarded as a general sense-function of the sexual cells in all amphigonous organisms. and xxix. they are transported into other parts of the body by the leucocytes. and which I described as the phylogenetic source of sexual love (see the Anthropogeny. The sensation that impels it is of a chemical nature. and swim larger female macrogameta about in order to effect a union. just in the same way as by the exhalation from the female ovum. have a particularly interesting and important species of chemical irritation in the mutual attraction of the two sex-cells. come together under this This sexual affinity is found at the lowest With stages of plant life. and those of the mosses by cane-sugar. these both cells the smaller male microgameta and the are often mobile. chapters vii. but in the higher organisms special forms of the sex -sense. alHed to taste and smell.). the most important of all the processes of sexual generation. In the higher plants and animals only the small male cell is mobile as a rule. in the protophyta and algae. and may cause a deadly bacteria infection. consist in the coalescence of the female ovum and the male sperm-cell. they — — organisms. to which I gave the name of chemotropism thirty years ago. they distinguish their plasm by taste. This could not take place if the two cells had not a sensation of their respective chemical constitution and earliest We impulse. connected with specific organs. who showed that the male ciliated cells of ferns are attracted by malic acid.

But while it offers a shameand repulsive spectacle in many of the apes. stroking. may co-operate as a secondary organ of the sex-sense. has given us an admirable selection from this infinitely rich and attractive realm in his famous Lijc of Love in Nature (1903). and passions.SENSATION developed as the source of sexual love they play a most important part in the life of many of the histona. It is well known that this sexual sense as we have it in man has been developed from the nearest . at once the greatest lyric poet and kissing. and so are the tactile hairs about the mouth. By "organic sensations" modem physiology. However. yet supersensual. instincts. The pubic hairs which clothe the JUGus Veneris are also delicate organs of the sex-sense.. mammals. develop entirely from the ectoderm. the apes. as is seen in the effect of caressing. a large part of the rest of the skin developed. it has been greatly ennobled and refined in man in the development of civilization. the epideniiic cells. which are the seat of related less intensely pleasurable feelings (see the Anthropogciiy. the sexual sense-organs and their specific energy have remained the same.under- stands the perception of certain internal bodily states. In these cases the correlation between the sensitive forms of energy in the copulative organs and the psychic functions of the central nervous system has been remarkably Moreover. embracing. basis of sexual love. subtlest and profoundest monistic philosopher of the Germanv. In man and most of the higher animals these feelings of love are associated with the highest features of psychic life. and have led to the formation of some most remarkWilhelm Bolsche able customs. In the vertebrates and the articulates and many other metazoa the copulative organs are equipped with special cell-forms (voluptuous particles). Ontogeny teaches unmistakably that its elementary organs. 307 . chapter xxix. Goethe. has given unrivalled expression to this sensual. plate 30). etc.

and so on. Among negative common feelings we have not only hunger and thirst. the interaction of love (attraction) and hate This attraction or repulsion is." animals. of course. etc. good humor. mental rest. the These organic sensanegative.THE WONDERS OF LIFE which are mostly brought about by chemical stimuli (to a small extent by mechanical and other irritation) in the — As subjective feelings of the orthese states are most aptly called "feelings" the positive states. delight. pain. unconscious. The great the origin of Empedocles (fifth century b. organs themselves. the disposal of the limbs (in crossing the legs). bad humor. while the (involun" tary) movement it provokes may be called "inclination {tropesis). and explain their combination as due to a feeling of pleasure and their separation to a feeling of displeasure. To the positive organic sensations belong not only the bodily feeling of satiety. it is nothing less than the basis of chemical affinity. etc. but merely the perception of certain internal conditions. comfort. bodily pain. etc. which involve neither pleasure nor pain.c. but also the psychic feelings of joy. such as muscular strain (in lifting heavy objects). repose. No chemical process can be thoroughly understood unless we attribute a mutual sensation to the atoms. discomfort.. (repulsion). Between the two groups we have the third category of neutral organic sensations.) explained all things long ago by the various combination of pure elements. it may be called "feeling" (cssthesis). sea-sickness. vertigo. Chemical sensation is just as general and important in In this case organic nature as in the life of organisms. bodily fatigue. or comfort. just as in the instincts of plants and If one prefers to avoid the term "sensation. ganism itself common sensations or feelings) are of for the self-regulation of the complicatgreat importance tions (also called ed organism. pleasure. but also mental strain. and so on. and the capacity for the latter "tropism" 308 .

and an effort to neutralize it. Sensi- tiveness to pressure or the contact of solid bodies is found throughout the organic world. two totally different elements. they are most numerous at the finger-tips and other In many of the higher particularly sensitive parts. How would this simple synthesis be possible unless the two elements feel each other. chapter xii. move towards each other. especially the climbing plants (vines. We from the simplest case of chemical combination. animals there is a fine sense of touch in the feelers or tentacles. According to this fundamental and allruling law.SENSATION (more recently taxis. these tactile and prehensile organs are also very widely found among the higher plants. and then unite ? may illustrate it in nature the sensation the mechanical stimulus of gravitation. or (in the higher articulates) in the horns or antennae.). When we rub together sulphur and mercury. cinnabar. which roll out spirally. of the Riddle). any two particles of matter are attracted in direct proportion to their mass and inverse proportion to the square of their distance. Moreover. have a 309 . bryony. the most comprehensive statement of wdiich is given in Newton's We find universally distributed of law of gravity. can be traced to a "sensation of matter" in the mutually attracting atoms. cf. the pressure-movement {harotaxis or barotropism). Their slender creepers. A stimulus that causes this pressure alone brings about a counter-pressure as a reaction. etc. the atoms of the finely divided matter combine and form a third and different chemical body. This form of attraction. Special sense-organs have been developed in the skin of the higher animals as the instruments of this pressuresense (baraesthesis) in the form of tactile corpuscles. it can be proved experimentally among the protists as well as the histona. also. The local sensation that any body provokes by contact with the surface of an organism is felt as pressure (baros).

The attraction towards the centre of the earth causes the positively geotropic roots to grow vertically into the earth. gravitation. swimming. such as polyps. special organs of touch (tentacles). We have an interesting analogy to the thigmotaxis of the viscous living plasm in the elasticity of solid inorIn virtue of ganic bodies. This applies also to a number of stationary animals which are attached to the A ground by roots. mimosa. as in running. in the mycetozoa. etc. corals. its springy nature. etc. the position and posture of their limbs. bryozoa. pressure-sensation is produced in many organisms by the flow of liquids. And even the locomotion of free animals. dionasa. rheotropismus) as Ernst Strahl showed by his experiments on cBthelium . oxalis). it provokes counter-movements {rheotaxis. is determined partly by the feeling of and partly by adaptation to certain functions which resist this. very important part is played in botany by the action of gravitation on the growth of plants. The spiral spring sets the works of the clock in motion in virtue of its elasticity. which are particularly sensitive to pressure. 310 . thick and thin supports. to an extent. and prefer the latter. for instance. they distinguish between smooth and rough. and reveal this by the movements of their leaves (the sensitive plants. and endeavors to regain its former position. septicum. the perception of which provokes corresponding movements A peculiar form of {thigmotaxis or thigmotropismiis). such as an elastic steel-rod.THE WONDERS OF LIFE very delicate feeling for the nature of the supports which they embrace. and so on. the disposition of their bodies to the ground. Many of the higher plants. while the negatively geotropic stalk pushes out in the opposite direction. the elastic rod reacts on the pressure of force that has bent it.. But even among the unicellular protists we find that the contact of solid bodies has an irritating effect. have.

the above-mentioned "auditory vesicles" in the lower animals do not have The specific sensaacoustic as well as static sensations. freeif. and the same may be said of the so-called "auditory If vesicles" of many of the lower animals — round vesicles which contain a liquid and a solid body. we find a distinct sense of space developed in the higher. or delicate terminations of the auscultory In fact. the otolith. they are felt as "noises". for the normal posture of the body and the feeling of equilibrium. or to vibrations of solid bodies (such as tuning-forks) into touch with them. the three spiral canals in the inner ear are developed as special organs of this. The feeling of the three dimensions of space becomes an important means of orientation. These three semicircular canals. in relation to this. the three spiral canals are destroyed. which lie to each other in the three dimensions of space. it presses on the fine auditory hairs. these organs are not of an acoustic. restricted to a section of the higher. and. and in the vertebrates. which are brought the vibrations are irregular. free-moving animals. which enters the vesicle. as the fall of a stone or any other effect of gravitation that depends on an inorganic feeling of attraction. vertically are the organs of the sensation that guides the move- ments of the head. if regular. the sense of nerve. they are heard as If . equilibrium The perception of noises and tones. When this body changes its position with the change of posture of the whole frame. As a result of these adaptations. Hence. from the fishes up to man. that is to say. the equilibrium the body totters and falls. which we call hearing. is moving animals. is lost.SENSATION of barotactile All these geotropic sensations belong to the same group phenomena. is often combined with the sense of hearing. tion of hearing is due to vibration of the medium in which the animal lives (air or water). but a static or geotactic character.

or gravitation. It is probably otherwise with many of the lower animals. the luminous sea-animals which cause the beautiful phenomenon of the illumination of the sea. with the head directed to the anode and the tail to the cathode (Hermann). and as the refined musical hearing is often taken to be a metaphysical power of the soul. from which it has been evolved. one of the principal instruments of the higher mental of civilized man life.THE WONDERS OF LIFE "tones" or notes. Again. when. when a number of tones together (fundamental and over-tones) excite a complex sensaof the sounding tion. has only lately been Electric changes are connected with fully appreciated. The be traced specific sensation of hearing can. originally to the sense of pressure. both organic and inorganic. place themselves when it is closed with their longitudinal axis in the direction of the current. which represent body the terminal extensions of the auscultory nerve. and the glow-worms and other luminous organisms. like the eye. if put in a vessel of water through which a galvanic current is sent." The vibrations are borne to the auditory cells. such as the electric fishes. animals have no electric organs (apart from the eye). we have "timbre. for instance. it is important to note that here again the starting-point was purely physical that is to say. with all) chemical and himself and most of the higher optical processes. as is now Man 312 . and no sense-organs that experience a specific electric sensation. and embryos of fishes. Many plants show a direct reaction to electric stimuli. we send a constant galvanic current for some time through the points many (if not. have probably an unconscious feeling of the flow of electric energy associated with these phenomena. especially those that develop free elecThe larvas of frogs tricity. supposed. The great importance of electricity as an agency in nature. therefore. As the organ of hearing is. it can be traced to — the sense of pressure of matter.

in which swarms of polytoma are moving about. is very interesting. in which they are mixed together. the ciUata fly to the cathode and the When the current is reversed flagellata to the anode. and gather at the opThese and other phenomena of galvanic posite poles. they compared by bend towards the cathode. the whole swarm at once make in the opposite direction for the new cathode. as soon as a constant stream enters it. with the anterior pole of the body foremost. If the direction of the current is now changed. they are anodically sensitive or positively galvanotactic. are cathodically When we send a constant electric current through a drop of water in of paramoociiDii are moving about. In a which thousands drop of water. Most of the flagellate infusoria do just the reverse. SCALE OF SENSATION AND IRRITABILITY ist Stage: Sensation of Atoms. towards the cathode or negative pole. all the infusoria swim at once. . the two swarms rush at each other like hostile armies. as Max Verworn especially proved by a series of beautiful experiments.SENSATION of their roots (very sensitive organs. The opposite galvanotropic behavior of these two groups of infusoria in a drop of water. they accumulate about it in great crowds. Most of the ciliated infusoria Many and many of the rhizopods (aDurba) sensitive or negatively galvanotactic. cross in the middle of the drop. when an electric current is sent through. Atlinity of the elements in every chemical combination. Darwin to the brain of the animal). sensation show clearly that the living plasm is subject to the same physical laws as the water that is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen by an electric current. all the cells swim at once towards the anode or positive pole. of the protists are very sensitive to electric currents. Both elements feci the opposite electricities.

9th Stage: Sensation of the Higher Metazoa. 8th Stage: differentiated nerves or sense-organs. Sensation of the Lower Metazoa. and mammals: savages. The higher articulata (spiders and insects) and vertebrates (amphibia. (micella. lower reptiles. etc.. are developed at certain points: senseorgans. 6th Stage: Sensation of the Lower Plants. without Lower ccelenteria: sponges. lower mammals) . 5th Stage: Sensation of Ccenobia (volvox. metaphyta specially sensitive cells. but still without The higher ccelenteria and most of the consciousness(?). birds. nth Stage: Sensation with Consciousness and Thought: amniotes: higher reptiles. platodaria. biogens. 12th Stage: Sensation with Productive Mental Action in Art and Science: civilized men. loth Stage: Sensation with Dawning Consciousness. with independent formation of the phronema. the community). In the higher 7th Stage: Sensation of the Higher Plants. with a specific energy. polyps. magosphaera) With the formation of cell-communities we have association of sensations (individual feeling on the part of the social cells together with common feeling on the part of .THE WONDERS OF LIFE 2d Stage: Sensation of Molecules (groups of atoms) in the attraction and repulsion of molecules (positive and nega: tive electricity. 4th Stage: Sensation of Cells: irritability of the unicellular protists (protophyta and protozoa) erotic chemotropism 3d Stage: Sensation of Plastidules plasma-molecules) : : connected with the nucleus and trophic with the cell-body. coelomaria.). or groups of cells. or in the simplest vital process of the monera (chromacea and bacteria). with differentiated nerves and sense-organs. \ . In the metaphyta or tissue-plants all the cells are still equally sensitive at the lower stages: there are no special sense-organs.

" is not only the chief source of all the higher enjoyment of life for ourselves. we mean by mind that part of the life of the soul which is connected with consciousness and thought. to which we give the name of "mind. but it is also the power that most effectually separates man from the brute according to conventional beliefs. only found in the higher animals which have intelligence and reason. and its relation to the body.XIV MENTAL LIFE Mind and — Intelligence and reason — Pure reason — Kant's —Anthropology— Anthropogeny — Embryology of the mind — Mind of the embryo — The canonical mind — Legal rights of the embryo— Phylogeny of the mind — — Paleontology of the mind Psyche and phronema — Mental energy — Diseases of the mind — Mental powers — — Monistic and Conscious and unconscious mental dualistic theory — Mental of the mammals. At the very outset of our psychological inquiry we are met by the difficulty of giving a clear definition of "mind." and distinguishing it from "soul. its origin and development." Both ideas are extremely ambiguous: their content and connotation are described in the most various ways by the representatives of science. soul dualism life life and of civilized and educated people. and most commanding of all the unquestionably the mind of man. therefore. and is. 315 . Hence it is wonders THE greatest of life is supremely important for our biological philosophy to devote a few careful pages to the study of its nature. That function of the human organism. Generally speaking. of savages.

found in the higher animals. cats. and as the essential prerogative of man In this sense Kant especially has in the animal world. However. converted philosophy into a mere "science of reason. the intelligence comprises the narrower circle of concrete and more proximate associations. and the formation of concepts to be the province of reason. or between the latter and reason. the differently towards the two. but they have a general idea of man or cat. which collects the number of different presentations. Psychologists and metaphysicians are of very varied opinions as to the difference between intelligence and of this great Schopenhauer. etc. of forming concepts is still so slight in uncivilized races that horses. and behave very also power On the other hand. by his Critique of Pure Reason. reason. 316 . it rises but little above the mind of dogs.THE WONDERS OF LIFE In a narrower sense reason is regarded as the proper function of mind. the power common is features in a of abstraction. for instance. done much to strengthen the prevailing conception of mental action. a long scale of reason unites the various stages of association of presentations which lead up to the formation of concepts. the mental interval between them and civilized man is extremely wide. in his opinion the latter power alone marks off man from the brute. considers causality to be the sole function of intelligence. and has." In consequence of this conception. which still prevails widely in scientific circles. However. only according as they are sympathetic or the reverse. while reason deals with the wider sphere of abstract and more etc. Intelligent dogs not discriminate between individual men. it is quite impossible to lay down a strict line of demarcation between the lower and higher mental functions of Hence the animals. and try to form a clear idea wonder of life.. we will first study the mental life in the action of reason. distinction between the two cerebral functions is only relative..

Kant himself has He says expressly in frequently recognized the point. the intelligence is always occupied with empirical investigation. it has been much discussed. Those principles of reason which at present seem to be a priori in this sense have been attained in virtue In so far as this is a quesof thousands of experiences.. tion of real knowledge of the truth. 204): "A knowledge of things by pure reason or pure intelligence is nothing but an empty appearance." free from all dogma — all fictions of faith. undergone considerable changes of meaning in the course of time.MENTAL LIFE comprehensive groups of association. independent of all experience." has become so general in Germany that not familiar cry of all only nearly metaphysicians the oihcial representabut also tives of "philosophy" at our universities — — 317 . The to modern metaphysicians. In the scientific hfe of the mind. we may on our side understand by pure reason "knowledge without prejudices. p. and depend on the equally normal anatomic and chemical condition of this organ of thought. especially in the modern metaphysical theory of knowledge. therefore. only in experience is there truth." In of subscribing to this empirical theory of Kant I. "Return Kant. Since Kant won so great a prominence in modern philosophy for the idea of pure reason by his famous Critique (1781). Kant himself at first understood by pure reason "reason independent of all experience. however. like all other ideas. his Prolegomena to any future metaphysic that can be regarded as Science (1783. has shown that there is no such thing as this pure a priori knowledge. It has." But impartial modern psychology based on the physiology of the brain and the phylogeny of its functions. and rejecting the transcendental knowledge theory of Kant II. and reason with But the two faculties are speculative knowledge. functions of the phronema.

It overlooked the fact that Kant had utterly failed to find proofs of Even these dogmas in his Critique of Pure Reason. regard Kant's dualistic theory of knowledge as a necessary condition for the attainment of truth. His authority became especially powerful when the prevailing Christian faith believed that his "practical reason" fully supported its own three fundamental dogmas the personality of God. It is clear that " 318 . though Kant's antinomy of the two reasons has now been refuted so often and so thoroughly that we need not dwell any further on this point. It is remarkable that he did not arrive at a phylogenetic conception of the human mind. man remained to him as he had been to Plato and Aristotle. which have provided the solid morphological basis of monistic anthropology. made up of a physical body and a transcendental — — mind or spirit. they were He had. ment of their importance. therefore. forced to this dualistic philosophy. Comparative anatomy and evolution. a presentiquite unknown to Kant. Although the great Konigsberg philosopher brought every side of human life within his comprehensive sphere of study.THE WONDERS OF LIFE distinguished scientists. on Kant also gave lectures Pragmatic Anthropology. Christ and Descartes a dual being. did not come into existence until the beginning of the nineteenth century. and the freedom of the will. conservative governments found favorable features in many — We are. return once more to this mischievous system." and studied the psychology of races and peoples. find in various places expressions which may be described We as anticipations of Darwinism. the immortality of the soul. Kant dominated philosophy in the nineteenth century much as Aristotle did in the Middle Ages. and a recognition of the possibility of its evolution from the mind of other vertebrates. however. as Fritz Schultze has shown in his interesting work on Kant and Darwin (1875).

and this dualistic error had a great influence on the whole structure of his It must be remembered. but a critical study of the facts then known should have sufficed to convince him of the lower and animal condition of their minds. who confined themselves almost did not to which employ the we owe the exclusively to the introspective method or the self-observation of their own mind. Comparative anatomy showed that our whole complicated frame resembles that of the other mammals. Kant and his followers. he would hardly have persisted in his erroneous idea that reason. of course. and the dogma of the immortahty of the soul. and followed patiently the development of the child's soul (as Preyer did a century later). If Kant had had children. view a transcendental phenomenon. regarded as the model of the soul the highly developed and versatile mind of the philosopher. and in particular dualistic differs only by slight stages of growth. is a transcendental and supernatural wonder of life. the freedom of the will. The root of the error He chief scientific comparative and genetic methods achievements of the last half-century. that philosophy. The immense advance made by the science of man in the second half of the nineteenth century cut the ground from under the older anthropology and the human system of Kant. our knowledge of the psychology of peoples was then very imperfect. and the Reason remained in Kant's categorical imperative. with its power of attaining a priori knowledge. A number of newly founded branches of science co-operated in the work. Kant had no idea of the is that natural evolution of the mind.MENTAL LIFE he was held back from this by the profound mystic tendency of his theory of reason. and therefore in 319 . and disregarded altogether the lower stages of mental life which we find in the child and the savage. or a unique gift to man from Heaven.

and the conversions of energy which accompany its metabolism. same way in man as in the other primates. the reformed theory of descent (1859) enabled us to unite the chief results of the various branches of anthropological study. that man develops from a simple ovum just like the anthropoid ape. Comparative physiology taught us that all man's vital functions nutrition and reproduccan be traced to the tion. that it is almost impossible to distinguish between the ape and the human embryo even at a late stage of development. lemures. the real organ From comparative embryology we learned of mind. etc.). Prehistoric research and comparative ethnology have shown that civilized nations were preceded by older and lower races. movement and sensation same physical laws in man as in all the other verte- — — Above all. the comparative and experimental study of the sense-organs and the various parts of the brain showed that these organs of the m'nd work in the brates. and explain them phylogenetically by the development of man from other primates (anthropoid apes. Comparative animal chemistry explained that the chemical compounds which build up our organs. Modern paleontology taught that man is. cynocephali. and these by savages. By this means a new and monistic basis was provided for modern anthropology. more than a hundred thousand years old. resemble those in the other vertebrates.THE WONDERS OF LIFE the details of the organs. but only appeared on earth towards the close of the Tertiary Period. the position assigned to man in nature by dualistic metaphysics was shown to be utterly untenable. showed that this is also true of the brain. from that of the anthropoid The comparative histology of the brain especially apes. it is true. Finally. which have a close bodily and mental affinity to the apes. I have attempted in the last edition of my Anthropogeny (of which an English edition is in preparation) to combine all these 320 . in fact.

this took empirical material accumulated. which the theory logical the human body and put on a zoosternest It was. The majority of anthroplace only pologists regarded evolution. as an undemonstrated hypothesis. and avail themselves of its leading ideas. 1856) devoted himself chiefly to political and social questions. We might have expected these descriptive anthropologists and ethnologists to extend a friendly hand to the new anthropogeny. in order to bring unity and causal connection into the enormous mass of However. without having any clear aim or any This was chiefly the case in definite questions in view.MENTAL LIFE results of empirical natural evolution of bryology. where the Society of Anthropology and Prewas for thirty years under the lead This famous scientist had won of Rudolph Virchow. historic Research Germany. also regarded with great disapproval by many modern empirical anthropologists. was bound to meet with the resistance in dualistic and metaphysical circles. of descent has basis. But when he afterwards (subsefjuently to his removal to Berlin. he lost sight of the great advance made in other branches of biology. They confined themselves to accumulating huge masses of raw empirical material. Riddle how investigation in a sketch of the special regard to emI pointed out in chapters ii. to a limited extent. great honor in connection with the reform of medicine by his cellular pathology and a number of distinguished works on pathological anatomy and histology since the middle of the nineteenth century.-vi. especially those who take it to be their chief task to make as "exact" a study as possible of the human frame. The monistic conception mind. and especially the evolution of man. 21 He comi)letely failed to appreciate its . paying this phylogenetic anthropology of is. and measure and describe its various parts. however. of the important a part of our monistic philosophy man.

caused a wide-spread opposition to the doctrine This was supported especially by Johanof evolution. Baer. with which he struggled every year until his death (1903) against the descent of man from other vertebrates. of Munich. of which I have spoken in the sixth chapter of the Riddle.). nes Ranke. a comprehensive treatment of man's ancestral history. individually in each human being and The ontogeny of the phyletically in the whole race. and others). two mind the embryology of the human soul brings before us in direct observation the various stages of development through which the mind of every man passes from the beginning to the close of life. Happily. and the critical study of the various stages of mental life in savages and the higher vertebrates on the other. However. Like every other function of our organism. the secretary of the Anthropological Society. As I pointed out in the eighth and ninth chapters of the Riddle.THE WONDERS OF LIFE greatest achievement of evolution — the establishment of the science To this we must add the psychological metamorphosis (similar to that of Wundt. and the indefatigable zeal by Darwin. 322 . In this the biogenetic law is used with great success (chapter —or — — — . a change has recently set in. the most solid foundation of our monistic psychology is the fact that the human mind grows. The extraordinary authority of Virchow. xvi. our mental activity exhibits the phenomenon of development in directions. especially in — the light of embryology. Dubois-Reymond. The phylogeny of the mind or the ancestral history of the human soul does not afford us this direct observation it can only be deduced by a comparison and synthesis of the historical indications which are supplied by history and prehistoric research on the one hand. my Anthropogeiiy has remained for thirty years the only work of its kind namely.

the cortex in the new-bom child is not yet organized or capable of functioning. At the same time the child reaches the 323 . anatomically. or world-consciousness. chapter xi.). there is no more trace of mind in its psychic life than in the ovum and spermatozoon from which it was evolved. develops out of the There animal intelligence (or earlier instincts) of the child only with the consciousness of its personality as opposed to the outer world. the higher conscious function of the soul only develops. and therefore of the soul also (as a potential function of the plasm). between "soul" (psyche) and "spirit" {p>icnma). the thinking reason. from the monistic physiological point of view. long year) at the moment when the child speaks of itself. the new-born child shows as yet no trace of mind or reason or consciousness. The moment in which these sexual cells unite marks precisely the real commencement of individual existence. month. real This is the beginning of mental life. but as "L" sciousness comes also the antithesis of the individual to the outer world. when most of the organs of the human embryo are formed and arranged as they appear later. these functions are wanting in it as completely as in the embryo from which it has been developed during the Even in the ninth nine months in the mother's womb. slowly — — As Flechsig has shown after birth. not With this self -conin the third person.MENTAL LIFE As everybody knows. In defining the appearance of the individual mind by the awakening of self-consciousness. mind proper. is a soul even in the maternal ovum and the paternal spermatozoon (cf. we make it possible to distinguish. there is an individual soul in the stem-cell (cyttda) which arises at conBut the ception by the blending of the parent cells. But the mind proper or reason. Rational consciousness is even impossible for the child when it begins to speak. it reveals itself for the first time (after the first and gradually.

a curious tissue of old traditions and new It is fictions. over the sacred Corpus Juris Canonici. The dualistic ideas of the soul of the human embry^o which were taught by the Church in the Middle Ages are particularly interesting from the psychological point of view. The canonical regulations of the Church. since many of their moral consequences form an important element influential in canon This law. We might write the motto. which law has for a long time taken under its protection and made morally reThis shows how ersponsible to society by education. and at the same time they are of great practical importance even in our own day. and have passed from this into civil law. as implements of a crude spiritual despotism. canon law was formed under ecclesiastical from the decisions of Church councils and the authority It is. have no more to do with the ethical laws of pure reason than the can- nons of secular authorities have as naked organs of physical force. directed to the despotic ruling of the uneducated masses and the exclusive dominion of the Church a Church — that calls itself Christian while thus acting as the very reverse of pure Christianity. Ultima ratio ecclesicB (the last argument of the Church). and decrees which civilization owes to this powerful hierarchy. They involuntarily suggest the metal tubes which are so often the ultima ratio regis in the wars of Christian nations. A collection of later papal decretals which forms an appendix to the books 324 . political dogmas. The canon law takes its name from the dogmatic rules (or canons) of the Church.THE WONDERS OF LIFE higher stage of personality. roneous and untenable. are the ideas still embodied in our code as to the psychic life and the mind of the embryo and the newborn infant. like most of the dogmas decretals of the popes. from the physiological point of view. and crass superstition. They came mostly from the canon law of the Catholic Church.

of my AjitJiropogoiy. As theologians and metaphysicians are very much divided as to the period of this entrance of the soul. and know nothing about the structure of the embryo and its of of Extravagaiitcs. and xv. and the pointed tail sticks out at the lower part. eye. Although the cortex is not yet developed at this stage. If the state is of a so eager for the multiplication of its citizens in the general interest. and regards prolific reproduction as a "duty" of its members. each of these might be developed into a human being under favorable circumstances if it united with a male spermium after its release from the ovary. soul now we should expect consistently to extend this protection to the foetus in its earlier stages. The ovary them mature maid contains about 70. and plates 8-14). the rudimentary legacy from our long-tailed ape-ancestors. we will only recall the fact that the human cannot be distinguished from that of the anthropoid ape and other mammals even in the sixth week of its development. if not to the ovum itself. first embryo.000 ova. chapters xiv. development. It is said to was the sin. this is certainly a "sin of 325 . and ear vesicle) is discernible in the head the two pairs of limbs can be traced in the shape of four simple roundish unjointed plates. the embryo may be considered to have a "soul" {cf. The outline of the five cerebral vesicles and the three higher sense-organs (nose. foetus . and be a great merit of canon law that it to extend legal protection to the human punished abortion with death as a mortal But is as this mystical theory of the entrance of the scientifically untenable. The "immortal soul" is supposed to enter the soulless embryo only several weeks after conception.MENTAL LIFE canon law was very happily given the official title Among the "extravagant" nonsense which the papacy included in canon law as a moral code for believers is its view of the psychic life of the embryo.

we infer that there was a corresponding development in the phylogenetic series of our animal ancestors. the amniotes. On the strength of the ontogenetic facts. it overlooks the physiological fact that the ovum is a part of the mother's body over which she has full right of control. inference is found in comparative anatomy. the phronema in the cortex. In the lower craniota (fishes and amphibia) the cerebrum remains very small and simple." like any other vertebrate. it as yet it only appears after the first year. the cerebrum. as well as the new-born child. A significant confirmation of this omission. The biogenetic law applies just as much to the brain. that afterwards becomes the chemical laboratory of the mind. the organ of mind. which shows that the ontogeny of the brain is a condensed recapitulation of its phylogeny in virtue of the laws of heredity. This interesting fact is explained by the biogenetic law. when its organ. we find much more varied vesicles. This simple oval cerebral vesicle first divides into three and afterwards five successive vesicles by transverse constriction (Anthro- that in all — It shows — It is the first of these pogeny.THE WONDERS OF LIFE punishes abortion with several years' imprisonment. the skull-animals (craniota) from the fishes and amphibia up to the apes and man the brain is developed in the same way. As these land-dwelling and air-breathing craniota have more difficult work to do in the struggle for life than their lower aquatic ancestors. is quite unconscious. But while civil law thus takes its inspiration from canon law. as a vesicular distension of the ectodermal medullary tube. or is a purely "reflex maThere is no mind in chine. chapter xxiv.** It . which fall under direct observation. plate 24). 326 . as to any other organ of the human body. and that the embryo that develops from it.. It only reaches a notably higher stage in the three chief classes of the vertebrates. is differentiated.

by the oldest amniotes. the oldest fourfooted and five-toed vertebrates. followed by the dipneusta. Ziehen. Triassic) that the oldest mammals are found. formed more than a hundred million years ago. — — vertebrate remains form the huge Silurian System. They contain a few fossil In the succeeding Devonian System these are fishes. Oscar Vogt. Edinger. The historical series in which the classes of vertebrates have succeeded each other in the great periods of the organic history of the earth is the real directly demonstrated by their fossil remans commemorative medals of natural creation and gives us a most valuable record of the ancestral history of our The oldest strata that contain race and of the mind. etc. The gradual unfolding of the mental life is accompanied step by step with the advance of its anatomic organ. then marsupials in 327 . These hereditary habits are gradually converted into instincts by functional adaptation and progressive heredity. the phronema in the cortex. the primitive It is not until the next period (the reptiles (tocosauria). They are succeeded in the Permian. small primitive monotremes (pantotJicria).MENTAL LIFE and complex habits among them. and with the further development of consciousness in the higher mammals we have at last the appearance of reason. appear in the Carboniferous Period. which were. we get at the same time from their fossilized remains positive indications as to the period of time in which this phylogenesis has slowly taken place. Recent careful investigations of the ontogeny and histology of the origin of mi. on the latest calculations. Hitzig. The latter. the next system. id (by Flechsig. While the comparative anatomy of the cortex gives us a good idea of the gradual historical development of the mind in the higher classes of vertebrates. transitional forms between the fishes and the amphibia.) have given us an interesting insight into the mysterious processes of its phylogeny.

of varied and highly organized forms which are contained in this third and last sub-class of the mammals appear only in the succeeding Tertiary The numbers of well-preserved skulls which Period." the highest achievement that we know anywhere in nature. and the first placentals in the Cretaceans. for instance. We have given the physiological name of the "phronema. these placentals have left behind in fossil form are particularly important. in the modern carnivora the brain is from two to four times. thus.THE WONDERS OF LIFE The great wealth the Jurassic. to that part of the cortex on the normal anatomic condition of which the action of the human mind depends. as large (in proportion to the size of the body) as in their earliest Tertiary ancestors. at all events. and in the modern ungulates from six to eight times. been calculated at three million years (according to other geologists twelve to fourteen or more million years). It is also found that the cortex (the real organ of mind) has developed in the Tertiary Period at the expense of the other parts of the The duration of this Csenozoic Period has lately brain. sufficient to make possible the gradual development of the human mind from the lower intelligence of our ape-ancestors and the instincts of the older placentalia." as the real organ of mind or the instrument of reason. The remarkable investigations during the last few decades of the finer texture of the grey cortex (or cortical substance of the cerebrum) have shown that its structure a real anatomic "wonder of life" represents the most perfect morphological product of mind is the plasm. Millions of psychic cells or neurona each of them of an extremely elaborate fibril molecular structure are associated as — — — — — — 328 . It was. because they give us an idea of the quantitative and qualitative formation of the brain within the various orders. and its physiological function most perfect action of a "dynamo-machine.

so many physiological experiments made by nature are — — under special conditions. ing knowledge of the localization of mental functions. and that its normal anatomic and chemical condition is the This first requisite for the life of the human mind. contributing its share to the unified central function of the mind. and these again monious system of wonderful regularity and capacity. he would certainly have escaped the duaHst We may say the same of the errors of his philosophy. The study of the diseased organism has greatly Diseases furthered our knowledge of the normal frame. which experimental physiology would often be unable to arrange artificially. true of diseases of the mind. modern metaphysical psychologists who built up a mystic element of our monistic psychology. the conscious action of reason. is for the most part based on the experience that the destruction of the one is followed by the extincModern psychiatry. Scientists are still very far from agreement as to the extent of the in the cortex and its delimitation from the phronema But they are all neighboring sense-centres (sensoria). has thus become an important If Immanuel Kant and had visited the asylum wards for a few months. agreed that there is such a central organ of mind. The thoughtful physician or pathologist can often obtain most important knowledge of the function of organs by herself This is especarefully observing them during disease. Each phronetal cell is a small chemical laboratory. had studied it 329 . science of mental disease. which always have their cially immediate foundation in an anatomical or chemical Our advancmodification of certain parts of the brain.MENTAL LIFE of the special thought-organs (phroneta) at certain parts are built up into a large harcortex. or of their connection with special phroneta or organs of thought. the empirical tion of the other. behef one of the foundations of monistic psychology is confirmed by the study of psychiatry.

understanding by insisting on substituting his idea of energy for the pure notion of substance (as Spinoza had formulated it). 330 . etc.) Ostwald has. The latter makes matter precede force the former regards matter as . Holbach. His supposed "Refutation of Materialism" is a mere attack on windmills. caused some misx. lately emphasized the fact that all the manifestations of mental life. and pathology of the brain. Ostwald has. and in fact all manifestations of energy in organic or inorganic nature. The comparative anatomy. The monistic research of Ostwald on the energy -processes in mental life (chapter xviii. and confirms the views I advanced in the second part of the Riddle (chapters vi. or the phronetal cells. chapter vi. physiology. but even thought and consciousness. and that the neurona of the latter. have led us to form the sound monistic principle that the human mind is a function of the phronema. not only sensation and will.). in concurrence with the results of ontogeny and phylogeny. regarding mental energy (in all its forms) from the same point of view as all other forms of nervous energy. Fechner's psychophysics had already shown that a part of this nervous energy s measurable and methematically reducible to the mechanical laws of physics {Riddle.) is just as one-sided as its apparent opposite.). the consistent materialism of Democritus. Hence we may distinguish what are called mental forces from the other expressions of nervous energy as phronetic energy. and pathology of the brain. his ener- gism (the consistent dynamism of Leibnitz. matter.) is very notable. etc. and by rejecting the other attribute of substance.THE WONDERS OF LIFE theory of an immortal soul without knowing the anatomy.. consciousness (chapter xix. however. and xi.. in his Natural Philosophy. are the real elementary organs of mental Hence modern energism is perfectly justified in life. and will (chapter xx. physiology. can be reduced to nervous energy.).

