The Industrialised  Building System in  Malaysia 

by Dr. Kamarul Anuar Mohamad Kamar

Issues Related to the Malaysian Construction Industry
Unorganised, uncontrolled & fragmented  Mismatched between supply and demand  Lack of Local Manpower (Skilled and Unskilled)  Labour intensive construction technique  Low productivity  Unsatisfactory construction quality 

Issues in Malaysian Construction Project

83b 33% Infrastructure 11.72b Non Residential 21.78b 1.55b 33.77b 6% 44.69b 61% Non Residential 20.26b Construction Contract/ Expenditure in 2009 .21b Infrastructure 20% 9.84b Private 57% 31% 49% Residential Residential 13.Construction Contract Government 43% 78.

Malaysian construction industry provides job opportunities  for  800. 69% registered as in June 2007 are foreign  workers. Government had shown their effort by bringing up IBS  Roadmap as a direction of implementation .000 people. Conventional construction method commonly practice in  Malaysia intensively reliance on unskilled foreign labour and  time consuming.

(CIDB.A construction technique in which components  are manufactured in a controlled environment  (on or offsite). positioned and  assembled into a structure with minimal  additional site works. transported. 2003) .

Rethinking and Redefining IBS (Zulkefli. 2007) .


Non-volumetric preassembly .Modular building Pre-cast concrete systems Formworks systems Steel framing systems Prefabricated timber framing systems Block work systems Innovative product systems Blismas and Wakefield (2008) 4 Malaysia IBS Info (2010) .No Countries - Categorization of Off-site System Offsite preassembly Hybrid system Panellized system Modular building Component manufacture & sub-assembly Non-volumetric preassembly Volumetric pre-assembly Modular building Author 1 US Lu (2009) 2 UK Goodier and Gibb (2004) 3 Australia .Volumetric pre-assembly .

Precast Concrete framing. etc) . 3d-components (balconies. slabs. toilets. staircases. box girders. panel. box systems PC columns. lift chambers. beams.1.

etc . Steel formworks systems Tunnel forms. permanent steel formworks (metal decks).2. beams and column moulding forms.

3. etc . roof trusses. Steel frame systems Steel beams and columns. portal frames.

roof trusses. etc .4. Prefab timber frame systems Timber frames.

lightweight concrete blocks. Block work systems Interlocking concrete masonry unit. etc .5.



Benefits of IBS Quality and productivity of construction Speed of construction Less use of equipment Benefits of IBS Solving issue regarding unskilled workers and dependency on manual foreign labours Reduced risk related to occupational Cost saving .

IBS Objective in Malaysia Quality controlled end products through controlled prefabrication process and simplified installations Faster completion of construction due to usage of standardised prefabricated components and simplified installation process Fewer site workers due to simplified construction methods Source : Construction Industry Master Plan. 2006-2015 .

UK .Advantages of Using IBS  Source: Buildoffsite.

UK .Advantages of Using IBS  Source: Buildoffsite.

IBS Roadmap 2003 .2010 .

Roadmap IBS 2011-2015 .

