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Transmitters and Receivers for Wireless Applications

Fadhel M. Ghannouchi

Communication System Bloc Diagram for Wireless Communication
Transmitter
Info. Source Source Coder Channel Coder Modulator RF Electronics

RFout

Wireless Medium
Destination Source Decoder Channel Decoder Demodulator RF Electronics RFin

Receiver

April 13, 2005

Outline
Transmitters
Transmitters Architectures Solid State Power Amplifier Frequency Generators Examples of Commercial Specifications

Receivers
Receivers Architectures Key Factors Example of Commercial Specifications

April 13, 2005

Transmitters

Transmitters : Introduction
Info. Source Source Coder Channel Coder Modulator RF Electronics RFout

Base-Band Modulation
Digital or analog

Frequency Transposition
From Base-Band to RF One or more stages

Power Amplification
April 13, 2005

Provide the required gain and power level Gain control

2005 .Transmitters Transmitters Architectures Direct Conversion Architecture Double Conversion Architecture Low IF Architecture Solid State Power Amplifier Power Amplifier Components Driver Amplifier Output Section : High Power Amplifier Example of Power Amplifier Frequency Generators Crystal Oscillator Configuration PLL Configuration Examples of Commercial Specifications April 13.

2005 .Transmitters Transmitters Architectures Direct Conversion Architecture Double Conversion Architecture Low IF Architecture Solid State Power Amplifier Power Amplifier Components Driver Amplifier Output Section : High Power Amplifier Example of Power Amplifier Frequency Generators Crystal Oscillator Configuration PLL Configuration Examples of Commercial Specifications April 13.

Transmitters : Direct Conversion Architecture IQ Modulator & Up-converter I DAC LPF LO Pwr Cond. 2005 Gain an phase imbalance DC offset . 0 90 BPF VGA HPA RF BPF Q DAC LPF Advantages : Simple architecture Do not require image rejection filter and fast DAC Drawbacks : April 13.

2005 . Mixer I DAC LPF LO 0 90 IF BPF VGA RF BPF 1 HPA RF BPF 2 Q DAC LPF LO Advantages : Low constraints on the image rejection filter Do not require a fast DAC Drawbacks : Gain an phase imbalance DC offset Complicated and expensive April 13.Transmitters : Double Conversion Architecture IQ Modulator Pwr Cond.

DAC LPF Amp RF BPF 2 LO Advantages : Good performances : No imbalance.Pwr Cond. no offset Simple Configurable : suitable for multi-standards Drawbacks : Fast DAC High constraints on the image rejection filter April 13. 2005 . I Q Mixer Transmitters : Low-IF Architecture RF BPF 1 HPA IQ Mod.

Transmitters Transmitters Architectures Direct Conversion Architecture Double Conversion Architecture Low IF Architecture Solid State Power Amplifier Power Amplifier Components Driver Amplifier Output Section : High Power Amplifier Example of Power Amplifier Frequency Generators Crystal Oscillator Configuration PLL Configuration Examples of Commercial Specifications April 13. 2005 .

2005 .Low power section Variable attenuator Transmitters : Solid State Power Amplifiers Input Amplifier Variable attenuator Inter-stage Amplifier RF_in Isolator Isolator Isolator Isolator Isolator Gain control circuit Output Amplifier RF_out 2nd Harmonic Filter BSF Driver Amplifier Isolator High power section Biasing Circuit Telemetry Circuit Power detector April 13.

The input and inter-stage amplifiers : class A The driver amplifiers : class AB or B The isolators avoid the interaction between the adjacent modules Output Section April 13. 2005 . Inter-Stage and Driver Amplifiers Provide the required gain for the output section.Transmitters : Power Amplifier Components Variable Attenuators Variable attenuators (PIN diodes) and fixed resistive attenuators Current controlled gain Gain adjustment via the control circuit Maintain a constant output power Input.

Transmitters : Driver Amplifier Variable attenuator Variable attenuator Polarization circuit Polarization circuit April 13. 2005 .

Power amplification 90° Power splitter P1 Transmitters : High Power Amplifier 90° Power combiner 2nd Harmonic Filter BSF RF_out Output isolator P2/ 2 P2 G*P2/ 2 G*P2 P2/ 2 G*P2/ 2 Power detector April 13. 2005 .

