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Nano Composite Based Antistatic Binder System
Shasanka Sekhar Borkotoky
M.Tech, 3rd Semester Dept. of Chemical Sciences Tezpur University
Nano Composite Based Antistatic Binder System
INTRODUCTION By virtue of their insulating nature, Polymers of all type allow static charge to build on their surfaces, particularly in the case of films and fibers, which have large Surface area to volume ratio. Such static charge builds up leads to several undesirable consequences in the final product. For instance, built up static charge can attract dust onto the food package, which is undesirable aesthetically. All times, static charge can damage circuit boards in electronics packaging and may cause hazards of fire or explosion in the vicinity of flammable materials. In many cases (e.g. packaging of electronic devices), however, it is prerequisite to endow materials with electrical conductivities. Surface resistivity is simply the resistance of the product at its surface and is measured in Ohms. If a product has its surface resistivity in the range of 109 to 1013 Ohms, than it is considered “Antistatic”. Because the charges on the surface of materials may lead to some problems, such as dust contamination and short circuit, which may further influence both the appearance and performance of end products, even cause a fire or an explosion. In order to avoid these problems, either antistatic agents or conductive fillers are generally employed to reduce the surface or volume resistivity and accelerate the dissipation of the high electrical charge on the surface of plastics. Unfortunately, traditional antistatic agents, usually composed of an amphiphilic surfactant, cannot make polymers own a persistently antistatic ability. The antistatic ability of polymers will apparently deteriorate with time.[2-5] In the preparation of nano composites, the key issue is the dispersion of nano particles or eliminating the aggregation of nano particles. Many efforts have been made to solve this problem. The available methods include the sol–gel blending technique, the meltblending process,the in situ polymerization process, and the in situ forming nanoparticles process. Among these methods, the in situ forming nano particle process is the most reasonable and effective because it can produce single particle dispersion composites. However, the in situ forming nanoparticle process can only be used for those systems in which no transformation of the crystal morphology of nanoparticles is needed at high temperature because the matrix polymer usually cannot endure high temperature.
The term nanocomposite is used if one of the structural units, either the organic or the inorganic, is in a defined size range of 1–100 nm. Large molecular building blocks for hybrid materials, such as large inorganic clusters, may be of the nanometer length scale. The term nanocomposites is generally used if discrete structural units in the respective size regime are used and the term hybrid materials is more often used if the inorganic units are formed in situ by molecular precursors, for example applying sol–gel reactions. Examples of discrete inorganic units for nanocomposites are nanoparticles, nanorods and carbon nanotubes. There have been few applications of conductive polymers as antistatic agents for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films for packaging, since they lack formability and transparency. A new antistatic film has been developed by coating PET with an alcohol-water solution containing a water soluble conductive polymer, Sulphonated Polyaniline (SPAn), and a water soluble or water dispersible polymer, which acts as a binder. It was found that this combination gave excellent antistatic properties. The SPAn antistatic polymer (ASP) composite PET films have special characteristics, such as good transparency, excellent antistatic properties (surface resistivity Rs=106-1010 Omega) at low humidity (15%RH), and good resistance to heat, water, and ammonia. In addition, ASP-PET films have a high capacity to retain their Rs values after drawing to a draw ratio of 3. Such characteristics of ASP-PET are ascribed not only to the fundamental properties of SPAn and the polyester binder, but also the affinity of the two polymers, which appears to result in the effective formation of a conductive network of SPAn within the polyester binder.[8-9] Polyaniline (PANI) is a conducting polymer of the semi-flexible rod
polymer family. Although the compound itself was discovered over 150 years ago, only since the early 1980s has polyaniline captured the intense attention of the scientific community. This interest is due to the rediscovery of high electrical conductivity. Amongst the family of conducting polymers and organic semiconductors, polyaniline has many attractive processing properties. It is mainly used in antistatic binder system. An antistatic agent is a compound used for treatment of materials or their surfaces in order to reduce or eliminate buildup of static electricity generally caused by the triboelectric effect. Its role is to make the surface or the material itself slightly conductive, either by being conductive itself, or by
absorbing moisture from the air, so some humectants can be used. The molecules of an antistatic agent often have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas, similar to those of a surfactant; the
hydrophobic side interacts with the surface of the material, while the hydrophilic side interacts with the air moisture and binds the water molecules.Internal antistatic agents are designed to be mixed directly into the material, external antistatic agents are applied to the surface. Common antistatic agents are based on long-chain aliphatic amines (optionally ethoxylated) (e.g., behentrimonium chloride or cocamidopropyl
and amides, quaternary
betaine),esters of phosphoric acid, polyethylene glycol esters, or polyols. Indium tin oxide can be used as transparent antistatic coating of windows. It is also possible to use conductive polymers, likePEDOT:PSS and conducting polymer nanofibers, particularly polyaniline nanofibers.
A great number of blends of conducting polymers have been successfully investigated in recent years, most of them produced in a Brabender type mixer. However, the continuous production of blends can only be achieved by extrusion and the twin-screw extruder is by far the most appropriate equipment for this purpose. To our knowledge, the continuous production of conducting thermoplastic materials by blending with polyaniline with simultaneous doping by reactive extrusion. Antistatic plastic materials are frequently made by compounding a thermoplastic with a conductive ﬁller, such as: carbon black, carbon ﬁbers or metal ﬁbers. For this application, the electrical conductivity of these ﬁlled materials should be in the range of 10-8 to 10-10 S ((or resistivities of 10-8 -10-10 Ω).The ﬁllers presently used by industry present a relatively high cost and some migration problems. This reduces the antistatic action of the additive and the half-life period of use of the artifact. Also, the use of ﬁllers restricts the conductivity of the thermoplastic to the percolation threshold conductivity. With ﬁllers it is not possible to obtain conductivities below or above this value. There is a constant search for new antistatic agents and blending conductive polymers to thermoplastics is a prominent alternative to solve this problem because it will not only improve the conductivity but also permit adjusting the conductivity according to the concentration of the conductive polymer in the blend.
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