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Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.

1
Consider two mutually coupled branches:
The equation for the current at node is given by
Adding and subtracting the term on the right-hand side and combining terms with
common coefficients, we obtain KCL equation at node :

The above equation represents the partial network shown below:
An Equi val ent Admi ttance Method
m
q M p M n a m a m
V Y V Y V Y V Y I
Y
M
V
m
m
mq mp mn
q m M p m M n m a m
I I I
V V Y V V Y V V Y I
+ =
( ) ( )( ) ( )
+ + =
+ + =
Z
a
Z
M
Z
b
V
b
V
a
+ +
- -
I
a
I
b
I
p
I
q
I
m
I
n
Y
a
Y
M
Y
b
V
b
V
a
+ +
- -
I
a
I
b
I
p
I
q
I
m
I
n
-Y
M
I
mp
Y
M
I
mq
Y
a
I
mn
I
m
m p
n
q
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
2
Similarly,


The fourth node equation does not yield a separate partial network because it is not
independent of the other equations.
( ) ( )( ) ( )
+ + =
+ + =
( ) ( )( ) ( )
+ + =
+ + =
np nq nm
p n M q n M m n a n
I I I
V V Y V V Y V V Y I
pn pm pq
n p M m p M q p b p
I I I
V V Y V V Y V V Y I

Y
M
I
np
-Y
M
I
nm
Y
a
I
nq
I
n
Y
M
I
pn
-Y
M
I
pm
Y
b
I
pq
I
p
m p
n
q
m p
n q
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
3
Combining the three partial networks without duplicating branches,
This lattice network has no mutually coupled branches, but it is equivalent in every
respect to the two original coupled branches since it satisfies the same set of equations.
For two coupled branches that are physically connected among three independent nodes
( and are one and the same node): n q
-Y
M
Y
M
Y
a
I
m
Y
M
-Y
M
Y
b
I
p
I
q
I
n
Y
M
I
m
-Y
M
Y
b
I
q
I
p
Y
M
Y
a
V
p
V
q
m p
n
q
m p
q
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
4
:
Nodal admittance matrix of mutually coupled branches:
(3) (2) (1)
00 . 5 50 . 2 50 . 2
50 . 2 25 . 6 75 . 3
50 . 2 75 . 3 25 . 6
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
Replacing the coupled branches by their equivalent circuit,
Exampl e
j j j
j j j
j j j

I
b
-j6.25
-j6.25
-j8.0
-j5.0
-j2.5
1 -90
0.68 -135
I
e
I
c
I
f
I
d
I
a
-j0.8 -j0.8
I
g
j3.75
- j2.5
- j2.5
- j8.0
- j5.0
- j2.5
1 -90
0. 68 -135
- j0.8 - j0.8
- j3.75
0
1
2
3 4
0
1
2
3 4
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
5
Nodal admittance equations:
o
o
135 68 . 0
90 1
0
0
30 . 8 0 00 . 5 50 . 2
0 80 . 5 50 . 2 50 . 2
00 . 5 50 . 2 25 . 19 75 . 11
50 . 2 50 . 2 75 . 11 75 . 16
bus
1. Addition of a branch admittance between nodes and :
Add to the elements and of
bus
and subtract from the
symmetrical elements and .
In other words, to incorporate the new branch admittance into the network, we add
to the existing
bus
the :
(n) (m)
bus
) (
) (
2. Change the admittance value of a single branch:
Add a new branch between the same end nodes and such that the parallel
combination of the old and the new branches yields the desired value.
3. To remove a branch admittance already connected between nodes m and n:
Add the branch admittance between the same nodes, which amount to
subtracting the elements of
bus
from the existing Y
bus
.

q
p
n
m
V
V
V
V
j j j
j j j
j j j j
j j j
Modi fi cati on of
Y
a
m n
Y
a
Y
mm
Y
nn
Y
a
Y
mn
Y
nm
Y
a
change matr i x
a a
a a
Y Y
Y Y
n
m
m n
Y
a
Y
a
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
6
4. To remove a pair of mutually coupled branches from the network:

