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This book was carefully planned for you who are, or should be, fascinated by the wonders of flower design. Those of you who are professionals in the field will also find it of great assistance. There is no stress on rules, nor is there any need for formality; but the author feels that the amateur should learn the fundamentals of design and color before plunging enthusiastically into floral arrangement. He will thereby obtain the background which, in future attempts, will assist him in creating good designs. We can learn lesson number one from Mother Nature, who always manages to place her plant life in a setting which will harmonize with and beautify its subject: rather than detract from and eventually destroy its design. Unlike most creative arts, floral arrangement has the advantage of natural, not man-made material. In all the centuries of mankind we have been unable to reproduce the thrilling combination of soft texture, graceful lines, radiant color and delicate scent found in a single rose. Science has, however, greatly advanced the planting of garden flowers by constant research and experiment. History shows us that as far back as 562 B.C., King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon designed the beautiful "Hanging Gardens" for his wife, Amytis. They are one of the "Seven wonders of the world." Today we see about us our own lovely gardens, some formal, some informal, designed to enclose our homes in an aura of enchantment. The desire to bring some of this beauty into our homes gave birth to the art of flower arrangement, which is by no means a new one. The Japanese people used it centuries ago in their daily life and religion. Here is an art for all of us. All we need is the appreciation of beauty and a few flower arrangement implements. The fields, woods, brookbanks, gardens, and of course your local flower shop are abundant with the many varieties of plant materials used in flower arrangement. As you thumb through this book, you will find that it tells in simple copy and illustrations, just what you want to know about your new hobby. The possibilities are unlimited. Therefore, to record all history, designs and experiments would require considerably more space. After you have read and benefitted from this book, you may retain it as a guide and go on to the countless advanced collections offered at your public library and local book shop. Nature has created; all you need do is enhance. You can not improve the beauty of a flower, but you can take that flower with others of its kind and place it with neighbors who will magnify its loveliness. Soon you will find that the old practice of stuffing a dozen roses from a thoughtful friend, into a jar any which way as long as they fit, will disappear. In its stead will come a few more minutes
spent placing them in the proper vase and adjusting them carefully, so that your visitors will say, "What a lovely arrangement of roses 1" instead of picking one out with, "What a beautiful rose!"
1.THE ABC OF DESIGN AND COLOR
What is design in flower arrangement ? - How does color effect it? - How can we create good design ? To attain pleasing composition, one must know certain fundamentals of design. The successful arrangement shows to the onlooker, a completion of these basic principles: Movement – This is the path which the eye takes from one part of the arrangement to the other. If an arrangement has good movement, the eye travels over it; absorbing the entire design in one glance. Example: Figure 1 - The eye travels from the topmost spray of sumac to the mass of dahlias. Scale – This is the relationship of the size and amount of plant material to the container. If the container is too large, the plant material is overpowered and lost. Example: Figure 2 - This arrangement of asters is just right in size for the container used. Balance – This is the correct placing of accent to avoid a toppling look or a feeling of disconnection. Example: Figure 3 - Note that the tall branch of azaleas is balanced nicely on either side by the two smaller branches. The branch on the left is a little more than half the size of the domineering spray. The right hand spray is half the size of the left hand one. There are two types of balance. Figure 4, Leaves and Buds, is an example of assymmetrical design. This is where the imaginary line down the center divides the arrangement into unequal, but well scaled parts. Figure 5, Carnations and Iris Foliage, is an example of symmetrical design. This is when the imaginary line divides the arrangement into equal parts.
Figure 1. Sumac and Dahlias
Figure 4. Leaves and Buds
Figure 5. Carnations and Iris Foliage Harmony – By employing all the above principles of design with the following principles of color, you are bound to achieve an all around harmony which is nothing but the pleasant grouping of color, form and line. Point of Interest –
Place the largest, most select blossoms where you want the point of interest to be. This is the focal point of your arrangement from which all other parts of the design should stem. Rhythm – The accent of movement within the design. Accent – This is achieved by sharp contrasts in color, size and form. Learn to create arrangements which have a third dimension and can be viewed from all sides. THERE'S MAGIC IN COLOR It is not coincidental that many of the terms applying to music, such as harmony, tone and accent, also apply to color. Both have depth and meaning; sometimes dramatically warm, sometimes quietly cool, but always pleasing to the senses if properly composed. Composition in either case, has everything to do with the outcome. Color in flower arrangement, however, is one step ahead of melodic composition; for while man must create the sounds of which music is composed, Mother Nature has given us a head start by creating the hues, which we need only place together harmoniously. There is no doubt that Mother Nature's color eye is that of an expert, when we see rusty brown, snow capped mountains against a pale blue sky, or the rich red-orange shaft of flame which seems to cut deep into the blue green lake as the sun reluctantly still blazing sinks below the horizon. An example of Nature's technical gift for color is the little yellow petaled pansy with its deep violet center. In this tiny flower she has created a complementary harmony. After many years of study and experiment, scientific color enthusiasts discovered many, since proven, facts about color. In arranging your flowers, try to keep to the following long established rules, which are elastic enough for you to experiment with color. They will help you not only to add more to beauty, but to avoid destroying it with discordant color combinations. Color Mixing – Since in flower arrangement, we have little to do with the actual mixing of colors, we will only briefly review the basic mixing procedure, just to acquire some knowledge of origin. The color wheel is the center of all color research. By referring to it we can find just what to use to accomplish the desired effect. There are three PRIMARY colors, yellow, red and blue, from which all other color tones are mixed. The three SECONDARY colors orange, green and violet may be produced by combining any three of the primaries. Example: blue and yellow make green. We tend to associate all tints, shades and tones with the above six colors, hence they are considered the leading colors. The
combination of a primary color with a secondary color will produce an INTERMEDIATE color of which there are six. Example: red and violet make red-violet. These may be modified by adding white, which is a tint; adding black which would make it a shade, adding gray until the desired hue between intensity and neutrality is produced. Intensity is determined by the amount of pigment. The more pigment, the brighter and more intense the color. We can see now that a single color may have many values. Example: Red and white make a tint which is pink. Red and black make a shade which is dusty rose. Consult the color wheels in Figure 6A to acquaint yourself with the various positions and combinations. Color Harmonies Monochromatic: Complementary: wheel. Analogous: Combining different values of the same color. Combining two colors which are found opposite each other on the color
Combining neighboring colors on the wheel.
Triadic: Combining three colors found at equal intervals on the color wheel. Example: redviolet, blue-green and yellow-orange. Split-complementary: Combining one color with that on each side of the one opposite. Example: blue with red-orange and yellow-orange. Double complementary: Combining two neighboring orange and red-orange with blue-green and blue. colors with their opposites. Example:
Polychromatic: Combination of many colors, seldom used as an example of good design, but sometimes effective for home use. Moods of Color Colors have character. Thus bright yellows and joyous reds for gaiety; cool blues and shaded violets for quiet. Hence the sayings; "I've got the blues." and, "The sunshine of your smile." Colors are divided into cool and warm groups. Those with blue and green predominating are cool. Those with yellow and red predominating are warm. The reason for which is easily seen in the associa-of reds and yellows with warm sun and hot fire; in the association of blues and
greens with cool sky and cold water. The color scheme of your flower arrangements should create a psychological balance. Example: Cool arranagements in the summer, warm for winter. Some Color Tips Your colors are affected by the hues near them. Therefore you must choose flattering backgrounds and avoid combining colors which reflect each other discordantly. Remember that the foliage enters into the color scheme. Of course we must not forget the important role played by white, which reflects all colors. White flowers in an arrangement can enhance or destroy it. Use them with thought. An over abundance of white flowers in a colored arrangement will give a separated effect. The focal point of the design in most cases would contain the warmest, darkest, richest colors. Heavy colors on the outer edges of the arrangement will give it a tendency to appear to topple over at the lightest touch of a breeze. Let us remember that the first thing the eye catches in a flower arrangement is color. If the color is not balanced and interestingly planned, the eye will be reluctant to go further. No matter how graceful the form and how rhythmical the line, color is the eye-catcher of your design. Figure 7 - Color Accent - Warm in the center, cool on the outer edges. You are now equipped with a well rounded knowledge of design and color pertaining to flower arrangement. Keep these principles in mind as you read through the following chapters. If employed constantly, they will lead you to success in your endeavors. They are easily mastered and the little time used in perfection will be well worth while.
Figure 6A. Color Wheels THE CARREN DESIGNERS GUIDE The Carren Designers Guide was invented by the author to enable both the amateur and professional flower designer to create a visual fundamental line design upon which the most simple and complex arrangements would be created with more ease. The use of this guide eliminates all but the fundamental lines and provides an excellent basis for the step-by-step construction of the design. Proportion and direction are controlled by the guide, and constant practice and experiment will soon develop a keen eye for the principles of line design in every type of arrangement.
The stems of the guide are designed to fall into three different sizes, following the Japanese theme of Heaven, man and earth. Turn to the chapter on IKEBANA in this volume to learn more about the Eastern influence in flower arrangement. The three sizes are merely used as approximate guides and it should definitely not be assumed that each flower stem or foliage spray must be the exact length of the guide stem. This would produce in most cases a very stiff and devitalized arrangement. It would also take the creative fun out of your project. A. - The guide is placed at eye level in back of the container in which you are going to create the flower design. The guide stems are then manipulated to form an approximate facsimile of the lines you have in mind. Perhaps you wish to experiment and allow the guide to suggest a design scheme to you which you will later follow. B. - After setting the guide, proceed with your foliage and plant material to duplicate the direction and proportion of the guide. If your guide is arranged in a well balanced line design, you should achieve the same effect in the finished arrangement without any difficulty. C. - The arranger here has shown you an excellent example of the use of the Carren Designers Guide in creating a well balanced line design in this triangular L arrangement of desert spoons and cattails. Constructing the Guide D. - The tallest guide stems are one foot in length. When collapsed to the second size they measure two thirds of a foot. The smallest measure a bit less than half a foot. To provide the many different combinations in height and direction, there are seven short stems and seven tall ones which may be used as is or collapsed into the second size in the amount desired. This is accomplished by attaching the two strips of cardboard as illustrated, by an office pierce-type paper clip, firmly enough to allow the stem to stand independently at full length.
Figure 6B. The Carren Designers Guide The illustration shows how the top part may be folded out of sight behind the second size. Though there are fourteen stems, they need not all be used at once. Those not in use are easily pushed out of sight in back of those being used. A block of wood such as the one illustrated will provide a firm axis and base for the stems. Place the stems together, one atop the other, insert them into the space carved in the block and drill a hole through the wood and the entire group of stems. Next put a large enough screw through the opening to allow proper firm control of each
stem and attach at the back with a nut. The author suggests that the stems be painted black. This will enable you to follow each line with ease while creating your flower arrangement.
Figure 7. Color Accent
2. THINGS YOU WILL NEED
What tools will you use ? - Can you use any type of container? -What about holders ? bases ? - What are the best ways to use your materials ? Tools – There are only a few essential tools for your new hobby. Sharp knife - Preferably a pocket knife for safety purposes. It should be kept sharpened at all times. Flower shears - Choose a pair which you can use with the least effort. Not too heavy, not too light. Pruning shears - These are used in the arrangement of thick, woody stems and branches. Wire Cutters Household shears Containers –
While thumbing through the illustrations in this volume, you will find a number of suitable containers. These may be purchased at your neighborhood shops or found in the attic or basement. Its fun discovering how many vessels of all shapes and sizes can be adapted to flower arrangement. For design purposes, we will put containers into four categories.
1. 2. 3. 4. - Square - Horizontal - Vertical - Complex
Always keep in mind that the container is there for two reasons; one is to hold the arrangement; the other is to beautify it. It must never detract from or over power the design. The vessel for your arrangement must always be more subdued in tone and less complex in shape than the rest of the composition. Ideal vase colors are white, subdued greens, browns, tints and shades. (Refer to the previous chapter on color.) A. B C.
Figure 8. Securing the Holder to the Container Clean containers regularly. Bacteria, if left in the vase too long, will shorten the lives of your flowers. Holders A veteran flower arranger is undoubtedly in the possession of a variety of holders. The secret to successful arrangements is the employment of the proper holders for the various types of plant material. You will note throughout the book, several examples of easily constructed Japanese holders. These were used to give the arrangement as close a resemblance to it's natural growth as was possible. Following, are listed some of the more popular holders. Frog - Needle holder
Wire holder - An example of which is the hairpin holder. Glass holder - This is a flat cylindrical block of glass with holes bored halfway through the top surface. A way to secure these holders to the bottom of the container is to role a piece of clay between the palms until it forms a suitable sized coil to fit around the bottom of the outer edge of the holder. The inner surface of the container should be clean and dry before pressing the holder and clay into it. After the holder is secure, the clay is pressed lightly around the joined edges of the holder and container thus forming one unit. Refer to Figure 8 Chicken wire is also an excellent means of holding the arrangement. It may be shaped to fill the need. Keep in mind that it must always be roled in layers and not crushed into a mass. This will avoid looseness, and will give the stems firmer footage. The holder selected should be the one which will best support the arrangement in mind. Stems which have to be picked up and replaced every half hour are definitely not in the right holder. After a little experiment, the selection of holders will be one of the easier tasks of flower design. Refer to Figure 9 for variety of holders. THINGS YOU WILL NEED
Figure 9. A Variety of Holders Additional Equipment – Modeling clay - Oily base. Quartz sand - For special effects and supporting dried arrangements.