to encourage R&D Recommendation 33 Revisit incentive framework to promote innovation and facilitate timely access to funding for business activities Recommendation 34 Review supply chain to find areas for improvements Recommendation 35 Enhancing existing CIDB e-portal to include an electronic IBS Marketplace for Matching Demand to Suppliers of IBS components Recommendation 36 Re-energise private sector participation by 50:50 representation in IBS Consultative Forum Recommendation 37 Create a Skills Council to capture industry needs Recommendation 15 Provide IBS training to the workforce Recommendation 16 Partner with industry to encourage Continuous Employment Training (“CET”) Recommendation 17 Increase emphasis on technical and vocational training colleges Recommendation 18 Examine the employment working terms in the industry to attract Malaysians Recommendation 19 Carry out a Pilot IBS Apprentice Programme Recommendation 20 Reduce reliance on foreign labour by propagating a levy system Recommendation 21 Centralise oversight of foreign labour to enable better planning and monitoring Recommendation 27 Promote an “IBS Signature Project” Recommendation 28 Change the perception that IBS means unattractive modular buildings (often concretebased) by promoting other non concrete-based IBS products *Recommendation 2 encompasses 6 major actions . identify gap closing measures IBS USER Recommendation 14 Develop Skills Blueprint IBS PRODUCT Recommendation 22 Increase availability of quality controlled and standardised IBS products Recommendation 23 Promote ISO certification for IBS manufacturers Recommendation 24 Assess impact of IBS in private sector projects Recommendation 25 Mitigate the additional cost of using IBS method of construction with noncash incentives Recommendation 26 Recognise and promote National and Regional Champions in IBS IBS INDUSTRY Recommendation 29 Set up Task Force to proactively review registration process and register all IBS manufacturers Recommendation 30 Facilitate the setting up of an IBS Manufacturer Forum / Association Recommendation 31 Conduct readiness assessment of the IBS manufacturers Recommendation 32 Support rapid transformation of IBS manufacturers with potential for innovation by facilitating financial and technical support for IBS manufacturer in innovative and technologically advanced areas. and industry.36 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IBS ROADMAP 2011-2015 It is recommended that Roadmap be implemented under four workstreams of institutional strengthening of Government machinery. and headhunt for Senior Management of IBSO Recommendation 4 Upgrade Pusat IBS to the IBSO. making it an “IBS One Stop Centre” Recommendation 10 Establish and monitor performance KPIs for IBSO Recommendation 5 Set-up Customer Feedback Forum Recommendation 11 Foster a closer working relationship with Green Building Initiatives Recommendation 6 Prepare a 2-year Business Plan for the IBSO with a detailed operating budget Recommendation 12 Communicate and educate the stakeholders on the IBS Roadmap Recommendation 7 Set up PMO Recommendation 13 Implement and report progress of Roadmap. IBS user. product. Institutional Strengthening Recommendation 2* Strengthen institutional machinery to accelerate IBS adoption Recommendation 8 Conduct organisational review of the existing Pusat IBS Recommendation 3 Appointing a Director to head the IBSO Recommendation 9 Finalise headcount.

MISSION: TO PROVIDE A QUALITY. To have a ready pool of competent IBS professionals and workers throughout the entire project lifecycle: from design. To remain focused. efficient. EFFICIENT. completion time of a building is speedier. COMPETENT & SUSTAINABLE IBS INDUSTRY THAT CONTRIBUTES TO THE COMPETITIVENESS OF MALAYSIA’S CONSTRUCTION SECTOR Quality Good quality designs.2015 Policy objectives are the high level intended outcomes of implementing IBS. To ensure that by using IBS. more predictable and wellmanaged. To create a financially sustainable IBS industry that balances user affordability and manufacturer viability Delivery Efficiency Competency & Productivity Financial Sustainability Source : BinaFikir analysis . components and buildings are the desired outcome of IBS. competent and sustainable. manufacture. build to maintain. Aesthetics should be promoted through innovation. A sustainable IBS industry will contribute to the competitiveness of the construction industry. it was narrowed down to four policy objectives i.IBS Roadmap 2011 . quality.e.

IBS Thrust in the Construction Industry Master Plan Introduction of new construction methods such as IBS was under Strategic Thrust #5.6 M arke t and promo te IB S/MC Reco mmendation 5.1.2 Act as facilitato r between the i ndustry. research on materials.1. According to the CIMP.2.1 Leverage on CIDB ’s CREAM to spur co nstructio n R&D Recommendatio n 5.4 Continue to enhance management processes and metho ds to enco urage adoption of IBS Recommendation 5.4 Esta blish funding require ments and so urces o f funding Sou rce : C on stru ct io n I ndu stry M ast er Pl an.1.1. occupa tional safety and health. 20 06 -20 15 . 5 Provide mo netary (econo mic and fina ncial) suppo rt to encourage adoption of IBS Recommendatio n 5.2 Encourage the development o f manpower to support adoption of I BS/MC Recommenda tio n 5.2. 7 Strategic Thrusts under CIMP Integrate the co nstruction 1 industry val ue chain to e nhance productivity and efficiency Strengthen the co nstructio n 2 industry ima ge Strive fo r the highest standard 3 of qua lity. 2.1. All the seven strategic thrusts are expected to work in a holistic manner to leap frog the development of the construction industry.3 Co ntinue to deve lop materials to suppo rt a doption of IBS Recommendatio n 5.2 Sti mul ate R&D activities through resource-poo ling initiative amo ngst k ey pla yers and provisio n o f R&D infra structure Reco mmendation 5. manpower development.1 Enco urage the adoption o f new construction techniques and techno lo gies Reco mmendation 5. monetary (economic and financial).1 Continuo usly innovate constructio n pro cesses and techni que s Specific mentio n of IB S in CIM P Reco mmendation 5. a cademia . and enviro nmental practices Develop human resource 4 capabilities and ca pacities in the construction industry Innovate through re search and 5 development and adopt new construction me thods Leverage o n informatio n and 6 communication techno logy i n the construction industry Bene fit from globalisatio n including the export o f 7 construction products and service s Executed Through IBS Roadmap Reco mmendation 5. management processes and promotions are required to increase the usage of IBS.2.3 Collaborate with other Centres o f Research Ex ce lle nce for co nstructi on R&D Re commendati on 5.The importance of IBS was emphasised in the Construction Industry Master Plan (“CIMP”) in 2006.1. and the government Recommendatio n 5.