Subtract the entries in the following change matrix from the rows and columns of
bus
corresponding to the end nodes , , , :
(q)
(p)
(n)
(m)
(q) (p) (n) (m)
bus
5. To remove one of two mutually coupled branches:
First, remove all entries for the mutually coupled pair from the
bus
[see (4)
above]. Then, add entries for the branch to be retained.
: Remove the effects of mutual coupling from the
bus
of the previous Example.
30 . 8 0 00 . 5 50 . 2
0 80 . 5 50 . 2 50 . 2
00 . 5 50 . 2 25 . 19 75 . 11
50 . 2 50 . 2 75 . 11 75 . 16
(4)
(3)
(2)
(1)
(4) (3) (2) (1)
bus
To remove the two mutually coupled branches, subtract
00 . 5 50 . 2 50 . 2
50 . 2 25 . 6 75 . 3
50 . 2 75 . 3 25 . 6
(4)
(3)
(2)
(1)
(4) (3) (2) (1)
bus,1
To reconnect the uncoupled branch between 1 and 3 with admittance (j0.25)
-1
= -j4.0,
add
4.0) (-
1 1
1 1
(4)
(3)
(2)
(1)
(4) (3) (2) (1)
bus,2
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
m n p q
b b M M
b b M M
M M a a
M M a a
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y
Exampl e
j j j
j j j
j j j j
j j j j
j j j
j j j
j j j
j





=
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
7
To reconnect the uncoupled branch between 2 and 3, add
4.0) (-
1 1
1 1
(4)
(3)
(2)
(1)
(4) (3) (2) (1)
bus,3
The new bus admittance matrix:
3 . 8 0 0 . 5 5 . 2
0 8 . 8 0 . 4 0 . 4
0 . 5 0 . 4 0 . 17 0 . 8
5 . 2 0 . 4 0 . 8 5 . 14
(4)
(3)
(2)
(1)
(4) (3) (2) (1)
bus
as in a previous Example without branch coupling.
bus
Consider the network
j
j j j
j j j
j j j j
j j j
The Net wor k I nci dence M atr i x and

=
Y
Y
Y
I
b
-j6.25
-j6.25
-j8.0
-j5.0
-j2.5
1 -90
0.68 -135
I
e
I
c
I
f
I
d
I
a
-j0.8 -j0.8
I
g
j3.75
0
1
2
3 4
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
8
Branch equations:
80
50 . 2
00 . 5
00 . 8
25 . 6 75 . 3
75 . 3 25 . 6
80 . 0
Or
pr pr pr
where
pr
and
pr
are the branch voltages and currents, and
pr
is the primitive
admittance matrix.

:
Has one row for each branch and one column for each node with an entry in
row and column according to the following rule:
) ( node toward directed is branch in current if 1
) ( node from away directed is branch in current if 1
) ( node to connected not is branch if 0
For the given network,
(4) (3) (2) (1) (0)
1 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

'

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

g
f
e
d
c
b
a
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
j
j
j
j
j j
j j
j
Br anch-to-node i nci dence matr i x A
a
i j
i j
j i
j i
j i
a
i j
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
I V Y
V I Y
A
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
9
(omitting column for reference node from

)
(4) (3) (2) (1)
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0
Voltage drops across the branches:
pr
4
3
2
1
or
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0
KCL at nodes 1 to 4:
pr
4
3
or
0
0
1 1 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 1 1 0 0
Br anch-to-node matr i x A
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
T
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
A
AV V
I I A

=
=



Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
10
Multiplying the branch current equations by the transpose of A,
pr bus
bus
pr
pr pr pr
: For the system two examples previous to this,
8 . 0
5 . 2
5
8
25 . 6 25 . 3
75 . 3 25 . 6
8 . 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0
=
8 . 0 5 . 2 0 . 5 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 5 . 2 5 . 2 8 . 0
0 0 0 . 5 0 . 8 75 . 3 25 . 6 0
0 5 . 2 0 0 . 8 25 . 6 75 . 3 0
pr
(4) (3) (2) (1)
pr bus
30 . 8 0 00 . 5 50 . 2
0 80 . 5 50 . 2 50 . 2
00 . 5 50 . 2 25 . 19 75 . 11
50 . 2 50 . 2 75 . 11 75 . 16
(4)
(3)
(2)
1) (
{ }
=
=
=
=