Collection of interesting pebbles and stones of unusual origin; such as granite, sandstone, black pebbles. Water sprayer - To give certain arrangements a dewy appearance. Florist's string - For tied bouquets and other construction work. Scotch tape - Can be used as a flower holder by criss-crossing it at the mouth of narrow necked vases. Corsage kit – Wires - These usually come in twelve inch lengths which are cut in half for corsage work. They are numbered according to thickness; 22, 24, 30, 32, these being the most suitable thicknesses. Roll of soft wire – Floral tape - Preferably green and white. Bases - Figure 10 shows a variety of bases, which act as a stage for the arrangement. Like the container, the base is part of the design, and should be chosen wisely for line, color, form and texture. The beginner will need only a few of the basic shapes. However, one should learn to employ them; as they tend to anchor the arrangement to its setting; giving it the much needed feeling of unity.
Figure 10. A Variety of Bases Now that you have learned about materials and tools, we will go on to some information on the actual care of your plant materials.
3. TIPS ON FLOWERS
When and how do we cut them? - What shouldn’t we do? - How can we help our cut flowers last longer? Proper Cutting –
Cut your flowers in the morning before the sun comes up, or in the early evening after it sets. The sun closes the pores of the blossoms, preventing the stems from absorbing water properly. Be sure to use a sharp knife or shears to avoid bruising stem tissues and leaving ragged edges. Cut steins at an angle. This will provide the stem with a broader surface for absorbing water. Place your cuttings carefully, in a flat flower basket, and avoid crowding the blossoms. Plunge into ice cold water up to the flower head as quickly as possible. This will harden them. If necessary, make several trips to and from the flower bed. Long stems and small buds will add to the beauty of the arrangement. Material Preparation – Around one third of the foliage should be removed from the stem. Remove all top buds which tend to make the stem heavy. Gladioli for example, have small florets at the top which, if they do not open, will weigh down the other blossoms by contrasting unpleasantly with the lighter effect of the latter. Bleeding stems – Dahlias, Poppies, Hollyhocks, Poinsettias. A milky or glue like substance runs from the stems of these flowers when cut. To stop this action, hold the cut end of the stem over the flame of a candle until it is sealed. This should take about twelve seconds. Another method is dipping the stem tips into boiling water for a couple of minutes, being very careful to protect the flowers from the steam. After this is done, plunge them directly into ice water. Poppies and dahlias react most favorably to the latter method. Woody Stems – Rhododendron, Chrysanthemums, Lilacs. Place the stems of the preceding on a hard surface and hammer them lightly; bruising the stems so that they may absorb water more readily. Stock, Roses. Scrape a small portion of the stems of these flowers with a sharp knife; placing them quickly in cold water almost to the flower heads. Other Flowers Iris, Daffodils, Calla lilies, Tulips.
The stems of these flowers may be cut straight across. Since evaporation occurs quickly, it is suggested that you wrap the entire units in newspaper. Place them in water and put them in a dark place over night before arranging. What to Avoid –
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Do not keep flowers out of water for any length of time. Flowers should not be left in direct sunlight. It fades them. Keep fingers off blossoms whenever possible. The heat of our hands is injurious to them. Dead and wilting flowers ruin the appearance of the arrangement. Remove them. Avoid over crowding in the vase. Heat and drafts shorten flower life. Do not pile flowers on top of one another. Quick changes in temperature are inadvisable.
Hints on Prolonging the Lives of Flowers –
1. Change water regularly. (Every day, if possible.) 2. Remove all foliage from below the water line. 3. Snip a small bit of the stems off diagonally, before placing them into the arrangement. This will retard bacteria growth. 4. Fresh water will keep your flowers garden crisp. Sprinkle your rose arrangements daily. 5. Flowers enjoy ice cold water. 6. A few drops of vinegar will help retard bacteria growth. Too much is harmful. 7. A chemical flower prolonger may be used. These are available at the flower shops. 8. Spray gardenias with a little fresh water, then cover with a moist piece of cleansing tissue until ready for use. This will prolong freshness. 9. Sometimes partially wilted lilacs may be rejuvenated by wrapping in moist newspaper and placing in water to be stored in a dark spot over night. 10. You may keep camellias from turning brown by putting a few grains of salt in the center of each flower. 11. Prolong the lives of water lilies by pumping alcohol into the stems and placing them in cold water for several hours.
The first three chapters of this book have given you a firm foundation for the hours of experimentation and success which are ahead. Refer to them often, to familiarize yourself with the general procedure. SIMPLIFIED GUIDE TO PROLONGATION APPLEBLOSSQMS - Cut while budding. Crush stem ends. Use 2 drops hydrochloric acid to 1 quart cold water. ASTERS - Cut and place in cold water with a bit of sugar for about an hour. This is the hardening period. CALENDULAS - Cut while still buds. Place ice cubes in water.
CALLA LILIES - Use 1/4 cup vinegar to 1 quart water. See that the water covers the leaves. CAMELLIAS - Treat the same way as gardenias. CARNATIONS - 2 1/2 drops oil of peppermint to 1 quart water or 1/2 cup boric acid to 1 gallon water. CHRYSANTHEMUMS - Crush or burn stem ends. Use 4 drops oil of peppermint to 1 quart water. DAFFODILS - Squeeze gelatin substance from stems before placing in 1 inch water in a cool place. DAHLIAS - Place in solution of 1 quart water to 1 teaspoon wood alcohol for two hours after the stem ends have been burned. DAISIES - To harden, burn stem ends and soak in cold water for 1 hour DELPHINIUM - Use 2 tablespoons wood alcohol to 2 quarts water. Crush stem ends and place quickly in solution. DOGWOOD - Crush stem ends. Peel outer skin. FORGET-ME-NOTS - Plunge stem tips into boiling water and then into cold water. Keep blossoms away from steam. GARDENIAS - Keep flowers moist. Sprinkle with table salt and place in box in refridgerator. GLADIOLUS - Place in cold water. Soak over night to develop curves. HYACINTHS - Put stem ends in boiling water and then quickly into cold water. HYDRANGEAS - Treat as calla lilies. HOLLYHOCKS - Burn stem tips immediately after cutting. Soak in deep water over night. IRIS - Plunge immediately into cold water after cutting. LARKSPUR - Use 1/2 teaspoonful wood alcohol to 2 quarts cold water. LILACS - Remove all foliage except leaf closest to flower head. Crush stems up 2 or 3 inches. MARIGOLDS - Harden stems by placing in solution of 1 teaspoonful oil of peppermint to 1 quart water for an hour and one half.
PANSIES - Place stems in 2 pints of water to 5 drops wood alcohol. PETUNIAS - Use 2 quarts water to 2 tablespoons salt. POINSETTIAS - Treat as dahlias. RANUNCULUS - Place in solution of l/4 cup vinegar to 1 cup water. ROSES - Use 2 1/2 drops wood alcohol to 1 quart water. Slit stem up about 2 inches. SNAPDRAGONS - Strip lower leaves and place in 2 quarts of water containing 3 tablespoons baking soda. SWEET PEAS - Place stems in boiling water and then cold water. TULIPS - Put the stem ends in boiling hot water for 1 minute. VIOLETS - Submerge bunches in water, then gently shake off all water. WATERLILIES - Pump wood alcohol into the stems with rubber syringe and harden in cold water for 2 hours. ZINNIAS - Strip lower leaves and place in 2 quarts water containing tablespoons rock salt.
4. SIMPLE ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE BEGINNER
How do you begin ? - What flowers are placed where ? What are period arrangements ? What does the setting do to the arrangement? Putting Design Principals to Practice – Let us start with a simple exercise. Our guide to proportion is an imaginary vertical line as tall as our tallest stem, leading down to the axis or center of the container. This line should be one and one half times the height of a tall container, and one and one half times the diameter of a low container. Figure 11 is an excellent example of this type of proportion. You will note that in this arrangement the imaginary vertical line is emphasized by a graceful gladiolus stalk. Always work from the front of the design to give yourself a proper view of the arrangement. Before starting your first flower arrangement, make a mental note of these basic necessities.
1. Assemble all needed tools. A home made tool kit would be a handy thing to have. 2. Clean working space. No clutter. 3. Choose frogs and container.
4. Wash foliage. Trim flowers. If the stem breaks; leaving a perfect blossom, don't throw the flower away. You may be able to use it in the focal point of the arrangement. The foliage of the flowers can be used as the green foundation of the arrangement in many cases. 5. Flowers and foliage are to be kept constantly in water. 6. If possible, create your arrangement in its final setting. This will enable you to view the entire unit. 7. All flowers should seem to grow from the focal point.
Now back to Figure 11. In step A we are starting the L, one of the basic lines in flower arrangement. This line may be used in equal or unequal parts stemming from a ninety degree angle. In most instances, this L is formed by spikes of delphinium, stock, hollyhocks, larkspur and other plants of this type. Form flowers (roses, zinnias, carnations) create this line if they are graduated in size from the fullest at the bottom to the smallest buds at the top. It is best to keep in mind that these lines should sweep gracefully to the center or focal point.
A. Figure 11. Gladiolus
In step B a new line has been added to create interest in the arrangement. A partial focal point has now been created by the larger blossom of the newly added stalk joining those already in place. Step C shows that two additional gladiolus have been added to complete the design. The foliage offers foliage and texture which serves as a backdrop for the gladiolus blossoms. Try this arrangement, using marigolds, zinnias or any similar form flowers, with gladiolus as your basic design. Line Composition Figure 12 – Horizontal line A - This line is restful. Perhaps this is due to its similarity to the curve of the horizon. Here is a good way to use plant material which has been so shaped by the wind or other elements. The vase used is an antique reproduction. Zig - zag line
B - The series of sharp angles formed by the flowering plum tree offer accent to the natural setting. The shorter branches offer balance and texture. The focal point may be created by a cluster of wide leaves or a single large blossom. Here is an example of a naturalized piece of wood serving as a base and container. A small hidden container and frog hold the plant material. Crescent C - The eye travels in this design from the outer tips to the focal point. We find that this is one of the principle movements used in modern flower arrangement. Here we see how the use of the curved vase with the crescent arrangement adds unity and sweep to the design. Design from three Different Angles Figure 13 The triangle design suggests firmness and permanence. It is one of the simpler forms of flower arrangement
Figure 12. Line Composition
Figure 13. Design from Three Different Angles A - Recognize the L line? Notice that the leaves fill the space, forming an almost perfect angle. B - This drawing of a symmetrical design shows the effectiveness of tiny buds toward the outer edges. They draw the eye in and downward to the fuller roses in the focal point.
C - Extremely symmetrical, this little arrangement shows the staunch qualities in a design of three equal sides. You will notice that however firm the appearance, the flowers are not crowded together. This design is ideal to be used in pairs to flank a favorite mantle clock or antique piece. The Round Design Figure 14 One of the elementary steps, easy to develop in flower arrangement is the round design. This method is used primarily in making full, showy arrangements. Each flower is seen and will give the feeling of circular motion. Another good thing to make a mental note of in round designs, is, though the eye travels in a circular motion, it is arrested here and there by bits of accent to avoid monotony. A - Here the extreme circle is broken by some small protruding blossoms, and accented by the dark points of foliage. B - The oval arrangement has an old fashioned quality reminiscent of the oval frame on the tintypes of the nineteenth century. Note that the daisies which jut out break the tendency toward an egg shaped design. C - Of all round designs, the spiral is the closest to natural growth. Many groups of material may be used in this type of arrangement; which may sweep toward any direction provided that you keep in mind proportion and unity. Oriental Poppies Figure 15 The Japanese quality of closeness of the movement of the design to the natural growth of the poppies, creates a fresh and airy feeling. In this type of arrangement, one should use a large, firm container to anchor the design. One Dozen Roses Figure 16 Here is an example of what can be done with just one dozen roses. Chicken wire serves as the holder. The roses are placed one by one in position; remembering, larger blossoms in the center, small one to the top and outer edges. A Formal Arrangement Figure 17 Antique vases are ideal for period arrangements. Here is a formal arrangement in a French vase.
Figure 14. Round Design
Figure 15. Oriental Poppies MANUAL FOR FLORAL DECORATIONS IN THE HOME
A - Antique vase B - Lilac and stock forming the outer edges of the design, are placed in chicken-wire holder in the mouth of the vase. C - Completed arrangement showing roses in the focal point with a background of beautifully textured caladium leaves. The English ivy adds a graceful note and softens the formality of the entire arrangement. What is a Period Arrangement? Before we go briefly into this subject let us record a few helpful thoughts. If floral arrangement is your hobby, you will probably want to try every type of arrangement there is and even invent a few of your own. This is all very well, but we must remember to keep our experiments in the workshop if they are not suitable to the surroundings. A Victorian arrangement would cause much confusion to the eye if placed in a clean cut, streamlined modern setting. You would experience equal enjoyment looking at a traditional Japanese arrangement in an American interior. This does not necessarily mean that we can not have period arrangements in our modern homes or vice-versa. It is merely a precaution against extreme clashes of style. One may modify any type of period arrangement to suit it's intended setting. American flower arrangement is influenced by two distinct styles. They are Eastern and Western or Oriental and Occidental. It combines the color and mass of Western influence and the line and restraint of Eastern influence, namely Japanese. The following is a bit of information on each period. Classical (Greek) Simple, symmetrical line which can be very successfully adapted to modern interiors. Medieval Ethereal, religious, requires much theological study to attain authentic results.