" or mirroring. space-filhng matter and This appHes to mental hfe just as to any active energy. develops originally out of unconscious functions (as an "inner view. and. it is well known that various drinks have a considerable influence on consciousness (coffee and tea. like these. other natural process. as much as J — — any other psychic power. of the action of the phronema) and at any time an unconscious process in the cortex may come within the sphere of consciousness . as hylozoism. as the mechanical energy of our muscles is with the contractile myoplasm. On the other hand. Fresh matter has to be supplied by the food before the mental work can be continued. In the exhaustive study of consciousness which I gave in the tenth chapter of the Riddle I sought to show that the central mystery of psycholthis enigmatic function is not a transcendental problem. and grows as gradually as any other psychic function. refuses to separate the two attributes of substance. by having the attention directed to it. subject to the law of substance. our mental forces or phronetic energies are just as much bound up with the neuroplasm. Moreover. the phroneta in the cortex. the living plasm of the neurona in the cortex. just as mechanical work does in the muscles. may become unconscious through frequent The fact that chemical energy repetition and practice. is converted in the phronetal cells during any of these actions is proved by the fatigue and exhaustion which prolonged mental work causes in the brain. which need a good deal of attention when they are first learned (such as playing the piano). The child's consciousness only develops long after its first year.MENTAL LIFE Monism escapes the one-sidedness the product of force. but a natural ogy phenomenon. conscious actions. the living muscular substance. of both systems. it is bound up with the normal anatomic and chemical condition of its Consciousness organs. beer and wine) 331 . and the temporary .

Kant derived from the introspective study of his own gifted mind an extremely high estimate of human reason. definitely established by nineteenth-century science. I have already dealt in the Riddle (chapter xi. horse. He did not perceive that it is either wholl}^ wanting in the savage. but physical processes in the neuroplasm of the brain. in their structure and composition. etc. In complete contrast to this natural monistic conception of the human mind. which is. reminding him once more of the immense influence only of the Kantist philosophy in maintaining this belief in the spirituality of the soul. the deviations from normal consciousness." is I said there about thanatism and athanatism. delusions. the familiar phenomena of the dream. hallucinations. and expressed my conviction that "the belief in the immortality of the human soul ly accepted in flagrant contradiction to the soundest empirical I must refer the reader principles of modern science. the anthropoid apes. They only differ from them in details of form which are determined by inherited variations 332 .) with the grounds for this belief in an immaterial soul. and he fallaciously trans- to what ferred this estimate to the human mind generally. in my opinion. especially metaphysicians and theologians. All the various organs of our body resemble those of our nearest relatives.. elephant. and other advanced animals. substance. and thoroughly dependent on the law of gous fact. Modern anthropogeny has raised the theory of evolution to the rank of an historical fact. or does not rise much above the stage which has been reached by the intelligence of the dog. must convince every impartial thinker that these mental functions are not of a metaphysical character. we have the older dualistic estimate of it which is still wide- both by unlearned and learned.THE WONDERS OF LIFE extinction of it under chloroform or ether is an analoAgain. and size.

and only fell away from his high estate after the original sin. it is necessary to attribute an immortal soul to the anthropoid apes and the higher mammals or civilized (especially to domestic dogs) just as well as to savage man (cf. which is merely the collective function of the phronema. dewas created the "image of God" clared that man — — originally with perfect bodily and mental powers. An impartial comparison of mental life in the anthropoid ape and the savage shows that the differences between the two are not more considerable than the differences in the structure of their brains. and raised to a ]ircdominant position in ethnography by Darwin and Lubbock. and even supported by a few mystic ])hilosophers. the central organ of thought. It is now replaced by the modern theory of evolution. and Herder a century ago. It has taught 333 . it had lost all scientific counte- nance before the end of the nineteenth century. Goethe. This appUes to the mind also. On this ants of the view the present savages are degenerate descendfirst godlike men. chapter xi. (In tropical lands the anthropoid apes are in similar fashion regarded by the natives as degenerate branches of their own stem!) Although this Bil^lical degeneration theory is still taught in most of our schools. Hence. The thorough and the savage. if one accepts the dualistic theory of the soul formulated by Plato and Kant and accepted by so many modern psychologists. supported careful study of the mental life of by the results of anthropogeny and ethnography. has in the course of the last forty years decided the issue of this struggle between the The conflicting theories of the origin of civilization. of the Riddle). whit h was represented by Lamarck.MENTAL LIFE of growth. based on religious beliefs. But the functions as well as the organs have been inherited by man from his primate ancestors. and so preferred by theologians and theosophists. older theory of degeneration.

The specialization of the various groups of workers and the greater ease of maintenance permit a further development of art and To these groups belong. 334 in Greeks and Romans of the classic age. but also a concern for legislation. and afterwards of Greece and Italy. characterized by a high development of art and science and the manifold application of them to practical life in legislation. was greatly advanced even in antiquity among several nations in Asia by the Chinese.THE WONDERS OF LIFE us that human civilization is the outcome of a long and gradual process of evolution. and raises the question of the causes of phenomena. We shall deal with their classification and characteristics later on (chapter xvii. em India. Europe by the However. less civilized races. covering thousands of The civilized races of our time have arisen from years. Egypt. moreover. and the greater part of the inhabitants of Europe and Asia in ancient and mediaeval The great ancient civilizations of China. etc. Southern Ind- — ians. the science. the germ of all science. education. their .). until we reach ilization. majority of the Mongolians. and Egyptians. which occupy the next stage to these. and the spread of knowledge by written books. of living races. religious worship. the savage races which show no trace of civ- Ethnologists distinguish as a separate class the races which are found midway between the civilized peoples and the savages. These races show some advance on the artistic instinct which we find in a slight degree even among the savages at times . Asia Minor. and these in turn from lower. their animal curiosity develops into human curiosity. Civilization in the narrower sense. show not only a great development of art and science. Civilized races.. Southtimes. Babylonians. are raised above them by the formation of larger states and a greater division of labor. education of the young.

and were mostly during the Middle Ages. when the invention of printing had made posspread of knowledge far and wide. \ . Then began the many-sided growth of civilization which has reached so marvellous a height in the nineteenth century through sible the covery of last free the extraordinary development of science. and the Copemican system had demolished the error of geocentricism. Modem civilization rose to importance about the end of the fifteenth century.MENTAL LIFE results were at lost first restricted to narrow fields. the disAmerica and circumnavigation of the globe had widened the horizon. Then at reason could triumph over the prevailing mediaeval superstition.

and few that remain so far from being closed at the present day. cyanic hypothesis. artificially — The logic of modern life is one of the most but one of the most difficult and complicated. few problems on which the opinions of even distinguished thinkers diverge so much. problems with which the mind of man has been occupied for thousands of years.XV THE ORIGIN OF LIFE The miracle of the origin of hfe Creation of species: Moses and Agassiz Creation of the first cells: Wigand and Reinke Agnostic position resignation Eternity hypothesis (dualistic. degenerated so much into fantastic hypotheses. the lack of clear rational insight. 33^ . moreover. and have THE important and question of the origin of interesting. and the powerful authority of the prevailing religious faith and other venerable dogmas. This is partly due to the extreme difficulty of giving a strictly scientific solution of the problem and partly to the confusion of ideas which is so great in this controversy. Verworn) Spontaneous generation Saprobiosis or necrobiosis Experiments in spontaneous generation Pasteur Stages of archigony Observation of archigony Synthesis of plasma Value of the unsuccessful experi- — — : — — — — — — — — — — — ments to produce plasm experimental biology. Helmholtz. Preyer) Archigony hypothesis (autogony hypothesis. Nageli. There are. There are few other questions (such as the freedom of the will or personal immortality) on which such different and contradictory views have been expressed. monistic. Pfliiger. Haeckel.

which he is supposed to have endowed with the power to develop into the higher organisms. one of the most remarkable attempts to do this in his Essay on Classification (1858). point of view. chapters i. It is unquestionable that this myth still has a very great practical influence. Reinke prefers a stem. they are equally based on pure superstition {cf. it is difficult to find a man of science who The gifted Louis Agassiz made will uphold it to-day. which the infallible word of God. the great majority of the clergy cling to it because it is found in Most governments. or answer it with a behef in a supernatural creation. a book that appeared ' ' ' ' almost contemporaneously with Darwin's epoch-making Origin of Species. These modern creative theories have no more scientific value than that of Agassiz. two botanists. have lately restricted the action of the celestial architect very considerably. Wigand assumed for the origin of each species a special primitive cell and a long phylogenetic develo])ment of this. they have ascribed to him only the creation of the primitive cells. composed of a number of species.). According to Agassiz.-iii. and dealt with the general problems of biology from the directly opposite. the Mosaic account of creation in the first chapter of As I have fully examined its scientific value in Genesis. the second chapter of my History of Creation. The first article of the creed was given to us in childhood as It is based on the foundation of all cosmic philosophy. Wigand of Marburg and Reinke of Kiel. On the include it in the code for the elementary school. I may refer the reader thereto. each species of animal or is an "incarnate thought of the Creator. other hand. the mystic." plant Differing from this Biblical fancy of the supernatural creation of each species. hold blind faith to be an important element of education.THE ORIGIN OF LIFE The easiest and quickest thin^^ to do is to cut the Gordian knot of the question with the sword of faith. 337 .

work that he "has nothing to do with the origin of the fundamental spiritual forces. and can know nothing. Helmholtz is a representative of the former theory.THE WONDERS OF LIFE A different attitude from this irrational positive superthe sceptical view of those scientists who regard the question of the origin of Hfe as insoluble or Darwin and Virchow are representatranscendental." solving a scientific problem which must present as definite a subject of inquiry to modern research as any other evolutionary problem. modern maintain this agnostic attitude they are more or less convinced that the origin of life is a natural process. for instance. explains in his organisms. is a third attitude which regards the of the origin of life as extremely difficult. scientists who have worked on the problem are of this opinion. but believe we have not as yet the means to explain it. view. According to the first life is eternal. for instance. 33^ . according to the second. there is nothing to be said if a scientist chooses to make first chief no inquiry into scientists it. planet represents a fixed point in its history. in the first place. A number of distinguished . and Preyer of the latter. again. We are confronted. about the origin of the stition is Darwin. tives of this agnostic position. yet This is the position of Duboiscapable of solution. The eternityhypothesis has assumed two very different forms. one of which has a dualistic and the other a monistic base. who counts the origin of hfe Reymond. they held that we know nothing. Most of the modern as the third great cosmic problem. Different. The origin of life on our However. or with that of life This is a complete abandonment of the task of itself. although their views as to the way of solving it differ very much. with two essentially different views which we may call the eternity-hypothesis and the theory of archigony (or spontaneous generation). organic problem it began at a definite point of time.

because the physical features of space (the extreme temperatures. which possesses heat and moisture in the proper degrees for their development. and. under favorable conditions. However. botanist Anton Kerner postulates the eternity of organic life and its complete independence of the inorganic world. logically useless. He supposes that the meteors that roam about the universe might contain the germs of organisms. the "cosmozoic hypothesis" attained a great popularity when it was afterwards taken up by two of the most distinguished physicists. and may lead to the formation of a whole world of living things. Hermann Helmholtz and Sir W.) exclude the lasting existence of plasm meteorites in the form of organic germs with a capacity to Uve. This cosmozoic hypothesis of Helmholtz is untenable. these might reach the earth or other planets and develop thereon. The hypothesis is. the hypothesis that infinite space is full throughout of the germs of living things. the absence of atmoson phere. When the ubiquitous germs reach a mature and habitable cosmic body. Helmholtz formulated the alternative thus either (in 1884)*: "Organic life came ' ' eternal. moreover. are so great and so obvious that his theory has won no recognition. or it is He declared for the latter view. But the difficulties encountered by this hypothesis. etc. both of them are in a condition of eternal development. Thomson (Lord Kelvin).THE ORIGIN n V L I F E Hermann Eberhard Richter put forward. in the indefinite form that Kerner gives it. on the ground that we have not succeeded in producing living organisms by artificial means. into existence at a certain period. they break into life. 339 . just as it is of inorganic bodies. the absolute dryness. in 1865. and formulates the princii)le: germs Omne vivuni ab cutcruitate e cellida (Every living thing is In much the same way the eternal and from a cell). Richter conceives these ubiquitous as living cells.

fore. and regards individual organisms merely as parts His system is. as he somewhat mystically connects the idea of a con- scious God with that of a living universe. and conceiving it as an organism. then. This extension " of the word "organism has very properly met with little approval in biology. at the same time. thereof one vast universal organism. the heavier metals (the dead inorganic masses) separated from it. and described as impracticable. He applies his theory in the symbolic sense which I alluded to on page 38. and reject the distinction that is usually drawn between the organic and Fechner goes so far as to ascribe conthe inorganic. only the third group of scientific theories which I have combined under the general head left. we have for the purpose of answering the great question of the origin of life. and finally albumin and plasm. the eternity -hypotheses are of no more value than the creation-hypotheses. The fiery mass of the forming earth is the gigantic organism. If. it leads to pure cosmological dualism. Preyer generally agrees with him in extending the idea of life to the whole universe. in our opinion. panpsychistic. As it cooled down. and. sciousness to the whole universe and every single body in it. origin of organic life. Another and very different theory of the eternity of life has been elaborated by Theodor Fechner (1873) and Wilhelm Preyer (1880). which is both practically necessary and theoretically justified. and Preyer gives the name of "life" to its rotatory movement (or gravitational energy). It only increases the confusion.THE WONDERS OF LIFE since it does not solve. but postpones. the question of the If it is consistently worked out. 340 . from the rest of it were formed first simple and afterwards complex carbon-combinations. pantheistic. Both these scientists extend the idea of life to the whole cosmos. and the difficulty of marking off biological from abiological science.

having albuminous matter and water as its chief constituents. Fluid water.THE ORIGIN OF LIFE of I. potential life) but this latent condition is restricted to a certain (and generally short) period. 3. They . like all the other planets. 2. The monistic hypothesis of abiogenesis. was first formulated by me in 1866 in the second book of the General Morphology. As the earth. was for a long time in a state of incandescence. albuminoids) cannot possibly have existed on it. are physical and chemical processes. archigony. to limits organic life may in certain circumstances be maintained for a time in a latent condition (apparent death. at a temperature of several thousand degrees. living organisms (viscous yond these . The first cells the actual chromacea (chroococcus). the first forms in which the living matter individualized were probably homogeneous globules of plasm.development) in the strictly scientific sense of ( the word. that can only take place within certain limits of temperature (between the freezing-point and boiling-point of water). which led to the formation of albuminous combinations. 341 The solid . 4. structureless organisms without organs. Beliving substance. were developed secondarily from these primitive monera. or autogony = self. by separation of the central caryoplasm (nucleus) and peripheral cytoplasm (cell-body). The earliest organisms to be thus formed can only have been plasmodomous monera. The characteristic movements of this which we give the name of organic life. The chemical processes which first set in ing-point. and eventually of plasm. the first condition for the appearance of organic life. start from the following points: ^ Organic life is everywhere bound up with the plasm (or protoplasm) a chemical substance of a viscous character. cannot have formed on it until the crust at the surface had fallen below boil6. like certain of 8. at this stage of development must have been catalyses. 5. and so cannot be eternal. 7.

it is able to build up. and recognized that the radical of cyanogen was the chief element of the living plasm. — generally happens from the — very thorough study of these rudimentary organisms in the Monera (1870).THE WONDERS OF LIFE foundation for it was found in the monera I had de- scribed. the very simple organisms without organs that had up to that time been overlooked or thrust aside. these facts is that even the living green plant-cell has the synthetic faculty of plasmodomism or carbon-assimilation. carbonic acid. from simple inorganic compounds (water. or archigony. I may my Monograph on —my therefore distinguish two different stages of the theory own older autogony-hypothesis and the later cyanogen-hypothesis. Edward Pfliiger conducted some valuable investigations. which I advanced in 1866. and ammonia). but must have been evolved secondHence. the fundamental process of all organic life and all organiza342 . and endeavored to formulate it more clearly later on (in the first volume of In regard to the chemical the Systematic Phytogeny). that is to say. appeals directly to the biochemical facts that modern The chief of vegetal physiology has firmly established. nitric acid. the complex albuminous compounds which we call plasm or protoplasm. and have developed in later writings. I made a arily from the unnucleated monera. cell . by a chemical synthesis and reduction. The theory of abiogenesis. and not these nucleated as still elementary organisms could not be the earliest archigonous living things. chapter vi. and which we regard as the active living substance and the true material basis of all vital function (cf. question of the first formation of plasm and its inorganic preparation.). to start from these structureless granules of living matter. It is of radical importance. All botanists are now agreed that this most important process of vegetal life. in giving a naturalistic solution of the problem of the origin of life.

he supported face. A Mechanical. or any other transcendental agency. which have been differentiated from the rest of the plasm of the cell. deduced from the law of the constancy of matter and force. He formulates the chief part of them in this admirable principle: The origin of the organic from the inorganic is. in connection with it. Carl In his instructive work. wider sense. either the whole homogeneous globule of plasm {chroococcus) or its bluish-green surface-layer. in the cal) process. the physical and chemical conditions of which were present in the condition of organic nature at that time. if all 343 .cell. in the first but a fact place. it is a catalytic process (or one analogous to catalysis). My hypothesis was very strongly confimied twenty years ago by the adhesion of the able botanist. If all things in the material world are causally related. physiof a specific and that there or a is no question mystic constructor (like the famous "mechanical engineer of life"). and are colorless globular leucoplasts within its dark interior. all the logical Theory of Evolution (1884). and which has become an "inherited habit" of the green plant . developed of itself at the beginning of organic life. But in most plants these reduction-laboratories are the chromatella or chromatophora. is a purely chemical (or. The tiny chemical laboratory in which this remarkable organoplastic process takes place under the influence of sunvital force is. which is active as a light chromatic principle (chromatophore). the chromacea. or green chromoplasts (or granules of chlorophyll) at its illumined sur- My theory of archigony only assumes that this chemical process of plasmodomism which we find repeated every second in every plant-cell exposed to the sunlight.physioNiigeli.THE ORIGIN OF LIFE tion. of life which 1 had principal ideas as to the natural origin advanced in 1866. not a question of experience and experiment. in other words. in the simplest plants.

proceeded to make a thorough study of the molecular processes involved. which are formed of and decay into the same matter. ginning of organization the definite autonomous arrangement of the smallest homogeneous parts of the plasm was a matter of the greatest importance. must have been derived originally from inorganic compounds. organisms. others. arranged multifariously in strings and parallel rows." He supcal A similar poses that these invisible molecular structures are reguof the cell. the value of this molecular hypothesis is that it stimulates us to attempt to conceive the mode of the in the process of archigony arrangement and movement of the molecules of plasm on physical principles. Nageli has. moreover. and so he calls them "fistella. This excellent and clear declaration of a distinguished and profound thinker might be taken to heart the "exact" scientists who are always attacking the by scientist monistic theory of archigony as an unproved hypothesis. A more interesting and notable attempt to penetrate into the mysterious obscurity of the chemical processes 344 . others contraction. unities (the micellar strings of Nageli and the biophora of Weismann. corresponding to my plastidules) have a tubular shape.THE WONDERS OF LIFE phenomena proceed on natural principles. and more elaborate attempt to give a physiexplanation of the processes of archigony and trace them to mechanical molecular structures was made by Ludwig Zehnder in 1899 in his work on The Origin of He believes that the smallest and lowest lifeLife. or regard the whole problem as insoluble. In his opinion these "micella" are crystalline groups of molecules. and so on. and embodied the results He believes that at the bein his idioplasm theory. and larly arranged in millions in the plasma in such a way that some will effect endosdifferentiated mosis. others the conduction of stimAs in the similar work of Nageli and uli.

guanine. surrounding the atoms and breaking up the new-formed groups. in the glairy Only the living albumin (plasm) decomposes of itself in a slight degree. Uric acid. is found in the cyanogen. From this we may infer that the living albumin always con- 345 . and that this living matter owes its properties to the chemical properties of the albumin (whether we regard this as a chemical unity. and effects there a disassociation. as Wohler showed in 1828. logical was made in 1875 by the distinguished Edward Pfliiger. and the most important of all. the oxygen that is taken into the interior of the plasma-molecules in breathing. and of the accompanying fonnation of carbonic acid.THE ORIGIN in archigony 01' LIFE physiologist. The non-nitrogenous decomposition-products of the dead and the living albumin agree in the main. in his essay on Physio- Combustion in the Living Organism. such as we find it. and to a greater extent under the influence of external excitation. protein or protalbumin. in conjunction with potassium. and the dead albumin. cyanide of potassium. Pfliiger sharply distinguishes between the living albumin of the plasm out of which all organisms are built. a remarkable body composed of an atom of carbon and an atom of nitrogen. for instance. However. He starts from the fact that the plasm (or protoplasm) is the material basis of all vital phenomena. The cause of the extraordinary instability of the living albumin is its intramolecular oxygen that is to say. forms the well- — known and very virulent poison. can be artificially produced from cyanic compounds. time under favorable conditions. which. The real cause of this rapid decomposability of the plasm. or as a mixture of different compounds). but their nitrogenous products are totally different. urea. creotin. and the other decomposition products of plasm contain the cyanogen-radical. the dead albumin will remain intact for a long of the albumin hen's e^gg.

" says Pfliiger. not by direct oxydation). while they set at a higher. homogeneous groups way by .THE WONDERS OF LIFE bumin does tains the cyanogen-radical. of of etc. Other essential constituents of albu- min. hydrogen. and that dead nutritive alThe belief that it is cyanogen which not. similarity of the two substances is so great. can be formed synthetically in heat. when the requisite inorganic nitrogenous compounds are put with glowing coals.) and the living albumin. "nothing is clearer than the possibility of the formation of cyanic compounds when the earth was entirely or partially in a state of incandescence or great heat." concatenation of the atoms. and the chief conditions of its appearance are earth was a glowing the incalculably long period in which the surface of the earth was slowly coolassociated with a time fire. say. is gives its characteristic vital properties to the plasm supported by a number of analogies that we find to exist between cyanide compounds. when the ball of When we remember 346 . "that I might describe cyanic acid as a semiBoth substances grow in the same living molecule. Hence life was born from fire. "Thus. cyanic cyanide —are only formed at incandescent heat. fluid and transparent at a low temperature. that to acid. such as carburetted hydrogen or alcohol-radical. both of them break up in the presence of water into carbonic acid and ammonia both produce urea by disassociation (by the intramolecular surround"The ing of the atoms. We see how extraordinarily all the facts of chem- istry point to fire as the force that has produced the constituents of albumin by synthesis. especially cyanic acid Both bodies are (C N O H. or the mixture is heated to incandescence. There is an especial interest in connection with the theory of archigony and its physical basis in the chemical fact that cyanogen and its compounds cyanide of — is potassium. atoms joining together chain-wise in large masses." says Pfluger.

as will be understood. the first period of preparation for the formation of albumin. Pfliiger's cyanogen theory does not conflict with my monera theory. there must have been a long series of chemical intermediary stages between the incandescent formation of cyanogen and the appearance of the aqueous living plasm. We can only say that the conditions during this long period (embracing millions of years) were totally different from those of chemiThe real cal action at the surface of the earth to-day. by its careful and thoroughly scientific study of a much earlier stage of primitive biogenesis in a sense. since we can form no definite idea as to the special conditions of chemical activity in those times. it is well ing matter. which always contains in its nitrogenous decomposition products the radical of cyanide or other substances (urea) that can be artificially produced from cyanic compounds." This criticism is answered by the living albu- min itself. because — impassable gulf between cyanic compounds and proteids. and the compounds that contained cyanogen. to evolve into the self-decomposable albumin which is livIn regard to the latter feature.THE ing. ground of the opposition of ists is their dualistic Neumeister and other vitalconception of nature. This must be well borne in mind in view of the attacks which have lately been made on it by Neumeister and other vital" there is an ists. had j^lcnty of time and opportunity to follow out to any extent their great tendency to the transposition and formation of polymeria (chains of atoms)." The objection has no weight. Another objection is that "the cyanic compounds which were formed in the heat must have very quickly perished on the subsequent appearance of water. it is supposed to be untenable. which will 347 . OR O I I X OF LIFE we see that cyanogen. with the co-operation of oxygen and afterwards of water and salts. and carbiiretted hydrogen." to emphasize the fact that. and. but rather supplements it.

Now that we have described the various modern worth considering. probably acting on the ordinary chemical molecules as a sun does on a small meteor. and with Nageli that the original development recognized of the organic from the inorganic is a fact." This theory. which I believe to be correct. this view the living albumin need not have a constant molecular weight. in order to build them chemiOn cally into the molecule. in his General Physiology. Max Verworn. The older hypotheses of "spontaneous generation" do not bear on our problem of archigony (or the first 348 . and so grow indefinitely. and goes thoroughly into detail. is also maintained by many other modern scientists who have made a particular study of the difficult question of the nature and origin of the albuminoids. but the experiments in connection with them excited a good deal of interest and deal of controversy." afforded matter for a good theories of archigony that are most It is true that they are now alentirely abandoned. we may glance at the older theories which. therefore." He agrees with Pfiiiger when he expresses himself as follows: "I would say. because "it makes a strictly scientific study of the problem in close relation to the facts of physiological chemistry. that the first albumin to be formed was in point of fact living matter. because it is a huge molecule in an unceasing process of formation and decomposition. under the name of "spontaneous generation. led to many misunderstandings. endued with the property in all its radicals of attracting especially homogeneous parts with great force and preference.THE WONDERS OF LIFE maintain at all costs the deep gulf between the organic and inorganic worlds. has fully described and criticised the various theories of the appearance of life on the earth. He rightly attributes a great value to Pfliiger's cyanogen theory.

for the dead organic parts which gradually bring about the death of the living body (see p. In order to distinguish these hypotheses from the totally different theory of archigony. fur. was necrobiosis). and mussels from slime in the water. etc. or liver). brain. from morbid pustules in the skin. Augustine and other fathers. io6). it is better to give them the name of saprobiosis (an earlier name the birth of living from. moths from old As these furs. The first scientific refutation of these old stories was made by the Italian physician.THE ORIGIN OF LIFE development of living matter from lifeless inorganic carbon compounds) but relate to the formation of lower organisms out of the putrid and decomposing organic elements of higher organisms. in 1674. and other intestinal animals {nttozoa). because necrobiosis is better used in a different sense. until about the middle of the nineteenth cen- 349 . But at that time the proof could not be extended to the tapeworms. Francisco Redi. slime. It was believed in ancient times that lower organisms could arise from the dead fleas from manure. which live inside other animals (in the bowels. all these animals arose from eggs that had been deposited by female animals in dung. and reconciled with the faith. of very careful experiment: he was perseHe showed that cuted for "unbelief" on that account. on the basis It was still believed that these blood. stories were supported by the authority of Aristotle. maw-worms. they were held remains of higher organisms. skin. and that water-cress was formed from it in fresh running water. arise from diseased parts of the host-animals in which they live. Even in the year 17 13 the botanist Heucherus stated that the green duck-weed (lemna) is only condensed grease from the surface of foul standing water. Saprobiosis is preferable. and on that account believed by St. such as lice until the beginning of the eighteenth century. which means dead (nekron) or putrid (sapron) organic matter.

Leuckart. that there are everywhere in the atmosphere numbers of germs of microbes or microscopic organisms floating among the dust particles. The Abbe Spallanzani showed appear in these infusions if . invisible to the naked eye. moss. in 1687 that no infusoria they are well boiled and the vessel is carefully closed the boiling kills the germs in them. and other famous biologists. by Virchow. Of late years the proof has been applied all round. which were tury. the hypothesis of saprobiosis retained its position until quite recently for one section of the smallest and lowest organisms. and showed that they arise in great quantities in infusions of hay. by a series of ingenious experiments. the opinion was maintained by Pouchet at Paris in 1858. could be born directly from putrid or diseased tissues of organisms. In spite of this. and afterwards by Charlton Bastian. Not only in- 350 . formerly called infusoria. flesh. The controversy about the subject moved the Paris Academy in 1858 to offer a prize for "careful research that would throw new light on the question of spontaneous generation. or from decom- posing organic fluids. On the other hand. many microscopists still believed that certain infusoria. and the exclusion of air prevents the entrance of fresh germs.THE WONDERS OF LIFE It was not until 1 840-1 860 that it was shown the experiments of Siebold. and which we now call by the wider name of protists or unicellulars. and propagate there by eggs. and that these grow and reproduce when they reach water. and other putrid organic substances. particularly the very small and simple bacteria. When Leeuwenhoek discovered the infusoria in 1675 with the newly invented microscope. that all these intestinal animals have come from without into the animals they live in. Van Beneden. who proved." It fell to the famous Louis Pasteur. the microscopic forms of life. it was generally believed that they were spontaneously generated there.

mosses. therefore. but not the These entirely diflerent hypoth- thus become an insoluble enigma. the formation of clear ideas and the indulgence in reflection on the facts are unnecessary —many continue to say — we have only in biology of its distin- to be avoided! biological is It is and dangerous. archigony Because the false hypothesis of saprobiosis. rotifers. and gave rise to the modern precautions as to disinfection. Pasteur life when they reach water." The famous experiments had destroyed the myth eses are of Pasteur and his successors theory of archigony. due to this pitiable condition of our hypothesis of or else methods still of research that attacked. because the old We title of "spontaneous generation" is used for both. which were confirmed by Robert Koch and other bacteriologists. they would hardly be possible in any other branch of science. and tardigrades can live for months in a desiccated condition. and. But guished representatives to observe and correctly describe facts." has been refuted by the 351 . still very frequently confused. which has absolutely nothing in common with it but the name "spontaneous generation. and that the question of the origin of life has of saprobiosis. still read sometimes that the "unscientific" belief in abiogenesis has been definitely refuted by these experiments.THE ORIGIN OF LIFE — fusoria. in the maxim " Spontaneous or equivocal generation is a : myth. showed convincingly that organisms never a])i)ear in — ly boiled infusions of organic substances when they are sufficientand the atmosphere that reaches them has been chemically purified. be carried in all directions by the wind. but also small highly organized plants and animals such as lichens. Why? ignored. and reawaken into On the other hand. He summed up the results of his rigorous experiments. There is an astonishing superficiality and lack of discernment in such remarks.

