You are on page 1of 32

www.wunan.com.

tw
(02)2705-5066

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

why
how

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

vii

20128

viii

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

Chapter

23

3
7
12

23
25
27
28
29
31
32
34
35
38
39
40
41

Chapter

45

50

51
53

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066


Chapter

63

63
66
67
68
70

Chapter

73

Chapter

91

logic?73
80
85

91
95
96
99
100
103

Chapter

107

107
109
111
114
115

ii

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

127

127
129
131
133
136
137
139
139
140
141
142

Chapter

145

145
146
147
148
149
151
152
154
155
164
168

Chapter

10

169

169
179
181
187

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

iii


Chapter

11

189

191
193
196
200
205

Chapter

12

211

211
216
219
223

Chapter

13

227

227

228
233
Quasi-experimental Design
237
240

Chapter

14

243

244
246
249
251
255
260

iv

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

15

261

261
263
264
267
276
278

Chapter

16

281

281
284
285
291
296

307
311

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

how

whywhy
how

Delbert C. Miller and Neil J. Salkind, Handbook of Research Design and Social Measurement
2010p. iv.

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

genes
DNA

Joseph Needham





2

Joseph Needham 3-4


18
33

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

John
Deway,1859-1950 1939 LogicThe Theory of Inquiry

Middle Ages

SocratesPlatoAristotle
400-300 B.C.skepticism
questions
conceptual reasoningobservation

dogmatic faith
1600

mature hypothesis




1
p.1

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066


Francis Bacon, 1561-1626

the Dark Ages

Isaac Newton, 1642-1727


assumption

Galileo, 1564-1642

Aristotelianism

Karl Pearson

(1) (2) (3)


(4)

experimentation

Karl Pearson, The Grammar of Science


1998p.15

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

experimentation

problem

reasoning
hypothesis

problem-solving
problemquestion

question
questionproblem

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

question

hint

questionformulateproblem

problem

hypothesis
proposition

H2O

tentative

inductiondeduction

techniques

problem

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

generalization
problem-solving

assumption
Albert Einstein

G. Tyler Miller, Jr., Living in the Environment-Principles, Connections, and Solutions,


Tenth Edition, Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1998, p. 51.

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

idea
principlemodel
hypotheses

experiment

proposal

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

model

7.

8.

questionproblem
observation
measurement

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

experiment

model
simulationmental

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066


conceptualgraphicphysical
mathematical
scientific theory

scientific
law

the second law of energy or the second law of thermodynamics

1783
Antoine Lavoisierlaw of
conservation of matter

1800 John
Daltonatomic theory of matter

idea

10

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

variablesfactors
controlled experiment
experimental group
control group

disprove

degree of probability

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

11

critical thinking

Jane Heinze-Fry
1.

12

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

2.

3.

4.

5.

problem-solving

1.

2.

3.

4.

problem-solving

1.

2.

3.

*
*
*

4.

*
* correlation
cause and effect
* original

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

13


5.

assumptions
*

6.

7.

8.


14

G. Tyler Miller, pp. 64-65.

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

idea

Steve Jobs

think different
Roger von Oech

10
mental locks

1.

10 Roger von Oech, A Whack on the Side of the Head, Warner Books, 1983, p. 8.

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

15

2.

hard
thinkingIQ

3.

16

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

4.

5.

11

measurement
inexact science
fuzzy logic

6.

11 Roger von Oech, pp. 55, 61.

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

17

7.

8.

everything is related to everything else

Microsoft

18

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

9.

10.

Stay hungry, stay foolish.

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

19

system theorychaos theory

1-1

1-1

1-2

1-2

20

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

Chapter

Kenneth Boulding
skeleton of science

12

chaos theory
E. Lorenz 1960

13

12 George Chadwick, A System View of Planning, Pergamon Press, 1971, pp. 40-41.
13 Michael L. McKinney and Robert M. Schoch, Environmental Science, West Publishing
Company, 1996, p. 107.

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

21

22

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066

. .
, 2012.10

ISBN 978-957-11-6775-6 ()
1.2.3.
501.2

101014858

1H40









106 3 3 9 4
(02)2705-5066(02)2706-6100
http://www.wunan.com.tw
wunanwunan.com.tw
0 1 0 6 8 9 5 3

/6
(04)2223-0891(04)2223-3549
/290
(07)2358-702 (07)2350-236

2 0 0 8 1 1
2 0 0 9 1 0
2 0 1 2 1 0
4 5 0

www.wunan.com.tw
(02)2705-5066