C. Figure 17. A Formal Arrangement Renaissance Warmth of color with cool accents of greens, blues and lavenders; combined with fruit placed in bronze or marble vases. Heavy Venetian glass is also significant of this period. A Renaissance arrangement should give the impression of abundance in fruits, flowers and fabrics. Italian Renaissance
This period introduced luxurious velvets, brocades, and fruits embellished with jewels in beautiful gardens and draped interiors. Flemish Realistic. Variety of containers, mostly metal or bronze which are often almost concealed by the mass arrangements of many types of flowers, birds nests with eggs, etc. Rich in color and unusual plant material. French Delicate, formal, subtle color with an atmosphere of gentle elegance. Colonial Less sophisticated and formal than French Period. However, very delicate in pastel colors and glass containers. Georgian Formal containers of silver, porcelain and crystal are used with candelabra of the same materials. Combination of dignity with the classic symmetry. Victorian Rich, dark blues, greens and wines. Elaborately decorated containers of porcelain, alabaster and bronze. Modern Bold in color, line and form. Clean cut lines. No detail. Containers may be made of ceramic pottery, earthern ware, modern crystal glass, steel (stainless), plastics, wood or any other adaptable material. Your local library offers a great deal of research in all phases of the above mentioned periods, which you will find very interesting, since flower arrangement very definitely, like any other art, reflects the conditions of the period. Tied Bouquet Figure 18 A - Select a tall spike flower, which in this illustration is a delphinium. This will determine the height of your bouquet. B - Cross two spike flowers with lacey fern and/or baby's breath for airy effect.
C - Form a triangle by adding one more spike and fern. D - Add another spike, tying the meeting point with florist's thread.
Figure 18. Tied Bouquet E - You have now completed the framework of your arrangement with five spike flowers and fern. Be careful not to pull the thread too tightly or you may bruise or break the stems. F - Place your form flowers (roses in this illustration) for color and accent.
G - Add the lacey flowers for texture, (here Queen Anne's lace) and more fern where necessary for balance. H - Cut stems with sharp flower shears, I - Here is a completed tied bouquet in a vase; an ideal gift for any occasion. Your garden offers an abundance of material for this type of arrangement. Should you wish to try a full round bouquet, repeat the design, being careful to place the blossoms between those in the previously tied bouquet.
Spring . . . Cherry Blossom
5. IKEBANA (JAPANESE FLOWER ARRANGEMENT)
When did it start? - How does it influence American flower arrangement? - What are its principles ? Japanese flower arrangement has a tradition and history which reaches far back into 553 A D, when the beginning of Buddhism in Japan gave birth to not only their religion but to their art as well. Starting as insignificant decorations for the temple, branch, foliage and flower arrangements gradually became significant in the worship of Nature, and finally grew into the present highly developed art.
We are deeply grateful to the great painter, Soami, who gave birth to the idea of representing in flower arrangement, the three elements of Heaven, Man and Earth, from which have evolved the basic principles of Ikebana. 1.- Heaven (Shin) – Primary Longest stem in center of group. 2.- Man (Soe) – Secondary Next in length. Half the length of Heaven. 3.- Earth (Hikae) – Tertiary Half the length of Man. 4.- Attributes (Jushi) No fixed number or size. These depend on the arranger. They are naturally shorter than the respective chief branches. In Ikebana, it is interesting to note that stems always tilt from the vertical and not from the horizontal; showing the nearness of the arrangement to its natural growth. Pussy Willow Design Figure 19 A - Bronze container (Usubata) on a natural wooden base. B - Bending the pussy willow twig. Most thin branches may be shaped by the heat and pressure of the hands. Keep in mind that the thumbs must always be together at the bending point, to avoid breaking. Pressure should be applied evenly throughout the twig; with care not to concentrate pressure in one area to excess.
Figure 19. Pussy Willow Arrangement C - Holder of forked branches (Matagi). This should be pressed firmly into the mouth of the vase before beginning the arrangement. Amount of water in the rim of the container is determined by the season. In spring, the container looks as if it were about to over-flow. In summer a cool effect is achieved by cutting leaves off at the water line. (Not in the case of Figure 19, which is a semi-formal line arrangement.
D - Hold basic lines in the hand as closely as possible, to appear as one strong unit. E - After the entire arrangement with added Attributes has been designed in the hand, place it in the Matagi. Vertical Line of Daffodils Figure 20 Here is a semi-formal arrangement of a minimum of daffodils with foliage, in a bamboo container with blond wood-stained base. A - Container and base B - Line and form design of the arrangement showing how the domineering vertical line adds a graceful upward sweep to the design. It is also interesting to note that though the tiny buds appear at the bottom of the design, the full flowers at the top do not over burden them. This is due to the fact that the entire arrangement is so designed to resemble it's natural growth. Blue Agapanthus Figure 21 One of the most beautiful schools of Ikebana existing today, is Mori-bana. This is a more scenic type of design, which usually consists of two or more units to create the atmosphere of garden surroundings. A - Container showing frog (Kenzan) in the front left hand corner. B - Completed arrangement. Characteristic of Moribana is the low bowl with the water visible to the onlooker. C - Form and line design of the arrangement. Aspidistra Figure 22 A - Usubata B - Branch with dotted lines showing where to cut and form a forked holder. C - Holder placed in mouth of container, showing where the branches are placed. D - Line drawing of the arrangement after it has been formed (in the hands) into one parent stem. E - Complete arrangement with leaf (in this case) second to right cut to balance the design.
Figure 20. Vertical Line of Daffodils
Figure 21. Blue Agapanthus
Figure 22. Aspidistra To shape the leaves for this type of arrangement, cut them off the plant, clean them thoroughly, and role them in your fingers as if curling hair. Place rubber bands where necessary, and keep in water over night. You may rub the foliage gently with a bit of mineral oil to increase the natural gloss. Orange Blossoms Figure 23 Here is a design with two focal points complementing each other.
A - Container with frogs in diagonally opposite corners. B - First unit placed in the design. C - Completed arrangement with two units. The second group consists of a smaller amount of foliage with accent on the blossoms. KEY WORD LIST Hana - English equivelant would be "flowers" - however, the Japanese term embraces all grasses, plants and trees in addition to flowers. Ikebana Flower arrangement
Ikenobo Forerunner of all Japanese styles of flower arrangement. Formal design. Emphasis is placed on the skills displayed in constructing beautiful curves and harmonious proportions. Kake-mono Art scroll
Mizukiri Term used to describe the practise of cutting stems in water. This simple device is for the purpose of protecting open stem ends from exposure to air. Moribana More recent development in flower arrangement style.
This school of Ikebana combines the formality of Ikenobo with the naturality of Nageire, with the addition of a third - the suggestion of landscape to convey the scenic effect. Nageire Literal translation would be "throw - in". Its meaning in the language of Ikebana would be the simple and naturalistic form of flower arrangement. The results are obtained by a more natural approach to design. The plant material would have more of a "thrown in" look rather than a "constructed" look. Oki-mono – Ornaments
Figure 23. Orange Blossoms Rikka - "Standing up flowers" This is the literal translation of the term used for the large, ornate, scenic type of arrangement in the classic style of the lkenobo school. Rikka arrangements were conceived by the idea of representing Shumizen, the sacred mountain of Buddhist devotees, symbolizing the universe. One could say that Rikka embraced all the grandeur and beauty of landscape gardening in miniature.
Rikka has become old fashioned and is now seldom used. However, the style is still often represented in the ceremonies of the Shin, Judo and Zen sects of Buddhism. Seiwa Shaku A simplified form of Ikenobo The Japanese measurement equivalent to approximately 1 foot.
Tokonoma - This is the name given the small alcove which is built in for the specific purpose of displaying art objects and flower arrangements. The Tokonoma is usually found in the best room in the house. At one time it was the family alter, but gradually the religious meaning and use have disappeared. Still, the Tokonoma has somehow retained a sacred aura and has continued to be adorned with three accessories considered to be indispensable to a Japanese home: "Kake-mono," "oki-m6. THE SETTING FOR YOUR ARRANGEMENT
What can plant material do for each room in your house ? - How can we use accessories ? The principle objective of this book is to show the reader how flower decoration can be adapted as part of the design of your home; once the desired theme is established. It is always good to remember that flowers should neither detract from nor over power your interior. Use flower decoration for its own loveliness or perhaps even to draw attention to another object of interest. This chapter will awaken us to the great versatility of floral decoration in the home. Your Front Hall Figure 24 Twin bouquets of a variety of garden flowers greet your guests warmly as they enter or leave through your front hall. These are formal arrangements, designed to blend with the traditional interior in the illustration; taking into consideration, the contrast of flowers, with wallpaper and woodwork. During the winter, these bouquets may be replaced with dried plant material. Accent on Antiques Figure 25 Here is a perfect example of the use of flowers to soften and enhance the beauty of a cherished antique or two. Knowing of the pride with which many of us display our art pieces, the author would not venture to embellish the surroundings of such pieces with an array of bright blossoms and luxurious foliage. It is however, very pleasing to the eye, to find the hard chisled lines of these French porcelain carvings supported in their beauty by the crisp whites and delicate greens of a simple arrangement of chrysanthemums. The use of a flower arrangement here, enables us to display antique groupings without creating the atmosphere of a museum, where you want to increase the warmth and comfort of the home.
Perhaps the more adventurous flower arranger would like to experiment with antiques by reproducing in a floral piece, the rich flower patterns which are so significant of Dresden and Miessen.
Figure 25. Accent on Antiques Remember that this is one of the very rare occasions when we may use plant material to accent the beauty of another object, because flowers are naturally very haughty, and they just won't stand for it! For Those Old French Doors Figure 26
There were few apartments or homes built in the early part of the century which did not boast of a French door or two. Many of us still have these around, standing useless with no other purpose than to fill an open space in the wall. Here are a couple of ways to add purpose to them as part of the design of your home. A - Double paneled French door. B - The addition of two antique candle holders remade to hold plant material. C - The introduction of English or other ivy plants to cover the bareness and create interest where there was none. D - Triple paneled French door with the introduction of two antique candle holders with a wider base soldered on the bottom of each to hold plant material. This very same effect may be reproduced by shaping an ordinary tin can. E - Philodendron in the holders. A bit of green moss and charcoal will add vigor and retain the health of your vines. Summer Fireplace Figure 27 A - A bare fireplace in the summertime B - A way to fill your fireplace with interest for that season is, to place a rich type of foliage in a pail of water concealed by the logs and fan it out gracefully to cover the space above them. Chicken-wire in the pail will make a suitable holder. Orchids and Driftwood Figure 28 A - A piece of driftwood and Spanish moss, showing the basic lines of the design. There is color contrast in the rustic variegated browns of the wood and the gray green of the moss. The root system of a toppled tree would serve this purpose nicely. B - Completed design showing spray orchids adding rich color and delicate texture to the composition. The orchids are placed individually or in sprays in water filled vials. Note that they graduate in size from full ones in the focal point and smaller ones to the outer branches. If a great many orchids are available, the focal point may be accented by groups of two and three. A rectangle of natural wood serves as a base to unify and anchor the arrangement.
Figure 26. For Those French Doors
Figure 27. Summer Fireplace
Figure 28. Orchids and Driftwood
Figure 29. Around the Clock
C - A vial of water with an orchid in it. List of Various Orchid Types Vanda, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Phalaenopsis, Calanthe, Cy-pripedium, Dendrobium, Odontoglossum Oncidium. Around the Clock Figure 29
A - Victorian glass piece reproduction B - Design showing placement of foliage and flowers in vase. C - Completed design of pink roses masses with white candytufts against a stalwart vertical line of larkspur and/or stock. D - Twin arrangements are used very effectively with a mantle clock. The design is gracefully unified by flowing philodendron or sprays of smilax. A large wall mirror serves as an excellent backdrop. Between the Lamps Figure 30 Here again is an antique setting, but in this case, flowers reign supreme.
1. - Container with chicken-wire. Entire unit is tied from front to back and from side to side with strong cord. 2. - Line and form design of arrangement. 3. - Snapdragons, tritomas, and birds of paradise form an ideal focal point for the setting of antique table, mirror and hurricane lamps.
Water Lilies Under Your Lamp Figure 31 A - A tall lamp can be an interesting accent in an arrangement. B - Container placed in front of lamp showing position of three frogs. C - Completed arrangement of wild swamp grass and one water lily with buds unified and accented by the black pebbles gracefully surrounding each grouping. When picking the grasses, select the choice ones which are rich in color and texture. You may rotate the plant material in this arrangement, by the season. (Refer to Chapter Vin) Ming Tree Figure 32 A - Wooden board with circle of cardboard to keep out plaster. B - Pour plaster to create a naturalized base, being careful not to pour any into the circle of cardboard. C - You may allow one layer to dry and pour a second to achieve a nicely molded, natural effect. Use your fingers to create rough textures. D - Place the branch of the ming tree into the hollow of cardboard and pour the plaster around it, securing it to the recently poured base.
Figure 30. Between the Lamps
Figure 31. Water Lilies Under Your Lamp
Figure 32. Ming Tree The base should dry firmly, so tilt the branch at it's permanent angle or you will have to break the base and begin again. E - Completed plaster base F - Peruvian moss adds form and additional texture to the manzanita
branches. Carpet the base with a layer of rich green lichen moss. Remove the board. G - As an accent on an odd table. H - Line and form design. The manzanita branches should give the appearance of a minature wind swept tree. Minature Shadow Boxes Figure 33 A - Shadow box B - Showing indirect lighting. The color of your lighting has a great deal to do with the success or failure of the design. Yellow lighting is most flattering to color. White light has a tendency to blanch the subject, giving it a palid look. Blue lights are excellent for mystic line arrangements. Experiment with colored gelatin over your bulbs and see how different light colors will change the entire atmosphere of your shadow boxes. C - Side view of box showing border angle of frame. D - Three examples of miniature arrangements with hands to show size. MINIATURES Minatures Are Always Interesting How we marvel at a minute reproduction of anything. Greater yet is our wonder at a tiny copy of something which has life in its every swirl of a minature leaf or a bending branch no longer than the first two joints of your index finger; a flower arrangement. In creating a miniature flower arrangement we must remember that the fundamentals of design are not altered. Every detail is in its correct proportions; from the vase to the tiniest bud. The size should range from 4" to 6" (including the vase which should not be more than 2" in height) and all the rules of balance, color, line and form which would apply to a standard size arrangement, should apply to your miniature. Width and height depend upon the form of the container and the type of plant material being used. The search for plant material and containers with which to create your designs will give you endless hours of interest and enjoyment. You will find plant materials among the commonest weeds and country wild flowers. Antique and curio shops offer a world of vases and miniature accessories from which to choose.