= =
A Y A Y
I V Y
I V A Y A
I A V Y A
Y A
A Y A Y
T
T
T T
Exampl e
j
j
j
j
j j
j j
j T
j j j
j j j
j j j j
j j j j
T
j j j
j j j
j j j j
j j j j
T
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
11
Properties of the
bus
1. The matrix is complex and symmetric.
2. The matrix is sparse since each bus is connected to only a few nearby buses.
3. When there is a net non-zero admittance tie to the reference bus,
bus
is nonsingular
(
bus
1
exists). When there are no ties to the reference bus,
bus
is singular.
4. If the
bus
is augmented with a row and column (i.e., and axis) corresponding to the
reference bus, a (n+1) (n+1) admittance matrix is obtained called the
. It is always singular.
5. The indefinite bus admittance matrix entries are formed with exactly the same
building algorithm as that of the conventional bus admittance matrix. If the (n+1)st
axis is axis 0, entries are:
0 , and 0 buses between
0 bus to connected
0
00
The row sum of every row of the augmented matrix is zero. The column sums
are also zero.
bus
1. Line Outage
Mathematically equivalent to adding a new line of admittance
out
in parallel with
the line to be outaged (
out
= admittance of the line to be outaged).
Procedure to modify
bus
:
a. Diagonal entries: Add
out
to the and entries.
b. Off-diagonal entries: Add
out
to the and entries.
2. Deletion of a Bus
Consider a system of buses in which buses ( < ) are considered to be
uninteresting and about which no electrical information is sought. Partition
bus
and
bus
such that

If no injection currents are received at the uninteresting buses,
Y
Y
Y Y
Y
Y
Y
I
V
I
I
I
V
V
V
0 I

=
=

=
=
i ndef i ni te bus
admi ttance matr i x
i i y Y
y Y
i
aug
bus
Y
Changes i n t o Ref l ect System Changes
y
y
y i i j j
y i j j i
n m m n
b
a
bus
b
a
bus
m
b
n m
m
n m
m
L L
- -
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
12
Find with the uninteresting buses deleted.
1
1
1
1
:
Admittances shown are in per unit mhos.
symmetric
) 5 (
) 4 (
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
13
13 33
0 20 40 5
0 0 20 40
0 0 0 20 20 2
Kron Reduction Formula
2
j10
j10
j20
5
j20 j13
(0) (0)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
eq
bus
m
T
ab bb
ab aa
eq
bus
a
eq
bus
a
a
T
ab bb
ab aa
a
T
ab bb
ab a aa
b ab a aa a
a
T
ab bb
b
b bb a
T
ab
b
b
a
bb
T
ab
ab aa
b
a
bus bus bus
Exampl e
j
j j
j j
j j
j j
bus
Y
Y Y Y Y Y
V Y I
V Y Y Y Y
V Y Y Y V Y
V Y V Y I
V Y Y V
V Y V Y 0 I
V
V
Y Y
Y Y
I
I
V Y I
Y
[ ]

=
=
=
=
+ =
=
+ = =


L
M
L M L
M
L
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
13
Bus 4 is to be deleted from consideration. Assume I
4
= 0.
Rearrange
bus
such that bus 4 is last (order is 1, 2, 3, 5, 4):
33 13 20 0 0
13 13 0 0 0
20 0 40 5 20 0
0 0 20 40 20
0 0 0 20 20 2
Partitioning
bus
,
33
13
20
0
0
13 0 0 0
0 40 5 20 0
0 20 40 20
0 0 20 20 2
Applying Krons reduction formula,
) 5 (
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
0 0
5 20 0
0 20 40 20
0 0 20 20 2
13 20 0 0
33
1
13
20
0
0
13 0 0 0
0 40 5 20 0
0 20 40 20
0 0 20 20 2
33
260
33
260
33
260
33
920
: Eliminate buses 2 and 4.
Reordering 1,3,5,2,4:
33
0 40 5
13 0 13
20 20 0 40
0 20 0 0 20 2
Y
Y
Y
Y Y Y
Y
Y

