Effects of harmonics on Electrical Equipment – Ver Pangonilo - Filipino Engineer

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Effects of harmonics on Electrical Equipment

Harmonic distort the fundamental frequency of the mains voltage waveform which affects the performance of other electrical equipment and creates additional losses and heating. A total harmonic voltage distortion of 2.5% can cause an additional temperature rise of 4 deg.C in induction motors. In cases where resonance can occur between the system capacitance and reactance at harmonic frequencies, voltage distortion can be even higher. Capacitive reactance is inversely proportional to the frequency. Harmonic frequencies are multiples of the fundamental frequency which means that capacitive reactance at harmonics frequencies is inversely proportional to the harmonic order number. This is a clear indication that capacitor banks are highly vulnerable to harmonics as capacitors present low impedance at harmonics frequency currents which could increase the dielectric losses causing overloading leading to eventual failure. Transformers, cables and switchgear from which the converters are supplied should be de-rated to accommodate the harmonic currents and the extra losses associated with the high frequency 'skineffect'. Industry standards recommends that electric supply equipments for 6-pulse converters must be derated by about 10% of the converter full load current and for 12-pulse converters by about 5% of the converter full load rated current. The order of the harmonic currents that will be present can be predicted mathematically and is given by the formula:

where: n = order of the harmonics present k = integers 1, 2, 3, etc p = pulse number of the converter Example, for a 6-pulse converter, the harmonic order numbers will be n=1x6-1=5 n=1x6+1=7 n = 2 x 6 - 1 = 11 n = 2 x 6 + 1 = 13 n = 3 x 6 - 1 = 17

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n = 3 x 6 + 1 = 19 n = 4 x 6 - 1 = 23 n = 4 x 6 + 1 = 25 n = 5 x 6 - 1 = 29 n = 5 x 6 + 1 = 31 The magnitude of harmonic current is

where: In= Harmonic current at order n. I1= Fundamental current n= harmonic order number 5th Harmonic (250 Hz): 20.0% x I1 7th Harmonic (350 Hz): 14.3% x I1 11th Harmonic (550 Hz): 9.1% x I1 13th Harmonic (650 Hz): 7.7% x I1 17th Harmonic (850 Hz): 5.9% x I1 19th Harmonic (950 Hz): 5.3% x I1 23rd Harmonic (1150 Hz): 4.3% x I1 25th Harmonic (1250 Hz): 4.0% x I1 29th Harmonic (1450 Hz): 3.4% x I1 31th Harmonic (1550 Hz): 3.2% x I1, etc Normally,only up to 50th harmonic is calculated as measuring instruments can only efficiently measure harmonics up to that order. The equation for harmonic current will be

From the above calculation, a 6-pulse converter theoretically will have a 4.33% more current relative to the fundamental current. I reality however, harmonics comprises of two components, order harmonics and non-order harmonics. The order harmonics is the one we just calculated above but the non-order harmonics could not be calculated as this is directly affected by the construction of the converter. As we know that power is directly proportional to the square of the current, 1.04332 = 1.088. This is an 8.8% increase in power consumption compare to the consumption when there are no harmonics currents. It is from this theory that the 10 % de-rating of electrical supply equipments was based on.

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References: Practical Variable Speed Drives and Power Electronics Malcolm Barnes Newnes, 2003 Be Sociable, Share!

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Last updated by ver on April 13, 2011.

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Posted in Design, General. Tagged with harmonics. 4 comments By ver – August 18, 2009

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1.

measurementequipment says Measurement Equipment Voltage distortion can lead this things to disaster. Electrical equipment must be seriously tested and used accordingly to its prescribe process. Dealing with the power of electricity is a very dangerous task. August 20, 2009, 8:03 AM

2.

jess says hi sir. I am also an electrical engineer. can you please give me the exact site where i can download the book mentioned above for free. I just recently graduated and passed the board and i want to know more about harmonics. This is Jess again. thank you sir!

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March 29, 2010, 10:49 PM

Continuing the Discussion
1. s.pangonilo.com | Ver Pangonilo : Filipino Engineer » Effects of Harmonics on Resistive Loads linked to this post on August 20, 2009 [...] in Harmonics category and has View commentsComments so far. As a continuation of my article on effects of harmonics on electrical equipment, let us provide an example of the effects of harmonic currents on 1-ohm resistive load drawing 1 [...] 2. s.pangonilo.com | Ver Pangonilo : Filipino Engineer » Phase Sequence of Harmonics linked to this post on August 27, 2009 [...] multiples of 3 and this is the current flowing into the neutral of a three phase system. From Effects of harmonics on Electrical Equipment, a 6-pulse VSD has the following harmonic [...] « Importance of Basic Engineering Knowledge Recession or Racial Discrimination » Proudly powered by WordPress and Carrington. Home Profile Others Class 1978 A day in a Life My Mother Joined Her Creator Tutorials Calculations Conversions Symmetrical Components Unit Converter Earthing Resistance Calculation Electrical Formula Complex MVA Calculation Power Factor Correction – MVA Method Typical Equipment Data MVA Method Short Circuit Study Combining KVAs MVA Method Short Circuit Calculation MVA Method Load Flow Calculation MVA Method Unbalance Fault Calculation MVA Method for 3-Winding Transformer

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About Ver Pangonilo - Filipino Engineer
A Registered Professional Engineer of Queensland (RPEQ) – Australia and Professional Electrical Engineer (PEE) – Philippines with extensive experience in concept definition, front-end engineering, detail design, construction and commissioning of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Area electrical

installations.

• Concept definition, front-end engineering and detail design for hazardous and non-hazardous electrical systems. • Installation and commissioning of power distribution equipment, switchgears, motor control centres and variable speed drives. • Excellent knowledge on IEC, CENELEC, BS, ANSI, IEEE, NEMA, AS/NZ and API Standards. • Excellent knowledge in ETAP, PowerCAD, PowerPAC, ABB DocWin and InterPSS electrical modelling software.

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