Figure 33. Miniature Shadow Boxes The Arrangement Prepare your container to hold the plant material, in either of the following ways. Arranging the foliage foundation properly at the base of your container will hold the flowers in place. Soft clay or puffed up tissue paper may also be used for the same purpose. Keep in mind that the area in which you are working is very small. If you overstuff it you will have a difficult time arranging the plant material.
In beginning your arrangement, ask yourself what material will give you the height, the focal point, and the foliage foundation. After selecting your material, start your design. Your plant materials and container should not detract from each other. They should complement, balance and harmonize in line, color and form. A colorful glass coaster will set off your creation if chosen carefully to blend or contrast pleasingly. Suggestions For Plant Material Autumn brings to the fields and woodlands, a host of dried materials in the form of plants turning to seed, drying leaves and branches and drying grasses. Here you will find an abundance of color, and texture for novel miniature arrangements. Some other suggestions are; For Line---Pine needles - Sweet clover - Wild grasses - Maiden hair fern - Foliage leaves - Dainty branches – For Form---Sweetheart roses - Geranium buds - Ageratum (pink and blue) - Petunias (small growth & variety) – Violets
1. Dwarf marigolds &zinnias - Begonias - Tiny daisies 2. Bachelor buttons - The flowers of spirea - Feverfew
Some Suggestions For Novel Containers Toy dishes - Interesting lipstick tubes - Perfume bottles - Small cosmetic jars - ash trays. Where to Place Your Finished Miniature Arrangements The proper setting if possible, should be at eye level. The mantel and shelves make excellent displaying nooks. Shadow boxes thoughtfully placed on the wall, complete with miniature accessories, will offer the opportunity to change arrangements to taste. Indirect lighting will accent the setting. Three dimensional proportion is most important to the successful creation of your miniature flower arrangements. Callas on the Coffee Table Figure 34 This is an example of the Moribana style of flower design. A - Simply designed glass top coffee table.
Figure 34. Callas on the Coffee Table B - Drawing showing the beauty of form and line in an arrangement of calla lilies and their own foliage in a glass bowl. Chicken-wire is used as a holder. C - This arrangement, when placed diagonally, may be viewed with interest from all sides. Daffodils in Your Bookends Figure 35
A - Pottery container and bookend combination showing position of two frogs. B - This type of design is just the thing for that special set of four or five books which don't seem to fit anywhere. A small table will serve as excellent support for this exclusive bookshelf. The unit may also be placed in the center of an eye-level mantle. Settings for Your Chinese Figurines Figure 36 A - Chinese Figurines B - Oriental Containers C - Example of Oriental arrangement using a partially hidden figurine in the focal point. D Example of Oriental arrangement using a figurine in full view serving as an accent and a secondary point of interest. CHINESE DISH GARDENS Like Japan, China has also contributed to the development of floral arrangement. They have produced flower containers which are lovely in every hand-made, delicate detail; coming in a great variety of forms, textures and colors. These are ideal adopted homes for tropical and subtropical foliage plants; enriching their beauty in an Oriental setting. This picturesque plant material does not produce blossoms. (With some exceptions) The absence of flowers is an asset to the design in this case because added color would tend to clash with and detract from the hues in your container, accessories and setting for the entire arrangement. As in all flower arrangement, we must be careful to follow correct proportional rules and use varieties of textures which will blend harmoniously with the entire design. Foreign objects in a flower design, such as figurines, pagodas, etc., must be chosen with great care. They should be small enough not to detract from the foliage, but large enough to form a point of interest. Their colors should be as much a part of the design plan as the plant material. Select plants for their height, spread, color and form. Before attempting to plant your dish garden, experiment by placing a large enough sheet of blank paper on a table.
Figure 35. Daffodils in Your Bookends
Figure 36. For the Oriental Figurines Turn your container upside down in the center of the paper and trace its outline. This will help you to visualize the limits and possibilities of the space in which you are going to work. Select the plants and without removing them from their individual pots, arrange them; grouping taller plants in the back and gradually decreasing in size toward the front and sides. If the container is going to be seen from all points, place your taller plants in the center and decrease accordingly. Keep in mind that you are also seeking a pleasing combination of textures and forms.
Simplicity is one of the beauties of Oriental art. With this thought, you may place in the arrangement a tiny Chinese setting; consisting of perhaps a pagoda, pond and/or figurine; carefully selected to scale. Be certain of a good drain, because Chinese Bronze is susceptible to corrosion which will affect your plants unfavorably. Your planting procedure is:
1. Layer of course gravel 2. Layer of fine gravel 3. Layer of sand
Creating interesting settings for the finished arrangements, will do a great deal to increase their beauty. If you wish to display your garden on the mantle, it is best to choose some tiny plants which will fall gracefully downward. Trim vines to avoid long, straggly look. The following items are suggestions for accessories to your design: Teakwood stand on a large coaster Natural or colored straw mats Silk embroidery and doilies Chinese print on a scroll A Chinese container which has been converted into a lamp gives an enchanting glow to the foliage when placed around it in the provided planting space. In selecting your plants be sure to inquire how large they grow. Some grow very fast and will have to be replaced for they will set the entire unit off balance. Here are some of the plants you may use: Acorus gramineus variegates Aglaonema spp. Asparagus sprengeri (seedlings) Buxus sempervirens suffruticosa Dracaena godseffiana Dracaena sanderiana Euonymus fortunei Helxine soleirolii
Maranta leuconeura Pandanus veitchii, SMALL PLANTS Peperomia obtusifolia Peperomia sandersii Philodendron, SMALL PLANTS Phoenix roebelinii, SMALL PLANTS Podocarpus neriifolia Sansevieria, YOUNG PLANTS Syagrus weddelliana Tradescantia Fluminensis Buffet Arrangement Figure 37 A - Tulips and larkspur. B - Iris and foliage added. C - Completed arrangement with amarylis in the focal point. Here is an example of wisely grouped flowers of variegated colors for use on the buffet. Foliage Design for the Bedroom Figure 38 Rich foliage plants can add interesting design to your bedroom. Some of the plants which are ideal for this purpose are: Sanseveria, pandurata. Peperonia, Philodendron, Cordatum, Monstera deliciosa, Ficus
When the plant material is to cover an area of great length, such as the window sill or bed backing, two or three sections may be provided for planting trays. Pretty Enough to Frame Figure 39 This is a novel way of brightening your antique oval frame, after repainting or gilding it. A - Oval frame with glass B - Straw flowers, Thistles, Queen Anne's Lace, Mullein, Status, Joe Pye Weed, Spiraea, and Cockscomb are some suggestions for material to be pressed in a telephone book. C - Place your outline of the frame on a closely woven material of small pattern (not to detract from flowers). An interesting wall paper may also be used.
D - Cut out E - Remove frame and glass. Paste the fabric or wall paper on the inner backing of the frame to serve as a background for the flower design. In arranging your composition, be sure to place form flowers in the center or focal point, and lacy textures throughout the rest of the design. To insure a long lasting arrangement, be certain that all parts of the frame are secure, to avoid as much oxygen seepage as possible. Direct sunlight will fade your flowers.
Figure 37. Buffet Arrangement
Figure 38. Foliage Design
for the Bedroom
Enough to Frame Brightening Up the Kitchen Window Figure 40 Here is an item which would have tremendous value in the development of an indoor garden. Although a garden of this type is primarily for house plants; you can grow annuals and perennials, providing you have the proper sun exposure. The variation of color and form will always provide bright new interest; for these are living plants going through their several periodical changes in size, shape and hue. Your color arrangement may be developed by the selection of kitchen curtains, pottery, windowbox; and the painting of the panal and the window. There are many different types of wall brackets. It is well to remember that they serve as a frame and therefore should not shoot out and take up too much of the window area. The combination of window box and wall brackets acts as a unit in developing a pleasant picture. It is easy to construct your own window box, should you find it difficult to secure one of the proper size at the store. Although wood has a tendency to warp after a certain amount of
watering, you may counteract this reaction to some extent by painting the inside of the box with pure linseed oil. Paint the outside the desired color. The container should be of limited height, due to the fact that plants are constantly growing. Length is not too important, however one which would fill the window space is most desirable. Preparing the window box for planting For proper drainage, a layer of course gravel should be placed at the bottom of the box. Well broken up green house pots may be used for this purpose. On top of all place a layer of sand. Preparation of soil for planting Mix one part peat moss or leaf mold with two parts garden loam. It is advisable to add one teaspoon of fertilizer to each two quarts of soil. Potting Pots should not be too large. Put a drain of coarse gravel or broken crockery at the bottom. This is important for larger plants. Place a layer of soil in the pot, and carefully holding the plant in the middle of the container, gently sprinkle soil around the roots. Be sure to press the soil firmly around the plant; thus eliminating air pockets which will destroy the root system. Leave room for watering. As the plant grows re-potting is sometimes necessary for healthy growth. Seasonal List of Plant Materials for Your Window Box Spring – Begonias, Heliotrope, Tulips, Daffodils. Hyacinth, Geraniums, Fuschia,
Summer – Begonias, Fushchias, Geraniums. Autumn – Cyclamen, Azaleas. Winter – Cyclamen.
Poinsettia, Kalanchoe, Primula, A LITTLE TOUCH OF MEXICO
Jerusalem Cherry, Azaleas,
Cactus gardening is an enjoyable hobby in itself. The plants are hardy and require little care; always ready to add an interesting bit of color, texture or form to your window garden. Succulents come from all parts of the world. They are not necessarily the inhabitants of desert regions. Today we find lovely varieties cultivated by many amateur flower enthusiasts who have made hobbies of cacti arrangements. This is an occupation with an unlimited horizon; because in the family, there are 125 Genera containing a total of twelve hundred species. The sizes of cacti
range from one inch to forms thirty and sixty feet tall. Their habit of growth can be massive, upright, or branchy. Some have spines or are very thorny, others have thick, fleshy leaves and stems. They are sun worshipers; needing plenty of sun in which to thrive. Not only do cactus plants offer unusual form and growth, their flowering period is a beautiful spectacle, producing blossoms of the loveliest colors and the quaintest varieties of form. The rate of growth of cactus varies. Any container may be used in potting. There must be proper drainage to avoid over watering. The soil can be mixed one third sand, one third peat moss and one third soil. When potting the cacti, do not have the soil mixture too moist, for it will become lumpy causing air pockets. A bit of tape around the index finger and thumb will protect them from being pricked. While planting, do not use any fertilizer. Careful watering is of the utmost importance. Allow one quarter of an inch from the top of the container for watering; always keeping the soil only slightly moist. During the summer the plants should receive a bit more water. This is the period of growth. Put a bit of charcoal in the base of the container. List of cacti for growing purposes Agave, Aloe, Crassula, Echeveria, Euphorbia, Haworthia, Kalanchoe, Mesembryanthemum, Rochea sedum, Sempervi-vum, Stapelia There are many different species types in each one of these groups.
Figure 40. Brightening Up the Kitchen Window Refer to Chapter XIII for illustrated instructions on how to make a d bowl container for your dish garden.
7. TABLE DECORATION
How about the wedding table ? - Flowers in a cake ? – Floral arrangements work wonders with table decorations. There are so many ways of employing different design techniques in making your table attractive and worthy of the delicious food which you no doubt set upon it. Gardenias for the Table Figure 41 A - In this design we will use a simple figure eight, which will flow to the center of the design and combine the entire arrangement into one beautiful unit. B - Novel candle holder arrangement C - Later, the table decoration becomes an individual corsage for each lady guest.
The gardenia was suggested because of its neutral color, beautiful form, rich green foliage and delicate scent. The rose is a very pleasant companion flower to the gardenia; offering an additional contrasting color which may be combined for the completion of harmony in design of china, linen and candles. D - Pipe cleaners, twisted around a pencil to form a spiral, may be attached to the sides of the individual butterdishes from the bases. Scotch tape or masking tape will give the spiral sufficient support. A single long stemmed rose is placed in the spiral with the name of the guest decoratively lettered on an appropriate card. At celebrations of Washington's and Lincoln's birthdays, the use of red, white and blue ribbon on corsages placed by each setting would enhance the table with the spirit of the holiday. A cardboard silhouette of the celebrated person maybe placed in the center of the table with red, white and blue streamers leading from it to small candle holders at each place decorated with a red and white carnation. These may be removed later to be used as a corsage tied with a blue ribbon
Figure 41. Gardenias for the Table Decorating an Occasion Cake Figure 42 A - Here is a delightful cake design for a bridal shower. Roses and gardenias flow gracefully across the top of the cake on a bed of English ivy; gradually growing fuller toward the bottom of the cake cradling it in a circle of pink, white and green. A saucy, rose tipped, ivy handled parasol perches atop the cake for the spirit of the occasion. The ivy and flowers are tied together with florist's thread.
B - For a birthday party, the cake would be the focal point of the arrangement. In this drawing the candles are surrounded by lilacs which are repeated at the base. Half opened roses are stuck into the cake in an informal design. A lacy collar of maiden-hair fern completes the picture. C - For that small but all important wedding reception, here is an idea to make people take notice of the cake before its time to eat it. The tiny bells are given gay movement by sprays of lily-of-the-valley tucked into the top of the cake. Wrap moist cotton around each few sprays of lily-of-the-valley to seal the moisture in before inserting. The lilies are repeated sparsely around the top of each layer and again in abundance around the base. Gardenias and foliage are placed in a formal line around the edge of each layer; fuller ones at the base and less opened ones at the top. The Wedding Cake Figure 43 The accent on floral design is apparent in this wedding table. The parasol The handle is a bamboo cane. A glass vial is taped at the top bringing the white tape down to cover the entire cane. Follow these next simple steps: A - Tape one or two number nineteen wire. B - Tape the tiniest rose bud with foliage to the wire. C - Repeat this step (B) gradually using larger roses until you have a spoke of about nine inches long. C - Make from twelve to fourteen spokes. E - Attach the spokes one by one below the glass vial, with number twenty six wire, forming the shape of the umbrella. F - Follow step A and B with one half nineteen or twenty wire, and place each group of roses around the edge of the umbrella, forming the rim. G - Tape the proper amount of stock to twist around the handle as shown in the design.