=
[ ] =

=
[ ]

=
j j j
j j
j j j
j j j
j j
bus
j
j
j
j
j j
j j j
j j
bb ab aa
j j
j j j
j j j
j j
j j
j
j
j
j
j j
j j j
j j
eq
bus
Exampl e
j
j
j j
j j j
j j
bus
Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
14
) 5 (
) 3 (
) 1 (
7 7 0
7 17 5 10
0 10 10 2
13 20 0
0 20 20
0
0
13 0
20 20
0 20
13 0 0
0 40 5 10
0 0 20 2
0
0
33 0
0 40
13 0
20 20
0 20
13 0 0
0 40 5 0
0 0 20 2
33
29
33
29
33
29
33
29
33
1
40
1
33
1
40
1
1
When buses are eliminated simultaneously from
bus
, it is necessary to invert an
matrix (
bb
). Because the time required for inversion is high, it is more efficient
to eliminate the buses one at a time.
3. Change of Reference Bus
Let = voltage at bus with respect to bus
= current at bus with respect to bus
The diagonal and off-diagonal elements of
bus
may be viewed as the appropriate
partial derivative of the KCL equation at bus (row of
bus
=
bus bus
):
1
NOTE: The partial derivatives imply that all other voltages are held fixed. Therefore,
implies that the voltages at bus 0 and bus are fixed.

( )
( ) ( )

=
=

=

j j
j j j
j j
j j
j j
j
j j
j
j
j j
j
j
j
j
j j
j
j
j
j
j
j eq
bus
j
j
bb
bb
ab aa
m
m m
m
V
j
(i )
j i
I
j
(i )
j i
j j
i
j
j i
bus
j
j
j j
bus
k
n
k
j k
bus j
V
I
V
I
V I
j j
V I i
Y
Y Y
Y Y
Y
Y
Y
I Y V
Y Y
Y

Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
15
Thus,
) (
) (
) 0 (
) 0 (
Thus,
) ( ) 0 (
) ( ) 0 (
NOTE:
) 0 (
is not identical to
) (
because different axes appear in these two
matrices.
To find
) (
using
) (
, form the indefinite bus admittance matrix by
augmenting
) (
with an axis formed using the
bus
building algorithm. This
axis is simply the negative of the sum of the previous axes. Then delete the
axis. The resulting matrix is
) (
.
: Previous sample system. Change the reference bus to bus 3.
The indefinite admittance matrix is found by adding a bus 0 axis:
) 0 (
) 5 (
) 4 (
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
7 0 0 5 0 2
0 13 13 0 0 0
0 13 33 20 0 0
5 0 20 40 5 20 0
0 0 0 20 40 20
2 0 0 0 20 20 2
Same injection current into bus
no matter what reference bus is
used.
i
j
i
j
j
j
V
I
V
I
j i
i
bus j i bus
j j
i
bus
j j
bus
bus
i
bus
b
bus
a
bus
a
bus
a
a n
b n n
b
bus
Exampl e
j j
j j j
j j j
j j j
j j
i ndef
bus
j

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) =
=


=
Y Y
Y Y
Y Y
Y Y
Y Y
Y
Y

Bus Admittance Matrix 2 -- A.Nerves, U.P. Dept. of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Nov. 17, 2003.
16
Deleting axis (3):
) 0 (
) 5 (
) 4 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
7 0 0 0 2
0 13 13 0 0
0 13 33 0 0
0 0 0 40 20
2 0 0 20 20 2
) 3 (


=
j j
j j
j j
j j
bus
Y