THE WONDERS OF LIFE experiments of Pasteur and his colleagues!* These experiments prove nothing whatever beyond the fact that new organisms are not formed in certain infusions of under definite. artificial conditions. at the beginning of the Laurentian Age the conditions of existence were totally different — the English reader that the chosen ecclesiasin this country. I ' may remind tical champion against Haeckel — . who had no knowledge of experiment. In the subject we are considering the question to be put to nature is: "Under what conditions and in what manner is living matter (or plasm) formed from lifeless inorganic compounds?" We may confidently assume that in the period when archigony took place the — time when organic life first appeared on the cooled surface of the earth. and the unfortunate confusion of ideas which was caused by the false interpretation of his results. or the putting of a question to nature. Trans. Since Bacon introduced experiment into science three hundred years ago. New methods of research made it possible for modem workers to penetrate far more deeply into the nature of phenomena than the older thinkers had done. led to enormous advances in the various sciences. make it necessary for me to say a word on the general value of scientific experiments in many questions. and gave it a logical basis. the Rev. made this extraordinary fallacy the very pith of his "scientific" attack on monism. Esof pecially in the nineteenth century the development the experimental method. both our speculative knowledge of nature and the practical application of our knowledge have made remarkable progress. Ballard. arise from inorganic compounds?" The great popularity of the famous experiments of Pasteur on spontaneous generation. which alone interests us: "How did the earliest organic inhabitants of our earth. organic matter do not even touch the important and pressing They — question. the primitive organisms. F.

and made up of more than a thousand atoms. a provisional reply if only in the form of a temgive porary hypothesis on the basis of modern science to one of the chief questions of natural philosophy. But of the real features of this intricate structure we have as yet no conception.molecule is extremely large. . in the form in which I put the scientific hypothesis in 1866 it is completely untouched by all these It remains intact as the first attempt to experiments.THE (J R i G N OF 1 L 1 F E from what they are now. it is useattempt to produce it artificially." When we carefully consider the intelligent experiments that have been made in regard to archi^ony in the light of these facts. The much-admired experiments of Pasteur and his colleagues that in certain artificial conditions infusoria prove merely are not formed in decomposing organic compounds (or the dead tissues of highly organized histona) they cannot possibly prove that saprobioses of this kind do not take place under other conditions. We can only assume that the ])lasma . Yet in this position of the matter we would seek to produce that great wonder of life. but we are very far from having a clear idea of what they were. In my General Morphology (1866). We are just as far from having a thorough chemical acquaintance with the albuminous compounds to which plasm belongs. As long as we are ignorant of this complex molecular structure of albumin. and that the arrangement and connection of the atoms in the molecule are very complicated and unstable. and afterwards in my Biological Studies on the oner a and other P rot isis. — — M aa 353 . it is clear that their negative result does not in the slightest degree affect our question. artificially. the plasm. and when the less to experiment miscarries (as we should expect) we cry out: "Spontaneous generation is impossible. They tell us nothing whatever about the possibility or reality of archigony. or from being able to reproduce them artificially.

which were formed by "unicellular organization" of the plasm out of simple inorganic compounds. As a matter chromacea (chroococcus and related so closely to his hypothetical probia or forms) approach probionta that the only things we can regard as the of fact. or plasmodomous phytomonera. "organisms structureless living particles of plasm without morphological differentiation) but he has in mind the individual rhizopod-like organisms which I had at first described as monera protamceba. does not strictly follow my without organs" (that is to say. This view seems to rest on a misunderstanding. earliest living things.). the earliest organic individuals in the form of monera).THE WONDERS OF LIFE first volume of my Systematic Phytogeny (1894). he gives the name of prohia or probionta. are rauch more important than these plasmophagous zoomonera. gone more To the into the details of the process of archigony. and thinks that these had an even simpler structure than my monera. although he has had the great merit of describing these most primitive of all living organisms as unicellular algae (1842). the simplest rudiments of organization in the chroococcacea are the 354 . two principal stages autogony (the formation of the first living matter from inorganic nitrogenous carbon-compounds) and plasmogony (the formation of the first indi- and the I — vidualized plasm. — make thorough use of their primitive organization for the establishment of his theory. In more recent efforts I have made use of the important results reached by Nageli (1884) In regard to in his investigations of the same subject. protoinyxa. It is curious that Nageli does not Nageli . Nageli has. In my present view the chromacea. attempted to sketch in detail the stages of the process I distinguished to which I give the name of archigony. definition. protogenes. etc. some important points relating to the chemico-physical part of the question. in his Mechanicophysiological Theory of Evolution (chapter ii.

). under its influence. and produced homogeneous plasmagranules (plassonella). etc. When the crust of the earth stiffened. and these first produced albumin (or protein). Recently Max Kassowitz. A preliminary stage to archigony is the formation of certain nitrogenous carbon-compounds which may be classed in the cyanic group (cyanic acid.THE ORIGIN OF LIFE membrane about the homogeneous plasma-globule and the separation of the blueish-green cortical zone from the colorless central gransecretion of a protective The more important of the further conclusions of Nageli are those which relate to the mode of the primitive abiogenesis and the frequent repetition of this physical process. has gone fully into the various stages of the process of archigony. 3. and in consequence of the great changes in the carbonic-acid laden atmosphere. 2. — during an incalculably long period by the way of substitution for simpler compounds. as a sequel to his metabolic theory of the building up and decay of plasm. and so draw up the : — ' following theses I. . We may join these views which generally accord with my earlier deductions with Pfluger's cyanogen theory. The molecules of albumin arranged themselves in a certain way. water was formed in the fluid condition. The albumin-micella coml)incd to form micella). 5. 355 . according to their unstable chemical attractions. in larger groups of molecules (j)leona or 4. a series of complicated nitrogenous carboncompounds were formed from these simple cyanic compounds. in the second volume of his General Biology (1899). He says very truly that the development of living from lifeless matter must not be conceived as a sudden leap the very complicated chemical unities which now form the basis of life have been slowly and gradually evolved ule. As they grew the plassonella larger aggregations. from the point of view of physiological chemistry.

Afterwards granule). the sea-shore probably affords the most favorable conditions as. for instance. question whether the process of archigony only occurred once in the course of time or was frequently repeated. On that account I doubt if spontaneous generation takes place in our time. viscous. homo- In con- sequence of surface-strain or of chemical differentiation. As to locality. but at present unanswered." However. and solid It is a fact that to-day all the acting on each other. find the best conditions for fluid. comparative biology directly shows that all life has come from one single root. there took place a separation of the firmer cortical layer (membrane) from the softer marrow layer (central 7. it might be repeated anywhere at any time. Reasons can be given for both views. Pfliiger says: "In the plant the living albumin only continues to do what it has done ever since its origin constantly to regenerate itself or to grow. . Nageli especially has pointed out that there is no reason to prevent us from thinking that archigony was repeated several times. as in many of the chromacea. the simplest (nucleated) cells were formed from these unnucleated cytodes.THE WONDERS OF LIFE and formed larger plasma-granules geneous character. this view does not exclude the possibility of the chemical — process of spontaneous quently — plasmodomism having the conditions — in repeated under like been fre- same form in primordial times. hence I believe that all the albumin in the world comes from that source. monera (=:probionta). divided. Whenever the physical conditions for the chemical process of plasmodomism were given. on the surface of fine moist sand the molecular forces of matter in all its conditions gaseous. of a 6. Moreover. It is an interesting. — — 356 . even down to our own day. On the other side. the hereditary mass of the plasm gathering within the monera and condensing into a firm nucleus.

We 357 usually regard them as . we should hardly be in a position to learn it by direct observation. for the following reasons: i. The earliest and of their transformation has simplest organisms are most probably globular particles of plasm. admit with Nageli that the original size of these probionta (in spite of the relatively colossal size of their molecules) is very small much too small to come within the range of the best microscope. and may continue after the death of the cells must to multiply independently by cleavage. 4. the jjalmella and amoeba?. of plasm. Assuming that the simplest organisms are still fonned by abiogenesis. tiny granules which consist. In the same way the primitive metabolism and the slow. or We — seem to consist. These plasmodomous monera cannot be distinguished from the chromo- plasts (chlorophyll-granules). have — — remained unchanged or made very little organization since the beginning of life more than a hundred million years. As a matter of fact. like the simplest living chromacea {chroococcus). 3. and is being repeated to-day. or else the phylogenetic process — advance in been frequently repeated in the course of this period. the direct observation of the process would probably be impossible. and in the sea. without any visible structure. the chromacea and bacteria. from the am])hioxus to man come in an order of succession. 2. which live inside plantcells. from the simjile ovum to the most elaborate tissue-stnicture in tlic higher ])lants and animals. Even if the latter were the case.THE ORIGIN OF LIFE various evolutionary forms of living matter from the simplest moneron (chroococcus) to the plain nucleated cell. we water. or at least extremely difficult. from this to the highly organized cell of the radiolaria and infusoria. do often find in stagnant 5. simple growth of these monera would not come within direct observation. There are only two ways of explaining this fact: either the simplest living organisms.

THE WONDERS OF LIFE detached portions of dead animals or plants. which grow slowly and unite with similar particles to form larger plasmic bodies ? It is often objected to our naturalistic and monistic conception of archigony that we have not yet succeeded in forming albuminous bodies. the worthlessness of this sceptical objection is obvious: we can never claim that a natural process is supernatural because we cannot artificially reproduce it. that we do not yet know the complicated forgotten structure of albuminous bodies. How can we be expected to reproduce synthetically. It is only supernatural vital forces that can do this. an elaborate chemical process the nature of which is not analytically known to us ? However. and that we do not yet know what really happens inside the green chlorophyllgranules which in every plant-cell convert the radiant energy of sunlight into the virtual energy of the newformed plasm. with the imperfect and crude methods of present chemistry. . little isolated chlorophyll-granules that may be found everywhere are looked upon as rejected products of vegetal But who could refute the assumption that they are really plassonella or young monera. from this the perverse dualistic conclusion is drawn that it is cells. and especially plasm. in our chemical laboratories by artificial synthesis.

in the causes of phenomena and 359 their laws. I must refer the reader to these works. in . The first thing to do is to compare the conflicting views on the nature and significance of biogenesis which still face each other at the beginning of the twentieth century. especially the latter. Hence. and the significance of which I explained in the fourteenth chapter of the Riddle. FULLY explained in my General Morphology (1866) the profound importance of the science of evolution in relation to our monistic philosophy. and is briefly repeated in the thirteenth chapter of the Riddle. is found through the whole course of its development.XVI THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE Inorganic and organic evolution Biogenesis and cosmogenesis Mechanical svolution Mechanics of phylogenesis Theory f(<rce — — — — — of selection — Theory of idioplasm — Phyletic vital Theory of germ-plasm — Progressive heredity — Comparative morphology — Germ-plasm and hereditary matter — Theory of mutation — Zoological and botanical transformism — Neo-Lamarckism and Neo-Darwinism — Mechanics of onto— Biogenetic law —Tectogenetic ontogeny — Experigenesis mental evolution — Monism and biogeny. and confine myself here to a consideration of my of the principal general questions of evolution in the light of modern science. A popular synop- I sis of this is given in History of Creation. endeavored to establish in the second book of the General Morphology. some The which I essential unity of inorganic and organic nature.

It was not until this last stage that carbon could begin its organogenetic activity and proceed to the formation of plasm. we may say that organic evolution depends on the mechanics and chemistry of the plasm. and maintain our conviction that it can always be traced to physical forces (and especially chemical energy). biogeny is clearly only a small part of geogeny. The vitalistic belief that its often overlooked .) in the same way as on our earth under like conditions.THE WONDERS OF LIFE dealing with the evolution of organisms. and finally the downpour of fluid water. We postulate no supernatural vital force for the explanation of physiological functions.). only a very small process is. and this in turn only a small section of the vast science of cosmogThis important relation is evident enough. if we suppose — 360 . Even that the biogenetic process occupied more than a hundred million years. part of the illimitable history of the world. we reject vitalism and dualism. it holds both of time and space. the whole sum of all these biogenetic processes is only a small part of the all-embracing cosmogenetic process. this period is probably much shorter than that which our planet has needed for its development as a cosmic body from the first detachment of the nebular ring from the shrinking body of the sun to its condensation into a rotating sphere of gas. yet ony. But even this long geogenetic as regards space and time. the stiffening of the crust at its surface. and we are just as far from admitting it as regulator or agency of the biogenetic process. chapter xx. As we regard plasm as the basis of it (chapter vi. and from this to the formation of the incandescent globe. If we understand by biogeny the sum total of the organic evolutionary processes on our planet. If we further assume that organic life develops on other cosmic bodies {Riddle. by geogeny the processes at work in the formation of the earth itself. and by cosmogony those that produced the whole world.

described it as "a poor romance". and so explained mechanicall3^ in the wider meaning of the word. The similar cosmogony which Kant had expounded in 1755 in his General Natural History and Theory of the Heavens only obtained recognition at a later date {Riddle. therefore. and the law of substance. Reymond." Especially in the second volume of the work. We must. attempt to do aim of which this in 1866 in my General Morphology. on the evidence of paleontolfiable. was established mathematically at the of the eighteenth century by the great atheist Laplace in his Mccanique Celeste (1799). of which it was a Even the famous Emil Duboisnatural consequence. to whom as a physiologist it should have been welcome.). the "General Evolution of Organisms. can be reduced to physiological activities of the plasm. mechanically grounded on Darwin's improvement of the theory of descent.THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE mechanical course was interrupted from time to time by the supernatural creation of or^^anisms is opposed to pure reason. When I stated the nature and the aim of phylogeny in 1866. most biologists regarded my attempt as unjusti- they did Darwinism itself." I endeavored to show that both sections of the science. the earth and the whole end material world. is I made the first comprehensive the expressed in the title: "General outlines of the science of organic forms. But the possibility of giving a mechanical explanation of organic nature was not seen until Darwin provided a solid foundation for the theory of descent by his theor}'' of selection in 1859. The mechanical and natural character of the development of inorganic nature. as 361 . he compared my first attempts to construct the genealogical tree of the organic classes. ontogeny (or embryology) and ph^dogeny. the unity of nature. hold fast above all to the conviction that all biogenetic processes are just as reducible to the mechanics of substance as all other natural phenomena. chapter xiii.

and on the other hand to prove the mechanical character of the phylogenetic process. Natural finality is only a The one is special instance of mechanical causality. in order to produce new purposive structures mechanically and without any preconceived This teleological mechanicism has no need of a design. in conjunction with the variability of species. nutrition. to give a comprehensive statement of the results attained. as a temporary hypothesis that would open the way single glance at the for later and better research. and ontogeny. it takes its place in the general order of mechanical causality which controls all the processes in the universe. on the one hand. subordinate to the other. As a matter of fact. as Kant itself tion. to the hypothetical labors of philologists to draw up the genealogical tree of the legendary Homeric heroes. literature of vSince A immense phylogeny in this to-day shows how much has been done province. My chief aim was. All the activities of organisms which are at work in the transformation of species and the production of new ones in the struggle for existence may be reduced to their my physiological ' functions —to growth. to construct a natural system of organisms on the basis of their ancestral history. not opposed to it. Systematic Phylogeny.THE WONDERS OF LIFE ogy. I had myself described my imperfect effort as merely a provisional sketch. and how far we have advanced in the establishment of the features of evolution by means of the united labors of numbers of able paleontologists. adapta- chemistry of the plasm. in the three volumes of Ten years ago I attempted. and embryologists. comparative anatomy. The struggle for life is a mechanical process. mysterious design or finality. 3<52 . in which natural selection uses the disproportion between the excess of germs and the restricted means of existence. and these again to the mechanics would have it. ^and and heredity. anatomists.

because it was the first attempt to give a natural explanation of the origin of the countless species of organic forms which inhabit our planet. The fact of the progressive modification of species is only intelligible on Lamarck's theory that the actual species are the transformed descendants of older species. nor can any one This may he said suggest a better theory to replace it. The high value of Darwin's theory of selection for the monistic biology is now acknowledged by all competent . This metaj^hysical creationism had in his Philosophie Zoologiqiic. New species arise species. the fundamental idea of transformism is now generally received it is admitted to-day even by metaphysicians who maintained a . Apart from this specifically Darwinian feature (whether it be true or not). heredity by transmitting the features thus acquired to posterity. But it onlv obtained general recognition when Darwin had supplemented it and filled up its causal gaps by the theorv of selection in 1859. and degeneration by disuse. Adaptation consists in the imjjrovement oT" — acts organs by use. In spite of spirited opposition to the learning and zeal with which the theory has been attacked. Lamarck explained the gradual formation of organic species l)v the interaction of two physiological functions adaptation and heredity. transformism deserves high appreciation from monists. to establish now to face physical evolutionism. mation from older by physiological transforThe fact that this great thought was overlooked for half a century docs not detract from its profound significance. Up to that time it had been the fashion to attribute their origin to a miraculous intervention of the Creator. it has proved irrefutable.THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE The effort that the great Lamarck made in 1809. the descent of man particularly of its chief consequence from a series of other mammals (proximately from the all — apes). it thirty years ago.

All these attacks have lately been met very ably by Plate in his work.THE WONDERS OF LIFE and impartial authorities on the of the forty-four years since it branch of biology. The arrogance of this conceited writer is about equal to the obscurity of his biological opinions. they also theology and metaphysics. it has been science. that Darwinism is in However. ignorance of the subject and its literature to say. which we will consider presently. marck's theory of descent received a sound causal basi^ — 364 . Hence it is mere to show its profound importance. its In the course found way into every employed in more than a hundred large works and several thousand essays in exThis alone is enough plaining biological phenomena. the confusion of which is covered by a series of most extravagant metaphysical speculations. One of the most conspicuous of these is Hans Driesch. recent defences of Darwinism is that made by August Weismann in his Lectures on the Theory of Descent (1902) and other works. or even "dead and buried. seem to obtain notice from the circumstance that a few botanists persistentlly attack the Darwinian theory. absurd decay. because they fall in with the prevailing superstition in Unfortunately. On the Significance of the Darwinian Principle of Selection and the Problem of the Foundation The most thorough of of Species (second edition. as has been done several times of late. But the distinguished zoologist goes too far when he seeks to prove the omnipotence of selection and wishes to ground it on an untenable molecular hypothesis the theory of germ-plasm. Apart from these or other we may say with Weismann that Laexaggerations. 1903). who affirms that all Darwinists (and therefore the great majority of modern biologists) have softening of the brain." writings of this kind (such as Dennert's At the Death-bed of Darwinism) have a certain practical influence. and that Darwinism is (like Hegel's philosophy) the delusion of a generation.

as I have often said. which started from the same monistic principles. struggle for life follows logically and the disproportion between the of potential individuals (germs) and of actual the individuals that grow to maturity and proi)agate the When I had. sometimes of value. this internal principle of evolution. M are treated explicitly as " chapter on archigony a dark and dangerous problem that is generally avoided by scientists! is one of the best that has been written on the sul)ject. in General Morpholof^y. one of our ablest and most echanical. of a purely mechanical and not a teleological nature. and had presented evolution as a comprehensive theory from my the point of view of the monistic philosophy.physiological philosophic botanists. and the struggle for existence. endeavored to gain acceptance for Darwin's theory of selection. adaptation. On the other hand. All three are." The — inner "definitely directed variation. Nageli rejects Darwin's theory of selection altogether." independently of As Weisthe conditions of existence in the outer world. and would ex])lain the origin of species by an — phylogenetic sciences. mann has properly observed. which made special studies of the various parts of the immense province. Its real foundations are these three phenomena: heredity.THE EV L U T I ON OF LIFE by Darwin's theory of selection. but reached the same conclusion by a difTerent way. Eighteen years afterwards a greater work was published. a number of works. In 1884 Carl Nageli. appeared. It is especially notable that evolution is presented in it as the one possible and natural theorv of the origin of species even morphology and classification . which dispenses with adaptation in the true 3^5 . Heredity is closely bound up with the physiological function of rcj)roduction. and adaptation with nutrition. issued his Evolution. mathematically from number species. This interesting book consists of Theory of various parts.

The desire to penetrate deeper into the mysterious processes that take place in the plasm in the physiological activities of heredity and adaptation has led to the formulation of a number of molecular theories. they deny progressive heredity and its connection with functional adaptation." or the wisdom of the Creator. 366 . This applies also to the theory of germ-plasm." But the idioplasm theory he connects with it is of some value.THE WONDERS OF LIFE sense of the word. the mutation theory of De Bries. that determines the origin of animal and plant species independently of the environment and its conditions. is not only found in the "mechanicalphysiological" theory of Nageli. or the divine creative thought. and who are particularly anxious to save the supernatural element. since it goes more fully into the differentiation of the the cell-plasm into two physiologically different parts when he and postulates a — idioplasm of the hereditary matter and the trophoplasm as nutritive matter of the cell. Reinke's "cosmic intelligence. etc. The chief of these are the pangenesis theory of Darwin (1878). The vitalist and teleological idea of an internal principle of evolution. the immense influence of the environment on the shaping and modification of organisms. but also in sev^eral other attempts to explain the agencies of the transformation of species. All these efforts are welcomed by the academic philosophers with their Kantist dualism (mechanicism on the right. vital force. my own perigenesis theory (1876). When." It is is at the not made more bottom merely a "phyletic acceptable by Nageli builds up a subtle metaphysical system on it special "principle of isagitation. moreover. the idioplasm theory of Nageli (1884). the germ-plasm theory of Weismann As I have (1885). teleology on the left). or fail to appreciate properly. All these dualistic and teleological efforts have the same fault: they overlook. they lose the chief factor in transformation.

ideas. determinants. consider more closely. But. one of our most distinguished zooloHe has not only promoted the theory of degists. scent by his many writings during the last thirty 3'ears. but has also put in its proper light the great importance and entire accuracy of the theory of selection. the inheritance of acquired characters. I am comHis ideas have pelled once more to dissent from him. however. because they have no theoretical basis and are of etc. one of them that we must ceived. In the interest of his complicated hypotheses. recently been completely refuted by Max Kassowitz (1902) in his General Biology. he has proceeded by way of metaphysical speculation While and consistency and the able treatment which Weismann has shown. because it is not only regarded by many biologists as the greatest advance of the theory of selection since Darwin. to frame a quite untenable theory of the plasm. in his efforts to provide a molecular-physiological basis for it. I may refer the reader thereto. and Ludwig Plate in the work I mentioned on the Darwinian principle of selecWe need not go into the details of the complicated tion. I mean the much-discussed germ-plasm theory of August Weismann (of Freiburg).THE EVOLUTION OF in the L 1 I" E already dealt with these in the sixth chai)tcr (as well as ninth chapter of the History of Creation). no practical use. but it also touches the roots of several of the chief problems of biogeny. fully recognizing the ability hypothesis as to the molecular structure of the plasm which Weismann has framed in support of his theory of heredity his theory of bio]:)hora. When I made the first attempt in 1866 to formulate — — — 367 . But we must pass some criticism on one of their chief consequences. and none of them has been generally reThere is. None of these or similar attempts has completely solved the very difficult problems in question. Weismann denies one of T^amarck's most important principles of transmutation namely.

the action of the hand or throat in painting or In these and all the arts the rule singing. "All organisms undergo important and permanent (chemical. p. I drew a distinction between conservative and progressive heredity (chapter Conservative heredity. or the inheritance of acquired characters. Lamarck recognized the and progressive heredity "law of cumulaii. I laid special stress on the tive adaptation" {General Morphology. Progressive heredity. universally to the physiological activity of the plasm. transmits to offspring a part of those features which were acquired by the parents in the course of their The chief of these are the characters individual lives. even its highest and most astounding function thought the memory and reasoning capacity of the phronema are improved by constant exercise of the cells which compose this organ. morphological. great morphological significance of this physiological use of the organs. and so on." 368 .. and physiological) changes when acted on by a change in its life-conditions. transmits to posterity the morphological and physiological features which each individual has received from his parents. decrease in the exercise of organs has the contrary effect. But this applies almost is: Practice makes perfect. just as we find in the case of the hands — .. inheritance of inherited characters. slight in itself. or the ix. We have examples at hand in the modification of the muscles or the eyes. Increase in the use of the organs causes a greater access of nourishment and promotes their growth. 208). correlation of direct adaptation in 1866. that are caused by the activity of the organs themselves. History of Creation). and the senses. but continuing for a long time or being frequently repeated. and did not doubt that the modification caused was transmitted When I dealt with this to offspring to a certain extent.THE WONDERS OF LIFE the phenomena of heredity and adaptation in definite laws and arrange these in series.

the close relation of I which to correlative adaptation Plate has recently given this had pointed out in 1866. Experimental proofs of this are difficult to find. However. The controversy about progressive heredity still conand there.THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE At the same time I pointed out that in this case two groups of phenomena are closely connected which are often separated namely.). A number of able biologists agree with him. by the reaction of the organism. many of them foolishly lay tinues here great stress on experiments in heredity which prove nothing. The latter element has been studied by Wilhelm Roux. for instance. his functional particularly adaptation (1881) coincides with my cumulative adaptabut it affected (energy of tion.). climate. etc. and secondly internal. pressure. that has had its tail cut off do not inherit the A number of recent observations seem to prove that in a few cases even defects of this sort (when they have caused profound and lasting disease of the part affected) may be transmitted to offspring.) not only causes a reaction of the organism movement. heat. "definitely directed variation" the name of ectogenetic orthogenesis. the fact that the offspring of a mammal feature.). because he cannot bring it into harmony with his germplasm theory. led away by his brilliant argumentation. the fact is of no consequence. electricity. sensation. the influence of internal conditions (habit. However. Weismann comjjletely denies it. 24 if one wants a 369 strict demonstra- . by the action of the external conditions (food. environment. or. briefly. and because he thinks there are no experimental proofs in support of it. in this it is a question of cumulative or functional adaptation. chemosis. etc. etc. etc. has an especial effect as a trophic stimulus on its nutrition and growth. use and disuse of organs. ectogenesis. as far as the formation of new species is concerned. cumulative heredity: firstly — external. The action of outer influences (light.

370 . However. declared that these academic ideas are unreliable tools ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' . physiological experiments ought to contribute to the solution of morphological problems. comparative anatomy. for instance. Comparative anatomy affords a number of most valuable arguments for other phylogenetic questions as well as progressive heredity. This means not only an extensive knowledge of anatomy. etc. especially those "exact" observers who erroneously imagine they can understand vast groups of phenomena by accurate description of detailed microscopic Many of structures. and the same may be said of comparative anatomy and comparative ontogeny. and embryologists have completely lost the larger view of their work by absorption in these details. our modern biologists lack these qualifications. To show the incalculable value of comparative anatomy for phylogeny. Wilhelm His. such as the distinction between homology and analogy.THE WONDERS OF LIFE tion of the type of physical experiments. They even reject some of the fundamental ideas of comparative anatomy. and ontogeny. ontogeny. I have collected and illustrated a good many of these proofs in the new edition of my Anthropogeny. histol- ogists. Many distinguished cytologists. Fisher (Zurich) have shown that changes in the environment (such as temperature or food) can cause striking modifications that are transmitted to offspring. the reader must have some acquaintance with the methods of critical comparison. and of these they can say nothing. and classification. but also practice in morphological thinking and reasoning. there are plenty of luminous proofs of progressive heredity in the vast arsenal of morphology. In any case. The beautiful experiments of Standfuss and C. in order to understand and appreciate them aright. the biological conditions are generally too complicated and offer too many weak points to rigorous criticism. On the other hand.

The elaborate finer structures which these established by the 371 . with the same internal skeletal structthe ure. the shovel-bones of the mole and hypudasus. the climbing bones of the ape. and it was afterwards solidly and empirically excellent investigations of Eduard the brothers Oscar and Richard Hcrtwig. etc. have devoted years of laborious research to the methodical comparison of these similar yet dissimilar forms. the wings of the bat. and these functional adaptations can only be understood by The theory of germ-plasm gives progressive heredity. the oar-bones of the whale and seal. no causal explanation whatever of them. show a very great variety in outer form slender bones of the running carnivora and ungulates. their various forms and — structures are adapted in scores of ways to different all functions. the limbs. the skeleton of the vertebrates.THE EVOLUTION OF LIKE I need only point to one of its most successful departments. The majority of recent biologists are of opinion that of the two chief constituents of the nucleated cell the cytoplasm of the cell-body discharges the function of nutrition and adaptation. I first advanced view in the ninth chapter of the General Morpltoloiiy (in 1866). but they rise tJirough these functions. from Goethe and Cuvier to Huxley and Gegenbaur. which. All these different skeletal forms have descended from the same common stem-form of the oldest Triassic mammals. the comparison of the various forms of the skull. which can only be explained in the sense of modern evolution by descent from common ancestors. and others. We have a striking example of this in the limbs of mammals. while the caryoplasm of the nucleus this accomplishes reproduction and heredity. It is not in vain that for more than a hundred years gifted scientists. and the differentiated limbs of the human body. Strasburger. They have been rewarded by the discovery of the common laws of structure. the vertebral column.

an abrupt modification of the specific form at a bound. and was logical theory welcomed by some as an experimental refutation of Darwin's theory of selection and by others as a valuable supplement to it. and so discredited Darwin's theory of their gradual change through long periods of time. chromatin. he thinks he has discovered a new method of the transformation of species. plasma-fibres makes it possible enough for all the cells in the body to act on the germ-plasm of the germ-cells. The distinguished botanist Hugo de Bries (of Amsterdam) gave an interesting lecture at the scientific congress at Hamburg in 1901 on "The Muta- At the beginning tions and Mutation-periods in the Origin of Species. is the real hereditary matter. and that the latter (the soma-plasm) cannot transmit to the germ-plasm the It is on the characters it has acquired by adaptation. De Bries has endeavored to 372 .THE WONDERS OF LIFE observers discovered in cell-division led to the theory that the colorable part of the nucleus. that this germ-plasm lives quite separately from the other substances in the cell. myself) do not accept this absolute separation of germplasm from body-plasm_. this of the twentieth century a new bioaroused a good deal of interest. Max influence Kassowitz has shown how we can explain by the molecular structure of the plasm. strength of this theory that he opposes progressive The representatives of the latter (including heredity. or the material substratum Weismann added the theory of the energy of heredity. In a large work on Experiments and Observations on the Origin of Species in the Plant Kingdom (1903)." Supported by many years of experiments in selection and some ingenious speculations. we believe that even in the process of cell-division in the unicellular organism there is partial blending of the two kinds of plasm (caryolysis) and that in the multicellular organism of the histona also the harmonious connection of all the cells by their .

" we can only say that this (relative) permanence of species is verv different in the different classes. In many classes (for instance. ii. while appreciating the interesting observations and experiments of De Bries. As I share their opinion. When he holds the constancy of species as a fundamental "fact of observation. p. birds. was not shared by zoologists. in his Lectures on the Theory of Descent (1902. have dealt fully with the theory of mutation. mutation of De Bries is on its logical side. p.THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE demonstrate the truth of his theory of mutation. and especially ve^^etal physiologists. Of these Wcismann. in the genera rubus and hieracium) hesitate to the variaVnlity is so great that classifiers draw up which De Bries ence between alleges cannot be carried through the fluctuating variations (which he takes to be unimportant) cannot be sharply distinguished from the abrupt mutations (from . and. striking changes of habit which De Bries observed only 373 . 358). and will restrict myself here to the following The chief weakness of the theory of observations. in other classes (such as sponges. have rejected the theory he has built on them. The various forms of variability marked differ- which new species are supposed to result at a bound). corals. De Bries's mutations (which I distinguished in the General Morphology as "monstrous changes" from other kinds of variation) must not be confused with the paleontological mutations of Waagen (1S69) and Scott The sudden and (1894) which have the same name. I may refer the reader who is interested in these difficult problems to their works. in his dog- matic distinction between species and variety. 174). fixed species. The warm approval which it won from a number of eminent botanists. mutation and variation. and Plate in his Problems of Species-formation (1903. insects. many orchids and graminea) we may examine thousands of specimens of a species without finding any individual differences.

not biological problems. in the brilliant speculations of De Bries and but also in many other botanical works that Nageli. The chief properties and activities of our muscles. that De Bries firmly convinced of the truth of Lamarck's theory of This descent. and cannot be regarded as common beginnings of the forma- new species. It must be carefully noted. nerves. must be well understood. because recent metaphysicians is see in the supposed refutation of Darwinism the death of the whole theory of transformism and evolution. and Fleischmann. The study of the corresponding phenomena 374 in the bodies of the higher plants is much more difficult. Dennert. have lately attempted to advance the theory of descent. and sense-organs. the views of the great Lamarck on the powerful influence tion of of functional adaptation have not been refuted by De Bries. The features of . It must be noted Not only particularly that the organism of the higher animals (including our own) is much more elaborately differentiated in its various organs and much more exposed to our direct experience than that of the higher plants. like all competent modern biologists. due to a disproportion of ability in the two great and neighboring camps of biology. skele- ton. are understood at once in comparative anatomy and physiology. Driesch. but to the differences in the phenomena that we observe in plant life on the one hand and animal life on the other.THE WONDERS OF LIFE in one single species of osnoihera very rarely occur. of course. we find a striking difference from the prevailing views of zoologists in the treatment of a number of general This difference is. in fact. It is a curious freak of chance that this species bears the name cEnothera Lamarckiana. they appeal in this sense to its most virulent opponents. we may remind them that the curious sermons of these minor sophists are When no longer noticed by any competent and informed scientist.

why the biogenetic law is not so generally recognized by botanists as by zoologists. therefore. Paleontology. eny of the plants encounters much greater dithculties than that of the animals. Of the various tendencies that have recently made their appearance among zoologists and botanists in the discussion of the theory of descent. For of the animal many body physiological purposes. in fact. can understand. for a clear and impartial treatment of the great problems of biology. gives us very little for most groups of the plant kingdom. and finally disappears altogether in the province of the unicellular forms of life. the large and sharply demarcated plant-cell. with its various organella. and especially of phylogeny. we frequently fiml as Neo-Lamarckism and Neo-Darwinism distinguished 375 .THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE the innumerable elementary organs in the cell-monarchy body are much more intricate. On the other hand. it is imperative to have a knowledge of both zoological and The two great founders of the botanical investigation. yet at the same time much more intelligible. is much more valuable in connection with many problems than the tiny animal-cell. the embryology of the former We says much less in detail than that of the latter. than those of the Thus the phylogcell-republic of the higher plant-body. is less in the kingdom of the protists. Hence. the higher plant is more accessible to exact physical and chemical The antithesis research than the higher animal body. theory of descent Lamarck and Darwin were able to penetrate so deeply into the mysteries of organic life and its development because they had extensive attain- — — ments both in botany and zoology. as the difference between animal and vegetal life is mostly conhned to difference of metabolism. which provides such valuable fossil material for many groups of the animal kingdom that we can more or less correctly draw up their ancestral tree on the strength of this.

