# University Of Karachi BINGHAM FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR TUBE

Syed Saad Ahmed B-0933040 B.E 3rd Year Chemical Engineering

Submitted To: Sir Ahsan Ghani

BINGHAM FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR TUBE 2012
BINGHAM FLOW IN A CIRCULAR TUBE
A fluid that is nearly described by the Bingham model is flowing through a vertical tube as the result of a pressure gradient and/or gravitational acceleration. The radius and length of a tube are R and L, respectively. It is desired to obtain a relation between the volume of the flow Q and the combined pressure and gravity forces acting on the fluid. Solution: Consider a steady leminar flow of a fluid of constant density in a very long tube of length L and radius R. we select our system a cylindrical shell of thickness and the length L, then various combination to the momentum balance in the z direction are: Rate of momentum in across cylindrical surface at ‘r’: Rate of momentum out across cylindrical surface at ‘r+ Δr’: Rate of momentum in across annular surface ‘z=0’: Rate of momentum out across annular surface ‘z=L’: Gravity force acting on cylinder: Pressure force acting on annular surface at ‘z=0’: Pressure force acting on annular surface at ‘z=L’: Putting all the values in the momentum balance equation,
( ( ( ) ) ( )| )|

(

(

)|

( )

)|

{

(

)|

(

)|

} (

{ )|

(

)| ( )| (

(

)| )(

}

*(

)

(

)

(

) +

)

(

)|

(

)|

(

)(

)

Dividing both sides by (2πLΔr):

2

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

BINGHAM FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR TUBE 2012
{( )| ( )| } {( ) }

Taking limit Δr approaches to zero:
{( )| ( )| } {( { ( ) ( } ) ) }

Where,

represents the combined effect of static pressure and gravitational force, and

Upon integration:
∫ ( ) ( )∫

.

/

…. equation (i)

Taking boundary condition 1: At r=0, τrZ=0,

Putting in equation (i),
( )

For the non Newtonian fluid or bingham flow the velocity gradient is zero when the momentum flux is less than the value Hence once expect a plug flow region In the central part of the tube, outside the plug flow region the momentum flux ad the velocity gradient are related accordingly,
( ( ( ) ) )

3

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

BINGHAM FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR TUBE 2012
Integraing,
∫ ∫ . / ( )∫ …equation (ii)

Taking boundary condition 2: At Vz=0, r=R,
( )

Putting in equation (ii),
( ( ) ) ( ( ) )

After integration,
. / [ . / ] 0 1 r>ro

Hence ro is the radius of the plug flow region, defined by,
( )

Putting In above,
( ( ( ( ( ) [ ) ) . [( [ ) / ] . . [ ) 0 ( ) 0 /] . . 1 / ] / ] 1

/ ) /

.

The volume rate of the flow can be calculated from,

4

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

BINGHAM FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR TUBE 2012
∫ ∫

Integrating by parts,
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

*

+

[*

+

]

[*

+

]

* ,

-

+

The quantity because

is zero (0) at both limit and the integral the lower limit may be replaced by ro for r<ro
* ∫ +

Since,
( )

Putting in above,
∫ [( ) ]

∫ (

)

Integrating, 5

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering

BINGHAM FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR TUBE 2012
( ( ), )* + * + , -

(

)

(

)

Putting ro=

,

*(

)

(

)

(

)

(

(

)

)+

*(

)

(

)

(

)

+

*(

)

(

)

(

)

+

*(

)

(

)

(

)

+

*(

)

(

)

+

(

)

*

(

)

(

)

+

Since the

is the rate of momentum flux at the wall,
( )

Putting in above,
( ) * ( ) ( )+

(

)

[

( )

( ) ]

This equation is known as Bingham Reiner Equation, when the Newtonian model. 6

is zero than this model reduces to

Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed | B.E Chemical Engineering