Figure 43. The Wedding Table H - Anchor the parasol at an angle on a large block of modeling clay, or use a deep vase filled with sand and topped with stones. J - Arrange the white carnations in a shallow container of water at the base of the parasol. a bunch of lily-of-the-valley in the water filled glass vial atop the parasol. Place
K - Each spray of stock on either side of the table is inserted into a water filled vial with a rubber suction cup.
The size of the parasol is optional; using more or less flowers. Do not use too much foliage. Silver candle sticks create an atmosphere of elegance around the rose decorated cake. Flower Tree for the Wedding Figure 44 This arrangement may be used on the table for any occasion. A - Container. B - Sphagnum moss covered stick, loosely but firmly packed and covered with wax paper. Tie with string to hold form. C - Foundation placed in container filled with sand or soil. D - Diagram showing foliage foundation. Sprays of huckleberry leaves are stuck into the foundation. Some other foliage suggestions are; Boxwood, Brivet, Azalea foliage. Trim the foliage until it is a neat triangle. E - Completed flower tree showing gardenias placed informally, graduating in size from top to bottom. These may be wired or taped on sticks (picks) and stuck into the foundation. Centerpiece Figure 45 This centerpiece was designed for the speaker's place at a luncheon. A - Chicken-wire filled container. B - Arrange the line design of gladiolus and delphinium. C - Add your candy tufts and daisies for form and texture. D - Line and form design. Centerpieces in general In designing a centerpiece, a great deal of consideration should be given to its setting. As the focal point of the table, it should be large and bright in color and a bit commanding in design. As a general rule, centerpieces fall into two categories: A - For round and oval tables. This is an arrangement which should be designed for surveyance from all angles. The taller flowers are placed in the center and surrounded by an interesting pattern of plant material decreasing in height as it goes toward the outer edges of the design.
Figure 44. Flower Tree for the Wedding
Figure 45. Centerpiece B - For square and rectangular table. Here is an arrangement to be viewed from three sides. Taller pieces of plant material are placed in the back. Do not make any centerpiece too tall or too wide. Just Picked Figure 46
Here is something fresh looking for your dining room or dinette table while not in use. A - Flower basket showing cage holder in a shallow container filled with water. B - Cut the gladiolus stems about four inches below the flowers. Place them as seen in the illustration; and the remaining stems on the other side of the basket. C - Diagram of line design. To Set the Mood Figure 47 The two antique candle holders in the shallow container of water form the basis of a lovely garden like arrangement. As shown in the diagram, the rose buds are supported by a frog under the water line, in front and back of each porcelain piece. Water lilies and lily pads float gracefully in the water. This arrangement is nice to look at from all sides. The straw mat under the design matches those of each guest. Cabbage Out of Tulips Figure 48 A - Authentic porcelain cabbage. B - Shallow plate with frog and one full tulip. C - Take one petal from a full tulip. D - This is the tulip after the petal has been removed. E - Place remaining part of blossom around center tulip as indicated. F - Completed tulip cabbage. G - Diagram showing procedure. Table Ideas Figure 49 A - A magnolia and foliage for each single candle stick. B - Gardenias and ivy for the centerpiece candles. C - A ceramic boat of apple blossoms in the wind. (For a Bon Voyage party). D - An old colonial bouquet edged with a lacy doily. Also ideal for brightening up each individual setting.
Figure 46. Just Picked
Figure 48. Cabbage Out of Tulips
Figure 49. Table Ideas
Summer . . . Rose
8.ARRANGEMENTS BY THE SEASON
What plant materials are available when? - What does each month offer ? - How about conservation laws ? Flower arrangement, contrary to common belief, is not a hobby for spring and summer alone. The "Great Outdoors" offers an abundance of plant material during every part of the year. Each season heralds the coming of a welcome new friend; tulips in spring, roses in summer, Chrysanthemums in autumn. In between we have host of delightful flowers which do every garden justice. The wild flowers of our country are becoming less plentiful every year. There is something very beautiful about the first signs of spring, as wild flowers start blooming in their natural habitat. No one can capture this beauty. We have so many other sources from which to choose, it behooves us to be careful not to break conservation laws, thus keeping this lovely part of plant life with us a bit longer. Consult the Wild Flower Association in Washington, D. C. for information on conservation laws. Flowering Tree Blossoms Figure 50 A - Peach
B - Dogwood C - Magnolia D - Cherry E - Tulip F – Apple With the exception of the magnolia, which is quite a large flower, the illustrated flowering branches may be used very successfully as complete arrangements or as parts of other designs. In each spray of branches we see the evolution of the flower from tiny bud and leaf to the full grown blossom. Try an arrangement of three branches with your choice of blossoms.
1. Select your branches, being careful to choose those with blossoms in all stages of growth. Each flower and bud should be accompanied by one or more leaves. 2. Arrange it in Japanese style, in which half opened flowers represent Heaven, full blown represent Man, and buds represent Earth.
Figure 50. Flowering Tree Blossoms 3. Keep in mind that, though it is acceptable for branches to bend toward the ground, they must curve upward at the ends toward Heaven. Those ends which will not be trained upward, should be snipped off. How to Bend Branches Spring branches are sometimes easily bent by the pressure and heat of the hands. Hold the branch vertically and firmly in the palms, one hand above the other, and press gently until bent into the position desired. Another method is arching the branch as desired and tying one end to the other as though making a bow for arrows. You may bend branches over the knee or bend them until they break provided the broken area is below the water surface, leaving no injured bark above.
Arrangements by the Month Figure 51 This illustration shows the apartment dweller what can be done every month with plant material from the flower shop. Flowers are inexpensive and bring so much joy into the home. It seems shameful that most of us wait for an occasion to use them, when its so simple to have them brightening up the home at all times. Figure 51 is a glass backed combination display cabinet and bookshelf. Several of the arrangements can be substituted by knick-knacks. List of Available Flower Shop Material Throughout the Year Spring Rose, Iris, Gladiolus, Daffodil, Calendula, Violet, Lily-of-the-valley, Amarylis, Lilac, Anemone, Anthurium, Daphne, Stock, Carnation, Calla lily, Tulip. Summer Primula, Pansies, Chrysanthemums, Celosia, Agapanthus, Zinnia, Aster, Larkspur, Marigold, Tritoma, Rose, Peony, Shasta daisies, Nasturtium, Mignonette, Lily. Autumn Stephanotis, Tuberose, Physalis, Strelitzia, Delphinium, Gloriosa lily, Camellia, Corn flower, Pyrethrum, Heather, Euphrobia, Ranunculus. Winter Freesia, Bouvardia, Calanthe, Begonia, Acacia, Lilac, Lace-flower, Arbutus, Rose, Carnations, Buddleia, Tulip, Pansies, Sweet-pea, Gladiolus.
Figure 51. An Arrangement
for Every Month Garden Offerings Throughout the Year Spring – Violets, Wisteria, Trollius, Statice, Rhododendron, Peonies, Forsythia, Pansies, Lilyof-the-valley, Iris, Dogwood, Clarkia, Bleeding heart, Muscari, Primulas, Scillas, Azaleas, Daffodils, Magnolias, Tulips, Squills, Pussywillows, Crocus, Snow drops. Summer –
Roses, Delphinium, Snap-dragon, Verbena, Zinnia, Marigold, Laurel, Cosmos, Petunia, Blue lace flower, African daisy, Scabiosa, Sweetpeas, Rudbeckia, Iris, Rhododendron, Myosotis, Pyrethrum, Kalmis, Gaillardia. Autumn – Bitter sweet, Sun flowers, Moon flowers, Clematis, Nasturtiums, Zinnia, Goldenrod, Aster, Chrysanthemum, Celosia, Dahlia, Blue Spirea, Japanese barberry. Winter – Holly, Bittersweet, Eucalyptus, Lady slipper, Poinsettia, Cranberry bush, English ivy, Eugenia, Firethorn, Hakea, Photenia, Juniper, Moonwort. BIRTHDAY FLOWERS January February .... Violet March April May June STATE FLOWERS Alabama......... Goldenrod Alaska............ Forget-me-not Arizona........... Sahuara or Giant Cactus Arkansas........ Apple Blossom California ..... Golden Poppy Colorado........ Columbine Connecticut . Mountain Laurel Delaware........ Peach Blossom Carnation...... July August.......... Gladiola Jonquil September . . Aster Sweetpea October .... Calendula November. . . Chrysanthemum Larkspur
Rose December. . . Narcissus
District of Columbia
American Beauty Rose
Florida......... Orange Blossom Georgia........ Cherokee Rose Hawaii.......... Hibiscus (unofficial) Idaho........... Syringa Illinois........... Wood Violet Indiana......... Zinnia Iowa............ Wild Rose Kansas......... Sunflower Kentucky..... Goldenrod Louisiana...... Magnolia Maine........... Pine Cone & Tassel Maryland...... Black-eyed Susan Massachusetts Mayflower Minnesota.... Moccasin Flower Michigan...... Apple Blossom Mississippi.... Magnolia Missouri....... Hawthorne Montana....... Bitter-root Nebraska..... Goldenrod Nevada........ Sagebrush New Hampshire New Jersey.. Violet Purple Lilac
New Mexico Yucca Flower New York.... Rose North Carolina Goldenrod North Dakota Wild Prairie Rose Ohio............. Scarlet Carnation Oklahoma.... Mistletoe Oregon......... Oregon Grape Pennsylvania. Mountain Laurel Rhode Island Violet South Carolina Yellow Jasmine South Dakota Pasque Flower Tennessee.... Iris Texas........... Bluebonnet Utah............. Sego Lily Vermont....... Red Clover Virginia......... American Dogwood Washington.. Rhododendron West Virginia Rhododendron Wisconsin..... Violet Wyoming...... Indian Paintbrush NATIONAL FLOWERS Canada........... Maple Leaf China.............. Narcissus
Egypt.............. Lotus England........... Rose France............ Fleur-de-lis Germany......... Cornflower Greece............ Violet Holland........... Tulip India............... Lotus Ireland............ Shamrock Italy................ Poppy or White Lily Japan.............. Chrysanthemum Mexico........... Nopal Cactus or Prickley Pear Persia............. Rose Scotland......... Thistle Spain.............. Pomegranate Switzerland..... Edelweiss United States.. ? Wales............. Leek THE FLOWER VOCABULARY Anemone........ Forsaken Apple Blossom Temptation Autumn Leaves Sadness Bluebell........... Constancy Bridal Rose..... Happy Life
Buttercups...... Gaiety Candytuft........ Indifference Cape Jasmine.. I am happy Carnation, Solid color Carnation, Striped No Yes
Chrysanthemum, Yellow .... Slighted Love Columbine...... Folly Corn, Broken.. Quarrel Crab-blossom. Ill-nature Daisy.............. Innocence Daffodil........... Unrequited love Dahlia............. Pomp Fern............... Magic, Fascination Fir.................. Time Fleur-de-lis..... I burn Foxglove........ Insincerity Gentian........... I love you best when you are sad. Goldenrod....... Be cautious Hawthorn........ Hope Heliotrope....... Devotion Hyacinth, Purple Hyacinth, White I am sorry Loveliness
Ivy, Sprig of with tendrils . . . Anxious to please
Jonquil............ Love me Larkspur, Pink Fickleness Lily, Day......... Coquetry Lily, White...... Purity Lily-of-the-Valley Mint................ Virtue Oleander......... Beware Orange Blossoms Peony............. Shame Periwinkle, White Pleasant memories Your purity equals your loveliness Return to happiness
Petunia............ Your presence soothes me Pine................ Pity Pink................ Boldness Poppy, Red.... Consolation Poppy, White Primrose, Evening Sleep Inconstancy
Rose, White (withered) Transient Impression Rose, White (dried) Rose, White.... Secrecy Rose, Yellow Rose, Thornless Rose, Red...... Love Rose, Bridal.... Happy Love Decrease of love; Jealousy Love at first sight Death preferable to loss of virtue
Rosebud, Red. Pure and lovely Rosebud, Moss Rosebud, White Confessions of love Girlhood
Roses, Musk, Cluster of .... Charming Roses, Garland of Beware of virtue
Rose-leaf........ You may hope Scabiosa......... I cannot accept your love Scabiosa (also) I have lost all Smilax............ Constancy Snowdrop...... Hope Sultan, Lilac.... I forgive you Sultan, Yellow Contempt Sunflower, Dwarf Adoration
Sweetpea....... Blissful pleasure Tendrils of climbing plants . . Ties Tuberose........ Dangerous pleasure Tulip, Yellow.. Hopeless love Touch-me-not. Sensitiveness Verbena, White Pray for me
Violet............. Modesty Violet, Blue..... Watchfulness; faithfulness Vine............... Intoxication Wisteria.......... Welcome
Witch Hazel.... Enchantment Zinnia............. Thinking of an absent friend
9. WINTER ARRANGEMENTS
How do you dry plant material ? - Where do we find our winter arrangement materials ? Fall Harvest – The end of the summer does not necessarily mean that we who enjoy flower arrangement, shall put away our pruning shears and wait placidly for the next Spring to arrive. Autumn brings us a host of new plant material for designing. Oak leaves are now a rich, red brown; cat tails are ready for cutting, the grasses have gone to seed leaving a slender straw colored staff, and many of the trees are producing unusually formed seed pods. Some of the winter fruits are appearing. Bitter sweet lends enchantment to the browns and reds with its orange and yellow berries. Even the bare branches of many of the trees and shrubs show promise of adding the lovliest of curves and accents to the lines in your winter arrangements. To complete our supply of plant material for fall and winter, we receive straw flowers from California and shafts of wheat from all over the country. Plant material must not necessarily be domesticated. You may gather it from the woodlands or banks of brooks and ponds. It is woody in its natural state, although some of it must be dried before using. Drying Procedure A - Remove leaves from flowers quickly after picking. Do not place material to be dried in water. B - Tie in bunches and hang upside down in a dry, cool, dark place. C - Leaves and ferns should be flattened in books or on a flat surface under a heavy object. D - The drying process takes from two to three weeks. Another way for preserving leaves is to slit the branches in several places and emmerse them in a mixture of equal parts water and glycerine. Many anti-freeze compounds are also suitable in place of glycerine. Drying Fresh Flowers There are many methods for drying fresh flowers, but the most successful to the author has been the use of 2 pounds of borax to 5 pounds corn meal, to which has been added 2 tablespoons benzoate of soda. Mix thoroughly. Place about 1 1/2 to 2 inches of the mixture in a shallow box and insert the stems of the flowers to be preserved at an angle. The stems should be cleanly cut to
about 2 inches below the flower head. Cover any protruding flower parts with remaining mixture. If the character of the stem is needed, cut at desired lengths and lay them in the box being careful not to bruise the head. The mixture is then spread completely over the flower and stem. Make the box as airtight as possible by taping a piece of glass, aluminum foil or plastic over the top. Unlike gathering flowers for fresh arrangements, which are cut before or after sunrise or sunset flowers for drying should be cut in full sunlight when there is a minimum amount of moisture on the plants. Using the term "fresh flowers" is the generalization of much of the material possessing a flowery appearance or texture. Yet, many of these plants can be dried. The specimens vary according to locality. Dried Plant Material Charts Figure 52 A - Woodroses - These are the seed pods of the morning glory B – Okra C - Manzanita branches D - Lotus seed pods Figure 53 A - Queen Anne's Lace and Red Clover B - Pine Cones. Spruce and hemlock cones are also very effective. C - Joe Pye weed and thistle. Pick while in bud to avoid color change. (thistle) D - Goldenrod and Milkweed Clover and goldenrod should be picked when in full bloom. Figure 54 A - Pitcher plant B – Sumac C - Cock'scomb. Pick while in full bloom
D - Milkweed pods Figure 55 A - Oak and Beech leaves B - Tulip seed pods C - Squash, Indian corn and ornamental gourds. The gourds should be picked when ripe and dried. Be careful not to rest one against the other. They must be completely dry before arranging. Several coats of clear varnish or shellac should be applied to add highlights and preserve the color. Roll back the husks of Indian corn and spread to dry.