. he alone has the honor of founding a totally new (and in his opinion very fruitful) form of transformism. however. Ontogeny enjoys the privileges (especially in the 376 way . and wants to trace everything to "the omnipotence of natural selection. De Bries. and other reject selection Neo-Lamarckists. It just as If wrong to call modern biologists who Nageli. I understood by this the whole science of the development of the individual. denies progressive heredity altogether. and to recognize the causes of its modiI made the first fication in the series of its ancestors. the theory of descent is right. as all competent biologists now admit. second and equally sound part ontogeny. The one principle that distinguishes Darwinism proper from the — older Lamarckism is the struggle for existence and the theory of selection based on it. marck or myself of the great importance of the inheritance of acquired characters. both embryology and metamorphology. as frequently happens is in England. It must endeavor to explain the actual organization of each by its past. This opposition has no meaning unless we understand by it the alternatives of transformism with or without the theory of selection. it puts on morphology the task of assigning approximately the origin of each living form. and particularly of the inheritance of functional adaptations he merely ascribed to it a more restricted sphere of influence than Lamarck. It is quite wrong to make the test an acceptance or rejection of progressive Darwin was just as firmly convinced as Laheredity." If this view of Weismann and the theory of germ-plasm he has based on it are correct.THE WONDERS OF LIFE opposing schools. attempt to achieve this difficult task in founding stemhistory or phylogeny as an independent historical science in my "General Evolution" (in the second volume of With it I associated as a the General Morphology). But it is quite wrong to describe this Weismannism as Neo-Darwinism. Weismann.

many scientists still seem 377 . our knowledge of the fossils is very scanty and often very imperfect. Although there has been very extensive phylogenetic research during the last thirty years. as it Paleontology seems to be the most reliable gives us tangible facts in the fossils which bear witness to the succession of species in the long history of organic life. oecology. involving most extensive knowledge and sound judgment. especially by chorology. this necessitates a thorough correctly. is neglected by both. the most difficult part of morphology. comparative anatomy. The task of is much more difficult. and it has yielded a number of interesting results. As I have also spoken of the general features of these phyletic evidences in the sixteenth chapter of the History of Creation. Besides these three sources of phylogeny there is valuable proof afforded by every branch of biology. while comparative anatomy. physiology.THE EVOLUTION OF E I F E of certainty) of a purely descriptive science. source. either the embryonic processes in the or the later metamorphic processes. Hence the numerous gaps in its positive evidence have to be filled up by the results of two other sciences. most paleontologists embryology. Most embr3^ologists neglect paleontology. Unfortunately. and biochemistry. I need do no more here than repeat that it is necessary to make equal and discriminating use of all three classes of documents if we are to attain the aim of phylogenv Unfortunately. knowledge of all three sciences. and this is very rare. when it confines itself to the faithful description of the directly facts. I have dealt fully with this in my AntJiropof^eny. comparative anatomy and ontogeny. and has to use its documents with the utmost prudence. The three most valuable sources of evidence in phylogeny arc paleontology. as it has to decipher phylogeny observed womb long-past processes by means of imperfect evidence. and ontogeny.

Jurassic. historical . some contest and say that they are nothing but airy and untenable speculations. This is especially the case with many physiologists who look upon experiment as the only exact method of investigation. Hypotheses are necessary in phylogeny and geolog}^ where the empirical evidence is incomplete. protest against the foolish dread of hypotheses which is urged against our phylogenetic methods by the 37S . and thus easier to construct. Phylogeny and geology are. It is no detraction from the value of these to urge that they are sometimes weak and have to be replaced by better and stronger ones. No one now questions the great importance and the various uses of this science. and clay).THE WONDERS OF LIFE to look on them with a certain distrust. and phylogeny (with the aid of ontogeny) constructs their ancestral trees. although in it there is no possibility of directly observing the historical processes as a rule. their historical hypotheses are just as sound and reliable as those of geology the only difference is that the latter are much simpler. sciences. in the nature of the case. No scientist now doubts that the three vast successive formations of the Mesozoic Period the Triassic. we is description. no one doubts to-day that the fossil skeletons of fishes and reptiles which we find in these groups are not mysterious freaks of nature. their scientific value altogether. sandstone. as in every other historical science. but the remains of extinct fishes and reptiles that lived on the earth during those millions of years long ago. though no one was a witness to the actual formation. We must. may recall the history and the nature of geology. A weak hypothesis is always better than none. and Cretaceous have been formed from sea-deposits — — (lime. And when comparative anatomy shows us the genealogical connection of these related forms. and many embryologists who think their sole task In view of these sceptical strictures. therefore.

in 1866. is reckoned an "exact" science. for instance. but he was quite unconscious of the real direction of this growth. to the opinion that "the laws of the development of the organism are still completely un- known. who had provided a solid foundation for it in his classic Animal Embryology (1828). Carl Ernst Baer. not on direct observation. and a feeble sense of causality. was convinced that all the phenomena of individual development might be reduced to the laws of growth. Until then embryology had been regarded as a purely descriptive science. even in the fourth edition (1884). and endeavored to give a physiological explanation of their morphological phenomena. The distinguished Wiirtzburg anatomist. its "purposiveness. Albert Kollikcr. not only by solved the phylogenetic problem of the origin of species. I also laid stress on the mechanical character of these sciences." the real causes of construction. The delusions into which it leads many scientists may be seen from the fact that chemistry. an incapacity for synthetic thought. I In opposition to this generally received endeavored. I have. from the first. whose Manual of Htiman Embryology (1859) gave the first comprehensive treatment of the science from the cellular point of view.THE EVOLUTION OF LIl^^E representatives of the exact and descriptive sciences. his improvement of the theory of descent. This shrinking from hypotheses often hides a defective knowledge of other sciences. to prove that Darwin had. All these hypotheses rest on inferences. ever since I distinguished these two parts of biogeny in the fifth book of the General Morphology." opinion. adhered. yet no chemist has ever seen the atoms and molecules of compounds with which he is occupied daily. 379 . insisted on the close causal connection between ontogeny and phylogeny. or the complicated relations on the assumption of which the whole of modern structural chemistry is based.

the multicellular organism develops from the same primitive embryonic form (the gastrula). or physico-chemical movements. of a corresponding stem-form (the In the second place.THE AVONDERS OF LIFE but. determined by the physiological functions of heredity and adaptation. I made the first attempt gastrcEo). depending on mechanical causes. ' the twentieth chapter of the General Morphology. of which I will quote only the following three i The development of organisms is a physio: . Ontogenesis is a brief and rapid recapitulation of phylogenesis. at the same time. in virtue of heredity. or the development of the organic individual. comprehensive fundamental law of organic development was briefly formulated by me in the fifth book of the General Morphology and in the tenth chapter of the History of Creation (developed more fully in the fourteenth chapter of the tenth edition. to a pure mechanics of the plasm (in the sense of the critical philosophy) . from the lowest sponges and polyps to the highest articulata and vertebrates. The in my tion theory Anthropogeny (1874) to illustrate this recapitulafrom the instance of our own human organ380 . 41. In the first place. I afterwards sought to establish it securely in two different ways. or the evolution of the organic logical process. 1902). The pith of my biogenetic principle is expressed in these and the remaining theses on the causal nexus of biontic and phyletic development. and to learn the causes of the I formulated this view in ontogenetic processes as well. given us the key to open the closed doors of embryology. and also phylogenesis. 40. At the same time I make it quite clear that I reduce the physical process of ontogenesis. is directly determined by phylogenesis. and that this is the ontogenetic repetition. stem (phylon) to which it belongs. in forty -four theses. Ontogenesis. I proved in my Studies of the Gastrcea Theory (18 7 2-1 87 7) that in all the tissue-animals.

and its philosophic In the very name. has recently described its biological significance and its earlier history and ])resent position in a very clear and reliable little Critics)." which that I have given to is my it universal. I will work {HaeckeVs Biogenetic Law and its only add a word or two on the struggle the complete law. still I plainer by the addition of sixty genetic may refer the reader to this work. stated. "fundamental law em- application. especially as one of my pui)ils. from the uni-l cellular protists to the crytogams and ccrlenteria. a part of tory. its ancestral his^ The very word "recapitulation" imj)lics a partial and abbreviated repetition phyletic development. of the course of the original determined by the "laws of — genetic law consists of two parts. and from these up to the flowering plants and vertebrates. I claim Every organism. adaptation causes a modification of them by the conditions of the environment a condensation. — Trans. one positive and palin* As already title.' and not dwell any further here on the biogenetic law. it will presently appear in England with the The Evolution of Man. recapitulation theory. reproduces in its individual development. of biogeny. Heredity brings about the heredity and adaptation. 3S1 . or falsiHence I insisted from the first that the biofication. by trying to cxpLiin the complex process of individual develo])mcnt. its that has taken place for thirty years over or partial recognition of the biogenetic pirical establishment. lleinrich Schmidt (of Jena). in virtue of certain hereditary processes. and endeavored to make the subject tables. for the whole frame and every single part of it. disturbance. this monistic In the latest edition of I "ontogeny of man" gave numbers of il- lustrations (thirty plates and five hundred engravings) of these intricate structures. by causal connection with the stem- history of our animal ancestors." reproduction of certain evolutionary features.THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE ism.

Oscar Hertwig. of the stem. genesis. who . Heinrich Schmidt has partly explained the causes of this change in his work on the biogenetic law. and cannot be too often repeated view of the persistent misunderstanding of It is in my oppooverlooked by those who (like Plate and Steinmann) grant it only a partial validity. This distinction is most important. They are not unconnected with the psychological metamorphosis which Oscar Hertwig has undergone at Berlin. as Keibel has rightly said. The embryologist Keibel is the most curious of these. cenogenesis disturbs or alters this history picture in consequence of subsequent modifications of the original course of development. It is especially unfortunate that one of our most dis- tinguished embryologists. ism and the unreliability of phylogenetic hypotheses are diametrically opposed to the opinions he represented at Jena twenty-five years ago. he openly accepted the duaHst principles of vitalism (although he says they are "just as unreliable as the chemico-physical conception The views which of the ODDosinsf mechanical school"). a complete abandonment of it. His supposed "correction" or modification of it is. and to those which his 382 . and by those who reject it altogether (like Keibel and Hensen).provided a good deal of evidence in favor of the biogenetic law thirty years ago. / o he has latelv advanced on the worthlessness of Darwin1 J. of Berlin.THE WONDERS OF LIFE genetic and the other restrictively negative and cenoPalingenesis reproduces a part of the original genetic. But he has so little mastered it that he has never understood the distinction between palingenesis and cenonents. as he has himself afforded a good many proofs of the biogenetic law in his careful descriptive-embryological works. In the discourse on "The Development of Biology in the Nineteenth Century." which he delivered at the scientific congress at Aachen in 1900. has lately joined the opponents of it.

The great success that modern experimental physiology achieved by its extensive emplovmcnt of ])hvsical 383 . have shown in the third chapter of the AnthroHence they have been humorously called the pogeny.THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE brother. who has rendered great service to ontogeny by his accurate and faithful illustrations of vertebratebut who has no idea of comparative mor])hology. and many later works. has consistently in his admirable Manual oj /ooloi^y. and so has framed the most extraordinary theories about the nature of organic development. folding of the embryonic layers. In opposition to the mechanical ontogeny which I formulated in 1866 and embodied in the biogenetic law." branched out in every direction. he says that this is and quite unnecessary for the explanation of by-way. a number of other tendencies in embryology afterwards appeared. Although they were at first much admired. bending. The chief of these to attract attention thirty years ago were maintained the pseudo-mechanical theories of Wilhelm His. His endeavored to explain the complicated ontogenetic phenomena on direct and simple physical lines by reducing them to elasticity. In his Study of tlie descriptions First Sketch oj the Vertebrate-body ("1868). embryos. while explicitly rejecting " a mere the phylogenetic method. nature rather plays the part of an ingenious tailor pseudo-mechanical and tectogenetic speculations. they have found a number of supporters lately in various branches of emin His's as I bryology. they misled a few embryologists by opening the way to a direct and purely mechanical explanation of the complex embryonic phenomena. the ontogenetic facts (as direct consequences of physioAs a matter of logical principles of development). with the common title of "mechanical embryology. of Munich. etc. and immediately afterwards abandoned. Richard Ilcrtwig." fact." However. "tailor theory. and..

particularly in regard to the physiology and pathology of the embryo at the earliest stages of development. Experiments on the origin of species have very little value." This single principle clearly expresses the essence of our monistic conception of organic development: to the first. I adaptation. especially careful embryological experiments also. contains. dividual and phyletic. and the strongest supports of Both departments become accessible dualistic vitalism. Psychology and biogeny have been up to the present regarded as the most difficult branches of biology for monistic explanation. The Archiv filr Entwickelungsmechanik. and this similar results in is generally true of However. if in biogeny he is not content with a mere admiration of the wonderful phenomena. and which depends on the interaction of heredity and In regard it possible to explain both. formulated the following principle thirty years ago in my first study of the gastraea theory: " Phylogenesis is the mechanical cause of ontogenesis. which is edited by the chief representative of this school.THE WONDERS OF LIFE and chemical experiments inspired a hope of attaining embryology by means of the same "exact" methods. have yielded some interesting results. but desires to under- 384 . a good number of ontogenetic articles. experiments on the first stages of ontogenesis. to monism and a mechanico-causal explanation by means The close correlation which it of the biogenetic law. as I said before. which partly rely on and partly ignore the biogenetic law. besides these valuable inquiries. But the application of them in this science is only possible to a slight extent on account of the great complexity of the historical processes and the impossibility of "exactly" determining historical matThis is true of both branches of evolution. establishes between individual and phyletic development. makes In the future every student will have to declare himself for or against this principle. inters. Wilhelm Roux. the latter.

every kind and of dualistic and metaphysical explanation. I would lay stress particularly on the fact that. pendium descent — or phylogenesis pro-formation of or it is not. The irreconcilable opposition between the leading principles of the two is clear. In repeating these principles here.THE EVOLUTION OF El F E stand their significance. our "mechanical biogeny" is one of the strongest supports of the monistic philosophy. If the physiological functions of heredity and adaptation are proved to be the sole causes of organic construction. Either ontogenesis is a brief comof teleology. The principle also makes clear the wide giilf that separates the older teleological and dualistic morphology from the modern mechanical and monistic science. is excluded from the province of hiogeny. Either epigenesis and and creation. 3S . in my opinion. Either there is or is not a direct and causal connection between ontogeny and phylogeny.

while other millions replace them every individ. before we seek to estimate the value of man's life.XVII THE VALUE OF LIFE Changes of five tion. The same "eternal iron laws" that rule the evolution of the whole cosmos conMonism teaches that the universe trol our own life. middle. the most highly developed natural being that we know. and higher) in each of the four classes — Individual and value of in the sections of nutrition. Monistic anthropology has now established the fact that man is but a tiny part of this vast whole. now that evolution is established. impartial survey of the history of organic life on our planet teaches. reproduction. An 386 . we will cast a glance at the sig- — nificance of organic life generally. We are now accustomed to regard man as a natural being. life THE light value of human life is seen by us to-day. movement. a placental mammal. Millions of animals and plants die every second. deserves its name. and is an all-embracing unified really whole whether we call it God or Nature. developed from a branch of the order of primates in the later Tertiary Period. first of all. that it is a process of constant change. in quite a different from fifty years ago. Hence. —Aim of — Progress of —Historic aims— —Value of classes and races of men — Psychology of uncivilized races — Savages — Barbarians — Civilized nations — Educated nations — Three stages of development (lower. sensa— Estimate of human and mental life life life Historic waves life in social civilized life life.

and stems leads slowly but surely to the formation of new species. and other giant trees. or whether they explain the origin of each special living form mechanically by The older anthropistic idea. Its existence and "end" The progressive development of classes are transitory. whether. the dragon-tree of Orotava. like the unprejudiced teleologist. as well as the — species — episode. stant but change. that animals and plants were created for man's use. teaches unequivocally that every specific living form has only existed a longer or shorter period in the course of the many (more than a many Even the . Phylogeny. hke the one-day fly or the infusorium. history' of On this point is an end to itself. they believe in an entelechy or dominant as regulator of the vital mechanism. Every special form of life the individual circles. Man is no exception." said the old maxim. hundred) million years which make up the organic life. and not a single one has lived in all the periods. or. the collection of like individuals. both 387 . thinkers are agreed. whether it Hvcs only a few hours. and so are the orders and classes that embrace numbers of species of animals and plants. is just as transitory. and looks above all to self -maintenance. The historical succession of species and classes is. is no longer acceptBut it is just as true of the species as of the individual that it lives for itself. species. selection and epigenesis. and that the relations of organisms to each other were Every living being all generally regulated ed in scientific by creative design.THE VALUE OF L I F I^: ual has his definite period of Hfe. taking its stand on the facts of paleontology. is therefore merely a biological a passing phenomenal form in the constant " Nothing is conchange of life. Most species are confined to a single period of the organic history of the earth few species or genera pass unchanged through several periods. hves for thousands of years. Hke the Welhngtonia.

" and regard its imperfect earlier condition as a deliberately conceived preparatory stage. and its imperfect predecessors were conceived as preparatory stages to the attainment of this aim. In point of fact. dipneusta only begin in the Devonian.THE WONDERS OF LIFE and the plant kingdom. and the angiosperms in the Cenozoic age. who. as they are given in paleontology. I have dealt with the subject in my History of Creation. This is directly and positively taught by paleontology. and at the same time shown that both the progressive improvement and the increasing variety of the species can be explained in the animal a slow and mechanically as necessary consequences of selection. Of the metaphyta the ferns are the chief groups in the Paleozoic. hail it as a "chosen people. the fossils. It was like the conduct of many historians. are unequivocal and irrefutable witnesses to this phylogenetic advance. accompanied by steady progress in organization. its creation-medals. I need only refer to the two conspicuous examples we have in the briefly stem-history of the tissue-plants and that of the vertebrates. these evolutionary stages were bound to proceed according as the internal structure (given by hereditv) and the outer conditions 388 . Of the vertebrates only fishes are found in the Silurian age. when a particular race or state has reached a high rank in civilization as a result of its natural endowments and favorable conditions of development. most developed form of each stem was taken to be the preconceived aim of the series. Scientific and thorough proof of this will be found in the three volumes of my Systematic Phytogeny (1894). the gymnosperms in the Mesozoic. There was no need of a conscious Creator or a transcendental purposiveness to effect this. A number of false teleological conclusions have been drawn from these facts of progressive modification of The latest and forms. and the first mammals are in the Triassic.

. for instance. the colossal dinosauri. their intrinsic aim. in the Tertiary Period powerful mammals.THE VALUE OF LI FE We cannot admit (provokin. self -maintenance. in periods of decay the hollows of the waves often persist for a long time. we find a good deal of vacillation in detail. but in their relations to other living things and to nature as a whole thev are 389 of very . and lizards are only a feeble remnant of the enormous reptile-fauna that dominated the Secondary Period. the ferns of to-day are only a feeble survival of the huge and varied pteridophyta that ing groups formed the most conspicuous part of the paleozoic forests in the Devonian and Carboniferous periods they were ousted in the Secondary Period by their gymnosperm descendants (cycadea and conifers).iT adaptation) determinc(L any conscious direction to a certain end. and are then succeeded by a fresh rise to the crest of another wave. ichtyosauri. and plesiosauri. pterosauri. Although the stem-history of i)lants and animals. These few examples suffice to show that the various classes and orders of living things have a very different In regard to value when comy)ared with each other. crocodiles. bringing with them a higher stage of organization. it is true that all organisms are on a level. serpents. New and rapidly advanc- come to take the place of the old decaying groups. For this we must substitute a simi)le mechanical causahty in the sense of psycho-mechanical monism or hylozoism. These historical waves are wholly irregular. In the history of civilization the Middle Ages form a deep valley between the crests of the waves of classical antiquity and modern culture. like the history of humanity. and these. Thus. tortoises. They were replaced in the Tertiary Period by the smaller but more So among the terrestrial again. by the angiosperm flowering reptiles the modern plants. shows a progressive advance taken as a whole. either in the form of theistic predestination or pantheistic fmahty.

Not only may larger animals and plants retain domination for a long time in virtue of their special use or superior force and mass. they are. parasites. and so have. peculiar in a very imperfect to the higher races. fungi. but small ones may prevail owing to their power of inflicting injury In the same way the (bacteria. do not at all tally with the facts. are very realistic. we must. undervalued. on the whole. etc. that raise man so much his nearest animal rel- mammals. and But is this is. of the mind that makes above the other animals. value of the various races and nations is very unequal in human history. On the other hand. the civilization possible. Hence we can explain many of the errors of the idealistic philosophy and many of the practical mistakes that have strictly regulated 390 . it is true. small country like Greece has A almost dominated the mental life of Europe for more than two thousand years in virtue of its superior culture. as a rule. and have been in touch with the natives for centuries. . parts (Peru they have proved incapable of advancing. Though the great differences in the mental life and the civilization of the higher and lower races are generally known. assign a totally different value to their lives. the value of life at the different levels is It is civilization and the fuller development falsely estimated. as a rule.THE WONDERS OF LIFE unequal value. form or not at all found only among the lower. and quite different from the ideas that prevail in Germany. therefore. the various tribes of American Indians developed a partial civilization in some and Central America) but. even atives. Our idealistic notions. by our academic wisdom and forced by our metaphysicians into the system of their abstract ideal-man.). The views on the subject of European nations which have large colonies in the tropics. These lower races (such as the Veddahs or Australian negroes) are psychologically nearer to the mammals (apes or dogs) than to civilized Europeans.

they are also partly due physicians generally or the introspective to the fact that meta- mind —a make their scientifically trained own highly developed reason the starting- — point of their inquiry. The grave errors that have been maintained in psychology for centuries are mostly due to a neglect of the comparative and genetic methods and the narrow employment of self-observation. ethics. and faith." important work deals with thought. or ** the stor\' of the natural evolution of religion 391 " (fctichism. these would have been avoided if we had had a better knowledge of the low psychic life of the natives (<. the writings of Gobineau and Lubbock). the second with will. Fritz Schultze (of Dresden) made imagination. the valuable attempt in his interesting Psychology of the Savage (1900) to give us an "evolutionary psychological description of the savage in respect of intelligence./. and phylogenetically deduced the soul of civilized man therefrom. would have avoided many of the defects of his critical philosophy. or the categorical imperative) if he had made a thorough and comparative study of the lower soul of the savage. he aesthetics. and thus build up their ideal scheme. of late years (by Lubbock. The extreme importance of this comparison has only — been first fully appreciated etc. and religion. and would not have formulated some of his powerful dogmas (such as the immortality of the soul.THE VALUE OF LIFE been made in the recently acquired German colonics. and regard this as representative of the human mind in general. The first book of this will. At the same time.). . The gulf between this thoughtful mind of civilized man and the thoughtless animal soul of the savage is enormous greater than the gulf that Kant separates the latter from the soul of the dog." us "a history of the natural creation of the human gives Romanes. method. and the third with the religious ideas of the savage.

with pointed belly. Most of them are. but is also very useful in connection with the question of the value of life at the different stages. . The lowest and oldest savages come very close to the anthropoid apes from which they have descended. Savages. They are woolly haired and flat-nosed. in bodily structure and habits. various stages of civilization and mental development (not according to racial affinity) I. In an appendix to the second book the author deals with the difficult problems of evolutionary ethics. They pygmies of small stature. in regard to the (1898). and partly on trees. and live in forests and caverns. 4. They live isolated lives in families or scattered in small groups. have no homes. wander about in small families of ten to forty persons. A. Savages. thin and short legs. educated : As this classification of Sutherland's not only races. They are ignorant of agriculture and the — breeding of cattle. fishers or hunters. 3. Lower savages. I. and higher orders in this class — savages. civilized into four great classes races. quite naked. approaching nearest to the ape. and a half feet four and three-quarters) the women somehigh (rarely times only three to three and a half feet. The Origin and Growth of the Moral Instinct Sutherland divides humanity. I will briefly reproduce the chief points of his characterization of the four classes. four to four . and wild animals of all kinds). supporting himself by the authority of the great work of Alexander Sutherland. Their food consists of wild natural products (the fruits and roots of plants. therefore. and have no fixed home. barbarians. or with just a trace of some primitive garment. enables us to take a good survey of the various forms of mental development. worship of the heavenly bodies). We may distinguish three the lower. middle. Of the lower races now living 392 .THE WONDERS OF LIFE animism. of a black or dark brown color. 2.

the Kimos of Madagascar. however. somewhat larger and less apelike than the preceding. which approach closely to the anthropoid apes. averaging five to five and a half Their homes are rock caverns and feet in height. and xxiii. still live in various parts of the primitive forests of the Sunda Islands (Borneo. certain races. 1 F E we must put in this class the Veddahs of Ceylon. Other scattered remnants of these ancient negroid dwarfs. shelters from the wind and rain. Middle savages. the Negritos of the Philippines. the Semangs of the Malay Peninsula. the Akkas of Guinea. wander in troops of fifty to two hundred. On the strength of fossil remains of Julius Kollmann has shown it to be that similar dwarf races (with an average very probable height of four and a half feet) inhabited Europe at that time. Though they have shirts and other rudiments of clothing. and have no social organiTo this zation. in the same simple form in find which we these among the anthropoid apes {cj. 393 . of Celebes). agree in this opinion. Our own ancestors were probably much the same ten thousand or more years ago. Their only interests are food and reproduction. both sexes gen- Pleistocene men erally go naked.THE VA LUE OF 1. All recent in travellers who have carefully observed native lands. Sumatra. group belong the Australian negroes and Tasmanians. the Andaman Islanders. and studied their bodily psychic life. of my Anthropogeny). they have primitive weapons of wood and stone and rudely fashioned boats. have laws. thorough treatment of the Veddahs of work of the brothers Sarasin (of which them their structure and Compare the I Ceylon in the have given a summary in my Travels in Ceylon). B. and the Bushmen South Africa. chapters xv. or very higher. The value of the of the life of these lower savages little is like that anthropoid apes.

The of their food consists of natural products. etc. — The greater part secure with which they some foresight. bronze. Nagas. hence they have developed agriculture and pasture to a greater or less extent. and some of the forest races of Brazil. tools of stone. the Samoyeds. Lower Barbarians. Dwellings: Simple huts. Macas. the negroes of Damara. C. A. As a is slight. but very simple: the men often naked in hot climates or with shirt. 394 . To this group belong many of the primitive inhabitants of India (Todas. As a result of this. They have generally fixed dwellings. the Hottentots. mostly of average human height (smaller in colder regions). or bone. each rule. Groups of one thousand to five thousand persons able to form larger communities. the Nicobar Islanders. Barbarians or Semi-savages. They have always primitive clothing. or copper. led by prominent but not ruling princes. having always simple dwellings (generally of skins or the bark of trees). wood. The method of life is determined by hereditary customs. and most of the Indian tribes of North and South America. They wander in troops of one hundred to five hundred. and good weapons of stone. Clothing worn regularly. Pottery and cooking utensils. a stock of family supplying its own food is provided for the whole year. and exhibiting rudimentary differences of rank. . Of this group Princes rule according to traditional laws. division of labor wants. generally grouped into villages and surrounded with plantations. distinctions of rank and warfare. Higher savages. Curumbas. art begins to develop.). but less than that of the barbarians. 11. and Kamtschadals in Africa. The value of their life is very little superior to that of the preceding order.THE WONDERS OF LIFE the Ainos of Japan. Fuegians. Rudiments of commerce by exchange. Their life is higher than that of the pithecoid lower and middle savages.

usually solid stone Clothing obligatory. Europe the Lapps belonged to this class two hundred years ago. Fantis. no rudder-ships. the Dyaks of Borneo.. though nudity is not con- Pottery. Middle barbarians. distinctions progressive division of labor and hereditary of rank. . and Kirgises. ance with traditional laws. of Nicaragua and Guatemala. States ruled by kings in accordsidered immoral. Basutos. B. 395 . fixed distinctions of rank. tools Restricted commerce. the Battaks of Sumatra. Bhecls. C. well developed. Masses of people. sometimes reaching half a million souls. with buildings. To this class belong in Asia most of the Malays (in the large Sunda Islands and the period. etc. and metal -work Commerce in regular markets. Dwellings good and durable. rudimentary writing. etc. metal-work far advanced. New Zealand. and in America the Iroquois and Thlinkets.). New Caledonia. Clothing general. weaving habitual occupation of the women. Tonga. Crude judicature in fixed money. the ancient Germans two thousand years ago. peninsula of Malacca). under an autonomous ruler. Higher barbarians. pretty with the use of money. Bcchuanas. New Hebrides. etc. in Australasia the aborigines of New Guinea. weaving.THE we have VALU E OV LIFE in Asia many of the aboriginal inhabitants of India (Mundas. Khonds. communities up to one hundred thousand persons. etc. Mombuttus. and the Greeks of the Homeric Dwellings.) in Polynesia the inhabitants of In the Fiji. Shilluks. Paharias. and the nomadic in Polynesia the islanders of Tahiti and Arabs. the Romans before Numa. Samoa. Fellahs. generally of wood. etc. Owampos. and Markcsas islands. with minted generally of iron. in Africa the Kafhrs. To these belong in Asia the Calmucks. . forming fine towns. races of Tartars. courts. and the inhabitants . in Africa many negro races (Ashantis. roofed with cane or straw. Tunguses.

Kabyles. as there III. The citizens see that they must submit to the laws of the state. Laos. — complete mutual dependence. the literary instruction of the young is attended to. Towns with stone walls. Korea. use of the plough in War is intrusted to a particular class. built of stone and brick. Beautiful temples and Windows come into palaces. belong in Asia the inhabitants of Thibet. Babylonians. and the settled Arabs and Turcomans in Africa the Algerians.THE WONDERS OF LIFE Hawaii. the Jews under the Judges. Literature begins to develop. Writing use. and written books are general. Assyrians. Tuaregs. Moors. Art and science are consequently developed more and more. Nepaul. in Africa the Somalis and Abyssinians. . and 39^ . Phoenicians. Annam. Bhutan. Middle civilized races. is Writing firmly established. fixed To this group courts. vast architectural works in stone. and the English under the Norman kings. etc. and the inhabitants of Zanzibar and Madagascar. the Greeks after Marathon. the Romans at the beginning of the republic. and the Mexicans and Peruvians at the time of the Spanish invasion. Birmans. Militarism is further developed. Lower civilized races. Manchuria. B. the Romans of the time of Hannibal. Civilized Races. primitive law-books. A. Commerce expands. The increasing specialization brings about a great elaboration of individual functions. Of these we have in Asia the Persians. Carthaginians. the Anglo-Saxons of the Heptarchy. and at the same time a great strengthening of the whole body politic. and sailing-ships. so are legislation and advocacy. Tunisians. Afghans. agriculture. Of historical races we have the ancient Egyptians. Of the historic peoples of antiquity we have the Greeks of the time of Solon. Food and complex vital needs are easily satisfied on account of the advanced division of labor and improvement of instruments.

first Capets. The social organization grows and facilitates the play of all the social forces. water and wind mills. also the Turks oflficials history and the various republics of South America. The highly centralized state embraces communities of ten millions or more. etc. and Higher civilized races. and higher in the — — To the first fourth as well as in the preceding classes. Cultivated R. streets . Numbers of government have settled rank. human labor being rei3laced by natural forces. — Food fame depend less on military bravery than on mental Legislation is influenced by representasuperiority. promoted by state aid. IV. Writing general. canals.xed and written codes of law are officially promulgated and a])plied by courts to particular cases. the Romans of the later re])ublic. Beginnings of scientific navigation and warfare. rank and the first duties. literature esteem. paved chimneys. C. stage he assigns "the leading nations of Eurojie and 397 . in Euro])e the Finns and Magyars of the Of historical peoples we must eighteenth century. Fi. middle. In we have the Romans of the empire. written books widely distributed. Alexander Sutherland distinguishes three stages of development the lower. and man obtains a great freedom to cultivate his mental and aesthetic qualities. To this group belong in Asia the Chinese.\ces. count among them the Greeks of the age of Pericles. and Germans of the fifteenth and other needs are supplied with the greatest ease and in abundance. Printing is in general use. Japanese. artificially century. Art and science arc increasingly tives of the j)eoj)lc. and Hindoos. English. and the Italians. Stone houses general.THE VALU E OF LIFE Siamese. French.ed. the Jews under the Macedonian rule. the education of the young one of War becomes less important. France under the England under the Plantagenets.

3. the first half of the sixteenth century. that may not come one thousand to two thousand years yet. The new impulse to scientific investigation independently of stition 398 . crime and punishment rare. Lower cultured races (Europe. A. Small armies and fleets of all the nations co-operate as a sort of international police. 2. with this definition: "All — are well fed and housed. but breaks out now and again. The discovery America by Columbus (1492) and of the East Indies by Vasco da Gama (1498). we notice the preparatory movements to the full growth of mental life which v/as to achieve such great results in the following periods: i. war is universally condemned. nineteenth century. sixteenth to eighteenth century." This division seems to me too vague and unsatisfactory. sixteenth to eighteenth century). and third." For the second stage middle cultured races he gives a program. men a subject for prophecy. 4. in the sense that it does not properly emphasize the civilization of the nineteenth century in contrast with all preIt would be better to distinguish proceding stages. such as the United States of North America. the first circumnavigation of the earth by Magellan (1520) and the evidence it afforded of the rotundity of the earth." Of the third and highest stage Sutherland merely says.THE WONDERS OF LIFE — their offshoots. for "Too bold visionally the following stages in first. culture is general. modem civilization: second. At the commencement of this period.me that may be carried out in three or four hundred years' time. The liberation of the mind of Europe from the papal yoke by Martin Luther (15 17) and the repulse of the prevailing super(1543) maintained of by the spread of the Reformation. twentieth century and the future. The cosmic system of Copernicus by Galileo (1592). commercial and industrial life are directed according to the moral precepts of sympathy.