5 43 -50 -90 6 14 50 Max.Transmitters : Example of Power Amplifier (HMC408) Parameters Frequency range Gain Gain variation over tempreture Input return loss Output return loss P1dB Psat IP3 Harmonics 2f0 3f0 Noise figure Supply current Control current Switching speed April 13.002 - Typ. 20 0.1 17 27 40 0. 5. 5.045 8 14 30 32.9 0.055 750 - Units GHz dB dB/°C dB dB dBm dBm dBm dBc dB mA mA ns . 2005 Min.

Transmitters Transmitters Architectures Direct Conversion Architecture Double Conversion Architecture Low IF Architecture Solid State Power Amplifier Power Amplifier Components Driver Amplifier Output Section : High Power Amplifier Example of Power Amplifier Frequency Generators Crystal Oscillator Configuration PLL Configuration Examples of Commercial Specifications April 13. 2005 .

Transmitters : Frequency Generators IF signal f1 Mixer f2=f1+fLO RF signal Applications : Local oscillators Carrier generators fLO Local oscillator 2 Configurations : Crystal oscillator Phase locked loop oscillator (PLL) Carrier generator Modulator Signal modulator April 13. 2005 .

Transmitters : Crystal Oscillator Configuration 113.055 MHz 339.14 GHz x4 SDR ALC Typical Configuration for an 8 GHz Generator April 13.0175 GHz 2.035 GHz Crystal oscillator x3 Bipolar x3 Bipolar x2 Bipolar Coupler/ Detector 8.166 MHz 1. 2005 .

Transmitters : Crystal Oscillator Configuration Components Frequency multipliers Doublers & triplers : bipolar transistors (< 2GHz). FETs (> 2GHz) High order multipliers : SRD (Step Recovery Diodes) Band-pass filters Eliminate harmonics Filtering operation is more difficult with high order multipliers Automatic Level Control (ALC) Control the output power level Low-pass filter High frequency attenuation April 13. 2005 .

2005 .fRef M : division factor f0 : output frequency fRef : reference frequency April 13.Transmitters : PLL Configuration Crystal oscillator xN fRef ALC f0/M f0 f0 ÷M f0 = M.

Transmitters Transmitters Architectures Direct Conversion Architecture Double Conversion Architecture Low IF Architecture Solid State Power Amplifier Power Amplifier Components Driver Amplifier Output Section : High Power Amplifier Example of Power Amplifier Frequency Generators Crystal Oscillator Configuration PLL Configuration Examples of Commercial Specifications April 13. 2005 .

Direct Conversion Example : ‘Prism 3’ Intersil Transceiver for 2.4 GHz April 13. 2005 .

Double Conversion Example : ‘WiFLEX’ RF Solutions Transceiver for 5 GHz April 13. 2005 .

2005 .Double Conversion Example : Skyworks Transceiver for GSM Applications April 13.

2005 .Low IF Example : Micro Linear Transceiver for 2.4 GHz Applications April 13.

Receivers .

2005 Example of Commercial Specifications .Receivers Receivers Architectures Traditional Architecture Direct Conversion (zero IF) Architecture IF Sampling Architecture Outlook : Multimode/Multicarrier IF Sampling Receivers Key Factors Components Specifications Noise Factor Intermodulation Sensitivity & Dynamic Range Potential For Trouble April 13.

2005 Example of Commercial Specifications .Receivers Receivers Architectures Traditional Architecture Direct Conversion (zero IF) Architecture IF Sampling Architecture Outlook : Multimode/Multicarrier IF Sampling Receivers Key Factors Components Specifications Noise Factor Intermodulation Sensitivity & Dynamic Range Potential For Trouble April 13.

the image filtering after the down-conversion and demodulation can be made easier Analog implementation is less flexible than the digital one Analog demodulation is subject to phase and gain unbalance April 13. Mixer IQ Demodulator LPF 0 90 LO ADC I RFin RF BPF 1 LNA IF BPF VGA LPF LO ADC Q With a good choice of the LO frequencies.Receivers : Traditional Architecture Pwr Cond. 2005 .