Figure 52. Dried Plant Material
Figure 53. Dried Materials
Figure 54. Dried Materials
Figure 55. Dried Materials D - Lichen covered tree branch. Most usable during early fall. Gathering Tips for Winter Arrangements c Cattails should be cut when the seed heads are small. If a larger head is desired, pick it in the fall and cover it with a thin coating of lacquer to prevent opening. Dipping in parafin wax is also a suitable method to guard against early seed dispersal. Sumac, Bittersweet, and Bayberry retain the richest color when picked in early autumn.
Scotch broom is one of the most versatile dried materials. Before it is dried, it can be shaped into sweeping arcs to add grace and line to your winter arrangements. Spiraea (also spelled "spirea") should be gathered before it starts turning brown. Pussy willows are cut in springtime when the gray tufts dot the branches. Rhubarb should be gathered after going to seed, before it starts falling. Fungus, when picked in its natural form, is excellent for dried arrangements. At the Fireplace Figure 56 In Colonial times, bunches of dried materials and fruits were usually seen hanging around the open hearth. Here is a more formal recollection of those times. A chicken wire holder supports the plant material. Cattails and goldenrod are placed for height and texture, shafts of golden wheat create form and movement, while the Japanese lanterns offer another point of interest as they playfully call attention to the jug handle. The container is a large wine jug. Lengthen short cattails by wiring a stick or branch to the stem. Cover the mechanics with floral tape. Woodroses and Cattails Figure 57 A - Diagram showing proportion and line. B - Diagram of proportion, line and added form. C - Arrangement of woodroses, cattails, heather, Gerberas daisies, wheat and mullein. In this design combining dried materials with fresh flowers, a container of water for the thirsty stems is concealed in the focal point. The dried material is anchored in the larger container which is part of the visual picture. The unseen container of water, however, is the difference between success and failure in this type of combination. Dried materials must remain just that - dried. Exposure to water will cause rot which is usually accompanied by 3 equally unwelcome companions; foul odor, discoloration, and mildew.
Figure 57. Woodroses and Cattails The appearance of the arrangement can be changed to suit your wishes by rotating the fresh flowers from time to time. Every locality has something to offer for your winter arrangements. Don't let autumn and winter slip away without taking advantage of their abundance of crisp, colorful plant material. It is indeed a shame to let all that beauty go to waste
Autumn . . . Birch
10. HOLIDAY DECORATIONS
How can you create the spirit of the holiday with floral decoration? - What can we do for Easter ? Hallowe'n, Xmas ? If your are planning a holiday party, don't forget to invite flower arrangement. It will contribute to the spirit of the occasion and brighten things in general. Every holiday can be accented with flower novelties, for in the great world of plant material we are sure to find just the color and form we seek to add significance to the reason for the celebration. Floral Foam-Cut-Outs Figure 58 (Styrofoam) Floral foam is a patented material used in the flower shop. It comes in blocks or sheets and may be cut and shaped into any form desired. It is available in white, red, green and some pastel colors. A - Design, trace and cut paper pattern. B - Pin pattern to block of floral foam. C - Cut out form around pattern; using a sharp knife.
D - Take out pins and remove pattern. E - Sandpaper the edges for a smooth finish or scrape with a sharp knife. F - You may carve or paint the features. The arrow in the illustration points to the hole carved through the entire block to enable hanging for display. G - Examples of floral foam cut-outs. These are simple basic forms which are easily made. As you become more efficient, you may use more complex designs. An electric jig-saw would be very helpful. Use colorful accessories, such as buttons, paint, cotton tails, tinfoil, colored paper, toothpicks, (the arrow on the heart is a red toothpick, with paper point and fringe pasted on after it has been inserted) ribbons, pipe cleaners, (in a variety of colors) para-filmed wires, and an assortment of decorative odds and ends. Floral foam is water resistant, therefore, you may use flowers in an arrangement, with your cutout as the focal point. There is no holiday for which we can not think up a novel cut-out in this medium.
A Basket for Easter Figure 59 Line the basket with aluminum foil. Place sphagnum moss along the bottom.
A - Foil lined basket showing sphagnum moss, and plants, placed in basket after removal from individual pots. Avoid disturbing the shape of the soil, after removal from pots. You may injure the roots. B - Easter lilies and tulips will give the arrangement height. C - Hyacinths and daffodils create depth and form. A sun-ray bow adds the fealing of festivity. (Refer to Chapter XIII for the construction of a sun-ray bow.) D - Line and form design of arrangement. A floral foam Easter bunny would create an interesting focal point in this design. Baskets come in all shapes and sizes and in a variety of weaves. You may even make your own. (Refer to Chapter XIII) The handle plays an important part in design in a basket arrangement. You may use it as a guide to height or width. Though a basket arrangement should appear abundant, carefully place the plant material to avoid crowding. Every bit of foliage and blossom should show to its advantage. A crisp yellow daffodil is a sorry sight when crushed out of shape to make room for a demanding hyacinth. However, these flowers, if placed properly, allowing enough room for each other, will create a beautiful complementary harmony. (Refer to Chapter I on color) A nicely arranged basket of flowers is always a welcome gift from a garden owner. The author feels that a basket signifies the spirit of giving. Fall Harvest Figure 60 This fall design may be used for a buffet centerpiece or it may be placed on the mantle during thanksgiving; projecting the happy spirit of the horn of plenty, a bountiful harvest. The cornicopia may be a pottery piece, or paper mache, and is obtainable at any department store or flower shop. Prepare the container by securing the properly shaped frog to the inside base with clay. Two frogs may be needed, depending upon the size of the opening. The design in this case is a ninety degree angle; measuring from the top of the graceful cattail, sweeping down to the richly balanced focal point of straw flowers. The first step is a foundation of foliage. Oak leaves are ideal. Next arrange your basic lines by placing wheat and cattails in their proper positions. The focal point is created by a grouping of straw flowers.
Figure 59. A Basket for Easter D.
Fresh chrysanthemums may be used effectively in place of the straw flowers, if placed in a concealed container of water in the cornicopia. Bitter sweet adds additional color and texture. The position of the cornicopia is important to the design. If you wish to balance it at an angle, a piece of modeling clay will hold it in place. Hallowe'en Pumpkin Figure 61 A - Hollowed pumpkin with carved features.
Do not cut the mouth too low, because a container of water is placed inside the head to hold fresh flowers. (If to be used in place of dried material.) B - This pumpkin has the rollicking appearance of a clown. His pointed hat is a pyramid of straw flowers. His collar consists of colorful ears of Indian corn, tipped with a straw flower and dotted with bright sprays of bittersweet. A flash light or an electric bulb may be used for lighting effects. If you wish to use a candle, be careful to provide ample protection from the flame. Dried plant material will catch fire easily. C - A Hallowe'en buffet, using a cornicopia design as a centerpiece. The top of the buffet may be strewn with oak leaves for a natural effect. Bittersweet decorations secured by scotch tape on the mirror frame will also brighten the holiday scheme. Novel individual table favors for this holiday are large apples designed like the pumpkin, with nuts and raisins for features and pompom chrysanthemums for the hats and collars. Squash lend themselves whimsically to human form. They may be designed and dressed with your choice of foliage, flowers and small fruits and nuts. Christmas Wreath Figure 62 Construction
1. Cardboard or floral foam cut-out 2. Sphagnum moss on cardboard pattern. Not needed with floral foam. 3. Tie sphagnum moss (not too tightly) with florist's string.
Cover with wreath wax paper. Floral foam may be used as is or also covered with wax paper. There are wire wreath frames available at your local flower shop to be used in place of cardboard or floral foam. A - Three steps showing the design of the foundation foliage, (white pine, spruce, or hemlock) holly and bow. B - Christmas wreath of formal triangle design. C - Bow-tie wreath with holly spraying from the bow center to either side.
Figure 61. Hallowe'en Pumpkin
Figure 62. Christmas Wreath
Tree D - Rosette wreath with holly curving from the center of the bow over the top of the wreath. A few sprays of holly under the bow balance the design. Pine cones will add additional form, color and texture if placed informally around the bow. A Christmas spray can be made with a rectangular foundation similar to that of the wreath. These sprays are ideal as entrance and exit decorations. Try one as a center-piece on the table with a candle on each side. A place maybe provided for each candle within the arrangement.
Holly Tree Figure 63 A - Wired Christmas tree ball (Number twenty four wire) B - Floral Tape C - Connect two by twisting or taping. D - Form a group of five. The top view is seen in the illustration. E - Step C will give you the tip of the tree. Add the group of five as indicated in the drawing. F - Top of tree after two groups have been added. Form the tree from here down by adding one extra group to each line until the desired height is reached. You may repeat the design and place the two back to back if you wish to view the tree from both sides. G - Tree is placed in a container of sand large enough to support it without being visible. Sprays of holly or evergreen form the foliage foundation, and provide a green, textured bed for the informal grouping of pinecones in the foreground. A sweeping horizontal line of full poinsettias, stemming from a concealed container of water, add bright color and complete this festive array of materials significant of Christmas.
11. TO WEAR
Can you make your own corsages ? - What novel combinations can you develope ? Flowers not only beautify our surroundings, but have a great tendency to lift our spirit and brighten our appearance if we wear them. They are a principle accent in our attire for many occasions. A bride would look empty handed without her bouquet. There is a special glow in the eyes of a teenager when she receives her first corsage from a beau. We need not always wait for an occasion to wear flowers. A dewy gardenia, bought on the spur of the moment can brighten an entire evening. Corsages may be divided into two groups: Formal and Informal. Each has its place. An informal corsage consists of a spray or two of flowers without floral tape or bow. This type is worn during daytime activities. A formal corsage usually has a bow and is always taped. It is worn at formal affairs, holiday celebrations, and other gala occasions throughout the year. Examples of the two corsage types will be shown in this chapter.
To be a successful corsage maker, you must learn the proper procedure. This first illustration will be thoroughly explained to give you a firm foundation for future attempts. Rose Corsage Figure 64 Though a rose in itself is one of the most beautiful creations in the world, here is a way to further enhance its beauty by fashioning it with several of its kind into an ornamental work of art. This project calls for the use of seven roses. You may, however, use anywhere from five to nine. Cut the roses in the morning and put them in water to the calyx. Keep them in the refridgerator on the second shelf to harden them up. Roses may be selected from the garden, keeping in mind that the buds are the beginnings of the corsage, with a gradual gradation in size toward the center, which is a full open rose. Nature grows her roses with this same gradation. After making your choice of roses, select some of the foliage to set off the corsage. If you can not find the right sizes, you may make fuller roses by gently peeling back the petals at the bases, being careful not to bruise or tear them.
A - Select the roses B - Remove stems just below the calyx. Cut some number twenty four wires in halves. Insert one end into the calyx of a rose and pull through to other side. Twist wires together, after bending them down away from the rose. This preparation provides a flexible and sturdy stem with which to work. An additional half wire may be used to strengthen the stem.