Til E VALU K () F LI FE scholasticism and the Church and of the jjhilosophy of Aristotle. telegraphs. as the reactionary civilization of the Middle Ages was still powerful in political and social life. to which we children of However. 1450) and wood-engraving. Especially 3. the monistic and realistic 4. and gen. Construction of philosophy. and the struggle against superstition and unreason made slow progress. The overcoming of time and space by the extraordinary speed of transit (steamboats. these great advances. ness of the nations on account of having a share in government and legislation. it was confined at first within narrow limits. 5. The spread of scientific knowledge by the press (Gutenberg. and 2. founding of the cell-theory (1838). Deepening. Middle cultured races. 399 . experimental grounding. Increasing self-consciousfiction of the Churches. B. prehensive application of this theoretical science to all branches of art and industry. The for modern civilization by these and other advances in the sixteenth century. This name may be given to the leading nations of Eurojje and North America in We may illustrate in the folthe nineteenth century. and it quickly arose above the barbaric level of the Middle Ages. lowing achievements the great advance which this "century of science" made as compared with all preceding ages: i. Increasing influence of rational scientific instruction and abandonment of the religious 6. 5. The French Revolution (1792) at last gave a great im- way was prepared petus in practical directions. the founding of empirical science by Francis Bacon (1620). electrotechnics. the law of energy (1845). However. Practical and comthe theory of evolution (1859). eral spread of a knowledge of nature independent establishment of many new branches of science. in opposition to the prevailing dualistic and mystical views. railways. extinction of the belief in the divine New distinction of classes. right of rulers.

THE WONDERS OF LIFE the nineteenth century may point with pride. all these shades. ecclesiastical power. "Love thy neighbor as thyself. owing to new dis- of every kind. are suppressed. in spite of of modern civili- we look to the future with hope 400 . justment of a rational balance between egoism and altruism is the aim of our monistic ethics. be greatly altered in practical life. will bring greater The artificial producsatisfaction of our needs of life. will be found in the golden rule. duel^will be abolished. they are struggUng daily with reactionary views and powers in Church and state. The chief interest of the state will be. way reason is permitted to have its and the present evil customs. tion of albumin will provide plenty of food for all. are far from being universal. based if on antiquated dogmas. C. decisions will suffice to settle — — coveries in physics and chemistry. of which we are all more or less sensitive. The improvement of technical methods. The higher culture ling. A perfect ethic. free from all religious dogma and based on a clear knowledge of natural law. Legal the quarrels of nations. Many barbaric customs that are still regarded as necessary war. and with ancient and venerable immorality which we are just beginning to glimpse will set itself the task of creating as happy and contented a life as possible for all men. have been Nordau in his Conventional Lies of will laid bare by Max They Civilization." Reason tells us that a perfect state must provide the greatest possible hapThe adpiness for every individual that belongs to it. etc. with militarism. with special attention to art and science. the luminous features zation are so great that But. as they now do of individuals. but the best possible instruction of its young. not the formation of as strong a military force as possible. rational reform of the marriage relations will increase A the happiness of family life. The darker sides of modern life.

Agrifishing. modem civilization. and compare its citizens to tlie a higher tissue-animal. and the gathering of roots and fruits. The feeding and condition of the social body as a — manner in the The savage is whole have been improved by as in the case of the individual. movement. on the other. reproduction. modern state ual of the cells of first as an elaborate organism (a "social individorder"). self-main- tenance. and the centralization of society. prepare the social than in isolation. housing. and mental life. If we regard the in order to realize the progress made. on the one hand. just of chemand agriculture has enabled us to produce food istry The ease and rapidity of transfer in larger quantities. The progress allow it to be distributed over the whole earth. and permit the addition of aesthetic and intellectual interests to the indispensable search for food. met in a much more it perfect modern satisfied state than was formerly. We need only glance Ijack half a and compare life to-day with what it was then. The first is need of the individual organism. sensation. and clothing provide a secure and comfortable existence for man. let us compare the personal and the social value of life in the five chief fields of vital activity body for higher functions — nutrition. portionately more clearly. the difference between the state of to-day and the crudest family groups of savages is not less than that between a higher metazoon (such as a vertebrate) and a cocnobium of protozoa. and proTo see this increase the worth of its life. with the raw products of nature with hunting. century. ^Lany stages of barbarism and lower civilization must be passed before the conditions of feeding.THE VALUE OF LIFE and confidence. culture and pasturage come later. The progressive division of labor. Scientific medicine and hygiene have discovered many means of diminishing the dangers of disease and preventing its a6 401 .

The family life proves The a source of higher and finer enjoyment for both parties.. not in the momentar}^ 402 . Philanthropic societies are busy supplying the material and spiritual wants of vaIt is true there is still a broad rious classes of sufferers. her rights obtain further recognition. In most savages and barbarians the satisfaction of their powerful sexual impulse is at the same low stage as in the ape and other mammals. public gardens. popular restaurants. until it reaches a high guarantee of permanency in the formal marriage. it cannot be denied that the provision of food in the modern state is an immense advance upon that of the Middle Ages and of the barbaric period. Improvement is slow and gradual in the value of this property. or even a slave without rights. But. on the whole. greater care is taken of the health of the communit}^ The arrangement of modern houses and their heating and lighting have been immensely improved. and in addition to sensual love the psychic relation of man and wife beThe common concern for the proper gins to develop.THE WONDERS OF LIFE occurrence. care and education of the children. which finds its highest satisfaction. The woman is merely an object of lust to the man. margin for the improvement of the national well-being. bought and exchanged like all other property. etc. With the advent of a higher stage of civilization begins the refinement of sexual love. leads to the further development of family life and the founding of the school. which we find to an extent even in the case of many animals. By means of public baths. position of woman advances with civilization. gymnasiums. Modern social politics strives more and more to extend these benefits of civilization to the lower classes. The great value of modern civilization and its vast progress beyond the condition of the savage is seen in no branch of physiology so conspicuously as in the wonderful process of reproduction and the maintenance of the species.

not only because it satisfies the natural and irresistible sex-impulse in its noblest form. but must go back to the verv real and natural and then there can be no quesqualities of the organic being tion that the organic sex-impulse. the other the spring of altnu'sm: from the one come all unfriendly and from the other all friendly feelings. for the individual civilized human being this higher love is of value. As a pure marriage is the best form of family life and the most solid foundation of the state. but also because the good and — mutual influence of the sexes. and of all real ethical and sympathetic feehngs antl the morality — There are two primitive instincts in all organisms: that of self-maintenance and that of the maintenance of the species. its high social value is at once evident. The attraction and mutual devotion of the sexes fulfils in the highest degree the ethical golden rule the balance of egoism and altruism. 403 . Hence love has been for thousands of years the chief source of the aesthetic uplifting of man in every respect.THE VAL UE OF L I F E gratification of the sex-impulse. however sj)iritual. Every being seeks founded thereon. The one is the strong impulse of egoism. as one of the most important ends of by every individual of the higher nations. However.which psychologically and both is upon individual character. at once physical and j)sycliical is the first and enduring source of all Invc. painting. has a great effect and happy marriage — not very common —ought to be regarded. their complementary qualities and their common enjoyment of the highest A good to-day life ideal good. music. The beautiful then unites with the the true to form a harmonious trinity. or in any metaphysical abstraction. and sculpture have drawn inexhaustively from this source. As Fritz Schultze very truly says in his Comparative — Psychology We must not seek the causes of this altruism in the transcendental region of the supernatural. but in the spiritual relation of the sexes and their constant and intimate intercourse. physiologically. the arts —poetry.

looking not only to itself. but the whole. But soon the magic of the instinct for the maintenance of the species works in it. we find the roots of all sympathetic and really ethical altruistic feelings. the genus. and however sensual this love is at first. of all real moral feeling and life. like their ancestors. the family is rightly held to be the chief source spheres. Thus. it enlarges when children enter into life. to use the horse for riding and to higher savages began tame it. from this it widens out to larger Hence. but to that of another.THE WONDERS OF LIFE first to nourish and protect itself in virtue of its instinct of selfmaintenance. and much later again civilization offers in the races. not only to its own good. of children. with its strong physical and psychic roots. and thinks it is only satisfying its egoistic lust in yielding to it. lived in trees. In this it is wrong. not only in the human. is developed the love of spouses. Later the barbaric tribes invented the wagon. and of neighbor. and is extended to them in the form of parental love. in this organic and natural family love. And though this feeling at first only unites the two parents. were paved and vehicles improved by civilized But the nineteenth century brought the invaluable means of rapid and convenient travelling by means streets 404 . Many inhabitants of the coast or islands began at an early period to make boats. but also in the animal world. the species. it feels the sex-impulse. but to another. The further ennoblement appreciation. the anthropoid apes. The ardor of love burns in it. and finding its own good only in that of the other. and only Some of the gradually began to run on the ground. out of the sex-impulse of the maintenance of the species. of family life in the advance of civilization will give fresh proofs of the truth of this We now turn to consider the advantages that modern way of movement in contrast to the simple methods of locomotion of the savage. and in the sense of the family that comes of it. goes even to the extent of sacrificing its own life for its young. of Disinterested egoism parents. the new feeling is undeniably a feeling of belonging to another and of mutual consideration. We may point out first that the earliest men. it is not really serving itself.

from Europe to India now takes three weeks. transit provided by balloons. we can now The journey travel two hundred kilometres in an hour. antl the corresponding development of the net-work of railways and steamboat routes. presses we cover in an hour a stretch of country that the mail-coach took five times and the foot-passenger ten times as long to cover. As the ex])eriments with the Berlin electric railway have lately shown. The easy. whereas the earlier sailing .THE VALUE OF LIFE and railways. and in the last few decades further vast chanj^es have been made owing to the advance of electricity. automobiles. large number of offices which provide steady employment and means of subsistence for many thousands. Modern ideas of time and space of steamboats transit are quite different from those of our parents sixty years In our exago. This apj^lies also to the more rapid bicycles. This progress in the means of transit is not less If we conceive the valuable socially than personally. and convenient transport of the means of life from the centre to the most distant parts of the land. To compare the complex sensations of civilized man with the much simpler ones of the savage ^ve must 405 .vessel took as many months. It is easy to estimate the value of these improvements. or our grandparents ninety years ago. state as a unified organism of the higher order. rapid. The immense saving of time that we make is equivalent to a lengthening of our own life. are to a certain extent direct tests of the degree To this we must add the creation of a of civilization. the development of its means of transit corresponds in many ways to that of the circulation of the blood in the vertebrate frame. etc. The wh(ile jiroblem of was revolutionized. but it is only fully appreciated by those who have lived long in an uncivilized country without roads or among savages whose legs are their only means of locomotion.

When we remember that our higher psychic functions (sensation. the functions of the outer organs of sense in the cortex of Fritz Schultze has pointed out in his Psy- chology of the Savage.THE WONDERS OF LIFE consider first and then the internal sense-processes the brain. music for the ear. as they warn him of the dangers about him. is just the reverse with the subjective and proximate feelings that are excited by the immediate touch of objects and are the special instruments of sensual en- joyment taste. the civihzed human being a man of mind-Hfe. The external sense-action is more intense in quantity. and the inner sense-perception with the central sensori- um the sense-centres of the cortex). we shall expect more developed in the savage and the former in civilized man. sex-sense. Moreover. etc. It smell). We need only mention the fields of knowledge that have been opened to us by the microscope and telescope. and feeling of temperature. presentation. this is especially true of the and more complex sense-functions which we call aesthetic sensations and regard as the source of art and poetry. in regard to both sets of organs. will. Most strongly developed of all in the savage is the power of perceiving distant objects (sight. and thought) are anatomically connected with the phronema (the thought-organ in the cortex). although he can 406 — — . in the (in to find the latter savage than in civilized finer man . perfumery for the nose. the refined chemical methods of modern The finer aesthetic enjoyment which our cooking. touch. that the savage is a man of sense-hfe. But in both kinds of sense-action the civilized man is far ahead of the savage in respect of the finer shades of feeling and aesthetic education. but weaker in quality. hearing. — modern civilization has provided man with various means of vastly increasing and improving the natural power of his senses. advanced art affords plastic art for the eye. cuisine for the tongue is generally unintelligible to the savage.

1 have already dealt in various chapters with this point. and an appreciation of the beauties of nature must be created by means of walks and travels. also be fostered must aesthetic exercises. their promotion by their embodiment in the training of the first art and forms by drawing and painting. the incalculable science. Comparative psychology shows us." his and that activity that civilized man calls is so often regarded as a is merely a higher development of the psychic function we find at a lower level in the savage. and need not enlarge on it any further to estimate the high personal value of kind of miracle. And in the senses of near objects (taste. which leads from the simple cell-soul of the protist up to the intelligence of man. than farther. Then the children of civilized races will have the inexhaustible sources of the finest and noblest pleasures in life opened to them in good time. The art-sense by the exhibition of models ami by a larger place must be given to artistic education along with the acquisition of real knowledge. We have. and young. and hear and smell much more civilized man. touch. to remind the reader of the vast treasures 407 It is of enough knowledge . in the treasure of modern the state. and is shared by him with the higher vertebrates. mental life in every civilized human being. the long scale of development. and incapable of the fine gradations of civilized man. leading them to a closer observation of nature and reproduction of its place. training the senses of children as well as their intelligence from the earliest years. In the future the higher races are likely to give more attention to this.THE VALUE OF see LI F E much acutely. temperature) the senses of the savages are more coarse. as I have explained in the seventh chapter of the Riddle. The higher psychic "mental life. This more refined sense-life and the accompanying aesthetic enjoyment have no less social than personal value.

that lie open to every one of us at the commencement of treasures of which our grandthe twentieth century at the beginning of the last century had not parents the slightest presentiment. Just as the individual has experienced a great advance in the value of his personal life by the higher culture of the nineteenth century, so the modern state itself has The many discoveries benefited by it in many ways. made in every branch of science and technical industry, the great advance in commerce and industrial life, in art and science, were bound to bring about a higher development of the whole mind of a modern community. Never, in the whole of history, has true science risen to such an astounding height as it has at the beginning of the twentieth century. Never before did the human mind penetrate so deeply into the darkest mysteries of nature, never did it rise so high to a sense of the unity of nature and make such practical use of its knowledge.

These brilliant triumphs of modern civilization have, however, only been made possible by the various forces co-operating in a vast division of labor, and by the great
nations utilizing their resources zealously for the attainment of the common end. But we are still far from the attainment of the ideal. The social organization of our states is advanced only on one side; it is very reactionary on other sides. Unfortunately, the words of Wallace which I quoted in the Riddle remain as true as ever. Our modern states will only pass beyond this condition in the course of the twentieth century if they adopt pure reason as their guide instead of faith and traditional authority, and if

they come at length to understand aright "man's place
in nature."
If we take a summary view of all that I have said on the increase in the value of human life by the progress of civilization, there can be no doubt that both the








personal and the social value of life arc now far higher than they were in the days of our savage ancestors. Modern life is infinitely rich in the high spiritual interests that attach to the possession of advanced art and science.

We live in peace and comfort in orderly social and civic communities, which have every care of person and
Our personal life is a hundred times finer, and more valuable than that of the savage, because it is a hundred times richer in interests, experiIt is true that within the limits ences, and pleasures.

of civilization the differences in the value of



enormous. The greater the differentiation of conditions and classes in consequence of division of labor, the greater become the differences between the educated and uneducated sections of the community, and between their interests and needs, and, therefore, the value of This difference is naturally most conspicuous their lives. if we consider the leading minds and the greatest heights of the culture of the century, and compare these with the average man and tlie masses, which wander far below in the vallev, treading their monotonous and

weary way in a more or less stupid condition. The state thinks quite otherwise than the individual man does of the personal worth of his life and that of his The modern state often demands for its profellows.
In the tection the military service of all its citizens. eyes of our ministers of justice the value of life is the same whether there be question of an embryo of seven months or a new-born child (still without consciousness), an idiot or a genius. This difference between the personal and the social estimate of life runs through the whole of our moral ]:)rinciples. War is still believed by highly civilized nations to be an unavoidable evil, just as barbarians think of individual murder or bloodrevenge; yet the murder of masses for which the modern state uses its greatest resources is in flagrant contradic-


tion to the gentle doctrine of Christian charity which it its priests to preach every Sunday with all


The chief task of the modern state is to bring about a natural harmony between the social and the personal estimate of human life. For this purpose we need, above all, a thorough reform of education, the administration of justice, and the social organization. Only then can we get rid of that mediaeval barbarism of which Wallace speaks to-day it finds expression triumphantly in our penal laws, our caste-privileges, the scholastic nature of our education, and the despotism of the Church. For each individual organism the life of the individual is the first aim and the standard of value. On this rests the universal struggle for self-maintenance, which can be reduced in the inorganic world to the physical law of To this subjective estimate of life is opposed inertia. the objective, which proceeds on the value of the individual to the outer world. This objective value increases as the organism develops and presses into the general stream of life. The chief of these relations are those that come of the division of labor among individuals and their association in higher groups. This is equally

true of the cell-states which


call tissues

and persons,

of the higher stocks of plants and animals, and of the herds and communities of the higher animals and men. The more these develop by progressive division of labor

and the greater the mutual need

of the differentiated

individuals, so much the higher rises the objective value of the life of the latter for the whole, and so much the lower sinks the subjective value of the individual. Hence

between the interests of infollow their special life-aim and those of the state, for which they have no value except as parts of the whole.
arises a constant struggle





Dualistic ethics

— imperative — Monistic ethics — Morals andThe adaptation — Variation and adaptation — Habit — Chemistry of habit — Trcjphic stimuli — Habit — Instincts — instincts — Instinct and inorganic bodies — — morality Rij^ht and duty Morals and morality — The good and the bad — Morals and fashions — Sexual selection — Fashion and the feeling of shame — Fashion and reason — Ceremonies and cults — Mysteries and sacraments — Baptism — The Lord's Supper— Transubstantiaticni — The miracle of — — redemption Paj^al sacraments Marriage — Modern fashions — Honor— Phylogeny of morals.

higher animals, ruled by impulses and customs which we describe as "moral." The science of morality, ethics, is regarded by the dualists as a mental science, and closely connected with religion on the one hand and psychology on the other. During the nineteenth century this dualistic view retained its popularity especially because the great authority of Kant, with his dogma of
the categorical imperative, seemed to have given it a and because it agreed admirably with Monism, on the other hand, the teaching of the Church. ethics as a natural science, and starts from the regards
solid foundation,







like that of all the social

principle that morality is not supernatural in origin, has been built up by adaptation of the social mammals to the conditions of existence, and thus may be traced


ITcncc eventually to physical laws. 411


biology sees

no metaphysical miracle in morality, but the action
physiological functions.

Our whole modern civilization clings to the erroneous ideas which traditional morality, founded on revelation,
and closely connected with ecclesiastical teaching, has imposed upon it. Christianity has taken over the ten commandments from Judaism, and blended them with a
mystical Platonism into a towering structure of ethics. Kant especially lent support to it in recent years with his Critique of Practical Reason, and his three central dogmas. The close connection of these three dogmas

with each other, and their positive influence on ethics, were particularly important through Kant formulating
the further

dogma of the categorical imperative. The great authority which Kant's dualist philosophy

obtained is largely owing to the fact that he subordinated pure reason to practical reason. The vague moral law for which Kant claimed absolute universality is expressed " So act that the in his categorical imperative as follows: maxim (or the subjective principle of your will) may at the same time serve as a general law." I have shown in the nineteenth chapter of the Riddle that this categorical imperative is, like the thing in itself, an outcome of dogmatic, not critical, principles. As Schopenhauer says:
Kant's categorical imperative is generally quoted in our day under the more modest and convenient title of "the moral law." The daily writers of compendiums think they have founded the science of ethics when they appeal to this apparently innate "moral law," and then build on it that wordy and confused tissue of phrases with which they manage to make the simplest and clearest features of life unintelligible, without having ever seriously asked themselves whether there really is any such convenient code of morality written in our head, breast, or heart. This broad cushion is snatched from under morality when we prove that Kant's categorical imperative of the practical reason is a wholly unjustified, baseless, and imaginative






Kant's categorical imperative is a mere dogma, and, like whole theory of practical reason, rests on dogmatic and not critical grounds. It is a fiction of faith, and
directly reason.

opposed to the empirical principles of pure

The notion of duty, which the categorical nnpcrativc represents as a vague a priori law implanted in the human mind a kind of moral instinct can, as a matter

of fact, be traced to a long series of phyletic modifications of the phronema of the cortex. Duty is a social sense

that has been evolved a posteriori as a result of the complicated relations of the egoism of individuals and the altruism of the community. The sense of duty, or conscience, is the amenability of the will to the feeling

obligation, dividuals.

which varies very considerably



study of the moral law, on the basis of evolution, ethnography, and history, teaches physiology,


precepts rest on biological grounds, and have in a natural way. The whole of our modern morality and social and juridical order have evolved in the course of the nineteenth century out of the earlier and lower conditions which we now generally regard as things of the past. The social morality of the eighteenth century proceeded, in its turn, from that of the seventeenth and sixteenth centuries, and still further from that of the Middle Ages, with its despotism, fanat-

us that


been developed

icism, Inquisition,

and witch trials. It is equally clear from modern ethnography and the comparative psychology of races that the morality of barbarous races has been evolved gradually from the lower social rules of savage tribes, and that these differ only in degree, not in kind, from the instincts of the apes and other social
of the vertethat the social instincts of the brates shows, further, mammals and birds have arisen from the lower stages of


The comparative psychology


the reptiles and amphibia, and these in turn from those of the fishes and the lowest vertebrates. Finally, the phylogeny of the vertebrates proves that this highly developed stem has advanced through a long series of invertebrate ancestors (chordonia, vermalia, gastrseada) from the protists by a process of gradual modification. We find, even among these unicellulars (first protophyta, then protozoa) the important principle which lies at the base of morality, association, or the formation of communities. The adaptation of the united cell-individuals to each other and to the common environment is the physiological foundation of the first traces of morality among the protists. All the unicellulars that abandon their isolated eremitic lives, and unite to form communities, are compelled to restrict their natural egoism, and make concessions to altruism in the common interest. Even in the globular ccenobia of volvox and magosphaera the special form and movement and mode

of reproduction are determined by the compromise between the egoistic instincts of the individual cells and the altruistic need of the community. Morality, whether we take it in the narrower or broader sense, can always be traced to the physiological function of adaptation, which is closely connected

through nutrition with the self-maintenance of the organism. The change in the plasm which adaptation brings about is always based on the chemical energy of metabolism (chapter ix.). Hence it will be as well to have a clear idea of the nature of adaptation. I defined

as follows in


General Morphology


Adaptation or variation is a general physiological function of closely connected with their radical function of nutrition. It expresses itself in the fact that every organism may be modified by the influence of the environment, and may acquire characters which were wanting in its ancestors. The causes of this variability are chiefly fotmd in a material correlaorganisms,







between parts of the orj^^anism and the outer world. Variability or adaptability is not, therefore, a special orj^anic function, depends on the material, physico-chemical process of


I have developed this conception of adaptation in the tenth chapter of the History of Creation. The nature of the adaptation and its relation to variation are often conceived in diflercnt ways from that
I have defined. Quite recently Ludwig Plate has restricted the idea, and understood by adaptation only variations that are useful to the organism. He severely



broader definition, and

calls it

"a palpable

error," suggesting that I only retain it because 1 am not open to conviction. If I wanted to return this grave
I might point to Plate's one-sided and perverse treatment of my biogenetic law. Instead of doing this I will only observe that I think the restriction of adaptation to useful variations is untenable and misleading. There are in the life of man and of other organisms thousands of habits and instincts that are not useful, but


either indifferent or injurious to the organism, yet certainly come under the head of adaptation, are main-

We find tained by heredity, and modify the form. of all sorts useful, partly indifferent, partly adaptations partly injurious (the result of education, training, disin the life of man. and the domestic tortion, etc.) animals and plants. I need only refer to the influence Even the origin of the useof fashion and the school.


(and often injurious) rudimentary organs depends on


This a second nature, says an old proverb. the full ap])reciation of which came is a profound truth, to us through Lamarck's theory of descent. The formation of a habit consists in the frequent repetition of one to physiological act, and so is in j)rinciplc reducible










frequent repetition of one and the same act, which is closely connected with the memory of the plasm, a permanent modification is caused, either in a positive or a negative sense; positively the organ is developed
or enfeebled

and strengthened by exercise, negatively it is atrophied bv disuse. When this accumulation of

slight changes continues, the effect of adaptation goes so far in time as to produce new organs by progressive

modification, or to cause actual organs to



and rudimentary, and
sive metamorphosis.

finally disappear,

owing to

a careful study of the simpler procwe see that they like all other adaptations, on chemical changes depend, in the plasm, and that these are provoked by trophic stimuli that is to say, by external action on the metabesses of habit in the lower organisms,

When we make


As Ostwald

rightly says:

"The most impor-

tant function of organisms is the conversion of the various chemical energies into each other. The chemical energy that is taken into the organism as food is not
generally capable of being applied directly to its purposes, but needs some further preparation. Every cell

a chemical laboratory, in which the most varied reactions take place without fires and retorts. The most frequently employed means in this is probably the

catalytic acceleration of the usable and the catalytic retardation of the useless reactions. As a proof of this we have the regular presence of these enzyma in all organisms." In this the greatest importance attaches to memory, which I regard with Hering as a general

property of living substance, "in virtue of which certain processes in the living being leave effects behind them that facilitate the repetition of the processes." I agree with Ostwald that "the importance of this property cannot be exaggerated. In its more general forms it effects
adaptation and heredity, in its highest development the 416





conscious memory." Wliile the latter, and consciousness in general, reach the highest stage in the mental life of civilized man, the adaptation of the monera remains at the lowest stage. Among the latter the bacteria especially,

which have assumed the most varied

relations to other organisms in spite of the simplicity of their structure, show that this manifold adaptation depends on the formation of habits in

and important

the plasm, and

is solely based on their chemical energy, or their invisible molecular structure. Once more the

monera form a connecting link between the organic and inorganic; they fill up the deep gulf, from the point of " " view of energy, that seems to yawn between animated
organisms and "lifeless" bodies. According to the prevailing view, habit is a purely biological process, but there are processes even in inorganic nature which come under this head in the broader sense. Ostwald gives the following illustration:
equal tubes of thin nitric acid and dis5kDlve a metallic copper in one of them, the li(iuid will acquire the power to dissolve a second piece of the same metal more (]uickThe cause of this ly than the one that remains unchan.t,'e(l. phenomenon which inay be observed in the same way with mercury or silver and nitric acid-— is that the lower oxydes of nitrogen that are formed in dissolving the metal accelerate the The action of the nitric acid catalytically on the fresh metiil. same effect is produced if you put part of these oxydes in the acid

we take two



then acts much more rapidly than pure acid. The fonnation of a habit consists, therefore, in the [)roduction of a catalytic acceleration during the reaction.

not only compare inorganic habit with organic adaptation, which we call habit or practice, but also with "imitation," which im])lies a catalytic transfer of
habits to socially united living beings. By instincts were formerly understood, as a rule, the unconscious impulses of animals which led to purposive 27 417

We may

actions, and it was believed that every species of animal had special instincts implanted in it by the Creator. Animals were thought, according to Descartes's view, to be unconscious machines whose actions proceed with

unvarying constancy in the particular form that God Although this antiquated theory of instinct is still taught by many dualistic metaphysicians and theologians, it has long since been demolished by the monistic theory of evolution. Lamarck had observed that most instincts are formed by habit and adaptaDarwin and tion, and then transmitted by heredity.

had ordained.

Romanes especially showed afterwards that these inherited habits are subject to the same laws of variation as other physiological functions. However, Weismann
has recently taken great pains in his Lectures on the Theory of Descent (xxiii.) to refute this idea, and in general the hypothesis of an inheritance of acquired characters, because it will not harmonize with his theory of the germ -plasm. Ernst Heinrich Ziegler, who has recently (1904) published a subtle analysis of former and present ideas of instinct, agrees with Weismann that "all instincts are due to selection, and that they have their roots not in the practice of the individual life, but in the variations of the germ." But where else can we " " find the cause of these -variations except in the germ laws of direct and indirect adaptation ? In my opinion, it is just the reverse; the remarkable phenomena of instinct yield a mass of evidence of progressive heredity, completely in the sense of Lamarck and Darwin.

The great majority of organisms live social lives, and so are united by the link of common interests. Of all

which determine the existence



species, the chief are those which bind the individual to other individuals of the species. This is at once clear from the laws of sexual propagation. Moreover, the

association of individuals


a great advantage in the


mammals (apes. When a certain habit is regarded by all the members of a community as important. which have been formed by adaptation personal conditions. acquired by adaptation. based physiologically on and the habits or morals The habits of the inthe organization of their brain. because it is accompanied by an extensive division of labor.MORA struggle for existence. gregarious camivora. and their laws are afterwards taught as sacred duties. opposition of the two instincts is all the greater when reason recognizes that each has a right to satisfaction. 1> 1 TY In the case of the higher ani- mals this association becomes particularly imi)ortant. become hereditary in his family: and these family usages can no more be shar])ly distinguished from the general morals of the community than these can be from the precepts of the Church and to his the laws of the state. and form the basis of the juridical order. The laws which have been formed in these cases by the higher 419 . Social habits become moral habits. geese. so rich in psychological and are nothing more than social in- stincts. its cultivation favored and its breach punished. and ungulates) and the flocks of social birds (hens. An attempt has been made to distinguish between the two kinds of habit by describing the instincts of animals as constant vital functions based on their physical organization. it is raised to the position of This is true even in the case of the herds of a duty. Then arises the antithesis of the personal egoism and the communal altruism and in human societies the . The morals sociological interest. like all their other psychic ftmctions. of nations. however. and passed on from generation to generation by heredity. of human beings as mental powers maintained by a spiritual tradition. This distinction has. dividual man. been excluded by the modern physiological teaching that men's morals are. ducks).

the desire of personal immortality. confirms us in the conviction that a long scale of intermediate stages joins the rudiments of law in the social primates and other mammals to the sense of law in the lower savage. we find that religion has arisen polyphyletically from different sources an- — cestor worship. or only form loose temporary associations of a few famiThe great progress made by comparative psychollies. Only a few of them survived in the struggle for existence. When we study its origin from the point of view of empirical psychology and monistic evolution. the craving for a causal explanation of phenomena. Many of these organized bands are in some respects higher than the savages at the lowest stages who live in isolated families. supersti- by the authority tion of various kinds. the commands of religion come originally from the morals of the savage. etc. But as independent and impartial science advances in our time. religion is 420 . and this again to that of the barbarian and the civilized human being right up to the science of — law in modern Europe. According as the imagination of the savage or the barbarian followed one or other of these lines it raised up hundreds of religious forms. in the second half of the nineteenth century. and eventually from the social instincts of the primates.THE WONDERS OF LIFE development of social instincts are particularly striking and equivalent to those of savage tribes when conspicuous individuals (old or strong males) have acquired a leadership of the troop. ogy and ethnology. The important province of mental life to which we give the vague name of religion was developed at an early stage among the prehistoric races from whom we all descend. and acquired (at least outwardly) doj minion over the modern mind. the strengthening of the moral law of a divine law-giver. Like civil laws. and successfully insure the observance of the proper habits or duties. and historical and prehistorical research.

