Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Syed Saad Ahmed B0933040 B.E 3rd Year Chemical Engineering
Submitted To: Sir Ahsan Ghani
BINGHAM FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR TUBE 2012
BINGHAM FLOW IN A CIRCULAR TUBE
A fluid that is nearly described by the Bingham model is flowing through a vertical tube as the result of a pressure gradient and/or gravitational acceleration. The radius and length of a tube are R and L, respectively. It is desired to obtain a relation between the volume of the flow Q and the combined pressure and gravity forces acting on the fluid. Solution: Consider a steady leminar flow of a fluid of constant density in a very long tube of length L and radius R. we select our system a cylindrical shell of thickness and the length L, then various combination to the momentum balance in the z direction are: Rate of momentum in across cylindrical surface at ‘r’: Rate of momentum out across cylindrical surface at ‘r+ Δr’: Rate of momentum in across annular surface ‘z=0’: Rate of momentum out across annular surface ‘z=L’: Gravity force acting on cylinder: Pressure force acting on annular surface at ‘z=0’: Pressure force acting on annular surface at ‘z=L’: Putting all the values in the momentum balance equation,
( ( ( ) ) ( ) )
(
(
)
( )
)
{
(
)
(
)
} (
{ )
(
) ( ) (
(
) )(
}
*(
)
(
)
(
) +
)
(
)
(
)
(
)(
)
Dividing both sides by (2πLΔr):
2
Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed  B.E Chemical Engineering
BINGHAM FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR TUBE 2012
{( ) ( ) } {( ) }
Taking limit Δr approaches to zero:
{( ) ( ) } {( { ( ) ( } ) ) }
Where,
represents the combined effect of static pressure and gravitational force, and
Upon integration:
∫ ( ) ( )∫
.
/
…. equation (i)
Taking boundary condition 1: At r=0, τrZ=0,
Putting in equation (i),
( )
For the non Newtonian fluid or bingham flow the velocity gradient is zero when the momentum flux is less than the value Hence once expect a plug flow region In the central part of the tube, outside the plug flow region the momentum flux ad the velocity gradient are related accordingly,
( ( ( ) ) )
3
Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed  B.E Chemical Engineering
BINGHAM FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR TUBE 2012
Integraing,
∫ ∫ . / ( )∫ …equation (ii)
Taking boundary condition 2: At Vz=0, r=R,
( )
Putting in equation (ii),
( ( ) ) ( ( ) )
After integration,
. / [ . / ] 0 1 r>ro
Hence ro is the radius of the plug flow region, defined by,
( )
Putting In above,
( ( ( ( ( ) [ ) ) . [( [ ) / ] . . [ ) 0 ( ) 0 /] . . 1 / ] / ] 1
/ ) /
.
The volume rate of the flow can be calculated from,
4
Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed  B.E Chemical Engineering
BINGHAM FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR TUBE 2012
∫ ∫
∫
Integrating by parts,
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
*
∫
∫
∫
+
[*
+
∫
∫
]
[*
+
∫
]
* ,

∫
+
The quantity because
is zero (0) at both limit and the integral the lower limit may be replaced by ro for r<ro
* ∫ +
∫
Since,
( )
Putting in above,
∫ [( ) ]
∫ (
)
Integrating, 5
Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed  B.E Chemical Engineering
BINGHAM FLOW OVER A CIRCULAR TUBE 2012
( ( ), )* + * + , 
(
)
(
)
Putting ro=
,
*(
)
(
)
(
)
(
(
)
)+
*(
)
(
)
(
)
+
*(
)
(
)
(
)
+
*(
)
(
)
(
)
+
*(
)
(
)
+
(
)
*
(
)
(
)
+
Since the
is the rate of momentum flux at the wall,
( )
Putting in above,
( ) * ( ) ( )+
(
)
[
( )
( ) ]
This equation is known as Bingham Reiner Equation, when the Newtonian model. 6
is zero than this model reduces to
Prepared By: Syed Saad Ahmed  B.E Chemical Engineering
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?