C - Taping. These procedures cover up the wiring process and leaves a smooth neat finish on the stem. Select three perfect rose leaves; holding them stem inward against the calyx and starting with a small collar of tape, gently turn the rose and wrap the tape tightly and firmly around the stem with a downward motion. Pipe cleaners may also be used as stems. Cut the rose in this case, to the base of the calyx, leaving no stem. Insert pipe cleaner upward into the center of the calyx. Tape on rose foliage. D - Roses numbered one, two and three are grouped together making two separate units. Do not crowd the foliage. Next attach the full open rose, number four, to your upper unit. Attach the lower unit; completing the corsage. If you would like to add a ribbon, place it in the focal point which in this design is the center of the corsage. The ribbon is an accenting feature. It should add, not detract from the beauty of the roses, be careful to select your ribbon colors to contrast pleasantly with the color of the corsage. (Refer to Chapter XIII for instructions on making a corsage bow) E - Diagram for placing of roses. As a finishing touch, sprinkle a little water on the roses. This will give them a garden fresh, dewy appearance. Be careful not to wet the ribbon. "Glamellia" Corsage Figure 65 A "Glamellia" is one full flower made of five or more gladiolus florets. A - Wire one gladiolus bud with number twenty four wire. (A rosebud may be used also.) B - Slip the first gladiolus floret on to the bud, as shown in step G. C - Slip the second floret on to the bud. Use number twenty six wire to keep each floret in place.
Figure 65. "Glamellia" Corsage D - Place the third floret. The larger petals are used last. You may need more twenty six wire as it becomes larger. E - Completed "Glamellia." Take one half of a number twenty four wire and wind it around all of the other wires, making a complete stem. Tape the wire.
F - "Glamellia" Corsage, using rose foliage, unopened gladiolus florets and a bow. Foliage is attached to the two floret units by parafim and these units are taped to the "glamellia." G – Procedure Cabbage Rose Figure 66 A cabbage rose consists of one full rose which is built up with the petals of other roses into any size desired. A - One healthy, medium sized rose with a nice bud center. Stem it with one half of a twenty four wire. B - Two rose petals placed together. C - Wire carefully with one half of a number twenty six wire. Any unnecessary pressure will bruise the petals. This illustration shows the method of piercing the hard vein of the petal and drawing the wire through to the other side. D - Connect the petals firmly to the wire by gently twisting it. This may need some practice, but will not be too difficult when mastered. E - Shape several groups of petals (as in D) around the center rose, following diagram G, and secure with string. Repeat the process, until the desired size is reached. The petals are not to be bent. To shape the cabbage rose, bend the wire only. The same strengthening method is used in the cabbage rose as is used in the "glamellia" F - Completed "cabbage" rose. Wire several separate groups of foliage, then wire and tape them into one unit. Tape the entire unit to the "cabbage" rose. G - Side view diagram of the design. "Rosenia" Corsage Figure 67 Here is a novel combination of one gardenia and six rose buds. A - Wire one rosebud with one inch remaining of the stem. Use number twenty four or twenty six wire. (One half) B - Temporarily remove foliage from gardenia and insert rose stem through its center. If necessary, secure the rose to the gardenia with one half of a number twenty six wire. C - Gardenia with rose center. Avoid all unnecessary handling of the gardenia. D - Replace gardenia foliage.
E - Completed "rosenia" corsage, showing the addition of rose buds, foliage, and a nicely textured ribbon. The construction procedure is like that of the previously illustrated rose corsage. French Carnations Figure 68 Try this carnation novelty.
1. - Full carnation. Remove seed from center. 2. - Divide blossom with a sharp knife. 3. - Divide halves into quarters; forming each head into a little carnation. 128
4. 5. 6. 7.
- Wire each quarter gently with number twenty six wire. - An additional number twenty six wire may be used to strengthen the stems. - Tape each blossom with floral tape; forming a firm little collar directly under the flower. - Closer view of a nicely formed quarter of a carnation ready for the corsage. Follow this complete procedure with four carnations. 8. - Tape carnation stems which have been cut with the curlycue of foliage at the tips. 9. - French carnation corsage, consisting of one full carnation in the focal point, surrounded by tiny quarter carnations and foliage. The ribbon and gracefully bent stems add accent to this type of design.
Easter Parade Figure 69 Just the thing to accent that new Easter outfit. A - A bunch of violets. B - One full Easter lily. C - Cut as illustrated. D - Remove illustrated petal, pistil and stamens. Wire removed petal with number twenty six wire. E - Remove violet foliage, arranging pistil and stamens in their center. Wire with twenty six and place in the center of the lily. F - The lily petals are brought together forming a collar around the violets. Add the previously removed and wired lily petal. Strengthen the back by sewing through number twenty six wire. Add bow. G - Diagram of design. Wrist Corsage Figure 70 Here is an unconventional eye-catcher. A - One carnation split into quarters. B - Three rose buds. C - Two half loop bows.
Figure 68. French Carnations
Figure 69. Easter Parade
D - Tape the bows to the three rose buds to form the focal point. E - Bend as illustrated. F - Tape two side carnation quarters.
G - Finish other side and trim stems with a wire clipper. H - Tape the remaining wire ends, keeping in mind that a wrist corsage must be wired and taped as lightly as possible to insure comfortable wearing. Tape a wire loop to each tip and tie the desired ribbon to each loop. J - The loop bow created by the tied ribbon is an important part of your design. You may use many combinations of flowers, foliage and ribbons in this manner. Ornaments for the hair are similarly developed. Three Tiny Bouquets Figure 71 These bouquets may be carried or worn as corsages in smaller adaptations. There are three types illustrated. For simplicity, the author has used only one flower variety in each bouquet; however, a blending of different colors and varieties would be quite attractive in this project. Size depends upon the designer. 1 - Nosegay bouquet
A - Three full carnations B - Carnations taped or wired together. C - Design of outline - nosegay. 2 - Victorian bouquet
A - Three clusters of geranium blossoms. B - Geranium foliage used as collar. C - Design of outline - nosegay an colonial combination. 3 - Colonial bouquet
A - A bunch of sweetheart roses B - Lacy doily used as a collar. C - Design of outline – colonial
Figure 71. Three Tiny Bouquets
Winter . . . Cypress
12. ACCENT ON FOLIAGE
What does foliage do for your arrangement? - Can you use foliage without flowers ? The addition of foliage to your arrangement add the natural feeling of growth; which is one of the great beauties of plant material. It adds form, contrast in color and texture, all of which are taken into consideration when planning the design. There is as much variety in form, color and texture in foliage as there is in flowers. It is amazing to the new comer to see what the accent on foliage will offer the design. The Japanese are old hands at the art of introducing the beauty of natural foliage to floral design. Foliage also offers a foundation upon which to build your vase arrangements. Your local florist will be glad to show you the many available varieties of foliage which you may use in your arrangements. Foliage types, like flowers, have their seasons; so be on the lookout for them in your garden as well as at the flower shop. Foliage house plants also provide a source for this material.
Aside from beautifying and accenting the arrangements of flowers, there are many varieties of foliage which, if properly placed, with little other accent or by themselves, will make lovely foliage designs. The following charts are guides to some foliage types. The first name listed is that of the illustrated foliage. The additional names are of types which would create a similar effect if placed in an arrangement. Figure 72 A - Boston fern - For a lacy effect and graceful line. Oregon flat fern, Maiden hair fern, Holly fern, Bird's nest fern, Asparagus fern.
B - English ivy - For graceful movement. Philodendron, Grape ivy, Smilax, Clematis, Wisteria.
Figure 72. Foliage Charts
Figure 73. Foliage Charts C - Loquat leaves - For height and mass. Eucalyptus, Copper beech, Purple beech D - Galax - For accent. Cammellia foliage, Pittosporum, Peperomia. Coleus, Begonia, Cyclamen, Water lily pads, Sweet gum, Japanese maple, Sea grape, Photinia, Mahonia,
Figure 73 A - Rhododendron – Mountain laurel, Azalea, Boxwood.
B - Lemon leaves - Nicely textured, usually available. (Salal) C - Oak - Comes in varieties. Excellent for fall arrangements. Also processed for winter decorations. D - Huckleberry - Shiny surfaced, enduring. Usually available. Figure 74 A - Caladium - Come in a great variety of colors. Dieffenbachia, Dracaena, Rex begonia, Pandurata, Croton leaves, Calla lily leaves, Ficus.
B - White pine - Crisp, ideal for winter arrangements. Spruce, Juniper, Hemlock. C - Arborvitae – Cedar, Whitecedar, Varieties of yew. D - Magnolia -
Skeletonized magnolia. Learn to recognize and use the abundant varieties of foliage. Magnolia Leaves and Gladiolus Figure 75 A - A cluster of three large gladiolus. B – Taped C - Gladiolus taped into a cluster of magnolia leaves. D - Completed arrangement showing the interesting combination. Gladiolus and leaves may be sprayed with water for a dewy effect. E - Diagram of form and line.
Figure 74. Foliage Charts Foliage Beauty Within Glass Figure 76 Many plants which normally will not thrive in the usual atmosphere of the home, will endure in this type of container. This glass enclosure acts as a Wardian case which offers ideal conditions for plant growth. An arrangement like this can be placed almost anywhere in the house. The local florist or nurseryman can suggest the proper plants. A - Place the tall plants in the back of the container. Place the soil at an angle for easier viewing of plant material.
B - Grouping of small plants C - Space your plants to allow sufficient growth. D - Example of a hanging glass container. In this case the tall plants should be placed in the center to enable the entire design to be viewed from all sides. Some suggested foliage plants for arrangements in glass. Begonias, (dwarf varieties) Sempervivums, (small varieties) Sanseveria, (dwarf varieties) Cyperus alternifolius, (umbrella plant) Maiden hair fern. Wandering Jew, Holly fern. Loquat Leaves and Gerberas Daisies Figure 77 A - Line arrangement of loquat leaves. B - Tape three Gerberas daisies in a group. C - Attach group to center of cluster of loquat leaves with floral tape. D - Dot each loquat cluster with a group of two or three daisies, and complete the design. Other star-like flowers will serve the purpose nicely. A bit of oil gently rubbed on the leaves, will add an exotic, glossy effect.
Figure 75. Magnolia Leaves and Gladioli
D. Figure 76. Foliage Beauty Within Glass
Figure 77. Loquat Leaves and Gerberas Daisies
13. LET'S MAKE OUR OWN
What do you need in your workshop ? - What can you make in your workshop ? The Workshop
From the unhandiest to the most skilled of us, we all like to try our hand at "making something." Every home probably has a tool box, why not enlarge it? Get a few more accessories which would turn it into a work shop. Some of the miscellaneous items to have around would be tempera and lacquer paints, clear lacquer, brushes, hammer, nails, sand paper, a small saw, scraps of board, a hand drill, string, cord, and anything else you can dig up in the attic or basement. The following projects will give you many hours of enjoyment. They're easy. Just take your time and follow instructions. The author hopes that this variety of ideas will open the door for you to further experiments in your work shop. A Mat of Branches Figure 78 This is a method of creating two different styles of rustic mats to be used as bases for your ceramic containers. They may also be employed as container and base combinations for fruit or vegetable arrangements. A - Mark off about one foot of a straight branch. You will need from fifteen to twenty five branches, depending upon their width. Do not use wood which is damp or has started to decompose. B - Cut where marked. C - Whittle off rough edges as smoothly as possible. D - Sandpaper for an even finish. E - Leather stripping is very effective as a binder. If this is not available raffia will serve as an equally strong and colorful binding. Weave as illustrated in B 1, and B 2, being careful to keep an even distance between branches. F - Example of completed mat. End it off by backweaving through two or three branches and knotting between the last two on the under side. A. B.
Figure 78. A Mat of Branches G - Another method of securing the branches to each other is to spread the binder across as shown and tie in between each branch with a thinner strip of the same material, perhaps of a contrasting color. H - Completed mat. Make Your Own Flower Holder Figure 79 A - Cut a block of the size needed for the intended container. Mark off area to be cut out. B - Saw on marking. C - Block as it should look after the area has been cut out. D - Hammer four nails across as illustrated, leaving the heads protruding slightly. E - Wind a piece of number nineteen or eighteen gauge wire around the head of each nail and stretch across open area. After the four wires are thus secured, hammer the nails in as far as they will go. F - Turn over the holder and repeat process E. G - Holder in container. Modeling clay may be used to secure the holder to the container. Cardboard Stem Holder Figure 80 This holder is for a grouping of thin stemmed plant materials. A - Sheet of heavy cardboard (shirt cardboard) of the required size.
Figure 78. A Mat of Branches
Figure 79. Make Your Own Flower Holder B - Roll cardboard with the grain and secure with staples. Pierce type paper clip6 or glue will also serve as a securing medium. If using glue, tie a string around both ends to insure sticking. The board must not be rolled against the grain. If it is it will crack. Pressing the cardboard gently over the straight edge of a table will assist easy rolling. C - Cover inside and out with two generous coatings of clear laquer, allowing the first coating to dry before applying the second. The inside is easily covered by placing the cylinder in a bowl and pouring the lacquer into it with gentle rotations. D - The stem holder is placed on the frog, wherever desired. Make several of these handy items at a time. They're always useful in flower arrangement. Oriental Lamp Figure 81 A - Cross section of bamboo pole on natural wood platform, showing wiring of the lamp. B - Close view of socket insertion. C - Boat made of hollowed out end of bamboo stump. D - Line drawing of lamp with added lampshade, boat, base, rope and netting. E - Completed Oriental setting with fish net and arrangement of pink anthurium. Note that the blossoms do not all face in one direction, thus avoiding a stilted and shallow look.