Fritz Miillcr. have shown Weismann. Just as natural selection insures the relative constancy of the specific form in the origin of the animal and plant species. often quite irrational customs. both in life and in the nature of the case ])ractical reason life. morality and immorality. The ideas of good and bad. but also on the power of selection. When insects of a certain family come to resemble in their outer form and color and design those of another family. butterflies. and others. in numbers of instances how the origin of these deceptive 421 . hvmenoptera. etc. so it has a pow- on the origin of morals and customs. An imfactor in this is mimetic adaptation. However clearly and rationally the individual thinks about the important questions of practical he has to yield to the tyranny of traditional and As a matter of fact. The tyranny of custom in practical life does not depend merely on the authority of social usage. Wallace. human toms society to rules that have arisen from social cusThus we get the familiar confusion of manners and morals. Bates. ligion The obedience to the "divine commands" wliicli redemands of its followers is often transferred by of subordinate kinds. acters give in the struggle for life.MORA purified of superstition L I TV and turns more and more to morality. does take that precedence of pure reason which Kant claimed. they obtain the protection or other advantages which these particular charDarwin. the moral pressure which is exercised by conventional ideas in the social body on the conduct and minds of its members. portant the aping or imitating of certain forms or fashions by erful effect various classes of animals. are subjected to In this a great part is played by arbitrary definitions. This is unconscious in the case of many orders of insects. or mimicry. beetles. of conventional outer deportment and real inner morality.

a scientific sense." when used in practical life. etc. these interesting facts in the eleventh chapter of the History of Creation. are to be explained. is not merely an expression of contempt. ful coloring (beard. The great importance which Darwin ascribes in his Descent of Man to the aesthetic selection of the respective sexes is equally true of man and of all the higher vertebrates that have a feeling of beauty. But many customs and usages in human life arise in just the same way. birds.. and reptiles). the apes. the peculiar form of the lips. ears. The growth of fashion in civilized life is very important. as we find them in man and the male ape. and must refer the reader thereto. It is most closely connected with ethical problems. etc. the I have dealt fully with bird of paradise. and how important they are in the formation of the species. Sexual selection among the primates has a good deal to do with this. hair of head. I will only point out here how is valuable the whole of this chapter of Darwinism for the understanding of the foundation of species on the one hand and men's fashions and customs on the other. it correctly indicates the origin of fashions by imitation. not only for the development of the sense of beauty 423 .). partly by conscious and partly by unconscious Of these the varying external forms which imitation. The beautiand marking and ornamentation which disthe males from the females are due entirely tinguish to the careful individual selection of the former by the Thus the various kinds of ornamental hair latter. etc. nose. but has also a profound meaning. the tint of the face. pheasant. and also the peculiar resemblance we find in this respect between man and his cousins.THE WONDERS OF LIFE resemblances can be traced to natural selection. also the brilliant plumage of the humming-bird. we call "fashions" have a most important influence in The phrase "fashion-ape. especially the amniotes (mammals.

partly to vanity and love of decoration (such as ornamenting the ears. but partly to low temperature (in the polar regions). nose. the aesthetic seeks to judge everything by its own standard. As the features of civilized life advance. while the rest of the body may remain naked. The lower savages have no more sense of shame than animals or children. In most nations the sexual parts are the first to be covered though some attach importance to the veiling of the In many Oriental tribes (especially Mohammeface. lips. and we have the covering of certain parts of the body with leaves. to learn the causes of phenomena and direct practical life accordOn the other hand tradition. Reason result is a severe conflict between the two. and psychological relations of the sexes play the chief part in the higher development of morals. etc. looks at everything from the point of view of our forefathers It is and and other venerable laws and religious precepts. ly speaking. flowers. General. life practical of every individual 4-^3 be framed in accordance . stones. and sex-organs by the insertion of shells. or "good morals. girdles. the influence of reason increases. hut also in connection with the origin of the feeling of shame and the finer psychological traits that relate to it. The beginning of clothing which we find among the middle savages is not due to a sense of shame." ingly.MORA L T T ^' and for the sexual selection of the sexes. and so does the power of hereditary The tradition and the moral ideas associated with it. dan) it is still the first precept of female chastity to veil the face (the most characteristic part of the indiviiiual). pieces of wood. They are quite naked.). and accomplish the sexual act without the slightest trace of shame. shirts. etc. Afterwards the sense of shame sets in. Morality is often taken to be synonymous with the law of sexual intercourse. indifferent to the independent discoveries of reason It demands that the the real causes of things.

and sacrifices of all sorts that form part of the cult are more or less concerned with the mysterious. The festivals. which continues in our Sometimes in the course of it a "new fashday. their power of forming abstract concepts is very little developed." They are often made the pretext of sensual gratifications. is substituted for some sacred tradition. or science and religion. it is regarded in much the same light as the older morality. the Akkas of Central Africa) are very little higher than their primate ancestors in mental development. and when this has contrived to win general acceptance. and animism. As their ideas are for the most part concrete and sensual.THE WONDERS OF LIFE with the hereditary morality of the race or state. These ceremonies lead on in the higher races to the great religious festivities. Thus we get the inevitable conflict between reason and tradition. But with the middle savages we begin to find the craving to know the causes of things and the idea of spirits that are Dread of concealed behind the phenomena of sense. processions. fetichism. the Veddahs of Ceylon. dances. the older pagan and Jewish religious usages were afterwards developed in the Christian Church those From 424 . This is also true of their habits of life and morals. we find certain Even at this early stage of worship customs associated with the cult to which a symbolical or mysterious meaning is given. which end in gross immorality and orgies. these leads to worship. the be- own ion" ginning of religion. a transitory custom that succeeds in imposing itself by its noyelty or curiosity. they have hardly any religious ideas to speak of. hymns. and are therefore considered "holy. The lowest races of the present time (for instance." Sensual images of various kinds are mixed up in them with supersensual ideas and superstitions. which the Greeks called "mysteries. or has gained the support of Church or state to some extent. the pithecoid pygmies.

especially after Gregory the Great introduced the dogmas of Purgatory and the relieving power of the Mass. but was unshaken. confirmation. penance. or the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ. orders. who founded the dogma of original sin. These miraculous sacraments. parts of the cult which arc The papal authorities fixed their number at seven (baptism. The superstitious content of these sacraments was generally lost sight of in the glamour of their ceremonious side. held that the baptism of children was necessary for the salvation of their souls. Millions of Christians still believe that the child's soul is saved (though it has no consciousness whatever when baptized) and delivered from the power of the devil and the curse of sin by baf)tism. Israel celebrated their release from the Ixindage of Egpyt and their distinction as the "chosen people.M ( ) RAL TY I known as sacraments. Thomas of Aquin. and extreme unction) in the twelfth century. and is a continuation of the paschal sujiper of the Jews. the sacraments are channels that convey the grace of God to sinful man." By connecting his head of the house shared bread and wine with . Au^istine. their authority — Christian baptism is a continuation of the older ceremonies of washing and purification that were in use thousands of years before Christ amone^ nations of the East and amonj^ the Greeks. They combined the hygienic value of the bath with the idea of a regeneration of the soul and spiritual purification. by the mysterious action of which man is supposed to be born a^^ain or rcj^'cncrated. The second sacrament that Luther retained is the Lord's It Supper. It has since given rise to a number of superstitious ideas and unfortunate family troubles. Since the Reformation the Protestants have retained only the two chief sacraments which were founded by Christ himself Baptism and the Lord's Supper. According to St. matrimony. was instituted by Christ r)n the night before his death. very quickly became powerful instruments in the hand of the Church and thorny problems for theologians. in wljich the his family with In this paschal supper the people of certain ritual ceremonies. but it is still regarded as a sacred ceremony. and it then became general. eucharist.

Like baptism. the believer must be reminded that he must live as an obedient and self-sacrificing child. We were actually to perceive this change when we assisted at the Supper for the first time." From the cradle to the grave. Luther. is the only intermediary between man and God. The aim of Romanism is to-day. No one who has any idea of history and of the metamorphoses of religion can question that Romanism is a miserable caricature of primitive Christianity. saw in the Supper only a symbolical act and a commemoration of Christ. as it was a thousand years ago. not the flesh and I had to regard myself (then a blood that faith had desired. But I was very painfully disillusioned when I found only the familiar taste of bread and wine. but has departed farther and farther from the stand-point of pure Christianity. Christ sought on the one hand to found the new dispensation on the old. however. the Lord's Supper led afterwards to the bitterest controversy among theologians. it retains the name. and to whom I was greatly attached. the papacy has raised up the marvellous structure of the Catholic hierarchy. boy of fourteen years) as an utterly abandoned sinner. Luther and Zwingli. The differences of opinion as to the Eucharist in the Middle Ages culminated at last in the opposition of the two reformers. The latter. from reversed the principles. but has completely In the course of its domination. with his higher inspiration. to which it has ascribed an "indelible character. and it was with the greatest difficulty that my parents succeeded in pacifying me over my want of faith. and the sacrament of ordination must teach him that the priest. in confirmation and penance. I have spoken somewhat fully in the seventeenth chapter of the Riddle of the view of the papacy and ultramontanism which modem historical and anthropological science leads us to form. and on the other hand to institute a love-feast (communion or agape) among his followers. if we did so with real faith. As I was quite conscious of having this quality. It to dominate and exploit a blindly believing humanity.THE WONDERS OF LIFE / "last supper" with the traditional rite of the Jews. adhered to the mysterious miracle that had been defined in 12 15 by the dogma of transubstantiation. the fourth to the sixteenth century. the founder of the Free Reformed Church. from baptism to the last anointing. I had great expectations of the miracle. The symbolical rites that are associated with these sacraments 426 . Bread and wine are believed on this view to be converted physically into the body and blood of Christ! I was taught this in 1848 by the minister who prepared me for confirmation. finds admirable instruments for this in its mystic sacraments.

have led to the development of higher sexual and domestic instincts. mals. as in all other sociological and psychological questions. in his History of Marriai^e. especially in art and po427 . and this refined love becomes one of the richest sources of the higher spiritual functions. As the sensual pleasure of generation is combined with the finer psychological feeling of sympathy and psychic attachment. we see at once that reproduction. and their family life. in his Life of Love a long series of remarkable customs has been developed in the animal world by adaptation to WVstermarck has pointvarious forms of reproduction. their common care of their young. how forms of marriage current among savages have been gradually elevated as we rise to higher races. takes place in just the same uncultivated races as among the anthropoid way among maintenance We may even say that many of the higher aniapes. as a purely physiological process having for its end the of the species. the latter gains constantly on the former. Here. have reached a higher stage than the lower savages. to which we may fitly ascribe a moral char- in Nature. have to take a comparative view of its various stages. especially monogamous mammals and birds.iM ORA 1. we do this impartially. it is advisable to consider marriage from the biological point of view. acter. Wilhelm Bolsche has shown. In view of the extreme importance of the hfe of the family as a foundation of social and civic life. I TY serve to surround Iheni with the ma^^ic of the mysterious and exclude the penetration of reason. as an orderly method of reproduction. the tender relations of the two sexes towards each other. This is particularly true of the sacrament that has had the jjreatcst practical inllucnce — matrimony. how the crude animal ed out. When as we find them among barbarians and savages. we must be careful not to accept the present features of We civilized life as a general standard of judgment.

under the influence of the Centre [Catholic] party. with the organic sex impulse as its As the conclusion of marriage reprechief foundation. we find it accompanied by symbolic ceremonies and The immense festive rites even among lower tribes. as civil marriage. act. is merely a source of vice and crime. recognized this. besides marriage. etc.. still continue in our day. it declared that it was indissoluble when This unperformed according to ecclesiastical rite. by proper legislation. and which prevents the dissolution of unhappy marriages. variety of marriage festivals shows how this important Priests quickly act has appealed to the imagination. and difficulty of obtaining divorce. added laws to its civic code which increase instead of lessening the difficulty of obtaining divorce. Reason demands the liberation of marriage from ecclesiastical pressure. and devotion. a contradiction between the demands of reason and the traditional usages which nioderr^ civ- We 428 . and that it at the same time be counted a social contract. and be protected. sents one of the most important moments in human life. wholesome influence of Romanism. and that they do not suit each other. they should be free to dissolve the bond. esteem. But when the contracting parties find (as so often happens) that they have mistaken each other's character. this dependence of matrimony on religious mysteries and ceremonies. remains a physiological a wonder of life. While the Catholic Church raised it to the status of a sacrament and ascribed to it an "indelible" character. It demands that matrimony be grounded on mutual love.THE WONDER etry. It is only a short time since the German Reichstag. vS OF LIFE Marriage itself. find in many other features of our social life. of course. and decked out marriage with all kinds of ceremonies and turned it to the advantage of their Church. The pressure which comes of marriage being regarded as a sacrament.

there can be no question of this in the international relations of the nations. and partly from barbarians and savages.M ilization has () R A L I T V taken over as a hcritaKc from earlier and lower nations. love of one's fellows. There is a good ground for the complaint about "the tyranny of fashion. subjugate they will not consent. here we find pure egoism. especially as reganls clothing. the bustle of twenty years ago. government measures and social reor Latin. need only recall the crinoline of fifty years ago. How far the bulk of modern nations still are from the ideal and the reign of pure reason can be seen by a glance at the social." However unpractical. and. ugly. it becomes popular if it costly is patronized by authority. We mind the accounts lations. ridiculous." either Teutonic (in "the leading nations need only consider with an unprejudiced in our journals of parliamentary and legal proceedings. and ecclesiastical condition of "these leading nations of Europe. and resists the claims of reason on every side. Social misery of all kinds spreads wider and wider. In the public life of states this contradiction is much possible. — them: Alexander Sutherland is right when he develops. juridical. characterizes of Europe and their offshoots" the United States) as lower civilized races. the brute force of war is employed. This is most clearly seen externally in the power of fashion. in order to realize that the force of tradition and immense. Whereas the milder teaching of the Christian religion— sympathy. patience. or some clever manufacturer fashion is succeeds We in imposing it by specious advertisements. almost in proportion as civilization and devotion has had a good influence in many ways. Every nation seeks to take advantage of others by cunning or force. and the cxjiosure of the 429 . wherever to if more striking than in the private life of the family or the individual. and a new garment may be. In some respects we are still barbarians.

A false sense of as a false sense of honor dominates our modesty controls our social life. even the latter is due to adaptation.THE WONDERS OF LIFE breast and back by low dresses (with the object of sexual excitement) which was the fashion of forty years For centuries we have had the pernicious fashion ago. nevertheless. of devices in home and vance in the state. may say the same of the changing rules We At the moment I translate this. if not of crude barbarians. we have to admit that in this respect we are still largely ruled by the foolish views of a lower civilization. The clothing. telej^rams from Germany announce that. not in the outer esteem of their fellows or in the worthless praise of a conventional society. in the determination to do only what they conceive to be good and right.^ of the corset. little commerce and laws Everywhere the demands of reason ad- in their struggle with the venerable usages of tradition. is. Unfortunately. downright immorality. we see again that it is impossible to restrict the idea of adaptation to useful variations. customs are relics of much of our morality As in the light of pure reason. at another time injurious and bad. just true honor of man or woman moral dignity. are sacrificed every year to this pitiful fashion. Trans. an article that is as offensive from the aesthetic as from the hygienic point of view. Thousands of women through disease of the tinues. ' — 430 . Many of honor we perceive the force of social what are thought to be honorable barbarism. a number of ladies were excluded from the opera for not observing this custom. the craze for the hour-glass shape of the female form conand the reform of clothing makes little headway. by the emperor's orders. consists in their inner In many other features of our false life besides this false modesty and usage. It is just the same with numbers of fashions in the in society. liver or lungs. and as the same custom may be at one time thought useful and fitting.

practical materialism flourishes. If all we sum up as to the origin and development and is strengthened by cumulative adaptation. the archigonous monera. flock. social instincts are formed by association of cells. but it has to struggle long against the current prejudices and customs. increases in the animal kingdom in proportion to the development of psychic activity and In the higher social animals definite cusway. This habit is hereditary. under2. are not differently related to their customs than the higher social animals. on these influences. 3. which find their chief support in the superstitions of the Church and the conservative tendencies of the ideal in all In this state of Byzantine immorality. 7. state. T V commerce. When hereditary transmission lasts through many generations. By adaptation to difi"erent conditions of life the simple plasm of the earliest organisms. people) and the breach of them 8. 5. and the reaction is often repeated. As the living plasm reacts goes certain modifications. the repeated impressions being fixed in the nucleus (or caryoplasm) in the case of the unicellulars. The higher savages deideas. it becomes an instinct. social life. or of egoism and altruism. or theoretical materialism.MORA M of education. and these become rights and duties when obedience to them is demanded by the society (herd.communities of the protophyta and protozoa) 6. toms arise in this religion. and so on. we may put it in the following series of propositions: i. is thrust aside. 9. Savage races at the lowest stage. The departments of life is pure reason. while monism. decorating itself so often with the mantle of piety. without punished. that monistic science has taught us of morality. 4. Ic^Mslation. Even in the protist coenobia (the cell . The antithesis of the individual and social instinct. a habit is formed (as in the catalysis of certain inorganic chemical processes. combine their superstitious pracvelop religious 431 .

. and ii. lo. moral. races definite moral laws are formed by the association of these hereditary religious. however.THE WONDERS OF LIFE (fetichism and animism) with ethical principles. In the civilized races the Church formulegal ideas. and more particularly among civilized. and jurisprudence the legal commands. and transform their empirical moral laws into religious commands. ized nations pure reason gains more and more influence on practical life. In the higher civilrespects to Church and state. the tices advancing mind remains. lates the religious commands. Among barbaric. in more definitely binding forms. and thrusts back the authority of tradition on the basis of biological knowledge a rational or monistic ethic is developed. subject in many 12. .

or the philosophy of unity. or the philosophy Lucretius and Spinoza are of the dualitv of existence. and as his critical philosophy has had a profound influence. and I was compelled to contrast my chief conclusions with those of Kant. distinguisliod man THE has history of j)hilosophy shows how tbe mind of and typical rcj^resentatives of monism: and Descartes the great leaders of dualism. however varied are the systems in which its efforts have found embodiment. from a general i)oint of view. we may. His antinomies Cosmolotncal flualism The two worlds The world of Imdies and the world of spirits Truth and fiction Goethe and Schiller Realism and idealism Ami. I must once more deal briefly with his 38 43. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — pressed along many patbs during the last two thousand years in ])ursuit of truth. and sensation Constancy f)f sensation Psyche and physics Reconciliation of principles.^ . or who have held both views at different periods of life.XIX DUALISM Dualistic systems of Kant I. arrange them all in two conflicting series— monism. of the most famous instances of this class. Hut. and dualism. Such contradictions represent a personal dualism on the Immanuel Kant is one part of the individual thinker. Hut Plato besides the consistent thinkers of each school there are a number of philosophers who vacillate between the two. and Kant II.Kant Law of substance Attributes of substance Sensation and cnerjjy Passive and active energy Trinity of substance: matter force.

linger in proving the fact. of Kiel. explained the constitution and the esteemed.THE WONDERS OF LIFE the more necessary as one of the ablest attacks on the Riddle. In the Creed of Pure Reason. in view of this and similar Kantist critiideas. and has never been reconI had already shown in the History of Creation ciled. Kant I. belongs to this school. This is of the many cisms. which I published as an appendix to the popular edition of the Riddle in 1903. contradiction of Kant's views has been recognized by all impartial force critics. that this inconsistency has a good deal to do with Kant's — God. I pointed out. real explanation of and declared that mechanicism alone afforded a phenomena. claimed that they are necessary This profound opposipostulates of practical reason. mechanical origin of the universe on Newtonian principles. explaining everything as a natural design. We need by not. declaring that pure reason is bound to land in contradictions when it attempts to conceive the whole scheme of things as a 434 . this radical position in regard to evolution. the Kant against Haeckel of Erich Adick. It has lately been urged with great Paul Ree in his Philosophy (1903). However. convincingly proved that the three central dogmas of metaphysics — pure reason. therefore. and that is still greatly Kant I. the clear inconsistency of the great evolutionary with the principles of Kant. but may go on to consider the causes of it. mystic teaching which he afterwards made the foundation of his theory of knowledge. u-tion of principles runs through Kant's whole philosophic work from beginning to end. Kant II. subordinated freedom. A subtle and comprehensive thinker like Kant was naturally perfectly conscious of the existence of this He endeavored inconsistency of his dualistic principles. the natural philosopher. the mechanical principle to the teleological. and immortality are inaccep table to Kant II. to meet it by his theory of antinomies.

" mathematicallv established fortv vears afterwards bv Laplace in his Exposition dn systeme du monde (1796). Tlic General Natural History and Theory of the Heavens (1755). On the one theory time and space are on the other Kant attcmi)ted to reconcile the. w:is It embodied a fme purely monistic in its chief features. available for theses and The famous work of Kant's earlier years. He then constructed soul and the freedom of the will. 1 . that there was no room for "God" Mccanique celeste (1799). he declared that the moral sense com- and told pelled us to believe in a supersensual world. Kant. however. finite. Thus. though there was no rational evidence of the existence of God." while as a matter of fact it is only a new form of dogmatism. by the assumption that objects and their ccjnnection exist only in our imagination. or mutually contradictory theses. attempt "to explain the constitution and mechanical It was origin of the universe on Newtonian principles. nor was there more truth is in the assertion that equal proof antitheses. but loj^ic declares that matter is tli visible in infinitum. a special "intelligible world" to receive these three objects of faith. physics and chemistry say that matter must consist of atoms as its sim])lest particles. but thrust aside. The antinomies are not expla ned by it. in his Napoleon I. tradictions by his transcendental idealism. and not in themselves. we must admit it on moral He said the same of the immortality of the grounds. This fearless monistic thinker was a consistent atheist. In this way he came to frame the false theory of knowledge which is honored with the title of "criticism.se contheory. although pure theoretical reason is quite unable to form any dis- 435 . for instance.s M connected totality. infinite.DUA I. afterwards found that. In every attempt to form a unified and complete view of things we encounter these unsolvable antinomies. for both of which sound proof is available.

Anaximander and his disciple Anaximenes (in the sixth conceiving the world in the sense of our hylozoism. as they could easily be combined with the teaching of Christianity which arose four hundred years afterwards. the prison of the immortal and invisible soul. century B. immutable. s^^stematically presented by his pupil Aristotle. The eternal ideas are only embodied for a time in the world of bodies here below they dwell eternally in the world of spirits beyond. met with a very general acceptance. and zeal). and prudence) by the cultivation of its three chief moral faculties (thought. courage.) modem . In this way he enabled theology and irrational faith to find a place in his system and claim supremacy over all rational knowledge of nature. endowed to develop the three cardinal free-will. his material frame things. that faith is superior to knowledge. and eternal. the ideal. The great majority of later philosophic and religious systems followed the 436 . Material things. accessible to our sensible experience. Man.THE WONDERS OF LIFE Tlie categorical imperative was supit posed to determine our moral sense and the distinction between good and evil. In the further progress of his tinct idea of Kant expressly urged that practical reason should take precedence of theoretical in other words. the most perfect of worlds. only to be reached by thought. belongs to both mortal.C. are only transient symbols of the objects eternal ideas. These fundamental principles of Plato's with bound teaching. of physics. where the supreme idea (God. The world of bodies is real. ethical metaphysics — The older Greek philosophy had been purely monistic. but Plato introduced (two hundred years afterwards) the dualistic view of things. controls all in perfect unity. or the idea of the good) all is . changeable and transitory opposed to it is the world of spirits. is The human soul. which are the subject of metaphysics. virtues (wisdom. supersensual. fortitude.

modern cosmology and cosmogony have found no trace whatever of the existence and activity of a personal and extramundane God. Kant's followers to put a positive substance into them. In his observations on the supersensual world Kant lays stress on the fact that it lies beyond the range of Conscience. have dogmatically 437 . but even critical dogmas. as nothing can be done with mere words. all On Physics and chemistry in particular have proved that phenomena that come under our observation depend on physical and chemical laws. the contrary. and is known only by faith. it has shown more and more that the supposed world beyond is a pure fiction. All that comes within the range r^f mir is a part of the material world. has taught us the evolution of man from thropogeny animal ancestors. have attempted ideas and religious generally in relation to traditional Not only orthodox Kantians. Modern science has opened out to us immense departments of the real world that are accessible to observation and rational inquiry but it has not taught us a . and his will not free. Comparative anatomy and ])hysiology have shown that his mind is a function of the brain. clearly and only merits to be treated as a subject for poetry. and that all can be traced Anto the comprehensive and unified law of substance. of metaphysics are mere words without meaning. L 1 S M Even Kant's metaphysics is only a new form by of it. he experience. passes away at death like the souls of other mammals. and that his soul. absolutely bound up with its material or^^an. single fact that ])oints to the existence of an immaterial world. asserted philosophers like Schleiden.DUA same dualistic paths. only its dogmatic character is hidden the ascription to it of the convenient title of the "critical" system. Finally. knowledge any idea of its nature. assures us of its existence. and so the three central mysteries Rut. but does not give us thinks.

just as Kepler. I may take the opportunity of pointing out Undoubtthe general importance of this distinction. But our rational craving for a knowledge of causes impels us to fill up the gaps in our empirical knowledge by our imagination. see. that the intelligible world is a world of poetry. man's knowledge is limited. Newton." Lange has shown. and not their " inner essence. perceive only the phenomena of things." But he is wrong and altogether misleading when he goes on to doubt the reality of the external world. and says it in other words. that exists only in our presentations — life is a dream. if we can form neither positive nor negative idea of them. from the very nature of edly our faculties or the organization of our bram and senseHence. and immortality. which he calls the thing in itself. and has no value except But if these ideas are mere figments in this respect. and that Kant held the three ideas to be quite incapable of either positive or negative proof. affirmation would refute "the mateiialism of modem German science. Kant is right when he says that we organs. and Laplace established the laws of Schleiden imagined that this dogmatic celestial motion. and thus form an approximate idea of the whole. and so thrust them into the domain of Lange says: "Kant would not practical philosophy." of the poetic imagination. This work 438 . from the fact that our senses and phronema can reach only a part of the properties of things. we may well ask: What has this imaginary spirit-world to do with the pursuit of truth? As I have raised the question of the limits of truth and fiction. freedom. on the contrary. that we call into question their existence in time and space. that such dogmatism is utterly foreign to the spirit of the Critique of Pure Reason. as Plato would not see before him. It does not follow.THE WONDERS OF LIFE that Kant and his disciples have estabHshed the transcendental ideas of God.

439 . with its Janus face.. or profess to be more than provisional hypotheses otherwise they may be of pracbut are theoretically useless. in spite of all the defects of his deductions. but al- ways proceeds to form an image of it. these imaginative constructions must always take a concrete form.' a noble form. in contradiction to his own dialectic. ii. Schiller especially has grasiKvl with prophetic insi. of poetry give them precedence and myths. supersensual to become a thing of sense in the myth. the intcllii. agree entirely with the excellent gives in his History but I am unable to follow him (vol. It is true that. Kant held that we must only think. to the vast slrxicturc of his ideas. As he was denied the Hberty of piN'inj. Hut these fonns of faith have no theoretical value for philosophy if they contradict scientific truth. and purified it of its scholastic dross. and the period in which his mental life developed prevented him from indulginjT it.) transfers his idealism from practical to theoretical questions. is a teacher of the ideal. His system. stands at the limit of two ages. who. thou.cj in the footsteps of Plato. but are by no means disposed to of empirical knowledge in our I quest of the truth. free from all niedian-al distortion. and thus followin. not see.i.'h what he thinks must have objective reality. criticism of of Kant which Albert Lange .DUALISM of the imagination may be called "fiction" sense— hypotheses when they they belong to religion. He himself. As a fact. tical service.i^inative world) but his whi)le education . faith when However.'ht the very essence of his teachinj^. Hence we fully recognize the great ethical and pedagogical value . the imagination that constructs the ideal world is never content merely to assume its existence. reached his highest thought when he allowe<l the Schiller. Schiller has rightly brought the intellij^ible world visibly before us by treating it as a poet. in a broad are in science. as Lange says: Materialism when he Kant did not lack the sense for the conception of this intelligible world (as an ima.Mble world. and urges the erroneous theory of knowledge derived from it in opposition to monism and realism. his positive philos(Ji)hy was never fully develoi)ed.

soul. and freedom. that I need merely recall it here. poets. His idealistic philosophy disposed him rather to Kant's dualistic metaphysics and to an acceptance of the three central mysteries God. But the anatomic and physiological studies that Schiller made as a military surgeon had very little — 440 . often and so thoroughly. had on the realism of his philosophy. With all his versatile occupations. In view of the great influence that Schiller's idealism has in the spread of Kant's practical moral philosophy. dared to carry freedom openly into the land dreams and of shadows then there arose under his hand the dreams and shadows of the ideal.THE WONDERS OF LIFE the poet of freedom. The profound opposition of the views of the two great- had est poets of the classical period of German literature is This has been proved so rooted deep in their natures. When I dealt v/ith this in the fourth chapter of the History of Creation. we may for a moment consider it in contrast with the realistic views of Goethe. and to establish his comprehensive biological theories on this empirical basis. Both Schiller and Goethe had a thorough knowledge of anthropology and psychology. His discovery of the metamorphosis of plants and his vertebral theory of the skull justify us in classifying him as one of the chief forerunners of Darwin. in my General Morphology. and has so frequently been represented as the complementary quality of the two As for Goethe. this great genius found time to devote to the morphological study of organisms. I pointed out how great an influence these morphological studies. Schiller had neither great interest nor clear insight for these studies. shown his historical importance in connection with the theory of evolution and the system of monism. together with his idea of evohition. I have. They led him direct to monism and to an admiration of Spinoza's monistic pantheism. of .

they only show how they have grasped the profound antithesis of the 441 . freedom. study of tlie with Kant. and thus borrow a certain little support for their Christian belief. many of the observations tliat the mediocre Kckermann puts into the mouth of the great Goetlie are quite inconsistent with his character. On the other hand. and seeks. Schiller. Goethe's empirical realism was i)rofoundly influenced by his medical studies at Straslmrg. this source is not reliable. to establish the unity of the universe. Goethe. — for the education of the human race. day. proclaimed it to be the ments. the realist.I) UA L I S M influence on his transcendental idealism. the idealist. to utilize its ethical ideals many — —to ago It is and immortality Both tendencies God. and sought. of vast intellectual achieveideal in his practical life. in which the ethical-aesthetic element preponderated. with Spinoza. wrong Generally speaking. fittest Goethe wrought the Schiller Kant discovered aim of the future. two thousand years a great number it. freedom. when ^ecent high-jilaced orators declare at Berlin that Goethe saved the high ideals of God. to conclude from isolated quotations from Goethe that he occasionally betrayed the dualism of Schiller in liis opinions. lives rather in the spirit-world. — of thought have led the genius of Gerlike the genius of Greece. and are more or less ])erverted. Some of the remarks in this connection that Eckermann has left us from his conversations with Goethe must be taken very carefully. The philosophic antithesis which we thus fmd in the biological foundations of the views of Goethe and Schiller represents to an extent the Janus face that the philosophic genius of the German people bears to our own pirical penetrated deep into the emmaterial world. Hence. and immortality. and especially by his later comparative anatomical and botanical investigations at Jena and Weimar. like Schiller.

views of the two poets. Goethe notoriously described himself as a "renegade non-Christian." The creed of the "great heathen" Goethe, as we find it in Faust and Prometheus and God and the World, and a hundred other magnificent poems, is pure monism, of the pantheistic character which we take to be alone correct hylozoism he is equally far from the one - sided materialism of Holbach or Carl Vogt and the extreme dynamism of Leibnitz and Ostwald. Schiller by no means shared this realistic view of things; his idealistic sense fled beyond nature into the spirit world. However, our theoretic hylozoism does not exclude practical idealism, as Goethe's whole life showed. On the other hand, princes and priests often let us see how easily theoretical idealism goes with practical materialism, or hedonism. In the month of February, 1904, the centenary of the death of Kant was celebrated throughout the world of culture. In numbers of academic speeches and writings he was greeted as the greatest thinker of Germany. He died on the same date (February 12th) on which Dar-


win was born


years later.




Kant has had an immense influence on the whole development of German philosophy. But while recognizing his extraordinary genius, we must not be blind to
the glaring contradictions and defects of his dualist system. From the monistic point of view, we can only regard his profound influence during the whole of the nineteenth century as mischievous. Most certainly he had a quite exceptional talent for philosophic specula-

and penetrating thought, and he added to his great mental qualities a blameless character and an undenition

was a

(though not in thought). It Kant and for the philosophic school he led that his education prevented him from acquiring a thorough knowledge and correct conShut up throughout life ception of the real world. 442
able sense of truth in

serious misfortune for



within the narrow bounds of his native town. K^nigsberg, he never travelled beyond the frontier of Prussia, and so did not obtain that knowledge of the world that comes of travelling. In the study of nature he confined himself to the physics of the inorganic world, in the study of man to the immortal soul. At the close of his university studies Kant had to earn his living as a

house-teacher for nine vears (from twentv-two to thirtvone), just at the most important period of his life, in which the independent development of the personal and scientific character is decided when the academic studies
are over.

In such adverse circumstances of mental adaptation a deep mystic trait, which had been inherited from pious parents and confimied by the strictly religious training of his early years, was fixed in Kant's character.

Hence it was that faith in the three central mysteries came upon him more and more in later years: he gave them precedence over all the attainments of theoretical reason, while granting that we can form neither a negaHut how can the belief God, freedom, and immortality determine one's whole view of life as a postulate of practical reason if we cannot form any definite idea of them ? Every philosophy that deserves the name must have
tive nor positive idea of them.


clear ideas as the bases of its thought-structure; it must definite views in connection with its fundamental

Hence most of Kant's followers have not conceptions. been content to follow his direction merely to Miei'c in the three central mysteries; they have sought to associate definite mental pictures with the empty concepts In this they have of God, freedom, and immortality. drawn upon the religious imagination, and have pa.«yM?d from the real knowledge of nature into the transcendenMonism, based on this real knowltal realm of poetry. of nature, has to keej) clear of such dualism. edge

The extraordinary

Kant that took

place on the occasion of his centenary must have seemed strange to many scientists who recognize in his idealism one of the greatest hinderances to the spread of the modern monistic philosophy of nature. But it is not
difficult to

explain this.


must remember,

in the

place, the contradictory views that are embodied in Kant's system every one could find in Kant's works

something to correspond to his own convictions the monistic physicist could read of the mechanical sway of natural law throughout the whole knowable world, and
the dualistic metaphysician of the free play of the divine aim in the spiritual world. The physician and physiologist would note with satisfaction that in his criticism of pure reason Kant had been unable to find any evidence for the existence of God, the immortality of the The jurist and theosoul, or the freedom of the will.
logian would find with equal gratification that in the practical reason Kant claims these three central dogmas as necessary postulates. I have shown to some extent,
in the sixth chapter of the Riddle, how these irreconcilable contradictions in Kant's system are due to a psy-

chological metamorphosis. It is just these very contradictions, which run through Kant's philosophy from beginning to end, that maintain its popularity. Educated people v/ho desire to form a

view of life rarely read Kant's difficult (and often obscure) works in the original, but are content to learn from extracts, or from a history of philosophy, that the Konigsberg thinker succeeded in squaring the circle, or in reconciling natural science with the three central


of metaphysics.