IBS Components Management Committee4 Chairman : CIDB Member : Construction industry representatives Secretariat : CIDB Scope : Co-ordinate at industry level IBS Technical Committee5 Chairman : JKR Member : Implementing agencies and development dept.The Existing Supervisory Framework for Public Sector Projects Numerous steering committees were created to ensure IBS is enforced in Government projects Cabinet Main IBS Committee1 Chairman : KSN Member : Central agencies and ministry Secretariat : ICU Scope : Co-ordinate policy matters IBS Enforcement Monitoring Committee2 Chairman : KP ICU Member : JKR.Jawatankuasa Induk IBS 2. central agency representative and respective ministry Secretariat : KKR/CIDB Scope : Implement IBS projects note : meets every month Note: 1. EPU. Jawatankuasa Pemantau Penguatkuasaan IBS 3. Jawatankuasa Pengurusan Komponen IBS 5. of respective ministry Secretariat : JKR Scope : Co-ordinate technical issues of projects note : meets every month Source : CIDB . JKR. Sekretariat IBS Kebangsaan 4. ICU and Treasury Secretariat : MOF Scope : Monitor execution of directive/circular note : meets every 3 months National IBS Secretariat3 Chairman : KSU KKR Member : CIDB. Exact dates pending confirmation. Jawatankuasa Teknikal IBS These Committees were established in 2007.

• National IBS Secretariat as the Coordinator through the Ministry of Works. Regulatory bodies. . MS 1064. • IBS Centre as the One Stop Centre. • Implementation Coordination Unit of Prime Minister’s Department as the monitoring unit. and Local Authorities. State Governments. Head of Departments.31 October 2008 • To all Federal Ministries. • Requirement of 70% IBS content in Government projects.Treasury Circular on IBS . • Adoption of Open System methodology through the use of Modular Coordination.

this new Roadmap aims to raise the existing IBS score from 70% in 2010 to 80% by 2015for the Public Sector above the value of IBS Track for GoM building projects Public sector  RM10million IBS Penetration high% Fast Track option for government projects Policy Driven 70% scoring for all RM10m projects 50% scoring for all RM10m projects Policy Driven Sporadic developments using IBS Treasury IBS Circular Strategic 2005 Plan Treasury Circular 2008 low Dayabumi Pekeliling Flats Time 1970-s 1999 2005 2008 today 2012 2015 2020 .For the public sector who has already taken the firm stance to implement IBS in its Projects.

IBS Penetration high% 70% scoring for all RM10m projects Fast Track Option for Private Sector Realistic option for Private Sector Policy Driven towards 50% in 2015? $$ Market driven adoption while government streamlines within public sector projects first Market driven track may take longer low% Incentives given to private sector in 2007 58 IBS projects* Time 1970-s 1999 2005 2008 today 2012 2015 2020 .The public sector cannot dictate the private sector to adopt IBS. For the private sector. IBS should be carried out in the spirit of public-private-partnership (“PPP”). this new IBS Track for the score of 50% by Roadmap Private sector  aims to attain an average IBS Public Sector 2015. Neither can the private sector be left to adopt IBS at its own pace. This goal can be further validated at the point of launch of the new Roadmap.

SIRIM and professional bodies “Encourage” “Mandate” .Key Milestones from 1999 to 2010 approved by the Cabinet IBS Roadmap 2003-2010 Construction Industry Master Plan 2006-2015 IBS Strategic Plan 1999 Malaysia IBS International Exhibition ‘06 IBS Roadmap Review 2008-2010 Malaysia IBS International Exhibition ‘09 1999 2001 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Manual for IBS Content Scoring Published Circular issued on IBS by Treasury on 25 July 2005 Follow-up Treasury Circular on IBS issued on 31 Oct 2008 IBS Roadmap 2011-2015 2015 MS 1064: Modular Coordination as Guideline for Building Design Joint effort by CIDB.