Figure 80. Cardboard Stem Holder Salad Bowl Dish Garden Figure 82 A - Paint inside of wooden salad bowl with linseed oil. Decorate bowl with tempera paints and cover with clear lacquer. Allow to dry hours. Drain drilled at bottom of container. B - Bowl ready for planting. C - Salad bowl dish garden. Bamboo containers Figure 83 A variety of these bamboo vases will be a welcome addition to your container collection. A - Cut bamboo above and below knee sections. B - Trace area which is to be cut out. C - Bamboo container with double opening. D - Tall vertical container with a simple arrangement. E - Double opening with a base of natural wood. An ideal container with which to practice Japanese arrangements. You may make as many openings as you like. F - Horizontal container with double opening and a more complex arrangement. This can easily be shaped into a bamboo boat for hanging arrangements. Gourd Containers Figure 84 A - Pear shaped container carved out of large gourd. The upper area may also be cut off to create an open container. B - Crescent shaped gourd container for hanging or wall plaque arrangements. Ideal for viny plants.
Hanging Basket Figure 85 A - Bore uneven amount of holes around square cutting of plywood. (Round, oval or rectangular base will determine the shape of the basket.)
B. Figure 82. Salad Bowl Dish Garden B - Place number four basket reeds into holes as illustrated. C - Weave raffia or thinner basket reed in and out in a simple weaving stitch. D - Half section of finished basket showing inside water container and flower holder. E - Completed arrangement suspended by pot hook made of crossed bamboo poles. Japanese scroll at the upper right creates an Oriental atmosphere. Natural Wood Container Figure 86 Here is an excellent home for your dried plant materials. The woodlands are filled with branches of all shapes and sizes for you to turn into natural wood containers. A - Mark off area intended for vase. B - Saw off branches where marked. C - Ready for hollowing. D - Hollow out areas to hold plant material with a hammer and chisel. E - A crisp arrangement of sea grape leaves, seed pods from the royal poincianna, and Japanese lanterns. If you wish to use fresh flowers place a water container in the hollowed openings. Make a Flower Basket Figure 87 A - Form the base of basket by interweaving flat canes as illustrated. B - Dampen canes before bending. This will keep them flexible. Do not allow the canes to dry while weaving; they will become brittle and crack. It is best to keep your supply of cane in a pail of water while working. C - Start weaving sides in and out from the bottom up.
A. Figure 84. Gourd Containers D - Curve ends after the basket is completed, and insert them into the stitch below the edge.
E - Weave thin, flat cane over a thick rope to form the handle. Leave the canes ends on the handle about six inches long. Weave these ends into each side of the basket to secure the handle. F - Finished basket ready for flower arrangement. G -Place water container in basket and arrange your flowers and foliage. Bamboo Disguise Figure 88 Here is a way to add interest to that too plain rectangular container. A – Container B - Cut sections of bamboo as illustrated; making them slightly higher than the edge of the container. C - Drill two holes through each section of bamboo. D - Knot wire and draw through holes to secure sections to each other. E - Partially completed bamboo disguise. F - Ready for the arrangement. G - Hibiscus and pittosporum complete a tropical setting in a now beautifully textured container. H - Line and form diagram of arrangement. Italian Flower Tree Figure 89 A - Waxpaper tied sphagnum moss ball at the top of a bamboo pole which is inserted into a sand filled container. B - Foliage foundation of huckleberry. C - Chrysanthemums complete the Italian flower tree. You may choose any large blossoms for this purpose. Decorate with these trees at out door weddings, garden parties, etc.
Figure 85. Hanging Basket
Figure 86. Natural Wood Container A Column of Philadendron Figure 90 A - Wooden Butter Pail. B - Stick covered with sphagnum moss and tied with string. C - Place stick in pail of soil.
D - Plant the Philadendron and train it to grow over the stick as is shown in the illustration. Orchids in water filled glass vials may be added for color on special occasions. Paint the container any color desired. Roses in the Wind Figure 91 Dramatic accent for a mystic atmosphere. A - Secure the selected manzanita branches with wire or heavy cord. B - Form a cardboard collar. C - Place collar in container. D - Pour plaster into collar. E - Set branches in plaster. Allow to dry thoroughly without moving them. F - An example of a twenty four hour arrangement. Add roses and foliage by wiring them to the branches. Sprinkle with water to keep them dewy. Other hardy flowers can be used. Happy Corsage Bow Figure 92 Follow these seven easy steps to a crisp corsage bow. Do exactly what each illustration does and you can't go wrong. About a yard and a quarter of ribbon will do. Experiment with the loops before securing them. It takes practice to achieve uniformity. Sunray Bow Figure 93 Now try this simple project. Spice Shelf Figure 94 We all have access to many interesting types of jelly, jam and pickle jars. Here is a way to put them to good use and have fun at the same time. Create this handy little nook for spices. 1 2 - Ordinary glass jar with cover. It is important that all your jars be of one size and shape. - Designs traced from magazines or other sources on slips of paper.
Look for floral patterns.
3 - Place the design on the slip of paper inside the jar, and trace it with a soft pencil. Repeat part of the design on the cover.
Figure 88. Hibiscus and Bamboo
Figure 90. A Column of Philodendron
Figure 91. Roses in the Wind
4 - Color in the design with lacquer paint. Choose colors to blend and contrast with those in your kitchen. If lacquer paints are not available, use tempera and (when dry) cover with two coats of clear lacquer; waiting for the first coat to dry before applying the second. 5 - Shelf simply constructed of plywood and left its natural color or painted as desired.
Here is a bright, welcome addition to any kitchen wall.
Figure 94. Spice Shelf
14. SOMETHING DIFFERENT
It is highly improbable that you have anything around the house which is exactly like the pieces pictured in this chapter, since they were collected from various corners in the author's home. But it is very possible that you have similar objects and have wondered what could be done with them. Perhaps these ideas will set your imagination to work. After you've looked them over, gather together your odds and ends of pottery, and adaptable container materials and see what you can do with them. Celosia Plumage Figure 95 A - Ceramic swan container with chicken wire holder. B - Luxuriant plumage added by red celosia. C - Line design of plant material. Wheat and ornamental grasses are also adaptable to this type of arrangement. Rooster's Finery Figure 96 A - Porcelain rooster with open planting area. B - Diagram showing chicken wire holder. C - The rooster now has acquired a beautiful, colorful tail of pampas grass. Cymbidium in a Dutch Setting Figure 97 The cymbidium and fern in each pail adds brightness and life to this quaint Dutch porcelain milkmaid. The diagram shows a water filled glass vial with a rubber suction cup to keep the flower and fern fresh. The vial is kept in place by crumpled wax paper. Decorate Your Favorite Porcelain Piece Figure 98A This type of art work is very beautiful in itself; but perhaps you would like to experiment and even further enhance its beauty. In Figure 98A we see the use of lotus seed pods, cattails and English ivy to form a fresh looking setting for the porcelain. A container of water concealed in back of the piece, keeps the ivy fresh. The vines(any type will do) may be kept in their original container if it is small enough to conceal.
Figure 95. Celosia Plumage
Figure 96. Rooster's Finery
Figure 98A. Decorate Your Favorite Porcelain Piece Suggestions for additional plant material for this type of decoration are: Dried gladiolus, Iris leaves, Fern, Wild oats, Winter wheat.
Diamond Flower Ming Tree Figure 98B Before going into the directions for the following unusual project, the author cannot resist the temptation to elaborate on a few thoughts which come to mind.
Nature designs her own arrangements when she sends the wind gliding sharply and smoothly around trees and among their branches. The constant friction of the wind carves the surface of the branches and the force of the wind bends them with graceful dexterity to produce the unequaled beauty of a tree. The Orient is rich with nature's handiwork, and the Eastern people look to nature for inspiration in their arts. Embroidery, drawings, paintings, and floral arrangements all share the same delicate coloring and graceful animation of nature. It is with little wonder that the art world has welcomed this contribution to painting and sculpture and indeed floral arrangement. The result of this project may be a long lasting Oriental accent for your home. A little Oriental touch is a bit of elegance which need not be shunned because a different interior decoration theme is prevalent. Many types of interiors would be made more interesting with the addition of this diamond flower Ming tree. The materials needed are: one bunch of diamond flowers (1/4 lb.). These flowers come in rainbow colors. There should therefore be no problems in selecting your shade. A roll of floral tape, florist's wire (26 or 24), one pound plaster of Paris. The container can be Oriental in character or it may be a solid color, modern ceramic piece. Be certain when selecting your container and diamond flowers, that you have complete color harmony. To give the design the illusion of natural growth, the branches are formed with a graduation in the size of the blossoms. When assembled, they create the true feeling of growth from the full flower to the tiny bud at the branch tip. Remove each flower from the original bunch, by the head, not by the stem which is very thin, just before adding it to the cluster. A - Shows a cluster being formed by patting a bunch of flowers gently with one hand while arranging them in a compact slope. The long stem is vital to the flexibility of the tree. Do not shorten it. B - The stems are wired carefully by bending about two inches of the wire down directly under the cluster. While holding the lower tip of this wire securely with the left thumb, wind the remainder of it over the two inch strip and on down several inches of the stem. C - Shows the method of combining several clusters into a flowering branch. The small top cluster is taped down about an inch and one half. The next cluster is wired on to the first and then taped in the same manner. This step is repeated until the desired amount of flowers form a branch. E - Will suggest the amount of clusters to be added while creating the various branches. A more compact tree may be designed with each group of flowers placed more closely together. After completing all the branches that you would like for your tree, group them in twos and threes by wiring and taping. These groups are then arranged into a single unit. A design of this
type leaves you lots of room for imagination. Experiment as you wish until you have achieved a pleasing harmony of balance and movement. After the trunk has been taped, cut off all straggling stem ends. E - Construct a cardboard collar (the inside circumference of the container). Rub it on the inside with lubricant to keep the plaster from sticking. Place the collar on a flat, clean surface, and put in the position you have chosen for it. Pour the plaster to form a base and let it dry for about twenty-four hours. After it is dry, remove the cardboard and place the tree and base in the container. Pebbles or sand are used to cover the plaster and add an interesting texture. You may change the movement and direction of the branches from time to time to suit the setting.
B Figure 98B. Diamond
Flower Ming Tree
5. SOME SUGGESTED ARRANGEMENTS
By now, if you've followed instructions faithfully throughout the book, you are ready to experiment with anything. You will find in this chapter, an assortment of different ideas. Try them all. Continued practice will stimulate confidence in your ability. You need not use the material mentioned, but something similar in form and line. Evergreens and Carnations Figure 99 A - Foliage foundation. Notice how the foliage is thinned out in the focal point to avoid crowding. B - Carnations form the focal point, which is accented and framed by the small blossoms and buds on the outer edges. Holly berries and mistletoe, if added to the focal area will give the arrangement a Christmas theme.
Flowering Dogwood Figure 100 A – Container B - Holder made of crossed branches firmly tied. C - Holder inserted tightly for secure branches. D - Branches placed in container. E - Diagram showing line and accent of design. F - Completed flowering dogwood arrangement. Iris and Fruit Blossoms Figure 101 A - Glazed ceramic container. B - Line and form design of arrangement. C - Completed design of iris foliage and flowering fruit blossoms. Notice how the iris foliage creates the movement of the design. Hibiscus and Crystal Figure 102 A - Arrangement of hibiscus and caladium leaves in a crystal container. B - Diagram of form and line showing chicken wire holder in the mouth of the container. Notice how the larger blossoms are grouped in the focal point. If you would like to hide the stems partially, a food dye will color the water without harming the plant material.
Figure 99. Evergreens and Carnations
Figure 100. Flowering Dogwood
Figure 101. Iris and Fruit Blossoms
Chrysanthemums Figure 103 A - Small blossoms on outer edges form a foundation. B - Large mums in the foreground create a focal point. In this arrangement, the container is a very small part of the design. It merely serves as support. Notice how the mum foliage is used sparingly but effectively. Iris Figure 104 A - Shallow container showing position of frogs.
B - First grouping of iris and foliage placed in container. C - Arrangement completed with second grouping. Clear water in Japanese flower arrangement is the sign of stability. You may spread small stones at the base of each grouping to add texture and firmness to the design. Camellias and Egyptian Papyrus Figure 105 A - Shallow container with papyrus forming the foundation and line of the arrangement. B - The pink or white camellias against the black pebbles, create a shockingly beautiful effect. Lilies Figure 106 A - Container showing construction of holder. B - Design of lilies showing the importance and accent of lily buds and foliage. C - Diagram showing the placement of form and the beautiful movement of the design. The placing of each lily in this arrangement will determine the success of the design. Rhododendron and Flowering Fruit Figure 107 A - Extreme line of flowering fruit in a textured container. Notice the buds at the end of each branch. The shaded area shows how to visualize the placement of the focal point. Chicken wire is used as a holder. B - Rhododendron and buds create the focal point which is rich in form and color. C - Diagram of simplicity in line and form. As An After Thought The following are a few miscellaneous ideas and suggestions which will be helpful.
Figure 106. Lilies
Tin cans of all sizes can be converted into containers. Small knick-knacks and odd art pieces serve very nicely as accessories, if chosen with discretion. If your chrysanthemums are beginning to shed, you may keep the petals on longer by dripping some candle wax into the center of the flower.
Cork bark coverings will add texture to your window boxes. Dig spring bulbs out of the garden, and with the clump of soil still clinging to the roots, arrange them in a natural setting for indoors. This is best done when the first sign of color appears on the bud. Small round stones will add interest to naturalistic arrangements. Gift Suggestions Dried rose leaves tied in a little muslin packet with a decorative ribbon for someone's linen chest. Little packets of dried herbs from your herb garden. Tied colonial bouquets of dried material. A wicker basket from an imported bottle of wine can be used as a flower container bearing a gift arrangement.
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