The "higher powers," who

are particularly concerned to save the latter, favor the teaching of Kant's dogmas, because it closes the way to


explanation and prevents independent thinking. is especially true of the ministers of public in444

two chief German states Prussia and Bavaria. In their open attempt to subordinate the school to the Church, they desire, above all, the primacy of practical reason that is to say, the subjection of In German unipure reason to faith and revelation. versities to-day belief in Kant is a sort of ticket of admission to the study of philosophy. The reader who would realize the pernicious effect of this official faith in Kant on the advance of scientific knowledge will do well to read the able criticism in the brilliant posthumous work of Paul Rce. In the face of the dualism which still prevails in the
struction in the

academic teaching of philosophy (especially



we must base our monistic system on

the law of substance. laws of the conservation of matter and of energy. As I have fully explained my own conception of this law in the twelfth chapter of the Riddle, I will only say here that its validity is quite independent of any particular theory of the relations of matter and force.' The materialism of Holbach and Biichner lays a one-sided stress on the importance of matter: the dynamism of
If we avoid these Leibnitz and Ostv/ald on that of force. extremes, and conceive matter and force as inseparable attributes of substance, we have pure monism, as we find it in the systems of Spinoza and Goethe. We might then substitute for the word "substance," as Hermann The further quesCroll does, the temi "force-matter." tion as to the correctness of any particular physical con-

the universality of This harmoniously combines the

ception of matter


quite independent of


The English reader will

find in this a reply to the fooh'sh notion

which has been circulated that the recent discovery of radioaction and the compcfsition of the atom from electrons has affected llacckcrs position. His monism is completely indifferent to chani^es in the physicist conception fif the nature of matter.



The two knowable
attributes or inalienable properties
of substance, without which it is unthinkable, were described by Spinoza as extension and thought; we speak of


as matter



The "extended"


space-occupying) is matter; and in Spinoza "thought" does not mean a particular function of the human brain, but energy in the broadest sense. While hylozoistic monism conceives the human soul in this sense as a special form of energy, the current dualism or vitalism affirms, on the authority of Kant, that psychic and physical forces are essentially different; that the former belong to the immaterial and the latter to the material The theory of psycho-physical parallelism, as world. developed especially by Wundt (1892), gives a very

sharp and definite expression to this dualism; it says that "physical processes correspond to every psychic phenomenon, but the two are completely independent of each other and have no natural causal connection."

This wide-spread dualism finds its chief support in the connecting the processes of sensation with those of movement and so the one is regarded as a psychic and the other ac a physical form of energy. The conversion of the outer stimulus (waves of light, sound, etc.) into an inner sensation (sight or hearing) is regarded by monistic physiology as a conversion of
difficulty of directly


a transformation of photic or acoustic energy

The important theory of into specific nerve-energy. the specific energy of the sensory nerves, as formulated

by Johannes Miiller, forms a bridge between the two worlds. But the idea which these sensations evoke, the central process in the thought-organ or phronema
that brings the impressions into consciousness, is genHowerally regarded as an incomprehensible mystery. ever, I have endeavored to prove, in the tenth chapter of the Riddle, that consciousness itself is only a special






form of nervous energy, and Ostwald has lately developed the theory in his Natural Philosophy.
of movement v/hich we observe in every one form of energy into another, or every change passage of potential into actual energy, are subordinate to the general laws of mechanics. The dualist metaphysic has rightly said that the mechanical philosophy does not discover the inner causes of these movements. On our monistic It would seek these in psychic forces. principles they are not immaterial forces, but based on the general sensation of substance, which wc call psychoma, and add to energy and matter as a third attribute of substance. The difficulty of combining our monism with Spinoza's doctrine of substance is met by detaching the idea of energy from sensation and restricting it to mechanics, so as to make movement a third fundamental property of substance with matter (the "extended") and sensation of (the

The processes


We may


divide energy into

active (r=will in the sense of Schopenhauer) and i)asAs a matter sive (= sensation in the broadest sense).
of fact, the energy to



which modern encrgism would rehas not an independent place in phenomena

Spinoza's system besides sensation the attribute of thought (the psyche, soul, force) comprises the two. I am convinced that sensation is, like movement, found in all matter, and this trinity of substance i)rovidcs the I may formulate it in safest basis for modern monism. three propositions: (i) No matter without force and without sensation. (2) No force without matter and without sensation. (3) No sensation without matter and without force. These three fundamental attributes are found inseparably united throughout the whole In view universe, in every atom and every molecule. of the great importance of this view for our hylonistic system of monism, it may be well to consider each of


these three attributes in connection with the law of substance.

A. Matter.
infinite space,

—As extended substance, matter occupies

and each individual body forms a part of the universe as real substance. The law of the conservation of matter teaches us that the sum of matter is This applies equally to the eternal and unchangeable. various kinds of matter which we call the chemical elements, or ponderable matter, and to the ether that fills the spaces between the atoms and molecules, or imponderable matter. The mischievous depreciation of matter (and the consequent disdain of materialism) and its antithesis to "spirit" is partly due to the use
partly to

such phrases as "raw" and "dead" matter, and the deep-rooted mysticism we have inherited from barbaric ancestors, and find it hard to shake



— All parts of the substance that



space are in constant and eternal motion. Every chemical process and every physical phenomenon is accompanied by a change in the position of the particles v>rhich compose the matter. The law of the conservation of energy teaches us that the sum of force or energy that is ever at work in the universe is unchangeable. In the formation or decomposition of a chemical compound the particles of matter move about, and so in every mechanical, thermic, electric, and other process. The changes that take place depend on a constant change of force, both in organic and inorganic bodies; one form of force is converted into another without a particle of the whole being lost. This law of the conservation of force has lately been called, as a rule, the conservation of energy (or the principle of energy) since the ideas of
force and energy have been more clearly distinguished in physics energy is now usually defined as the product of force and direction. It must be noted, however, that


the word "energy" (as an equivalent to "work" in the physical sense) is still used in many different senses, as " " is also the word force." Others define energy as work or all that comes of work and may be converted into

One particular school of voluntarism (Wundt) reduces the motive-force of energy to will. Crusius said in 1744: "Will is the dominating force in the world." And Schopenhauer defines the world (or substance) as

and presentation."

C. Sens.\tion.

— In describing sensation


the broad-

est sense) as a third attribute of substance, and separating "sensitive substance" from energy as "moving

substance," I rely on the observations I made in the thirteenth chapter of the Riddle on sensation in the organic and inorganic world. I cannot imagine the simplest chemical and physical process without attributing the movements of the material particles to unconscious senIn this sense the chemist speaks every day of sation. a sensitive reaction, and the photographer of a sensitive The idea of chemical affinity consists in the fact plate. that the various chemical elements perceive the qualitative differences in otlier elements, experience "pleas-

ure" or "revulsion" at contact with them, and execute The sensitivetheir specific movements on this ground. ness of the plasm to all kinds of stimuli, which is called "soul" in the higher animals, is only a suj^erior degree

Empedocles irritability of substance. and the panpsychists spoke in the same sense of sensaAs Nageli said: "If the tion and effort in all things. molecules possess something that is related, however distantly, to sensation, it must be comfortable to be able to follow their attractions and repulsions; uncomfortable when they are forced to do otherwise. Thus we get a common spiritual bond in all material phenomena. The

of the general


only the highest development of the spiritual processes that animate the whole of nature." 29 449


These views of the distinguished botanist with my monistic principles.
fully agree

When sensation in the widest sense (as psychoma) is joined to matter and energy as a third attribute of substance, we must extend the universal law of the permanence of substance to all three aspects of it. From this we conclude that the quantity of sensation in the entire universe is also eternal and unchangeable, and that every change of sensation means only the conversion of one form of psychoma into other forms. If we

from our own immediate sensations and thoughts, and look out on the whole mental life of humanity, we
see through all its continuous

development the constancy

of the

each individual.

roots in the sensations of This highest achievement of the work of the plasm in the human brain was, however, first developed in the sensations of the lower animals, and these are in turn connected by a long series of evolutionary stages with the simpler forms of sensation that we find in the inorganic elements, and that reveal themselves in chemical affinity. Albrecht Rau expressly says in his excellent Sensation and Thought (1896) that "perception or sensation is a universal process in nature. This involves, moreover, the possibility of reducing

psychoma, which has

thought itself to this universal process." Recently Ernst Mach has said, in his Analysts of Sensation and
the Relation of the

tions are the

Physical to the Psychical, that "sensaelements of all possible physical and psychic occurrences, and consist simply in the different mode of the combination of the elements and their dependence on each other." It is true that Mach, in his one-sided emphasis of the subjective element of sensation, goes on to form a similar psychomonism to that of Verworn, Avenarius, and other recent dynamists; but the fundamental character of his system is purely monistic, like the energism of Ostwald.



In thus uniting sensation with force and matter as an attribute of substance, we form a monistic trinity, and are in a position to do away with the antitheses that are

maintained by duahsts between the psychic and the physical, or the material and the immaterial world. Of the three great monistic systems materialism lays too narrow a stress on the attribute of matter, and would trace all the phenomena of the universe to the mechanics of the atoms or to the movements of their ultimate particles. Spiritualism, with equal narrowbuilds on the attribute of energy it would either ness, explain all phenomena by motor forces or forms of energy (energism), or reduce them to psychic functions, to sensation or psychic action (panpsychism). Our system of hylonism (or hylozoism) avoids the faults of both extremes, and affirms the identity of the psyche and the physis in the sense of Spinoza and Goethe. It meets the difficulties of the older theory of identity by dividing the attribute of thought (or energy) into two co-ordinate attributes, sensation (psychoma) and moverigidly

ment (mechanics).

we have reached the end of our long jourwe may take a general survey of the path we have pursued. pedagogics. In inviting of life my readers to accompany me once more through the broad domain of the monistic philosophy I must. mathematics. do this as the present volume is not only a necessary last supplement to the Riddle. ethics. politics. so to say. psychiatry. philology. but at the same time to my seventieth year I would supply some of the defects of the Riddle. jurisprudence. answer some of the most stringent criticisms directed against of it. I feel the more bound of biology to the other sciences. as their modest guide. hygiene. history Applied (practical) sciences: medicine. practical reason) chemistry. the ticket of admission to this investigation. we shall at once justify our own point of view and indicate the relation NOW that ney. At the end my at and as far as possible complete the philosophy which I worked for half a century. tech- — — : — — nology. philosophic work. anthropology. astronomy. and say how far we owe our progress to the monistic philosophy. sociology. biology.XX MONISM Defence of monism Pure and applied science (theoretic and Pure (theoretical) sciences physics. The academic philos- — 452 . In doing so. geology. psychology. show scientific justification at the narrow entrance produce. theology Antinomy of the sciences Rational and dogmatic disciplines Correlation of the sciences Faculties The ideal world Reform of education Harmony of — — — — — — monism.

Many of our metaphysicians go even farther and regard philosophy as a separate science a sublime "mental — common empirical science. I saw that nearly always the chief stress was laid on a kind of conceptual gymnastics and self-observation. The various tendencies of thought that arise in such num45. and on the correct knowledge of the innumerable errors which the (mainly dualistic) leaders of ancient and modern philosophy have left us in their vast literature. tomic study of the phronema are carefully avoided." In my opinion. The central feature of the whole scheme is Kant's theory of knowledge.^ ." In the course of the forty years during have taught as ordinary professor of zoology at I have had occasion to assist at several hundred Jena examinations of doctors. teachers.. the openly dogmatic character of which it greets as "criticism. in which distinguished representatives of philosophy were examiners. In psychology a most extensive knowledge of psychic powers on the basis of the introspective method is demanded the physiological analysis of the "soul" and the anawhich I . philosoy)hy the general results of the other sciences. and of bringing their ravs of light to a focus as in a concave mirror.MONISM ophy which vStill controls the German universities watches every door with jealous eyes. educated and thoughtful man who strives to form a As queen of the definite view of life is a philosopher. every of the sciences. the defects and one-sidedness of which I have treated in the first and nineteenth chapters. German philosophy is still for the most part taken up with a mediaeval metaphysic and the dualism of Kant." quite independent One is tempted to quote the saying of Schopenhauer: "It is a sure sign of a philosopher that he is not a professor of philosophy. has the great task of combiiiing sciences. as are also the comparative and genetic study of the mind. and has an esOOicial pecial concern to keep out modern biology. etc.

How can the supersensual world. fated to have a terrible influence. this theoretical of the sciences in direct tions to practical life. who expressly gives precedence to practical reason. be described as intelligible (i. His supersensual or "intelligible" world is.THE WONDERS OF LIFE bers have all a right to scientific respect and discussion. in its original meaning. I thus dissent entirely from the view of Kant. as I explained in the first chapter. freedom. in my opinion. However. Latin "nature"). the object of faith. Pure philosophy aims at a knowledge of the truth by means of pure reason. comprises the whole knowable world Kant's mundus sensihilis. and subKant's error was ordinates theoretical reason to it. with its three central mysteries (God. not knowledge.e. In this the real claims of practical life are often in contradiction to the ideal tenets of the scientifically grounded theory. how far monism has ity. on his own It is very definition. the monistic minority no less than the dualistic majorWe have to inquire. remarkable to find a thinker like Kant contradicting himself already in his fundamental distinction of the two worlds. In such cases.. and immortality). From the point of view of natural monism we may take physics in the wider sense as the fundamental The term physis (the Greek equivalent of the science. philosophy finds itself in most and frequently important relaand so in the form of applied philos- in civilization. succeeded in gaining firm foothold in the various fields of science. the pure pursuit of the ophy becomes a weighty factor truth must take precedence of applied philosophy. knowable) when — 454 . and we may begin with a distinction between pure (theoretical) and applied (practical) science. because the dominant Church and state eagerly embraced it supremacy of the dogmas of practical reason over the attainments of pure critical authorities in to insure everywhere the reason. then.

leave this supernatural metaphysical world to faith and fiction. nature. therefore. meteorology). is really only a part of physics.MON it is I S M proved by pure reason that the human mind is incapable of knowing it. chemistry. and their reduction to fixed natural laws and mathematical formulae (theo- Of late a distinction retical or mathematical physics). the movement and solid. of (statics and gaseous bodies and dynamics. and their probable common origin from some primitive 455 . which has now become so important both for theoretical and practical But while purposes. To-day it is generally taken to mean the science of the ])henomena of inorganic nature. gravitation. It divides ponderable bodies into some severityeight elements. has been drawn between the physics of mass and the physics of ether. prehensive natural philosophy. and all attempt at dualistic explanation aban- doned. the other is occupied with the phenomena of ether (or imponderable matter) and its relations to mass (electricity. fluid. and calorics). magnetism. the one deals with mechanics. or of forming any positive or negative idea of it? Lucus a non hicendo ! We may. galvanism. The vast department of chemistry. acoustics. and confine our studies to the real The idea of physics as a comphysical world. equilibrium of ponderable matter. of inorganic physics the monistic view is now generally received. as it was conceived in classic Greece. the relations of which to each other have been determined in the periodic system of the elements. modern physics restricts itself to the study of inorganic forms of energy and their conversions. takes up the study of the qualitative differences between the various kinds of ponderable matter. their empirical determination by observation and experiment (experimental physics). has been more and more restricted in the course of time. In all these branches optics. as the science of matter.

and future of the universe in a single gigantic mathematical formula. established his system mathematically.spatial points of force. and especially the law of simple and multiple proportions discovered in 1808. However. and are independent of experience (a posteriori). The constant features of chemical combinations which have been estabUshed by the analysis and synthesis of the elements. by abstraction from experience. it great Laplace has lately been claimed that a comprehensive (ideal) Laplace-mind could embrace the whole past. Modern science considers the ultimate aim of all research to be the exact determination of phenomena in measure and number. and to this he has added the second error that the mathematical axioms (being necessary and universal truths) belong to the a priori constitution of the mind. John Stuart Mill and others have shown that the fundamental ideas of mathematics are acquired originally. — Modern dynamism it (or energism) is wrong when it thinks can dispense with these hypotheses and replace the atoms by the notion of immaterial non . or the reduction of all general As the knowledge to mathematically formulated laws. The acceptance of these atoms (as space-filUng separate particles of matter however we may regard them in other respects) is an indispensable hypothesis in chemistry. like the hypothesis of the molecule in physics.THE WONDERS OF LIFE matter (prothyl) been shown. in both the dynamic and the material school. 456 . However. led to the empirical determination of the atomic weight of the elements and to the chemical theory of the atom. Kant has expressed this exaggerated estimate of mathematics in the phrase: "Every science is only true science in proportion as it is amenable to mathematical treatment". present. like those of any other science. monism is retained in every department of chemistry. and the modern phylogeny of the mind has confirmed this empirical view.

hundred to six hundred years before After Copernicus had destroyed the geocentric system in 1543. and the M^^caniquc Since that time there has been no Celeste of Laplace. In fact. established in a monistic sense cosmogony was -finnly by the General Natural History of tJie Heavens of Kant. and astrochemistry (by means of sj)ectn. we find that even this "exact fundamental science" is only accessible to pure monism and excludes ail dualism. Hence. and Egyptians several thousand years before Christ.MOX I S M We must remember. and received a shape Observations of the solid mathematical foundation. that matheinatics deals only with quantitative relations in time and space. Christ himself had Astronomy is definite no more suspicion had built u]) three of these great cosmological discoveries than of the systems which the Greek natural philosophers his birth. Astrophysics has enlarged our knowledge of the ])hysical features. question of the conscious action of a Creator in any part of astronomy. Kant himself showed that mathematics only answers for the absolute formal correctness of conclusions it draws from given premises. and to the possibility of expressing infallibly spatial and time quantities in numVjer and branches of knowledge is mass. when we examine the abstract thinking-power of the phronema in its mathematical operations physiologically and phylogenetically. The great regard which mathematics enjoys all as an exact science in chiefly due to its formal accuracy. and not with the qualitative features of bodies. Chaldeans. one of the older sciences that took thousands of years ago.mi analysis) of the chemical nature 457 . and Newton had ])rovided a mathematical basis for the new heliocentric system by his theory of gravitation in 1686. movements of the planets and eclipses of the sun were conducted by the Chinese. and has no influence on the ]jremises themselves. moreover.

such as crystallography. pure monism has been universally and exclusively admitted (as far as they relate to inorganic nature) in the second half of the nineteenth century. the ago." at the beginning of the nineteenth paleontology arose as an independent science. and physics. when the principle of conThe oldest part tinuity and evolution was established. of the science is mineralogy the great practical value of . having appealed to man's interest thousands of years In the Stone Age. until the eighteenth century that students began to perceive the great significance of these "creation-medals. have also made considerable progress during the last half-century. In the five branches of science I have enumerated. Afterwards the development of mining led But no to a closer acquaintance with these metals. and especially the metals obtained from them. Geology Vv^as not developed into an independent science until towards the end of the eighteenth century. This is equally true of geology. geology. There is no question in them to-day of the wisdom and power of the Creator. It is otherwise with the remaining sciences which deal with organic nature. chemistry. Other branches of geology. Iron Age. especially geogeny. with the and All these sections of aid of physics and chemistry. mathematics. Bronze Age. the rocks. The monism of the physihas now been established.. and did not extinguish the earlier notion of the creation of the other cal universe of the earth until after 1830. material for weapons and tools was provided by stone and metal.THE WONDERS OF LIFE heavenly bodies. and proved equally important to geology and biology. etc. in these we have not yet succeeded in giving a 458 . notice was taken of the fossil remains of animals and It was not plants until the close of the Middle Ages. are now recognized to be purely monistic sciences. astronomy. or the science of the natural development of the earth.

regard anthropology as a part of zoology. while in the latter we still have the "freedom" of the spirit and the — . taken in many different senses." as most psychology. and splits the science into two different branches natural science (physics in the wider sense) and mental science (metaphysics) fixed natural laws are supposed to rule only in the former. this general monistic conception of the science of man has met with only a restricted acceptance up to " " is As a rule. However. of biological philosoi)hy we have sought to refute vitalism in every form. the broadest sense (including anthropology and all the In the preceding chapters sciences that relate to man). the term the present. the greater part of psychology. Anthropology is still. which I are regarded as metaphysical in the narrower sense. to biology in supernatural. therefore. and a small part of Since I naturally But this "official anthropology. endeavored to show ago that primates) in my man is no organism (with body and than any other vertebrate. and all the mental sciences. first of all. as it has been for centuries. every soul) aspect of his being should be dealt with monistically. (as a placental less unified an Antliropof^cny thirty years mammal of the order of 459 . which includes the anatomy and physiology of the human organism.MONISM physical explanation and mathematical formulation of Hence vitalism enters with its dualisall phenomena. generally excludes phylogeny. I extend the principles of monism to both. This applies. embryology. anthro])ology restricted to the natural history of man. tic notions. prehistoric research. and that. In the widest sense. just as zoology (in my opinion) deals with all parts of the animal world. and to secure the exclusive acceptance of monism and mechanicism in every branch of the science of life. it embraces the whole vast science of man. of our anthropological societies (especially in Gemiany) conceive it.

by one section of its representatives it is taken monistically as a natural science. But modern comparative and genetic psychology. I need not go further into the subject. speech was man. ontogeny. and supported it with all the arguments of anatomy. religious foundation. psychology is a mental science. of the Riddle. and phylogeny in my Anthropogeny. physiologists. Descartes. established the monistic view that psychology is a special branch of cerebral physiology. either a gift man. in the course of the last forty years. This dualistic view has been supported in the schools especially by the authorof the professional psychologists. and Kant. On this view. But in the course of the nineteenth century the monistic and physiological position that speech is a function of the science. in Mohammed religion by the in education . The science of language shares the fate of its sister. and in physiology by most of the older. psychology. and by another section it is dualistically conceived as a branch of mental the old metaphysical view. the anatomy and physiology of the brain. and even some recent. physiology. The soul of man is a physioAs I have fully exlogical function of the phronema. Paul. plained the monistic conception of psychology in chapters vi. On regarded as an exclusive property of of the gods or an invention of social 460 . The great majority and of educated people adhere still to the antiquated dogma. and authority of Christ.-xi. ity of Plato.THE WONDERS OF LIFE As is well known. that man's soul is immortal and an independent immaterial entity. and that therefore all its parts and their application belong to this section of biology. with its generally. have. and the state by the authority of most governments. having only an external and special limited connection with natural science. the views of experts and laymen alike are very much divided as to the place of psychology in the scheme of the sciences.

its gradual development in the child is (in accordance with the biogenetic law) a recapitulation of its phyloComparative philology taught that the genetic process." or as if cosmogony. has been established. The comparative psychology of the higher animals showed that in various classes the thoughts.often is wrongly taken to mean the record of events history that have occurred in the course of the development of the history of peoples and states (humorcivilized life ously described as "the history of the world"). of civiliThis is merely an anthropozation. physiology and pathology of the l)rain showperimental ed that a definite small region of the cortex (the Broca fissure) is the centre of speech. and that this central organ. by experts. feelings. and the other comprising the provAs if ince of natural law (without preconceived aim). Historical science like still conceived in diflferent senses — centric feeling that in the strictly scientific sense "his- tory" can only be used for the record of man's doings. there were no "natural history. or independently of each other. the one dealing with the province of morally free phenomena (with preconceived aim).).MON I S i\I organism. Ver}. produces articulate speech. ontogeny. the whistle of many reptiles. languages of the different races have been formed polyThe exphyletically. In this sense history is opposed to nature. partly by sounds (the chirrup of the cricket. and phylogeny were not historical sciences! Although this dualistic and anthropistic view 461 . etc. and has been gradually developed like all other functions. song of birds and singing-apes. geology. the cry of the frog. is. in conjunction with other parts of the phronema and the larynx (the peripheral organ). of morals. and desires of the gregarious animals are communicated partly by signs or touch. philology or psychology'". etc. roaring of carnivora and unThe ontogeny of speech showed that gulates.

gradually shaped medicine into the monistic science which assuages so much pain and suffering in humanity to-day. mag- and other charlatanry. and state and Church protect the venerable tradition. Disease was supposed to be the work of evil spirits (as Christ thought) which had to be exorcised.THE WONDERS OF LIFE still prevails in our universities. there can be no doubt that sooner or later it will be replaced by a purely mo- philosophy of history. However. even in cultured circles. Medicine was originally the business of the priests. and therapeutics. 462 . Pathology. Modern anthropogeny shows us the intimate connection between the evolution of the human individual and that of the race. the netic cures. especially the astonishing advance of biology about the middle of the century. and by means of prehistoric and phylogenetic research it joins what is called the history of the world to the stemnistic history of the vertebrates. not a dualistic notion of revelation. the great development of science in the nineteenth century. However. Christian Science. Medicine belongs to the front rank of practical or In its long and interesting history it applied sciences. But in the general reaction of the Middle Ages superstitious and miraculous ideas once more defeated independent scientific investigation. teaches how it is only a monistic knowledge of nature. the science of disease. I need only mention the wonders of patent medicines. and for thousands of years it was under the influence of mystic and superstitious ideas which were connected with religious dogmas. that affords the foundations of true science and the profitable application most important aspects of practical life. Miracles are still thought to take place. two thousand years of this to the ago the great physicians of classic antiquity made a serious effort to provide a solid base for medical practice by a thorough anatomic and physiological study of the human frame.

The science of mental disease is a special branch of medicine. as pathological psychology it deserves special consideration. abnormal and dangerous conditions. we may say: Psychiatry 4^>3 is the pathology . which regards all mental disease as a disorder of the brain. As we call this central organ of mind the phronema. Disease is no longer regarded as a special entity that comes on the body rational science of healing. it has the same relation to it as psychology has to physiology. dynamic occur- rences affecting the mystic being of the soul (indepenThese dualistic and still wide-spread dently of the body) and mischievous errors have caused the most fatal mistakes in the treatment of mental disease. of these When the causes changes are poisons or foreign organisms (such as bacteria or amoebae). cut from under these irrational and superstitious ideas by modern psychiatry.MON safe I S xM grounded now on the methods of physics and chemistry and a thorough knowledge of the human organism. However.). and traces it to changes in the cortex that lie at the root of all psychoses (delusions. but is conceived as a baneful disturbance of its normal activity. the art of healing has to remove them and restore the normal equilibrium of the functions. Pathology is only a branch of physiology it studies the changes that take place in the tissues and cells under . lunacy. arc like an evil spirit or mysterious organism. etc. at one time directly as evil spirits that enter from without into the human body. but also because of its theoretical interest. at another time as mysterious . they have had the most unfortunate effect on juristic and social and Rut the ground has been other aspects of practical life. not only on account of its extreme practical importance. The misleading dualist idea of body and life soul that has perverted our notions of mental from the oldest times has led people to regard men- tal disorders as special phenomena.

Thousands of years ago. they had a concern In classic anfor their bodily health and strength.) mostly been acquired gradually by the ancestors of the patient. and as it regarded man's body only as the temporary prison of his many others. when barbaric races began to adapt themselves to civilized life. of Greece and Rome show how much importance they attached to the external and internal use of water. instead of have with rational hygienic and sanitary measures. processions. soul. it led to a disdain of culture and of nature. We until the second half of the nineteenth century that a sound knowledge of the physiological functions and environment of the organism induced people once more to have a concern for bodily culture. or the inheritance of acquired characters.. tions of the pathological anatomy and physiology of the phronema have a great philosophic interest. espe- was not 464 . gymnastic exerwas greatly developed. it attached no importance to the care The frightful plagues that of men in the swept away millions Middle Ages were only fought with prayer. As immortal of it. body by baths. they also afford clear proof of progressive heredity. etc. tiquity the care of the cises. and other superstitious devices.THE WONDERS OF LIFE and therapeutics of the phronema. It only gradually learned to discard this superstition. The Middle Ages brought reaction in this province like so Christianity depreciated this life and said it was merely a preparation for the life to come. because they throw a good deal of light on the monistic concepAs the greater part (sixty to ninety tion of psychic life. In many disorders we have already succeeded in anatomically and chemically tracing the changes in the psychic or phronetal These acquisicells (the neurona in the phronema). All that modern hygiene now does for the public health. of these diseases are hereditary. and they have per cent. and connected with The splendid aqueducts and baths religious ceremonies.

Religion was made the chief foundation and its doctrines were the moral guide for The isolated attempts that were made the whole of life. in the first stages of civilization. and international commerce have prospered beyond all expectations. As the priests were. modern mining. etc. can be traced to the monistic teaching or reason.MON cially the I S M of the dwellings and food of the the prevention of disease by healthier poorer classes. are impressed on the mind in early youth are most persistent. is: The remarkable progress of technical science in the nineteenth century. of instruction. we owe this to the practical application "Mental science" and metaphysof empirical truths. habits. physics and chemistry. thousands of years ago. There ical speculation have had nothing to do with it. baths.. agriIf by these means modern industry culture. athletics. the sole trainers of the growing mind. 30 465 ." is a direct consequence of the immense advance of theoretical science. which has stamped our age as "an age of machinery. The scientific development of education is one of the The ideas tliat greatest tasks of modern civilization. they had charge of the school as well as of medicine. especially in physics and istry. like their exact sources. chem- need only recall the enormous importance of steam and electric machinery. is no need of further proof that all the technical sciences We have a purely monistic character. The maxim of modern hygiene God helps those who help themselves. and is altogether opposed to the Christian belief in Providence and the dualism con- improvement nected therewith. and so on. All the privileges and comforts which modern life gives us are due to scientific discoveries. two philosophic tendencies assuming the greatest practical imjjortance in this department. and generally determine the direction of thought and conduct for the whole of find the struggle l)etween the Hence we life.