3-D components (balconies. roof trusses etc Type 5 Block Work Systems Under the Open Building System concept. slabs. a building is made up of a series of systems. permanent steel formworks (metal decks) etc Type 3 Steel Framing Systems Steel beams and columns. beams and columns moulding forms. permanent concrete formwork etc Type 2 Steel Formwork Systems Tunnel forms. An open system ensures that components or subsystems are interchangeable and easily replaceable. . lift chambers). beams. staircas es.Towards an Open Building System Open Building System Structural Systems Wall Systems Other Systems Groups of IBS Components Type 1 Pre-cast Concrete Framing. toilets. portal frames. Panel and Box Systems Pre-cast c olumns. sub-systems and groups of input components. roof trusses etc Type 4 Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems Timber frames. A crucial objective of moving towards an open building system is the inter-changeability factor.

. 2010).The value creation in industrialised construction (CIB.

Levy is imposed on construction works having a contract sum of above RM500. *IBS Roadmap Mid – Term Report (Final Report) 2007 Example : 0. medium low cost and medium cost housing projec ts are exempted from levy effective 1 Feb 2005 Source: CIDB Malaysia. Calculation per guidance on IBS Score calculation in “Manual for IBS Content Scoring System (IBS Score)” 4.125% x project value Note : 1.000 5. Any construc tion w orks of low cost. Effective 1st January 2007 3.500 (in incentives) . Budget 2005.125% x RM10m project = RM12. This exemption from levy only applies to housing project wit h minimum IBS Score of 50% 2. then levy exemption = 0.Incentives for the Adoption of IBS for Private Sector Budget 2005 If IBS score >50%.

Administrative and Legal) Source : BinaFikir analysis Foundation .THE HOUSE OF IBS Less Labour Intensive High Quality Buildings and Timely Completion Financially Sustainable Objective IBS People Development Quality Mindset in Award of Contract Green Technology R&D Incentives Pillar Sustainable policy & political will Integration of IBS into Construction Industry Value Chain Standardisation must be Holistic and Comprehensive (Policy.

) Creating of new economy / supply chain  High income economy  Support sustainability and green buildings .  theological reform etc.Rethinking IBS  IBS is more than pre‐cast or prefab  Innovative method  Modernisation and reformation of construction  process (election reform. jurisdiction reform.


Potential Reduction and Cost Saving in IBS (CIB, 2010)

Essential IBS 
Mass – production ‐ The investment in equipment,  human recourses, and facilities associated with an  industrialisation can be justified economically only  when large production volume is observed.  Standardisation ‐ All components need to be  standardised for production. Such standardisation of  space and elements need prescribing tolerances at  different construction stages such as manufactured  tolerances, setting out tolerances, and erection  tolerances.

Relation between unit cost and unit repetition (Gibb, 1999)

Good organisation and planning ‐ High production volume. The process  can be subdivided into a large number of small homogenous  tasks. coordination and control function with  respect to production and distribution of the products . organising.Essential IBS  Labour specialisation ‐ Large production output and  standardisation of precast elements allow a high degree of  labour.  specialisation of work. specialisation with the production process. and centralisation of production requires  a efficient and experiences organisation capable of a high level of planning.

  manufacturer. a  high degree of coordination must exist between  various relevant parties such as designer.Essential IBS  Integration ‐ In order to obtain an optimal result.  However. these cost savings are partially offset by the  transportation costs. Transportation cost ‐ It is found that casting of large‐ panel system can reduce labour cost up to 30 percent. . and contractor. owner.

1998) .Degree of Industrialisation (Roger Bruno Richard.


 Denmark  and France to get more information on  industrialised housing later that year  .Introduced since early 1960 Same year Ministry of Housing and Local  Government was set up  Ministry officers visited West Germany.

  British BRECAST System also in Penang) .Government 1st IBS project 1966 – 1968 at Jalan  Pekeliling 3000 units low cost flat – 17 stories  Using Danish System of large panel – precast concrete walls and plank slabs (others in the same  period – French System of large panels in Penang.