IQ Demodulator LPF 0 90 LO ADC I RFin RF BPF 1 LNA VGA LPF ADC Q Less analog circuitry than the previous architecture Analog demodulation is subject to phase and gain unbalance April 13. 2005 .Receivers : Direct Conversion (Zeros IF) Architecture Pwr Cond.

2005 .Receivers : IF Sampling Architecture RFin RF BPF 1 Mixer LNA IF BPF 70-250 MHz Amp ADC Digital Receiver I Q LO April 13.

2005 .Receivers : Multimode/Multicarrier IF Sampling Receivers Digital Receiver Mixer Ch1 RFin RF BPF 1 LNA RF BPF 2 Amp IF BPF 70-250 MHz WideBand ADC Digital Receiver Ch2 LO Digital Receiver Ch n April 13.

Receivers Receivers Architectures Traditional Architecture Direct Conversion (zero IF) Architecture IF Sampling Architecture Outlook : Multimode/Multicarrier IF Sampling Receivers Key Factors Components Specifications Noise Factor Intermodulation Sensitivity & Dynamic Range Potential For Trouble April 13. 2005 Example of Commercial Specifications .

The Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) : This amplifier must exhibit good noise performances since its Noise Figure (NF) greatly influences the sensitivity of the receiver. usually in wave guide technology.Receivers : Components Specifications (1/2) The Input Band Pass Filter : This filter. The gain of the LNA has to be large enough so that the contribution of the other components (especially the mixer) to the receiver’s NF is minimized. 2005 . must have a good selectivity to attenuate the unwanted signals. April 13. Its insertion loss should be small to minimize the noise figure of the receiver.

Receivers : Components Specifications (2/2) The mixer : The mixer is used to down-convert the RF signal to an IF signal. The Local Oscillator (LO) : The LO is reference signal required to down-convert the received signal. the mixer generates a large number of unwanted spectral components that must be filtered at its output. The Variable Gain Amplifier (VGA) : The VGA greatly contributes to the receivers gain. The LO frequency must be stable and accurate. Due to its inherent non-linearity. April 13. It should also exhibits a good linearity. . 2005 This section contains fixed and variables attenuators to compensate for the temperature drifts and to adjust the gain of the receiver.

2005 Example of Commercial Specifications .Receivers Receivers Architectures Traditional Architecture Direct Conversion (zero IF) Architecture IF Sampling Architecture Outlook : Multimode/Multicarrier IF Sampling Receivers Key Factors Components Specifications Noise Factor Intermodulation Sensitivity & Dynamic Range Potential For Trouble April 13.

For amplifiers. Noise temperature (T).Receivers : Noise Factor The noise factor is a dimensionless ratio of the input signal-tonoise ratio and the output signal-to-noise ratio : Si NF = So Ni No S and N refer to the signal and noise level respectively. the noise temperature is defined by : April 13. The i and o indexes refer to the input and output of the receiver. 2005 T = T0 ⋅ (Lc − 1) Lc is the loss in the passive component . expressed in Kelvin. the noise temperature at the input is defined by : T = T0 ⋅ ( NF − 1) NF is the Noise Figure of the amplifier For passive components. is the conversion of noise factor to an equivalent input temperature that will produce the output noise power.

Receivers : Noise Factor April 13. MDS : Minimum Discernable Signal . 2005 Example : SSB receiver noise and signal cascade (normalized to bn=1Hz).

2005 Example of Commercial Specifications .Receivers Receivers Architectures Traditional Architecture Direct Conversion (zero IF) Architecture IF Sampling Architecture Outlook : Multimode/Multicarrier IF Sampling Receivers Key Factors Components Specifications Noise Factor Intermodulation Sensitivity & Dynamic Range Potential For Trouble April 13.

which would be impossible to eliminate by filtering. The 3rd order intermodulation products are then given by ±nF±mF where n+m=3. the 3OIP is found by injecting 2 equal amplitude signals (F1 and F2) that are not only close to each other in frequency. This particular product is important because it can easily result in an undesired signal that is close to the desired signal.Receivers : Intermodulation The in-band two-tone output 3rd Order Intercept Point (3OIP) is a measure of the non-linearity of a component. 2005 By definition. . but are also both within the passband of the component or system. April 13.