As we have dealt in the eighteenth chapter with morals and their development from habit and adaptation. the monistic system has a difficult position to maintain. the influence of the Church on the school was maintained down to our own time. This has been them everywhere. but his categoriimperative has been completely refuted by modern The metaphysical grounding of morality on science. supported by the mental apathy of the masses and a convenient blind submission to authority. although a good deal of this teaching lost its prestige at the Reformation. the monistic morality of the largely sustained cal 466 . The spiritual power of the Church finds a useful ally in this in the conservative attitude of most governments. Aristotle prevailed. based on monistic psychology. In the Middle Ages the power of the Roman priesthood enforced And. Throne and altar support each other. their metaphysical theories being blended with the teaching of the Church.THE WONDERS OF LIFE by monistic philosophy in ancient times to destroy this theistic superstition had no effect on the education of In this the duahstic principles of Plato and the young. As this can no more recognize a moral order of the world in history than a loving Providence in the life of the individual. free will and ethical intuitions (a priori) must be replaced by a physiological ethic. I have pointed out in the nineteenth chapter of the Riddle the guiding principles to be followed in this reform of education in opposition to the influence of Church and state. we need only mention here the contradiction that we still find between the monistic claims of pure reason and the dualistic claims of practical reason. inquiry. It will only gain solid ground in education when the school is divorced from the Church and scientific knowledge is made the foundation of the curriculum. both dread the advance of scientific In face of this powerful dualistic alliance. by Kant's teaching.

and furthers it with all its military and other resources. the formation of herds in the carnivora and ungulates and of troops in the social apes. it in the wider sense. Politics is closely connected with sociology on the one hand and law on the other. very far from this modern state. young'in the mammals. has been well shown by Max Nordau in his Conventional Lies of Civilization. prevail in both departments. as external or foreign politics it directs the relations of In my opinion. human sociology joins on to that its close relations to theoretical mammals. The great importance that attaches of sociology is new science due to anthropology and psychology on the one hand. marriage. logical reduction of social rules to the natural laws of heredity and adaptation. the relations of the citizens to each other and to the whole should be regulated by the same ethical principles that we recognize in personal intercourse. The family life. connected with the social rules that govern the interIn the biocourse of smaller and larger communities. and from these to the beginof the nearest and care of the is The history of these associations nings of civilization. while in social intercourse itself we still find a good deal duahsm. Hrutal egoism rules in foreign politics. unfortunately. dynamic sociology (as Lester Ward has called it) proceeds on purely monistic lines. Domestic politics is still largely di467 . every nation thinks only of its own advantage. We ideal in the life of a are. lead on to the looser associations of savages and barbarians. how much hypocrisy and insincerity have to do with social rules.MON future 1 S M and must be reducible to the laws of biology. As internal politics it conof trols the organization of the state by a constitution. pure reason should states to each other. How little truth and nature count for in our cultured society. to the especially of evolution. and to When we take practical politics and law on the other.

too. and have acquired a certain sacredness by blending with the teaching of the Church. Shall it be governed state be spiritual or secular? theocratically by irrational beliefs and clerical arbitrari- ness. "Every one calls the best he knows his 468 . "Whether the state shall be a monarchy or a republic. influencWith it we find ing the ideas of jurists and statesmen. — are affected more or still less politics. aristocratic or democratic. ligious influence. ethics. Great struggles are in progress between the central rected government and the mass of the people. Theology has stood at the head of the four venerable It still "faculties" at our universities for centuries. the organ of practical theology.). by re- ligious prejudices. Every day we read in the papers of curious deliverances in the lower and higher courts at A which every thoughtful man can only shake his head. as the Church. Kant's dualism is again found to be at work. Both parties spend themselves in fruitless conflicts yet reason in the life of the state suffers more than its special political . as Goethe says. continues to exercise a profound influence on life. chapter i. holds this place of honor.THE WONDERS OF LIFE by the barbaric prejudices of the Middle Ages. complexion. we find the prevalence of the dualistic principles that have come down from the Middle Ages and antiquity. conceived in some The chief of these is the idea of God form or other as the Supreme Being. Here also there will be no solid improvement until the education of jurists includes a thorough training in anthropology and psychology as well as in the code. In fact. In the science of law. are subordinate The great question is: Shall the modern questions. most of the other branches of applied science and pedagogics —especially jurisprudence. or nomocratically by rational laws and civic right?" {Riddle. in our codes many carefully preserved relics of mediaeval great deal of harm is done by this resuperstition.

are based on dualistic metaphysics and superstitious traditions. the idea all of God is not the chief feat- ions Buddhism. but his existence remains one of the chief articles of faith. and the whole of the Church teaching based on it. Christian. Brahmanisni. All that revelation is supposed to teach us on the matter belongs to the region of fiction. development. ethnology. and history. belief in a personal — religions. This anthropomorphic God is conceived in a hundred forms in the various sects of the Mosaic. Thev in Kantist sense an antithesis in ideas. theology turns out to be pantheism. in the sense of Spinoza and Goethe. The whole field of theology. and Mohammedan religions. When we study without prejudice the results of these sciences bearing on religion. whence Schopenhauer regarded it as the highest of all religions. psychology. The three greatest Asiatic relig- — God is the central feature of the Mediterranean religions. and Confucianism were at first purely atheistic. On the other hand. and thus monism becomes a connecting link between religion and science. This brief survey of the twenty chief branches of modern science and their relation to monism and dualism shows that we are face to face with great contradictions. No evidence of his existence is to be found. comparative religion er a serious subject of scientific treatment. although he thought that practical reason postulated it. this was very ably shown by Kant. On the other is a very important branch of theoretical theology. and that we are still far from the harmonious and successful adjustment of these are partly due to a real antinomy differences. It deals with the origin. Buddhism was at once idealistic and pessimistic." ure of However.MONISM God. It is no longthree great hand. in which the positive seems to be just as capable of j^roof as its contra- — of reason the 469 . especially dogmatic theology. and significance of religion on the basis of modern anthropology.

a most prejudicial influence on science. form a transition to the four purely dogmatic sciences in which the traditional dualism politics. through practical reason. and theology. astronomy. philology. and On the other hand. and geology. 470 .THE WONDER dictory. anthropology. the highest quahty of civiHzed man. of the applied or practical sciences. physics. The following may be classed as rational or purely monistic sciences. is still paramount: In sociology. whole field of modern science at the beginning of the twentieth century in this connection. sciences we still find a mixture of monistic and dualistic ideas in the appreciation of their aims and objects. mathematics. chemistry. pedagogics and ethics. this unfortunate anin the sciences is connected with their historical development. psychiatry. semi-dogmatic (half -monistic) and dogmatic its . for the most part. jurisprudence. hygiene. Pure reason. politics. in the semi-dogmatic technology. and anthropology. in which no competent and thoroughly expert representative now admits dualistic considerations: of the pure or theoretical sciences. and have. — (predominantly dualistic) disciplines. wS OF LIFE tinomy But. was gradually evolved from the intelligence of the savage. If we glance at the psychology. history. and of the applied The two latter sciences sciences. psychology. This is the case with most of the biological sciences. one or the other prevailing according to the party position or personal training of the individual representative. . we can distribute whole twenty sections into three groups rational (purely monistic). medicine. ethics. still pervade the fossil ideas and rudimentary instincts — of modern theology. jurisprudence. These dualistic prejudices and irrational dogmas — in- tellectual residua of the primitive condition of the race. and this in turn from the instincts of the apes and lower mammals and many relics of its former lower condition remain to-day. biology (in the broadest sense).

is naturally only a provisional and It is especially dithcult from the cirpersonal sketch. sentatives cling to prejudices and superstitions of all and very slowly and gradually admit the acthroj^ology and psychology. most governments. Most of their ollicial represorts. the representatives of pure reason 471 . This classification of the chief branches of knowledge in their relation to philosophy. point out that a good deal of science in fact. and in the semi-dogmatic sciences it is gaining ground from day to day. and have undergone many changes as to their aims and subjects in the course of their hisI will only torical development. both in elementary and secondary schools and at the universities. following their conservative instinct. the strong bulwarks of dualism sociology. the rational sciences with exact — have now been comi)letely won mathematical basis over to monism. quisitions of pure reason as in embodied in monistic anThe intellectual life was many respects more advanced at the beginning of the nineteenth than of the twentieth century.MUX I S M these branches of science mediaeval traditions retain a good deal of their power. It is now more and more generally acknowledged in educated countries that a complete reform of our educational curriculum is needed. The great struggle between two different tendencies assumes larger proportions ever}' day. politics. For of all the sciences can only be the unitv of their underlying principles. so that we may hope sooner or later to see the four dogmatic sciences also. and the ultimate aim theolog}'' — — — succumb to monism. On the other hand. and find support in the dogmatic teaching of theology and jurisprudence. the comprehensive science of general truths. jurisprudence. cumstance that all the sciences have very complex relations to each other. On the one hand. or their harmonious unification by pure reason. cling as fnr as possible to mediaeval traditions.

Liberal humanists claim that the freedom and education of all men is the aim of progressive evolution. Hence in education we should impart a general outlook on all the Each should acquire the elements sides of human life. To conservative governments this is a matter of indifference they look on the individual citizens. merely as so many screws and wheels in the great organism of the state. applying the highest principles with equal force in the entire field of the — 472 . and desire to keep all higher education to themselves. The opposition between the two parties is accentuated by their different sociological tendencies. But in the light of pure reason the state is not an end in itself. but also of biology and anthropology. be converted into a friendly harmony. it is a means to insure the prosperity of the To each of these. and not take up special studies until I brought out in clear relief the antagonism between modern monism and traditional dualism. At the close of the Riddle this strenuous opposition may be toned down to a certain degree oh clear and logical reflection may. the predominance of the classical training over modern ought to be restricted. whatever their condition. In a thoroughly logical mind. Every student and every faculty should be occupied with only philosophy and science in the first sessions. The "upper ten thousand" naturally think of their own welfare first. fold division of labor. in the conviction that the free development of the personality of each individual is the surest guarantee of happiness. but also pointed out that afterwards. On the other hand. of science. the opportunity should be afforded of acquiring the higher education and developing their talents. citizens. in accordance with the mani. and to introduce the empirical and critical methods of modern science and medicine into what are called the mental sciences. indeed.THE WONDERS OF LIFE seek to get rid of these fetters. not only of physics and chemistry.

in thinking that the real world. — — This conciliatory disposition has grown stronger and stronger in me. H\LL UBPARY SUtd Collega j^9rU^ ^rglina . tD. and cultivating the play of emotion. Unfortunately.MONISM cosmos the antithetical in both organic and inorganic nature positions of theism and pantheism. H. we persist. can be truly known only by experience and pure reason. On the contrary.dit is a rare phenomenon in nature. Truth and poetry are then united in the perfect harmony of monism. losophy of life" teaches us that they are rooted deep in human nature. the object of science. consecutive thouj. our "realist phisight of our ideals. While occupying ourselves with the ideal world in art and poetry. nevertheless. approach until they touch each other. Every year increases my belief that the dualism of Kant and the prevalent metajihysical school must give way to the monism of Goethe and the In this we do not lose rising pantheistic tendency. vitahsm and mechanism.


457. 376. 185. 195. Association-contres. Aristotle. Articulates. 1S5. 115. younger than plants. 357. 4 75 Assimilation. mind in the. 281. i^sthesis. Anthropogcny. 39. 241-244. 282. The. 367-36Q. 356. Associational l>eauty. 66. 341. 115. 158. 182. ^sthetal cells. 220. 268. 150. 39. 325. motor apparatus o{ the. 355. 125. Animals. Altmann on the structure of plasm. Ambulacra! system. 162. 130. the. 33ii. Anthophyta. 163. Alternation of generations. Active movements in organisms. 279. Abortion. mcnlern development of. 253. monism of. power Antheridia. 249. 12. the. Anti-vitalism. the. 148. Acquired characters. Anthropologists and evolution. Altruism. 422. 220. 126. Agnostic position on the origin of Hfe. 262. 211. statement of grounds. Adaptation. . still 339-35S. Albuminoids. Astrularva. 283. 341-358. Animal states. 174. 140. occur. Abiogenesis. 60-65. Anthropology. Annelids. of. 30. 343-34S Archiplasm. 129. the science 321. 42. 220. 58. Agassiz on the creation species. 42. of. 176. 50. 316. 478. the. 285. Amphigony. kindness to. 205. inheri- Anthropogeny. 142. 415. 32. Art.ne. Alg. 320. 249. 296. 161. 78. ii:^. 14. Apotelia. rc})clitic)n 356. 33^321. sources of. Archigonv. 216. Allopula. 407. Ape. Archegonia. Am(JL'b<)id movements. 36. motor apparatus of 281. of. Apostles' Creed. Apes and men. . theories of. 142. Amphithecta. of.I NDEX may Animism. common structAphanocapsa. 168. Achromin. 332. Amphimixis. Angiuphyta. formulation 01. Asexual generation. Albumin. ure of 196. 240. tance of. Abiology. 13. Articulation. 27. Apposition. 308. -Esthetic selection. 134. 126. Actinal beauty. Astronomy. 128. Abstraction. Alimentary system. 86. 227. 280. 244.

32. curable. 138. 398. Autonomous movement. of. 280. structure of the. the founder of empiri. Beggiatoa. importance of. Caryokinesis. study of the. 374. Coelenteria. 182. Biology. 200. 469. virtual. 223. 397. Asymmetrical types. 201. 25. Chi tine. 396. 198. 325. 137. 157. 166. 32. 151. religion Children. progress of. 44. 141. 235. 268. growth of. Barbarians. 142. Child. Botanists and zoologists. 225. gence of. 430. 234. 208. Bionta. the. 157. 33. lower. Civilized races. 194-197. 225. 161. 137. 197. 22. Budding. Bar^sthesis. 394. 207. of. sphere 27. 221. Bilateral symmetry. 95. Chroococcacea. 58. 380-382. Berzelius on catalysis. Biogens. mental life Child-soul. Caryolysis. middle. Biogenetic law. value of. 182. Bacilli. 327. 201. 223. Biotonus. Biogen-hypothesis of Verwom. the structure of plasm. 267. 343. Biophora. 309. 205. 192. 130. Bathybius Haeckelii. 137. the. 182. 78. mind of the. 20. evolution of the. 34. 250. 196. generation of the. 260. ^197- Chromatin. Beauty. . 38. 94. 282. 213. 198-206. cism.Canon law. 276. 102. middle. 425. 334. Circulation of the blood. Bryophyta. 195. Chroococcus. Bionomy. 130. 396. 120. fashions in. 311. 177. 33. 32. 335. 46. life of. 309. destruction of inof. Chlorophyll. 33. 272. Autogony. 132. 395. 103. 58. 151. Cnidaria. Bilateral-radial types. Biitschli on the monera. 343. 402. 137. . Bioblasts. 202. 188. characteristics of 58-59. on 262. life of. 151. Clothing. stages of. 328. 394. 50. 242. 196. 141. evolution of the sense Chromacea. 78. as vitalist. 94. 243. 149. 423. 31 . 177. 218. Chromatophora. as an organ of mind. 270. Baptism. 95. 395. 323. higher. 334. 212. description of the. 184. higher. 396. Calymma. 142. division of. 253. Chromatella. Chorology. 141. the. 139. Carbon assimilation. the. absence of Carbon. 224. 476 . 464.THE WONDERS OF LIFE Astrozoon. 218. Brownian movement. shades of. Civilization. 179. Cleanliness in antiquity. Caryolymph. 37. 114. Bacteriology. 162. Bunge. Bacteria. Coeloma. 324. 401 408 stages of. 184-187. 341. Brain. nucleus in the. 360. sources of. 384. 194. 426. the. evils of. 342. 134. 309. mind in. Bacon. lower. Ciliary movement. 128. modern. 130. 228. 214. 21. diverof. 41. partial. 140. Biogeny. beginning of. the. Barotaxis. 200. Auditory vesicles. the. 7. Blastoderm. Bio-crystals. 199. 90. Chromoplasts.

465. 400. the. 182. Cortex of the brain. growth of. 266. Cormophyta.. 23. Division of labor. lower. 237. Ear. Crystalloids. 399. middle. 327. Crystals. 39. 291. real cause of. Cytosoma. Egoism. 100. Cultivated races. 247. Diatomes. Consciousness a function of the brain. parasitic. 184. Dominants. 191. Cytology. 361. 41. Culmus. 169. of sensation. Copulation. 388. ism. 45. 265. 81 91 433. 411. 122. 246. Custom. of the mind. 99. 397. 194. . . Cosmic intelligence. 98. Design. 244. 160.INDEX Coelomaria. Disassimilation. 42. 161. 154. of morality. al- Cytotheca. 167. Contact-action. cell. Disease. 39. Struggle o\cr. of Reinke. Duty an evolved sense. 323. 290. 146. 106. 39. 50. 373 Conjugation. as vitalist. 331. 225. nature . Diclinism. 18. 373. in the state. 446. 158. reform of. canals in the. 208. 279-281. 421. 172. Darwin on ^. 33. Creationism. 139. Colon. the. 143. the. Descriptive science. mon. 369. 348. 150. tyranny of. Dynamism. 337. Louis. in the organism. 428. . 35. Divorce. 85. and 477 . 345. Descartes' idea of the soul. mind in the. definition of. higher. Education. 122. 138. Cyanogen. i66. Craniota. 429. of the unicellulars. 337. 128. 221. in the 158. 248. 190. 73- Death. 149. Elasticity. argument for.^>^: . Cytula. 36. 403. Ectogcncsis. 413. Cfcnobia. 138. 16. 115. Dualistic view of life. 252. 37. 40. 44. 364. 148. Cytophyta. 150. 43. 4. 142. nature of. Ecninoderms. theory. 310. Darwinism. af. 346. 447. nature of. 326. 332. De Bries on heredity. of the histona. 363. 251. 366. Crystallization. Cosmokinesis. nature of. nature of. 329- 12. 167. 165. Decomposability of plasm. 264. 165. 41 and organisms compared. Dialysis. the. 331. Diofcia. 430. Crustacea. Coloring methods. truism. 44. 51. 110. the. Cosmogony. motor organs of the. forms of. 220. 398. 35. 145. 35. 47. life of. 41. Dwarf races. Conservatism of governments. loi total and partial. Cormus. 157. 6. 470. Colloids. Dogmatic sciences. 168. 105.Dissogony. Cuticle. 419. Corset. repro- duction of. 43. as vitalist. the origin of life. 5. 192. Dumas. 183. 471. 41. 80. 30. 19. development of. Driesch. Cytoplasm. 311. 212. 422. Dualism. 347Cytodes. 266. 226. 360.

400. 8. 437. lated. 4. 83. 442. nature of. 244. Fashion. 360. Gastric canal. 223. the. Extension. Generation. 57. Ergonomy. 448. 415-417. the perfect. 441. 344. evolution of the. Ergology. Enzyma. 66. 228. importance of. 134. historical nature 378. 458. Frothy theory of plasm. 128. 242. the. Gravitation. Gonades. Experimental science. realism of. Experience. 229. 426. Eucharist. Fungilli. 133. 46. Epithelium. 95. 38. 143. mind Embryology. 241-251. 276. origin of. ciliated Fungi. Faith. 271. Globular shape. the. 367.. in the. 376. 352. 132. 35. 204. Flat-fishes. 150. 383. Growth movements. 21. movement. 440. the theory of. Gastraeads. 133. 439. Food. Gameta. 478 . 440 scientific studies of. 250. on Gonochorism. Experiment. and flagel- the. Family. 223.353. discoveries of. 85. 446. 223. Erotic chemotropism. analysis of the. End 383^ life. monism of. Gonoducts. Ethics. bodies. the. 205. Geology. 32. 338. 222. Epicureanism. 249. 163. 402. definition of. 233. 306. 232. 162. Germ-plasm. Epitelia. Excretion. Gastro-canal system. Electricity. Granular theory of plasm. Energy as attribute of substance. Growth. 312. 234. Goethe. Forms of organic structure. Gastrula. 37. 298. 372- German mind. Electric organs. 28. Habit. monism of. 241. limited use of. 34. the. 215. Fistella. Flagelliform 276. 13. natural and supernatural. 230. Flemming on the structure Elements. 264. Frommann on plasm. Gastraea theory. 3. Geotropism. 133. artificial production 400.8. 235. Fetichism. Erect posture. 295. of of. Genealogy of organisms. Fechner on sensation. 20. the. 7. 313. ^78. 340. of. mechan- view of plasm. 134. 243. metamorphosis of. 309. legal 325. evolution of. 196. Flechsig. Ethic. 304. sensation of. 54. Gills. 310. 305. 326. Embryo. 417. the. 246. Feeling. 449. ical. Eternity hypothesis of life. 173-184. 204. Filar theory of plasm. 449. sensation in. Janus 441. Eye. Gemmation. Energism. 308. 446. the universality of life. . 236. . 285. 299. 411. Geogeny. 166. sexual and asexual. 325. Gloeocapsa. of. 296. of 387. character 298.THE WONDERS OF LIFE Eleatic philosophers. chemical. in inorganic Flame. 422. 58.

339. Ionic philosophers. 42. necessity 378. theory 317-319. 99-101. Hermaphroditic glands. Hybrids. 277- Ileum. 149. 255. KirehhofTon the work of science. 36. the 65. Historical waves. 443: philos- ophy 440. l)elief in. Insanity. 300. 255. 258. . 246. 461. and faith compared. nature of. 136. 86. 89. 367. 64. 182. 174. the. the. 84. Immaterial 437- Imbibition in organisms. 135. increase law. 11. 298. the. 268. on the monera. Immortality. 136. the. of.s tirinri. Hfe.^8^. Knowletlge. dualistic a p<y. Kassowitz on archijjony. 369. Intussuscc|)li<)n. 451. His. 145. Herachtus on hfe. influence of. 318. Ilelmholtz on the origin of 339- Imbibition energy of plasm. Idioplasm theory. 261. jj^ji.vt as natural historian. Incurables and suicide. 270. 444: of knowledge of. popularity 86. Hylozoism. honl. ic2. Hermaphrodism. 293. of. Instinct. 9. 355. 9. organic. Histonals. 226. sensation Heaven. Imugmation. the. W. Intelligence. . Hydrf>static movements. 166. 45- Holosphnera. 434- Hylonism. 412. Ka. critical views 438. 317. nature of. 418. 259- 245. 317. 82. 11.. 92. theoretical aiid practical. 31- 119. theories of. Insectivorous plants. 87. 443. 305. 366. Hypogenesis. 118. sources of. Hygiene. moral j)hilosophv of. Kelvin. 301. 413. Kidneys. Irritability. 291. 137. mechanical views of. 366. Honor. Hyaloplasm. 256. 114. the. 319. 228. Idealism. 68. of. 435. 269. 28. of. 8r. 389. Hofmeister on organic chemistry. 165. 108. 436. 171. 254. (i. cumulative. Isopola. 272.'^9. Hypotheses. mystic trainmg of. Heredity. of the 71. 287. function of. priori and a 24. 10. 332. world. 47Q . Hedonism. Heart. 6(). 54. false sense ity. 401. 173. 20. 74. of. 249. History. 204. 66. Infusoria. Heat. O. 382 . 316. 25. on the biogenetic Inoculation. Hertwig. 439for. Idiocy.I ND I-: X of the. 430. Histona. 106. 68. on the oriinn of life. of. 444. 130. 434. 9. biological ignorance of. fertility of. Huxley on organic individual152. Hehotropism. 143. conservative and progressive. 84. ' } 9 Individuality. movement in • uni118. 304. cellulars. work of the. 464. Histolysis. C(jntradictory views 9. the. 54. theories of. 109.. narrow life of. the. 288. Intercellular matter. 368. Heterogenesis.

Medicine. 404. Metaplasm. 344. 238. 352. loi. of life. 342. 174. 421. 322. Metaphyta. Law. reaction in science of. Love. 194. Larvae. 233. motor apparatus Mohl. Miracles. 244. 34. in the metazoa. 428. 36. 161. 201. 403 evolution . tion of the. 217. 456. 312. 137. 167. of sub- Kussmaul on the 20. Mind. monistic theory Matter child -soul. 137. 102. the. 427 priest. Mechanical embryology. 219. modem Metazoa. Manners and morals. Lamarck's transformism. a function of the brain. Micella. of. Metaplasmosism. Micrococcus. 155. 17. artificial production of. Materialism. Monism. 103. 402. the. value of. 433-445. 29. 259. 328. 360-365. 219-221. 320. Lobmonera. 145. 343. 211. Lungs. evolution Metamerism. and bacteria. Middle Ages. 157. 281. as a flame. Metaphysicians disdain physMetaphysics. 221. Macrogameton. 16. 217-219. theories of plasm. in the protozoa. 342-346. 31-33. 402. Mental disease. progress in. Metasitism. length of. Matrimony. 386-410. Molecules. philosophy of. of. 316. Mechanics. Memory. 19. 427. 122. 19. 107. 480 . evidential value of. Luminous animals. 329. 202. ical science. of the. 244. 12-14. 363. 462. 253. 190-209. 428. Marriage. the. 54. 328-330. Light. Membranes. Monera. a mechanical process. of idea of. nature of. Metagenesis. 439. 88. 230. action of. 10. 319. 130. 182. 46. ly control of. 187. Locomotion. 210. development of. constant change of. 315. common descent of the. 44. 284. evoluthe. Mammals. of mental functions. as attribute stance. 401. no. Lamarck. 386. 123.305- Lichens. thought in the. nature 89. 337-358. 94. Leucocytes. 426. in biology. 28. Landscape beauty. Monaxonia. Life. 163. 82. 144. 323. 27. 38. 157. 358. 126. Leibnitz. nature of. Microgameton. Mathematics. 165. progressive refinement of. 253. Mimicry. in the protophyta. 220. 60. 20. . 421. Lange on Kant. development of. 228. Living substance. 259. 66. Lord's Supper. Machine-theory 29.THE WONDERS OF LIFE theory of. Metamorphology. 275-285. 416. Localization of functions. 106. 283. 451. 448. 28. 420. 297-300. cellular. 217. 67. 387 . of. 55. 24. 260. Hugo. 103. 30. 81. Molecular structure of the monera. 206. in the metaphyta. 422. 127. beginning Metabolism. origin of. 40. 129. 79. of. 326. 231. 168.

(Ecology. Nuclein. Observation. 338. sceptical and Panpsychism. 85. stages of. 74. 235. Organic chemistry. Ostwald. 430-432. 109. 163. sysated. 9. Ovulum. 95. 250. Monogamy. Palingenesis. 302. of uniwfNO. 109. Ovoplasm. 149. 262. 330. forms of in lower animals. 414. 1 2. 296. 340. 48. 354. apparatus of. systems of. 86. 171. Muscular cells. Osmosis. 15^Johannes. meaning of. 245. as a monist. 308. 79. Pessimism. 251. »^6. the. 164. 292. and in240. Palavitalism. 365. 278. 137. 248. 277. striated and non strion mental energy. in tem of. 361. 163. 29. 273. progress in supply of. 154. Neurona. 430. 159. ditlerencts Ijctwccn. ure of life. 82. 269. Morphonta. progress of. 12. 39. 262. 375. 130. 481 . 276-279. the. Occultism. Morality. 75. 4-20. Naturalism. 148. Nucleolus. iio. iii. 274. 122. adaptation. 106. subjective and Perigenesis of the objective. 328. Neo-Darwinism. nature of an. Ontogeny. 196. Nitrobacteria. iio. 376. Parthenogenesis. evolution of. 139. Motion Miiller. Passive movements in organisms. 373. 21S. 253. 343. 49. a social (jrganic. Monoclinism. Neo-vitalism. 450. 349. Peptones. 149. sensations. the. 356. Morphology. 3S2. Perception of stimuli. 247. Olfactory region. instinct. 413. 303. 3O6. 150. plastidulos. 152. Paranuclein. 30. 40. on P. 277. OrgancUa.INDEX Monobia. 376.. 87. Organization. 140. 379. 48. on growth. Pantheism. 288. 44. 7. Neo-Lamarckism. Persons. 401. 365. metabolism. 136. i6o. Nucleus of the cell. Lorentz. 28. Mutation theory. Pasteur disproves spontaneous generation. i^n. 150. on enzyma. 35. 38.Organs. on sensation. 411. Ovary. 252. Paratonic movement. conven27. 201. Natural history. 94. Myophcena. 325. tional. on plasm. 49. on the nat. 414. 164. of sense and thought. Optimism. 36. 235-238. 350-35-Paulospores. on the origm of life. 376. Muscles. Perjietual motion 25S. Oken. 45. 419. 78. 46. 293. dogmatic. MoncEcia. 50. 375. Pangenesis thct)ry. Necrobiosis. a form of Organism. 259. on universality of sensation. 412. Parasites. 37. 80. 344. 156. 244. 141. 13. 247. nature of. Nutrition. 245. 37. Parasitology. I S3. the.-EDOGENESIS. 31 94. 215. Nageli evolution. 29.

107. 2. Plants. the. 361. 93. Protestants. 123. Probionta. 92. 298. 453. 305. 454. 131. 66. 17. 197. 81. 331. 73- Phronema. 34. 130-138. the. 313- Pineal gland. 436. 310. ophy of. 329. Pseudopodia. Plassonella. 364. 136. 14. 156. Phylogeny. 217. 192. 14. 116-118. defects of. 15-17.. 190-209. Ptomaines.THE WONDERS OF LIFE Pfliiger on origin of 346. nature of. Plastidules. Phroneta. Poetry. liberalism among. modern. 3. Rational sciences. Polioplasm. 322. chemical constituents of. structure of. 259. 221. on universality of life. Plate on Darwinism. 358. Proteids. on evolution. 35. 340. 121. 21. 377. monistic. 264. history of. Protists. 48 . Phoronomy. 330. Principle of individuation. 160. errors of. 31. 356. 225. 376. Preyer on the child-soul. 71. Radiolaria. 182. nature of. 343. 172. Plato. fungi. 28. Philology. 92. sense of. 354. Plasmogony. nature 122. dure extreme temperatures. 34. philos- Protoplasm. 18. movements of the. Platodes. 18. Plastin. comparative. 293. 128. movement J. Psychogenesis. 322. 93. of. 158. 174. 141. 32. Plasson. Providence. Reaction. 200. 275. Plasmodomism. Psychiatry. 206. 467. 125. 355. liberal views of. 470. Philosophy. belief in. in the. 19. 20. 89. 159. 21. 243. 220. 354. of. nature of. 94. Pressure. Physics. 322. 129. structure of the. 136. Physicians. 454. 178. 94. 193. sources of. 265. 130. Pleuronectides. Physiology. Ranke. dualism of. can en16. 214. 212. 329. 268. 300. 271. Planospores. dualism of. 379. 27. 162. 121. pedagogical value of. 130. 125. 463. 176. Protamoeba. Psychophysics. 126. Plasma products. Plastids. 274. 13. molecules of. 357. on the earth as an organism. 196. 144. Promorphology. 455 nature . 16. 153. Psycho-monism. 41. spontaneous movement in. 138. Politics. monism of. 37. Piano theory of the soul. science of the. Phytomonera. Purposive movement. Phytoplasm. 128-146. life. Photo-synthesis. the. Platnosphasra. "the. 453. 212. 33. Physiologists. 22. Powder. 127. 244. 213. Plasm. Pyramidal types. 143. Phototaxis. Polytomy. 138. 193. Plasmophaga. 213. Pteridophyta. 267. Psychology. 345. 181. modem. 172. sensitiveness to electricity. 439Poisonous bacteria. 329. 217. 171. 126. 236. differentiation of the. 203. Phronetal cells. 193. 461. 461. 108.

H. Rindtleisch. Sensation as attribute of subRhizomonera. L. 295. 392-394. 72. Rhizopods. 201. on the 154. 77. nature of. Self-cleavage. Sarcode. Resurrection plants. natvitalist. 4. 228-232. 449. 206. sense. 30. 291. 241. 2S8. 287. 398. of. Secretory movement. 155. confusion in. 105- Schopenhauer. 185. 271. 81. 296. Rhodocytes. life of the. 120. middle. E. 424. 90. Reflex movement. 23. Schultze. 5. 329. Science and tradition. nature of. Sensation and consciousness. Schleiermacher. feeling of. by division. 447. generation. 293. Respiration. on suicide. lower. the. 425. practical. 22. 6. 407. 290. 56. 421. 450. Sentiment ami reason. 63. Redemption. 106. the. the. work of. 361. as pessimist. evolution of. 57. Reason. 62. theory of. in the. . 423. Max. 406. Reproduction a monistic process. 15. cell-life. 337. Shame. 308. Reinke. 295. Romanism. of. 257. of dominants. 83. 293. Resurrection. beginning of. Rhumbler. 448. versal. 228. 302. Sensibility. conflict 80. Sensations in savage and civilized man. 287-293. Savage. 57-65. religion of the. Semi-dogmatic sciences. 4.. the. 406. 405. 350. 440- 442. Saprobiosis. Schleiden. 70. in atoms. Schizophyta. 263. Sight. Sex sense. Senses. selection 251. Sensitiveness. value of. 420. 154. . 71. higher. organic. 112. in plants. 407. 317. Richter. 4. as dualism ure of. 192. 292. 393Schiller. 302. of 390- Savages.I N I) E X Realism. 412. 91. 234. 57 sense-life in the. 426. I 14. as vitalist. 13. 292 of matter. on life. 242. 307. on the Rhythmic beauty. idealism of. 349. Romanes. characters. evolution fif. on the categorical imperative. 155. ev<ilution t)f. 339. 193. 90. 439. 394. views of the. Self . 363. 317. ^\. cell. schools of. 186. 244-253. 262. 333. 391. 64. 219. 406. 251. movement 132. 304. 51. secondary. 264. 293. Release of energy. 470. conversion of. 405. 289. organic. 242. 423. 14. 262. Sense-centres. 426. 306. 14. mind in the. Sensualism. works 01. Senility. 31 on the origin of life. 425. Selection. Ill. 406. 324. causes of. common to all bodies. Saposites. dotjma of. 309. pure and Reason and authority. loiRegeneration. Sensorium. analysis of. on the monera. Religion. 316. theory 408. 245. . Schwann. Sexual beauty. 323. Science. 270. 424. stance.. 483 . uni. neglected by physiologists. Sacraments.consciousness. 129. 294. 51. finer development the.

dualistic idea of the. the. power of. Substance. 265. ism of. 161. Thought as attribute of stance. 92. 238. D. on morality. the. Theology. 423. 119. sense of. 179. 1 16. action of. 237. 468. 329. 324. 171. 235. Tailor theory. 82. 445. Sun-dew. Tissues. electric. 304. Sperm-plasm. Spores. 70. 278. Species. 244. Symbiosis. 163 plants. optic. 350. 271. 181. chemical. defects of.44. 484 . evolution of the. 465. 13. 162. 15. 112. Snails. 451. the. common type of the. 299-302. primary and secondary. occasional justice of. 15-18. 195. seat of the.. Spartan selection.. the. 3TO295. 151. 315. Spirilla. the. 245. acoustic. Technical science. 245. Supernatural. attributes of. 172. of. dangers of.279. the. 295. Sociology. 244. 297-300. Stock. ment mon. 299—301. of. 383. 467. 168. Suicide. nature of. Teleology in movement. 409. 36.Teleology.THE WONDERS OF LIFE Silicon. 448. 161. 303. Touch. Stauraxoni a 175.worms. 297. Taste. Stationary life in animals. eternity. 362. 301-309: conduction of. Sympathy. 312. nature of the. 349. 75. 115. 165. 231. A. 296. 366. Smell. Sporangia. Spontaneous generation. Stimuli. 94. 284. Space. . 350. 303. 87. thermic. 231. Thigmotaxis. F. Speech. Tradition. found in all substance. 154. 301. 112. of. conflict over. vSuperstition. Thought centres. 310. 183State and the individual. Teleology. 311- Spallanzani and spontaneous generation. 56. Sutherland. 70. 392. Thermotaxis.. 42. 202. 304. 40. Soul. Time. 148. Tracheata. 2. 302. the. Skeletal theory of plasm. nature of. 274. 254. 16. 371the. States. 311. 349. 461. modem. the problem of. Strauss. 204. . 309. 184. subSprouts. 72. perception of. Specialism. 309312. Sleep of flowers. the. 278. 275. Tape. system of the. 88.313. Symmetry. 348. in plants. 283. 445. 446. 133. muscles of the. 21. Skeleton. action of the. moveSpinoza. 74. Spiritualism. older Thallophyta. Strophogenesis. 410. Tissue animals. 240. Spiritism. 165. Transgressive growth. the. Temperature. 409. 272. belief in. Swimming-bladder. gravitational. sense of. Spermatozoon. progress Tectology. 241. Sporozoa. contradictory views of. 162. mechanical. Tocogony. 113. Thallus. 309. 240. 97. 165. 363.

408. 418. Zoomonera. 230. 348. Veddahs. Woman. Tropesis. 402. succession of the. Trophoplasts. 184. 219. Variability in species. on the structure of plasm. Vital force. the. Turgor. 274.344Ziegler the origin of life Verwom. Variation movements. Vibratory movement. the. 296. Types of organic structure. 327- Zehnder on . 390. nature of. modern Weismann on immortality. 9910 1 on selection. Max. 30. 2. improvement in position of. on the nature of life.vessels. 273-275. 1 7 3- War. 364. THE END . Water-feet. 193. on instinct. mind in the. on enzyma. 323. i. 328. 72. 459. on the origin of life. Tubingen 275- school. Water. Watch compared with ism. Vegetal diet. Zooplasm.INDEX Transubstantiation. Vertebrates. 280. 213. 271. 266-286. Treviranus. on the aim of science. 409. the. 373. Truth. 4. Will. 5. 232. Vitalism. Virchow and evolution. motor apparatus of the. 426. 47-51. 79. Wind-pipe. the. 227. 393. organ- Unequal Value of value of life. 400. 143. life. 274. 265. 46. 263. Voluntary movement mechan262-264. movement. 308. . 286. 409. 28. 283. ical. 137. 47-51. freedom of the. Turgescence movements. 284.





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