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MEASUREMENT

METER Meter is the unit of length in S.I. System. Meter is defined as "The distance between the two marks on a Platinum-Iridium bar kept at 0OC in the International Bureau of Weight and Measures in Paris." One meter = 100 cm One meter = 1000 mm

KILOGRAM Kilogram is the unit of mass in S.I. System. "Kilogram is defined as the mass of a platinum cylinder placed in the International Bureau of Weight and Measures in Paris." One kilogram = 1000gram SECOND Second is the unit of time in S.I. System. A second is defined in terms of the time period of Cs-133 atoms. i.e." one second is equal to 9,192,631,770 periods of vibrations of Cs-133 atoms." 60 seconds = one minute 3600 seconds = one hour LEAST COUNT Minimum measurement that can be made by a measuring device is known as " LEAST COUNT'. Least count (vernier callipers) = minimum measurement on main scale / total number of divisions on vernier scale . Least count (screw gauge) = minimum measurement on main scale / total number of divisions on circular scale Smaller is the magnitude of least count of a measuring instrument, more precise the measuring instrument is. A measuring instrument can not measure any thing whose dimensions are less than the magnitude of least count. Least Count of Vernier Callipers = 0.01 cm Least Count of Micrometer Screw gauge = 0.001 cm ZERO ERROR It is a defect in a measuring device (Vernier Callipers & Screw Gauge). When jaws of a Vernier Callipers or Screw Gauge are closed, zero of main scale must coincides with the zero of vernier scale or circular scale in case of screw gauge. If they do not coincide then it is said that a zero error is present in the instrument.

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TYPES OF ZERO ERROR Zero error may be positive or negative. A positive zero error in the instrument shows a larger measurement than the actual measurement. In order to gets exact measurement, positive zero error is subtracted from the total reading. . A negative zero error in the instrument shows a smaller measurement than the actual measurement. In order to get exact measurement, negative zero error is added to the total reading. PITCH "Perpendicular distance between two consecutive threads of the screw gauge or spherometer is called PITCH." Pitch = Distance traveled on main scale / total number of rotations ERROR An error is defined as "The difference between the measured value and actual value." If two persons use the same instrument for measurement for finding the same measurement, it is not Essential that they may get the same results. There may arise a difference between their measurements. This difference is referred to as an "ERROR". TYPES OF ERROR Errors can be divided into three categories: (1) Personal Error (2) Systematic Error (3) Random Error PERSONAL ERROR An error comes into play because of faulty procedure adopted by by the observer is called "PERSONAL ERROR". Personal error comes into existence due to making an error in reading a scale. It is due to faulty procedure adopted by the person making measurement. SYSTEMATIC ERROR The type of error arises due to defect in the measuring device is known as "SYSTEMATIC ERROR". Generally it is called "ZERO ERROR". it may be positive or negative error. Systematic error can be removed by correcting measurement device. RANDOM ERROR

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The error produced due to sudden change in experimental conditions is called "RANDOM ERROR". FOR EXAMPLE: Sudden change in temperature, change in humidity, fluctuation in potential difference (voltage). It is an accidental error and is beyond the control of the person making measurement.

Head to Tail method or graphical method is one of the easiest method used to find the resultant vector of two of more than two vectors. DETAILS OF METHOD Consider two vectors and acting in the directions as shown below:

In order to get their resultant vector by head to tail method we must follow the following steps: STEP # 1 Choose a suitable scale for the vectors so that they can be plotted on the paper. STEP # 2 Draw representative line Draw representative line of vector of vector such that the tail of coincides with the head of vector .

STEP # 3 Join 'O' and 'B'. Represents resultant vector of given vectors and i.e.

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STEP # 4 Measure the length of line segment magnitude of resultant vector. STEP # 5 The direction of the resultant vector is directed from the tail of vector to the head of vector . and multiply it with the scale choosen initially to get the

ADDITION OF VECTORS

PARALLELOGRAM LAW OF VECTOR ADDITION

According to the parallelogram law of vector addition: "If two vector quantities are represented by two adjacent sides or a parallelogram then the diagonal of parallelogram will be equal to the resultant of these two vectors."A EXPLANATION Consider two vectors . Let the vectors have the following orientation

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MAGNITUDE OF RESULTANT VECTOR Magnitude or resultant vector can be determined by using either sine law or cosine law.

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MULTIPLICATION OF A VECTOR BY A SCALAR When a vector is multiplied by a positive number (for example 2, 3 ,5, 60 unit etc.) or a scalar only its magnitude is changed but its direction remains the same as that of the original vector.

If however a vector is multiplied by a negative number (for example -2, -3 ,-5, -60 unit etc.) or a scalar no only its magnitude is changed but its direction also reversed.

m(n

) = (mn) =m

which is called associative law of multiplication . +n which is called distributive law of multiplication.

(m + n)

The division of a vector by a scalar number (n) involves the multiplication of the vector by the reciproc the number (n) which generates a new vector. Let n represents a number or scalar and m is its reciprocal then the new vector where m = 1/n and its magnitude is given by: is given by :

RESOLUTION OF VECTOR

DEFINITION The process of splitting a vector into various parts or components is called "RESOLUTION OF VECTOR" These parts of a vector may act in different directions and are called "components of vector". We can resolve a vector into a number of components .Generally there are three components of vector viz. Component along X-axis called x-component Component along Y-axis called Y-component Component along Z-axis called Z-component

Here we will discuss only two components x-component & Y-component which are perpendicular to each othe

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