Receivers : Intermodulation MSI : Maximum Signal of Interest April 13. 2005 Example : SSB receiver 3OIP and signal .

2005 NFn −1 NF2 −1 NF3 −1 + + L+ G1 G1G2 G1G2 LGn−1 .Receivers : Useful Formulas Amp. 1 Amp.n-1 NFn-1 Gn IPi.1 NF1 G2 IPi. n-1 Amp.2 NF2 Gn-1 IPi. n G1 IPi. 2 Amp.n NFn Gain of the cascaded amplifiers : Gtot = G1 ⋅ G2 ⋅L⋅ Gn−1 ⋅ Gn IP3 of the cascaded amplifiers : IP 3 tot = 1 G G L G n −1 1 G1 G G + + 1 2 +L + 1 2 IP 3 1 IP 3 2 IP 3 3 IP 3 n Noise Factor of the cascaded amplifiers : NFtot = NF + 1 April 13.

Receivers Receivers Architectures Traditional Architecture Direct Conversion (zero IF) Architecture IF Sampling Architecture Outlook : Multimode/Multicarrier IF Sampling Receivers Key Factors Components Specifications Noise Factor Intermodulation Sensitivity & Dynamic Range Potential For Trouble April 13. 2005 Example of Commercial Specifications .

Receivers : Sensitivity & Dynamic Range The sensitivity of a receiver is the smallest power level at its input that leads to a given signal/noise ratio so that the signal can be detected at the receiver’s output. April 13. For analog systems. For digital systems. The dynamic range of a receiver is defined as the difference between the input power level that produces a 1dB compression in the receiver’s gain and the lowest input level detectable at the receiver’s output. the signal starts to get fuzzy or objectionably noisy at about 10 dB above the noise floor. the allowable bit error rate determines the acceptable margin above the noise floor. 2005 .

Receivers : Sensitivity & Dynamic Range April 13. 2005 Example : SSB receiver spur free dynamic range normalized to 6 .

Receivers Receivers Architectures Traditional Architecture Direct Conversion (zero IF) Architecture IF Sampling Architecture Outlook : Multimode/Multicarrier IF Sampling Receivers Key Factors Components Specifications Noise Factor Intermodulation Sensitivity & Dynamic Range Potential For Trouble April 13. 2005 Example of Commercial Specifications .

will result in small changes in circuit performance. investigating and eliminating mechanical resonance. . even very small deflections. Photons impinging on the surface of an active semiconductor create extra carriers. These problems are generally addressed by proper mechanical design methods. April 13. which appear as noise. and minimizing shock susceptibility. Movement. The optical injection : Semiconductor devices are easily affected by electromagnetic energy in the optical region.Receivers : Potential For Trouble (1/2) The electromechanical considerations : Vibrations and mechanical shocks will result in physical relative movement of hardware. 2005 This is easily countered by proper packaging to prevent light from hitting optically sensitive components.

which allow relatively high E-fields to exist. Proper design.Receivers : Potential For Trouble (2/2) The electromagnetic coupling : E-field coupling usually is associated with high impedance circuits. 2005 . M-field coupling is associated with low impedance circuits in which relatively high currents and the associated magnetic fields are present. E-field or capacitive coupling can be eliminated or minimized by any grounded metal shielding. spacing. April 13. M-field or magnetic coupling requires a magnetic shielding material. shielding. and grounding is essential to eliminate coupled energy between circuits.

Receivers Receivers Architectures Traditional Architecture Direct Conversion (zero IF) Architecture IF Sampling Architecture Outlook : Multimode/Multicarrier IF Sampling Receivers Key Factors Components Specifications Noise Factor Intermodulation Sensitivity & Dynamic Range Potential For Trouble April 13. 2005 Example of Commercial Specifications .

Receivers : Example of Commercial Specifications April 13. 2005 Block diagram of the MAX2323 (maxim) .

2005 DC Electrical Characteristics .Receivers : Example of Commercial Specifications April 13.

Receivers : Example of Commercial Specifications April 13. 2005 AC Electrical Characteristics .

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