Pekeliling Flat. Kuala Lumpur .

In 1978. Penang State Government built – 1200  units In 1979 Ministry of Defense built – 2800 units at  Lumut Naval Base  Both projects utilised precast wall panel system This system never sustained during this period (not  suitable to our climate and social practices) .

Lumut Naval Base .

 Britain and  Australia .000 units of houses using system construction from Germany. Japan.The used of Structural Steel components – 36‐ storey Dayabumi complex by Takenaka of Japan In 1981‐ 1993. PKNS involved in building more than  30. French. Sweden.

Daya Bumi .

Praton Haus (Germany) high‐tech precast panel  technology – transfer of technology Ingerback (Sweden) system – precast vertical and  tilt‐up moulds Taisei and Hazama (Japan) – linear open precast  production systems Pascal formwork system (Germany) and SGEC  formwork system (French) were implemented .

Praton Haus Precast System .

PASCAL Formwork System .

 Global Globe – acquired knowledge thro’ technology transfer) . Setia Precast.Establishment of JV co between local and  international contractors All projects were constructed by local with  technical support from international contractors (PKNS Engineering.

During this period local contractors – modified  systems (precast. metal framing) to suit  local condition and requirement – after technical  agreement expired The local began to be more innovative and later  became inventor Currently many IBS ‐ invented locally Local researchers on affordable housing . formwork.

1994 – 1997 is booming period of construction  industry Hybrid IBS application in many Iconic landmarks  such as – Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre (steel framing  and trusses with precast slab) LRT (steel structure and precast hollow core) KL Sentral (steel structure & precast hollow core) KL Tower (climbing formwork &steel beam) .


 steel  beams and steel decking for slab) New administration buildings in Putrajaya and  Cyberjaya( built in IBS or Hybrid IBS) .Kuala Lumpur International Airport (steel roof  structure and formwork system for slab)  Petronas Twin Towers (climbing formwork.

At this stage the use of IBS as a method of  construction is evolving Many private companies teamed up with foreign  experts to offer IBS solutions Local IBS manufacturers were also mushrooming Many private projects started to use IBS New generation building look better in term of  quality and architectural appearance .

 hospital. custom  and immigration complexes and private tall  buildings IBS agenda boosted in 2004.IBS widely used to construct schools and teacher’s  quarters. 2005 and 2006 under  Malaysian Budget announcements Government building projects – at 50% of IBS construction elements (IBS score) . colleges and universities.

IBS Steering  Committee 1999 ‐ 2003 IBS Roadmap 2003‐2010 In 2005 – government pledged to construct 100.000  units affordable houses using IBS In 2006 – tax incentive was offered – Acceleration  Capital Allowance for expenses incurred in the  purchased of steel moulds for precaster .

November 2008 – IBS POLICY – regulation on the  use of IBS  All government agencies – to increase IBS contents  to 70% (IBS score) – incorporated in contract  document for tender Implementation and Coordination Unit (ICU) of  the Prime Minister’s Department – given the task  to monitor IBS Roadmap 2011 Amendment to CIDB Act 520 .



How beautiful is precast concrete construction? .

UK. UK .Precision engineered in precast concrete ® J&P Building Systems. Manufactured by Evans Concrete.

Manufactured house (Sekisui) Incorporation of kitchen facilities Incorporation of bath and sanitary facilities Final inspection Installation Delivery Packing Shipment .Assembly of structural unit Assembly of ceiling frame Processing of steel Assembly of floor frame Attachment of exterior walls Application of insulators Assembly of sidewall frames Attachment of interior walls Major production process .



CLIENTS PROJECT TEAM Turnkey contractor END USER AUTHORITIES PROJECT TEAM Planner QS Architect Surveyor C&S Landscape Contractor M&E Financier System Designer Fabricator Subtrade Transportation Installer Infra Building Services .

System Components Consideration Types of system PRECAST 1 Praton Haus 2 Mypro 3 Tilt Up 4 O Stable 5 He Con 6 WEA precast insitu 7 Setia Prefab 8 Hazamagumi FORMWORK 1 Pascal 2 Hybrid 3 Sgec 4 Efco 5 Transkon 6 Plastec STEEL FRAMING -built up stanchions -built up trusses TIMBER FRAMING -Kayu Sedia -Insitu timber system BLOCK SYSTEM -Intergrated -Precast col/hollow blocks -CSR block Local Originated Productivity (m3/mth) Estimated Planning & investment Design Productlon System On site Off Site mould circular linear Stack Transportation System Storage system Installation Technology Jointing Technology Miscellaneous Work Germany Local Australia Local Local Local Japan Japan Germany Local UK US Local US/Local Tunnel Fmk Plastic MARA(local) Local Local Local Australia .

SYSTEM USED Landed Low Cost Medium Cost High End High rise Single Storey Double Storey Bungalow Apartment Condominium Shop Office .

IBS SCORE IBS Content Scoring System (IBS Score) is a systematic and structured assessment system that can be used to measure the usage of IBS in a consistent way. .

PRINCIPLES OF IBS SCORE • the use of prefabricated and precast concrete components •Off site production of components •The use of standardised components •Repeatability •Design using Modular Coordination concept THE IBS CONTENT SCORING SYSTEM (IBS SCORE) Maximum IBS is 100 points made up of the following components: Part 1 – Structural Systems (maximum score is 50 points) Part 2 – Wall Systems (maximum score is 30 points Part 3 – Other Simplified Construction Solutions ( maximum score is 20 points) * IBS score only consider superstructure elements .

0 34/51 = 0.0 1.5 0.5 x 1.0 1.0 100% 100% 80% 100% 30 2.3 x 1.0 60 /120 = 0.5 x 1.0 x 50 = 25 0.3 50 0.0 2. the wall act as wide column • Roof truss using prefab roof trusses • 60 m2 • 1.0 5.7 17/51 = 0.5 3 meter TOTAL PART 1 4 meter 120m2 • 1.IBS SCORING FOR SINGLE STOREY HOUSE USING PRECAST PANEL ELEMENTS AREA/ LENGTH FACTOR COVERAGE IBS SCORE PART 1 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS • Precast column and beams – for load bearing wall.0 60 /120 = 0.0 • 1.0 x 30 = 21 0.0 x 50 = 25 • 60m2 • 1.7 x 1.0 x 30 =9 PART 2 WALL SYSTEMS • External wall • 34m • 12m + 12m + 5m + 5m • Internal wall • 17m • 3m + 3m + 3m + 8m 4 meter TOTAL PART 2 • 100% door sizes compiles MS 1064 • 100% window sizes compiles MS 1064 • Horizontal repetition of structure for layout=80% • 100% of staircase using prefab concrete staircase 5 meter 51m2 1.0 PART 3 OTHER SIMPLIFIED CONSTRUCTION SOLUTIONS 12 meter TOTAL PART 3 IBS SCORE PART1+PART2+PART3 10 90 .

9 2.5 10/51 = 0.IBS SCORING FOR SINGLE STOREY HOUSE USING SYSTEM FORMWORK ELEMENTS AREA/ LENGTH FACTOR COVERAGE IBS SCORE PART 1 STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS • Insitu column and beams using reusable system formwork– for load bearing wall.0 2.50 0.5 60 /120 = 0.5 x 0.5 0.48 x 0.7 PART 2 WALL SYSTEMS 4 meter • 10m • 9m •0 • 0.5 x1.4 .48 37.2 0.0 PART 3 OTHER SIMPLIFIED CONSTRUCTION SOLUTIONS 5 meter TOTAL PART 3 IBS SCORE PART1+PART2+PART3 10 57.15x0x30=0 12 meter TOTAL PART 2 • 100% door sizes compiles MS 1064 • 100% window sizes compiles MS 1064 • Horizontal repetition of structure for layout=80% • 100% of staircase using prefab concrete staircase 51m 1.5 1.0 24/51 = 0. the wall act as wide column • Roof truss using prefab roof trusses • 60 m2 • 0.19 9/51=0.5 x 50 = 12.0 5.18 • 8m •0 8/51=0.5x30=2.5x 30 = 7.15 0.19 x 0 x 30 = 0 0.0 60 /120 = 0.0 x 50 = 25 4 meter TOTAL PART 1 • External wall using insitu concrete with system formwork 12m + 12m • External wall using common brickwall 5m + 5m • internal wall using insitu concrete with system formwork 3m + 3m +3m • internal wall using common brickwall 4m + 4m 120m2 • 24m • 0.0 100% 100% 80% 100% 9.18x0.0 1.50 0.5 3 meter • 60m2 • 1.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful