New Product Development

:
a Programme for the Creative
Industries
Final  Report 
Submitted by: Jamie Dow and Alex Lort Phillips
Date: 1st October 2007
z New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
1. Introduction
a.  Te Brief
It is recognised that New Product Development (NPD) is critical to the development of successful
businesses within the creative industries.
However, there appears to be a knowledge gap in terms of both theoretical and applied
approaches to delivering viable and fnancially proftable product development within the sector.
London Metropolitan University is being funded to develop an assisted programme of training
which will beneft businesses from all segments of the sector nationwide.
It will draw from internal resources and partner agencies to deliver this programme.
Te programme will provide two immediate benefts, namely a practical input at key stages
of embryonic or ongoing NPD projects and, secondly, a focal point for the transference of
knowledge and skills both to and from the creative industries.
In the mid to longer-term the Training Programme has the potential to become a part or the
whole of an academic course at university degree level or above.
As currently conceived, the programme would consist of seven modules, each of which would
be between 1 and 5 days in length.
It was decided that Research should be conducted to inform the development of the programme.
Te aims of the Research were to:
Validate the hypothesis that there is a need for an NPD Training Programme for the
creative industries
Establish what resources currently exist in terms of literature, courses and support
Identify Best Practice in the feld from both inside and outside of the sector
Feed the learning from the research back into the design of the programme and the
writing of the Modules
Provide vocabulary for the Course Writer
b.  Methodology
In order to answer the brief, desk research and individual depth interviews were conducted
with contacts who were identifed by London Metropolitan University as key informants due
to their knowledge, experience and particular perspectives along the design-manufacture
spectrum.














¿
2. Defnitions
New Product Development (NPD) is defned as ‘the complete process of bringing a new product
or service to market’ by Wikipedia. Time to Market Limited defne it as ‘a key process within
the life cycle of products and services which needs to deliver products of the right quality at a
competitive cost and within market timescales’
1
.
Cox defnes ‘Creativity’ as the generation of new ideas. ‘Innovation’, on the other hand,
is described as “the successful exploitation of new ideas. It is the process that carries them
through to new products, new services, new ways of running the business or even new ways
of doing business.” ‘Design’ is seen as applied creativity in that it acts as the bridge between
Creativity and Innovation.
“ It shapes ideas to become attractive propositions for
users or customers”
2
‘Innovation’ in NPD may range from updating an existing product to development of a
completely new idea. (Research indicates that the degree of innovation is related to greater
fnancial return (Roy & Riedel (1997) quoted in Larsen & Lewis (2007).
3
)
1 Time to Market Limited (TtM Solutions Ltd. Is a group describing itself as ‘focused on helping clients to achieve excel-
lence in Product Strategy, Product Development, Product Management, Product Marketing, Market Management,
Technology Strategy and Technology Development’ www.ttm.co.uk
2 Cox Report, 2005
3 Larsen & Lewis, 2007, p. 142
q New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
3. Te Context
a.  Te Manufacturing Sector
During September 2005, 316 UK manufacturing companies were surveyed to fnd out their
perceptions of their competitive position internationally and the type of strategies they were
pursuing to compete efectively
4
. Almost nine out of ten agreed that competition was more
intense than in 2000 and that due to Chinese, Indian and Eastern European labour costs, UK
manufacturing would not be able to compete on cost alone.
Te top three strategies that frms believed should be adopted in order to compete successfully
internationally were ‘High Quality’, ‘Technology Leadership’, ‘High Quality Service and
Support’. Few respondents felt that the UK was a viable venue for mass production of low cost
goods. Instead the belief was held that the focus should be on higher value products with
lower volumes and that developing new products was the area most likely to result in an
improvement in competitiveness. A high priority was also given to staf skills, marketing and
market research, the latter cited as playing an important role in new product development.
Te survey asked specifcally about design issues and ‘bringing new products to market’ was identifed
as the key pressure. Further highlighted issues included regulatory compliance, for example in
terms of environmental or health and safety considerations. Tese are seen to be increasing and
the constraints implied need to be accommodated at the design stage. Where up to 30% of UK
manufacturers have to manage product life cycles as long as ten years or more, maintenance of
technical information and arrangements for longer term support are also of concern.
In terms of production, the majority of frms are making-to-order with small batch sizes being
a common feature. Half are reported to be engaged in project/ contract-based manufacturing
across the range of company sizes and this looks set to increase given the perceived future of lower
volume/ higher value goods. Production issues raised in the report by manufacturers included the
cost of materials, late delivery and changes to customer specifcations at short notice. Te issue of
last minute customer changes was found to particularly afect project-based manufacturing. Tis
implies that project planning and management skills will increase in importance in line with the
lower volume/ higher value trend. Tree key areas were identifed for production/ manufacturing
operations: ISO9000 compliance, collaboration with key suppliers and lean manufacturing. While
almost 50% of respondents cited the latter as being high on their agenda the question was posed as
to why, given pressures on UK manufacturers, this was not a greater proportion
5
.
According to the Trade and Industry Committee’s Fifth Report of Session 2006-7 “Better Skills
for Manufacturing” the defnition of what constitutes manufacturing is changing to include
design, logistics, after-sales service and marketing
6
.
4 Topline Summary of Benchmark Research International Competitiveness Survey ‘Battle of Britain’, published 3
rd
Febru-
ary 2006
5 Topline Summary of Benchmark Research International Competitiveness Survey ‘Battle of Britain’, published 3
rd
Febru-
ary 2006, p. 7
6 ‘Better Skills for Manufacturing: Government Response to the Committee’s Fifth Report of Session 2006-7’, House of
Commons Trade and Industry Committee, Fourth Special Report of Session 2006-07, p.1
g
In order for manufacturing to embrace design, the industry needs to be made more aware of
its value as a strategic business tool. While the strength of UK creativity is not in doubt, its
ability to translate this into innovation seems to be lacking. A survey by the Boston Consulting
Group in 2005 amongst 1000 senior executives around the world revealed that only one British
company featured in the Top Twenty most innovative companies.
“ Te UK is in danger of creating many of the ideas
and reaping too few of the rewards”
7
“ Too many UK manufacturers are still focused on
cutting costs, as opposed to increasing margins
through the application of design and innovation.”
8

b.  Te Creative Industries sector
Te creative industries sector employs almost two million people who, in 2004, contributed 7% of
Gross Value Added (GVA) and over 4% of all exports. It enjoyed an annual growth rate of around 5%
per annum, which was triple the rate of the UK economy overall
9
, between 1997 and 2004.
“ Te opportunity now is to build on this
extraordinary promise and ensure that Britain
becomes the world leader in creative industries”
10
Te Cox Review was commissioned to explore how to exploit the UK’s creative skills more fully,
particularly from the perspective of SMEs in manufacturing.
It was triggered by the competitive threat posed by India and China in particular. Tis has often
been viewed from the perspective of how it will impact on low value-added, labour intensive
industries. However, the speed and scale on which the emerging economies are growing
their hi-tech capability, scientifc base, research resource and, critically, skills and education
capability suggests that their impact could be broader and deeper than previously thought.
Cox concluded that there is only a fve to ten year ‘window of opportunity’ to produce innovative,
7 Cox Report, (2005), p. 11
8 Martin Temple, Director General of Engineering Employers Federation quoted in Cox Review, (2005), pp. 14-15
9 Cox Report , (2005), p. 10
10 Gordon Brown speech at the Advancing Enterprise Conference, London, 2 December 2005, quoted in ‘Higher-level skills
for Higher Value’ 2006, p.
6 New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
high quality, high value-added products and services, not just to exploit the opportunities
provided by the emerging economies but also to protect the UK’s franchise.
Te Review recommended a series of actions which include using the public sector to foster
more imaginative solutions from outside and raising the profle of the UK’s problem solving
capabilities via Centres of Creativity and Innovation.
Design
Te UK design industry is worth £11.6 billion per annum
11
and contributes an estimated £550 million
to exports. It is the largest in Europe, employing almost 200, 000 designers and 350,000 non-design
staf. Eighty-nine percent of businesses employ four people or less with 1% employing more than 20%.
Data from the Design Council indicates a positive correlation between investment in design
and fnancial performance. According to their website, design delivers 125% R.O.I.
12
. Eighty-
three percent of companies in which design is integral have benefted from increased share
of their market, against a national average of 46%. Tey are also twice as likely to develop new
products and services and to open new markets. Separate research has also demonstrated that
“good use of design correlates with above-average company performance”
13
Te ‘Higher-level Skills for Higher Value’ report argues that ‘our industry is on the cusp of
radical change’
14
and that the key to unlocking its potential is to develop high level skills which
are world class. Its authors argue that this strategy will be facilitated by Government policy in
this area and also by its support of the creative industries.
(Anecdotal support for this is provided by Professor Sir Christopher Frayling. Gordon Brown was
evidently running later after a visit to the Royal College of Art this June when the aforementioned
Rector tried to give the now Prime Minister some literature about the college. Te Rector was told
“You are trying to distract me from reading about the economy”. Te Rector retorted “Tis is about
the economy” whereupon Gordon Brown replied “Tat’s right. It’s about the new economy”.)
15
Te ‘Higher-level Skills for Higher Value’ report describes a global economy in which design will be
a key component in the generation of products and services which people will desire as business
moves away from competing solely on cost towards a model which also incorporates added value.
“ Fifteen years ago companies competed on price, now
it’s quality, tomorrow it’s design.” Professor Bob
Hayes, Harvard Business School
16
11 ‘Higher-level skills for Higher Value’, Creative and Cultural Skills/ Design Council 2007, p. 4
12 Design in Britain 2005/6, Design Council, http:://www.designcouncil.org.uk/factfnder
13 ‘Proving the Practical Power of Design’ Rich (2004), Design Management Review quoted in Millward et al (2006)
14 ‘Higher-level skills for Higher Value’, Creative and Cultural Skills/ Design Council 2007, p. 1
15 Human Frame Research Associates Programme 2006 – Message from the Rector,
16 ‘Higher-level skills for Higher Value’, Creative and Cultural Skills/ Design Council 2007, p. 5
/
In this new order, design will trade-up from supplying products, packaging and corporate
identities to a strategic role which involves the delivery of innovation, brands, systems and
services which are more fexible, efcient and sustainable.
“ (Designers) have developed beyond their mid-
twentieth century role as the shapers and stylers
of products to become initiators and pre-emptors of
corporate activity.”
17
Tere is a surfeit of new designers according to ‘Higher-level Skills for Higher Value’
18
. Tis will
necessitate making their value and the transferability of their skills more self-evident.
In addition it argues that core skills will have to be supplemented with skills in business
management and communication, experience of working in multi-disciplinary teams and
knowledge of global markets and supply chains.
“ Te industry must also develop a culture of
continuing professional development”
19
c.  UK Consumer
According to the Burns Owen Partnership report published earlier this year
20
, the British public
are becoming more design-aware. Tis trend is attributed to a combination of factors which
include higher disposable incomes, an increase in the number of households, a buoyant house
market, media coverage of lifestyle, foreign travel, exposure to design in commercial and public
spaces and, at the upper end of the market, a desire for self-expression. At the lower end of the
market, design seems to be interpreted in terms of the sensory values of the “look and feel” of a
product as opposed to its symbolic or expressive value of self-actualisation which is attached to
what Burns and Owen describe as “the emotional spend” amongst more afuent consumers.
Statistical highlights within this overall picture include the average house having tripled in price
over the last decade, the number of households typically increasing by one percent per annum
over the last three decades and disposable incomes increasing by 136% during this same period.
Consumer spending on Furniture and Furnishings increased from just under £12,000 million in
2002 to almost £14,000 million in 2006, fuelled by a 3.5% growth last year following negligible
growth over the previous 12 months
21
17 ‘Higher-level skills for Higher Value’, Creative and Cultural Skills/ Design Council 2007, p.12
18 ‘Higher-level skills for Higher Value’, Creative and Cultural Skills/ Design Council 2007, p.6
19 ‘Higher-level skills for Higher Value’, Creative and Cultural Skills/ Design Council 2007, p.6
20 Te Economic Importance of London’s Design-Dependent Sectors, BOP, May 2007
21 Consumer Trends, Q.4. London: ONS, ONS, 2007 p. 52 quoted in Te Economic Importance of London’s Design-depend-
ent Sectors, Burns Owen Partnership, May 2007
8 New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
Tese factors have helped to increase the value of London’s design dependent sectors and hence
also the size of the potential market for NPD.
d.  Education and Training
Tere do not appear to be Higher Educational establishments which explicitly ofer a programme of
‘New Product Development’ (NPD). Rather it seems that one or more elements of the subject tend to
be subsumed within a course such as ‘Design Management’, ‘Product Design’, ‘Product Innovation
and Development’ or ‘Design and Branding Strategy’. See Appendix 2 for examples of what is being
ofered in terms of product design or development related courses in Higher Education.
Some centres may be more fexible than others in the sort of professional development opportunities
they can ofer, for example University of Bournemouth ofers students the opportunity to select
modules from over 160 available in diferent departments whether Design, Engineering and
Computing, Media, Institute of Business and Law etc., and combine them to gain up to Masters
level within the Continuing Professional Development Masters framework. (see Appendix 2)
Few business schools in the UK seem to ofer programmes on creativity and how to manage it,
although some MBAs do include modules on innovation and creativity.
Tere are some pioneering courses beginning to emerge along similar lines to the joint venture
between the INSEAD, ‘Te Business School for the World’, and the Art Center College of Design in
Pasadena. For example, London Business School’s New Creative Ventures course brings together
arts and business students, Strathclyde ofers a Design Manufacturing Engineering Management
course, Glasgow’s School of Arts and University are jointly running a Product Design Engineering
course and the RCA and Imperial College collaboratively ofer Industrial Design Engineering.
Tere is also the Inside Track scheme (Design Council/ Shell) which involves a fnal year business
student working with a design student on an eight-week industrial placement.
Manufacturers have said that they perceive a shortage of skilled design engineers
22
. Tis echoes
an earlier review by Sir Gareth Roberts
23
that described the number of engineering and technology
graduates in 1999/2000 as being 20% lower than in 1994/1995. In 2006 the Royal Academy of
Engineering also reported that more than one third of UK engineering frms felt that engineering
graduate shortages and skills defciencies were delaying new product development
24
.
In metal and wood-based manufacture almost half of vacancies reportedly cannot be flled due
to difculty in recruiting skilled employees
25
. Manufacturing sector companies are less likely
to invest in training or development of staf (59% vs 65% in the economy as a whole) with the
smaller companies being the less likely still
26
.
22 Topline Summary of Benchmark Research’s International Competitiveness Survey, ‘Battle of Britain’, published 3
rd

February 2006, p. 6
23 SET for Success, the report of Sir Gareth Roberts Review, April 2002 cited in Trends in UK Manufacturing, published
January 2004, Benchmark Research/ Findlay Publications, p. 26
24 “UK hindered by shortage of engineering graduates”, 4
th
April 2006, Personnel Today, http://www.personneltoday.
com/Articles/2006/04/04/34809/uk-hindered-by-shortage-of-engineering-graduates.html
25 Better Skills for Manufacturing: Government Response to the Committee’s Fifth Report of Session 2006-07, House of
Commons Trade and Industry Committee, July 2007, p.4
26 Better Skills for Manufacturing, Fifth Report of Session 2006-7, Trade and Industry Committee, April 2007, p. 22
g
Given that design companies tend to be relatively small, professional development training
would seem to be relatively unlikely to feature within this sector either.
Te informants who we spoke to tended to possess a low level of self-perceived awareness of
what courses are being ofered and by whom in the area of professional training.
Some were shown marketing communication material from Cockpit Arts and CIDA to stimulate
conversation about the subject. It transpired that only one respondent was aware of one of the
two organisations and even then, being familiar with it in name only and that no-one had
heard of the other organisation.
One informant was loathe to send staf on courses due to concerns about competitors poaching
employees. Another had received email from Hidden Art about a course.
Some informants had formal or informal links with a given academic institution through,
for example, course design, lecturing or participation in awards events. However their
familiarity with the sector did not seem to extend beyond this. Tey found it easier to talk about
perceived changes in educational provision over time within a given institution or about how
contemporary graduates compare generally with previous generations than about diferences
between individual institutions. Tere seemed to be a feeling that there is probably as much
variation in the standard of students on a given course as there is between colleges.
Te ‘Higher-level Skills for Higher Value’ report recommendations for the design industry
include the establishment of industry standards in professional practice, a professional
practice framework and a professional development campaign
27
. Te framework element which
would incorporate processes, best practices and a shared language aims to achieve a seismic
change in the understanding of and attitudes to design excellence. Te campaign component
would include developing new courses which build on the learning from existing provision, for
example, D&AD’s Workout programmes.
Informants views about the current output of the tertiary educational sector provide a potential
glimpse into the future of NPD in terms of the skill sets that graduates are likely to be equipped
with.
Te face-to-face consultations that we conducted revealed mixed feelings about the perceived
quality of today’s design graduates.
On the plus side, informants felt that contemporary students are well-versed in Computer-aided
Design (CAD) and better informed from a theoretical perspective than previous generations
about certain aspects of business.
27 ‘Higher-level skills for Higher Value’, Creative and Cultural Skills/ Design Council 2007, p.48
:o New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
Against this, some felt that CAD is in danger of being regarded as an end in itself and that it
can contribute to a dumbing down in students’ ability to think for themselves.
Tere was a widespread feeling amongst informants that design education places too little
emphasis upon innovation and that a more rounded approach and training would equip students
with a more informed view about where design fts into the multi-disciplinary NPD landscape.
Skills development was also felt to be hampered by a lack of opportunity for students to engage
in a hands on approach to innovation due to the demise of workshop facilities in educational
establishments and a widespread disinterest in design amongst manufacturers.
Some complained that design graduates can sometimes be their own worst enemies because
they either approach the workplace with the purest mindset of an artist or with an elitist
stance based upon the notion that the designer is pre-eminent. Informants argued that design
students should approach NPD with a pragmatic, fexible and collaborative attitude.
::
4. Best Practice in New Product
Development and Barriers to
Innovation
UK rates of bringing new products to market lag behind those of the United States, 15% to 50%
respectively
28
. Te reasons for this were given as US companies were more focused and familiar
with the tools and techniques that aid NPD activities.
According to Cox efective design inputs, as defned by successful products and services,
necessitate skills fusion. Obstacles to this are posed by the inability of the various players to
communicate, lack of understanding of the benefts of fusion and also about what ‘creativity’
is and how to harness it
29
.
“ Obtaining the benefts of design depends on
managing its integration in a structured and
systematic fashion”
30
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have developed the CDIO (Conceive-Design-
Implement-Operate) model and this has been taken up by Queen’s University Belfast. Tis
approach has been endorsed by Cox and the Engineering and Technology Board (ETB) is
understood to be exploring whether this should be rolled out. Professor Jeremy Myerson believes
that organisations typically follow an ‘understand-create-deliver’ model of innovation
31

Te issues raised by Benchmark’s survey of manufacturers’ international competitiveness align
with the sorts of issues raised by Cox and refect the need for informed and managed NPD.
NPD is described as a good way for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in manufacturing
sector to build for long-term future success although it means taking part in potentially risky
exercises
32
. Features of successful NPD have been found to include early research activities
and well-established multi-disciplinary teams that refer to clear ‘go’ or ‘kill’ moments in the
development process known as ‘stage-gates’
33
.

Research has also shown that a structured approach
to innovation is the most likely way for companies undertaking such exercises to succeed
34
.
Te following success factors were identifed and tested by Larsen & Lewis (2007) (after work
done by such researchers as R.G. Cooper, E.J Kleinschmidt, S. Brown and K. Eisenhardt):
Up-front competitor, supplier and customer research
Early product defnition of diferentiated, superior products
Built-in international market-focus with efective internal and external communications
Organised, cross-functional teams with competent members and leaders




28 New Product Development within Small and Medium-sized enterprises: Analysis Trough Technology Management Maps,
Millward et al, International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management Vol. 3, No. 3, 283-302.July 2006, p.285
29 Cox Report, (2005), p. 28
30 Cox Report, (2005), p. 31
31 Innovate, Issue 4, Summer 2007, p. 24
32 Millward et al (2006), p. 283
33 Millward et al (2006), p. 285
34 Ettlie and Subramaniam (2004) ‘Changing strategies and tactics for new product development’ Journal of Product In-
novation Management, 21: 95-109. Quoted in Millward et al (2006)
:z New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
Senior management support with fnancial, human and political resources
Pre-defned critical decision points (gates/ stages) and market launch planned early
35
Design and NPD are now more integrated according to Veryzer & Borja de Montoza (2007):
“ With the prominence design has gained in recent
years as an efective means for positioning,
diferentiating, and building the equity of brands,
approaches to NPD have become more inclusive
– that is industrial design has increasingly become
a partner.”
36
Cooper (1998) outlined a Stage-Gate
TM
model of NPD and researchers Ulrich and Eppinger (2004)
have described diferent phases of the design process in NPD. Tese are laid out in parallel in
the Table 1. right.
Researchers Veryzer and Borja de Mozota (2005) outline some further elements of efective
NPD and particularly consider user-oriented design (UOD) to be important. At the front-end
of the NPD process ethnography is being used. Traditionally anthropology used ethnography
to describe the features and behaviours of a particular group or culture and the techniques of
observation, interview, visual and ‘activity-focused’ research methodologies is now applied in
NPD research. Visualisation of the profle or ‘personas’ of customers is described as helping
project team members to develop a shared focus and to aid communication in developing UOD.
Models or prototypes are described as important tools in enhancing teamwork and decision-
making in the NPD process
37
.


35 Larsen & Lewis (2007), p.144
36 Veryzer and Borja de Mozota (2005), p. 130
37 Veryzer and Borja de Mozota, (2005), p. 134
:¿
Phases/ Gates in the New Product Development Process Table 1
38
Phases/ GaTes sTaGe-GaTe
TM
(CooPer (1998) DesiGN iN NPD (UlriCh aND ePPiNGer, 2004)
1 ideation
Initial Screening •
exploration
Consider product platform and architecture
Assess new technologies and new needs


2 Preliminary investigation
Market assessment
Technical assessment
Business assessment



Concept development
Investigate feasibility of product concepts
Develop industrial design concepts
Build and test experimental prototypes



3 Detailed investigation
Market research
Users needs and wants studies
Value in use studies
Competitive analysis
Concept testing
Detailed technical assessment
Manufacturing appraisal
Detailed fnancial
analysis (ends with business
case)








system level design
Generate alternative architectures
Defne major sub-systems and interfaces
Refne industrial design



4 Development
Product development (money
gate)

Detail Design
Defne part geometry
Choose materials
Assign tolerances
Complete ID documentation




5 Testing and validation
In house product testing
Customer test of products
Market test



Testing
Reliability test
Life testing
Performance testing
Regulatory approvals
Implement design changes
Production ramp-up
Evaluate early production output






6 Market launch
Trial production
Precommercialisation business
analysis
Production start-up
Market launch




38 Vryzer and Borja de Mozota (2005)
:q New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
Research has identifed factors that can act as barriers to innovation. Larsen & Lewis (2007)
reviewed existing literature about NPD in SME’s and reported that the following were problems
that such companies faced while attempting innovative projects:
Financial issues including under capitalisation, short-term liquidity problems, insufcient
working capital, insufcient start-up capital, poor fnancial management
Lack of marketing intelligence, not recognising the need of the customer but undertaking to
make what the inventor thinks the customer needs
Lack of management skill, failure to undertake competitive analysis, lack of development
performance monitoring, engaging manufacturers too late in the process and autocracy or
unwillingness to change
Lack of trust in smaller external consultancies and the inaccessibility of larger consultancies
due to cost
39
apparent problem areas within NPD which emerged from the face-to-face interviews:
Lack of awareness of what materials are available
Inappropriate choice of materials
Lack of confdence about working with new equipment or materials
How to translate theories gleaned from consultants accessed via public sector agencies into action
Implementing lean manufacturing
How to identify new sales channels
Obtaining reliable feedback on retail (as opposed to ex-factory) sales
Predicting demand
Defning what the brand stands for
Communicating an organisation's brand positioning and personality to diferent audiences,
e.g. Staf and external suppliers such as designers
Innovating in a way which is consistent with the brand
Knowing how to brief an external designer
Designing for a collection as opposed to a one-of item
Knowing what to expect from an external designer (e.g. A blueprint rather than a product)
How to protect ideas from being copied
Persuading senior management that design is a serious business tool which therefore needs to
be resourced and integrated into the corporate infrastructure:
“ Te voice bringing design and manufacturing
together is still not high enough up the company
structure in most cases. Terefore it doesn't get
heard.”




















39 Larsen & Lewis, (2007), p.143
:g
5. Reactions to the Proposed
Programme
Overall, the informants whom we spoke to tended to react positively to both the concept of a
programme dedicated to NPD and to its draft content.
Within this general picture of endorsement, there was some variation of opinion about whether
the content should focus more on the development of the underlying concept or on the physical
process of translating it into commercial reality. It would seem that informants whose background
included formal training in design were more likely to argue that the course should place more
emphasis on how to ensure that the ‘big idea’ is robust. Tis having been said both lobbies
contended that course content should primarily be guided by who the programme is aimed at.
Virtually every informant had spontaneously mentioned sustainability as a key issue from several
perspectives and so eyebrows were raised about its apparent omission from the programme.
A signifcant proportion of them also wanted to see the inclusion of Open Innovation (in which
competitors and other interested parties share information), user-centred research/ customisation
and related to this rapid ethnography and inclusivity. Inclusivity essentially involves identifying
a niche within a market, understanding its specifc set of needs and using these insights to
satisfy similarly latent demand within the normal curve. Numerous examples were provided of
organisations which have successfully utilised such techniques in their NPD activities such as
Ford, AGA, Philips, BT, Oxo Goodrich and NHS. Human Frame (Helen Hamlyn Research Centre,
RCA, Research Associates Programme 2006) also provides some relevant case studies.
Te informants panel seemed to be comfortable with Furniture Works involvement in the
proposed programme. Tey were familiar with the organisation, often had experience
of working or interacting with it and, in some instances, knew and respected particular
individuals associated with it. Moreover London Metropolitan University was thought to have
a strong heritage and enviable facilities, notably the workshop:
“London Metropolitan University, I believe, is
diferent because they’re promoting a whole
workshop based ethos.”
Tis was a key ingredient of the appeal of the programme:
“I don’t think you can do away with or replace that
hand-on ability, that understanding of how to
make and construct.”
:6 New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
One informant suggested that Britain has traditionally been the poor relation in Europe from
the perspective of possessing a reservoir of artisans with practical skills. Another informant
suggested that this may be because of the efect of the Industrial Revolution, introducing mass-
production earlier than elsewhere.
Tere was an enthusiastic reaction to the concept of participants being able to bring a project
to the programme. Any prompted concerns about commercial confdentiality did not prove to
be insurmountable.
Panellists mostly responded positively to the idea of a programme being based around a brief
from a company, for example Heals, who would then market the product that emerges.
Tere was a strong feeling amongst some informants that the programme should feature service
development in addition to product development and that the public sector is too important a
potential market to ignore.
Informants tended to favour the idea of a given module being staggered or dripped over a
period (e.g. One day a week spread over fve weeks) as opposed to being delivered in a single
block or burst. Tis was partly because the favoured ‘unitised’ approach was seen as easier to
accommodate alongside existing commitments. In addition, informants felt that it would give
participants the opportunity to immediately apply the learning gained from the programme
and then take this ‘factory foor’ experience back to ‘the classroom’ if any problems have are
encountered. Tis is in line with desk research evidence from Te Design Management Institute
(Boston, USA) that asked members (design managers) about how its support could be improved
who indicated ‘topic-specifc seminars designed just for their profession’ were preferred. One
to two day opportunities proved most popular in terms of price and time away from work.
40
No objections were raised to the principle of charging participants £250 per day although it
seems that smaller businesses are more likely to scrutinise the value of attending. Te typical
multi-tasking ‘one-man-band’ is looking for learning that can instantly be fed back into the
business and deliver a tangible beneft. (Some examples of costs of training days are given in
Appendix 4 for comparative purposes). A Higher Education programme of note is that of MSc
Design Engineering at Middlesex University, this programme charges no tuition fees, see
Appendix.
40 Phillips, P. (2002), p. 54
:/
6. Conclusions and
Recommendations
Te hypothesis that there is a need for a NPD training programme for the creative industries
appears to be supported by the fndings for the following reasons:
Te UK manufacturing industry needs to compete through a strategy of higher quality and
greater innovation
Te UK design sector is seen as being creative but perhaps not innovative
UK Design graduates are seen as being in need of commercial or professional skills
Tere is a short-fall of UK design engineering graduates prompting the need for efciencies in
UK NPD and maximisation of the skills and roles of those available to participate
Te UK consumer is seen as being more design-aware and more likely to demand new products
and services
Te range of literature relating to NPD includes several academic and business publications.
Higher Education courses which are related to NPD are included in Appendix 1.
Best practice in NPD appears to include:
structured, planned, organised, staged approach
cross-functional or multi-disciplinary teams with the features
user-centred approach
sustainable practice
appropriate support structures and culture
We recommend that the programme should be developed and that its precise confguration
should be guided by whom it is aimed at. Tere are strong arguments for positioning it
towards the ‘front-end’ of the NPD process. Tis could help to position Metropolitan Works as
an innovative organisation within the NPD landscape. Serious consideration should be given
to incorporating sustainability and the relevance of NPD to the service/ public sectors within
the programme. Many NPD approaches seem to describe a linear model. Tere is perhaps an
opportunity to develop a new paradigm which captures its iterative nature.










:8 New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
Course/Training Ma Design (Brand Development or Ceramics or Fashion and Tex-
tiles or interaction Design)
Centre Bath Spa University
Qualifcation MA/ PG Cert/ PGDip
structure/length/
Frequency
MA: Full-time three trimesters, one year/ Part-time six trimesters,
two years
PG Dip: Full-time two trimesters, one year/ Full-time four trimes-
ters one year
PG Cert: Full-time one trimester / Part-time two trimesters



Cost MA: £3855; half module £325, single module £645, double module
£1285
Content/ Modules MA Brand Development: Research methodologies; Development
of Brand Identity; History and Sustainability of brands; New Prod-
uct Development; Brand Design or Brand Management
MA Ceramics: Research Methodologies; Initiating Creative Prac-
tice; Analysis of Contemporary Context; Masters Project
MA Fashion & Textiles: Research methodologies; Development of
Product, Market Research and Product Ideas or research in depth;
Marketing Skills; Product Sampling and Development or research
development; Product development and Marketing or developing
an idea in depth to a conclusion
MA Interaction Design: Teoretical issues in interaction design
with critical analysis and application; Competence in planning
design and prototyping; Stages and Timings in Product develop-
ment and relevance within context; Production of work to profes-
sional standard and deadline; Skills in the linking technologies of
programming and software administration; Efective communica-
tion with clients, programmers, collaborators




Notes No Professional Development programmes ofered separately but
PG Cert & PG Dip available.
Undergraduate degrees in Textiles/ Fashion/ Ceramics/ Creative
Arts must take compulsory Professional and Academic Develop-
ment programme that includes: work with others in a team; com-
munication skills; listening and questioning; infuencing; plan-
ning and organising; interpersonal sensitivity; life-long learning
philosophy; emotional intelligence and performance; to be a self
starter and to fnish a job. Programme is delivered through a series
of seminars and workshops developing employment related knowl-
edge and skills including researching career opportunities and the
employment market; writing efective cvs/grant applications/ job
application forms; interview techniques; efective work strategies;
presentation and public speaking skills/selling an idea; personal
development planning using psychometric tests, self evaluation
and refection techniques


Appendix 1. Courses Table
7. Appendices
appendix 1:
Examples of Courses related to NPD at Higher Education Centres
:g
Course/Training Ba art and Design/ Ma art and Design
Centre/Network/
organisation/ Contact
University of Bedfordshire
Gordon Hon gordon.hon@beds.ac.uk


Qualifcation/ outcome BA or MA •
structure/length/
Frequency
BA Tree years full-time
MA One year full-time, two years part-time


Cost BA £3070; MA £4000
Content/ Modules BA: Practical modules chosen from the Art and Design
feld; Contemporary Issues; Art and Design Professional
Practice; Art and Design Dissertation; Self-initiated fnal
project
MA: Critical theory and Contemporary Issues; Studio and
Professional Practice; Studio Practice; Art & Design Major
project; Research Methods


Notes No professional development seminars ofered by the de-
partment, only academic

zo New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
Course/Training MA Design Management; MA or BA Product Design (for BA
Hons choose between BA Product Design or Product Design
(Furniture Design), or Product Design (Industrial Design) or
Design in Business
also Certifcate in Professional Studies: Innovation and En-
trepreneurship (PT)


Centre/Network/
organisation/Contact
University of Central England Birmingham
Qualifcation/outcome PGCert/PgDip/ MA/ BA/ Certifcate Higher Education/ Diploma
Higher Education/ Certifcate in Professional Studies.
structure/length/
Frequency
One year full-time, two years part-time, negotiable work-based
learning contracts
Cost
Content/ Modules Design Management: Design Industry, Design Policy; strate-
gic role of design in business and marketing, design practice
including project management, law and fnance. “A multi-dis-
ciplinary, professionally focused curriculum explores design
management and how it functions within organisations.”
Ofers collaboration with external organisations and designers,
optional placement, refection on interpersonal, team-work-
ing, motivational and infuencing skills.
Product Design: all students complete PG Cert in Product
Design. Conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques
developed through assignments in design processes, commercial
contexts and markets, strategic design policy, product evolu-
tion, post-optimal products and research methods.
Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Core modules in Innova-
tion of Technology-based Products and Services, Entrepreneur-
ship then three optional from, Introduction to ICT, Career
Preparation and Personal Development, Project Management,
Marketing for Extended Products and Services, Creative Tink-
ing, Introduction to Collaborative Technologies.



Notes Unique option to study part-time via a learning contract. Tis
requires 15 days of attendance enabling practising designers to
develop career while continuing to work.
z:
Course/
Training
BSc (Hons) Computer Aided Product Design, BSc (Hons) Design Engineering; BA
(Hons) Industrial Design
BSc (Hons) Product Design; BA (Hons) Product Design; BSc (Hons) Sustainable
Design
MSc Sustainable Product Design; MSc Design Psychology; MA/ MSc Computer
Aided Product Development
Flexible Post-graduate Framework including MA/ MSc/PG Dip/ PG Cert in Profes-
sional Development; PG Cert in Partnership working




Centre Bournemouth University
Qualifcation As listed above
structure Masters are one year full-time or two to fve years part-time
Cost BA (3 years) £3070 per annum + £610 fee for students on 40 wk industrial placement
MA/ MSc £3800 or Part-time £450 per unit plus £200 admin fee
Professional Development Framework tuition charged on a per unit basis, registra-
tion £150 then units range from £350 to £850



Content/
Modules
BSc Computer Aided Product Design: Te course will enable students to develop
an appropriate level of analytical, visualisation and presentation skills and apply a
structured approach to design.
BSc Design Engineering: Design Methodology and Projects, Design Communica-
tions, Engineering Analysis
Materials, Processing & Practical Skills, Mechanical Design Principles, Electronic
Design Principles, Laboratory Programme, Mechanical Design Applications,
Electronic Systems Design, Computer Tools in Design and Engineering, Materials
and Manufacturing, Engineering Management, Laboratory Programme (part of
the above units), Computer Tools in Design and Engineering, Design Engineering,
Engineering Business Development, Individual Project, Final Show
BA Industrial Design: Design Media, Contextual Design, User Centred Design, Ma-
terials and Processing, Design Methods and Projects, Design Visualisation, Design
Commercialisation, Interaction Design, Design for Production, Design Projects,
INDUSTRIAL PLACEMENT (optional) Business Development , Commercial Design
Project, Industrial Design Project
BA & BSc Product Design: Materials and Design for Manufacture, Applied Technologi-
cal Principles, Computers in Design, Design Studies, Product Design, 40 week Indus-
trial Placement. Final Project Research and Planning, Professional Design Studies.
MSc Sustainable Product Design: Core: Design for Waste Minimisation, Environ-
ment Law and Cultural pressures, Interlocking Nature of Sustainability, Research
Methods, Sustainable Product Design; Options: Aesthetics, CADCAM, Competitive
Product Development, Design Analysis, Design Modelling, Ergonomics, Project
Management, Materials in Design
MSc Design Psychology: Core: Consumer Behaviour, Design for Pleasure, Ergo-
nomics, Research Methods, Safety in Design; Options: Aesthetics, CAD CAM, Com-
petitive Product Development; Design Modelling, Environmental Law & Cultural
Pressures, Interlocking Nature of Sustainability, Project Management, Sustainable
Product Design, Materials in Design







Notes Bournemouth Centre for Research and Knowledge Transfer assists product develop-
ers to take product to market
PG Cert Business Formation also available to students in order to address such needs


zz New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
Course/Training Product Design, Product Innovation and Development
Centre University of Brighton School of Engineering
Qualifcation BSc, MSc, PG Cert, PG Dip
structure/length/
Frequency
BSc Four years with placement, MA one year but up to fve years by
agreement for part-time study
Cost BSc: £3070 per annum; MSc £3500, PG Cert £1150 PG Dip tbc
Content/ Modules BSc: Design processes, and innovation; Design studies, form
and ergonomics; Culture and society; Communication, draw-
ing, presenting; computer aided design, web design; Materials,
manufacturing and production; Engineering and problem solv-
ing methods; Workshop and rapid prototyping equipment and
machinery; Marketing, management and professional studies
Msc: Students examine how to make frst impressions count
when presenting ideas to decision-makers; how to apply design-
for-manufacture techniques to reduce manufacturing costs; study
the economic considerations of starting up a small business;
explore the protection of new design ideas and concepts, which
enables originators to beneft from their creativity; examine the
application of product validation and certifcation; learn a range of
prototyping and modelling skills and techniques. Syllabus: Design
Representation, Product Validation and Certifcation, Design-
for-Manufacture, Prototyping and Modelling, Student Specifed
Technology, Innovation Strategies, Entrepreneurship, Product
Simulation and Accounting, Product Management


Notes Comment about MSc “Tis course ofers a career change opportunity for
graduates interested in creating new products (or services) and taking them
through to a marketable conclusion. It provides the experimental, engineering and
management skills needed for the entire product development cycle, from concept
to delivery. Te course provides an integrated approach and is evenly split between
applied technology and management subjects. Both full-time and part-time
modes are available for postgraduate certifcate, diploma and degree awards.
Graduates currently working in industry on professional development programmes
may attend any number of the taught modules as short courses.”
z¿
Course/Training BSc Product Design, MA Design and Branding Strategy, MA
Design Strategy and Innovation
Centre Brunel University, School of Engineering and Design
Qualifcation BSc; MA
structure/length/
Frequency
Tree or four years BSc
MA one year


Cost BSc £3070 per annum, £770 for sandwich placement year, MA
Content/ Modules Bsc: Level 1 Core: Design Process 1, Graphic Communication 1,
Workshop, Mechanics and Material, Technological Design Evo-
lution, Electronics and Maths
Level 2 Core: Design Process 2, Graphic Communication 2, De-
sign for Manufacture, Structural Analysis, Systems Design and
Modelling, Electronics, Programming and Interfacing
Level 3 Core: Major Project, Innovation Management, Embed-
ded Systems Design, Contextual Design, Graphics, Computer
Aided Design Methods, Environmentally Sensitive Design, Cog-
nitive Ergonomics, CAD Modelling and Prototyping
MA Design and Branding Strategy: Design Research, Creativity
and Innovation, Design Management and Marketing, Branding
Strategy, Design Futures, Specialist Project, Dissertation
MA Design Strategy and Innovation: Design Research, Creativ-
ity and Innovation, Design Management and Marketing, Brand-
ing Strategy, Design Futures, Specialist Project, Dissertation





Notes Accredited by Chartered Society of Designers
‘Design Futures’ is a seminar programme and university staf
and visitors are engaged in debating contemporary issues and
developments in design


zq New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
Course/Training MSc Advanced Product Design, MSc Rapid Product Design; BA or
BSc Product Design
Centre/Network/
organisation/
Contact
University of Wales Institute, Cardif School of Art and Design and
National Centre for Product Design and Development Research
rbibb-pdr@uwic.ac.uk
Qualifcation MSc, PG Cert ,PG Dip
structure/length/
Frequency
One year Advanced Product Design, Two years part-time Rapid
Product Design
Cost BA/ BSc: £3070; Masters not published but in region of £3500.
sector MSc Rapid Product Development (RPD): RPD Principles and Practice,
Design for manufacturing assembly; EUR competitive manufactur-
ing techniques; EUR RPD processes and techniques; EUR RPD for
batch production; EUR failure modes and efects analysis. Manag-
ing the RPD Process, Business models; EUR concurrent engineering;
EUR implementation strategies; EUR cost reduction strategies; EUR
building the business case; EUR business ownership and liability; EUR
contemporary management theory and practice. Design Validation,
Analysis of product design specifcations; EUR sector specifc design
& validation issues; EUR approaches to validation; EUR validation
methodologies and tools. Rapid Product Realisation, Design for manu-
facture approaches; EUR costing methodologies; EUR cost reduction
techniques; EUR tooling processes; EUR batch manufacturing; EUR
fexible manufacturing; EUR mass customisation. Implementing RPD,
Case-studies will be used to highlight the rapid product design process
from concept inception through to customer validation.
MSc Advanced Product Design: A practical course that focuses on
meeting commercial needs. In addition to the industry placement,
the course gives students exposure to real commercial situations
through industrial partners who will provide lecturing input and
“live” case studies for students to work on. Te course is designed
as a Masters programme but it has exit points at both postgraduate
certifcate and diploma level.
For their Placement and Major Project, students can choose to spe-
cialise in either Rapid Product Development which focuses on the
design and development of products through to manufacture using
rapid product development techniques, or Computer Embedded
Devices which develops techniques for designing and prototyping
information appliances such as mobile phones.
All students studying for the MSc will undertake the following com-
mon modules: Product Design Principles and Practice, Sustainability
Issues in Design for Production, Research Techniques & Principles,
User Testing & Evaluation, Form Shape & Colour




zg
cont. A Professional Development Portfolio module is also included to en-
able students to focus the course on their individual career aspira-
tion
BA or BSc Product Design:
Year One
Efective Communication of Design•
Te Design Process & User Needs•
Computer Aided Technical Design•
IT & Research Studies • Engineering Science for Product Design-
ers (BSc route)
Design in Context (BA route)
Electronics for Product Designers (BSc route)
Engineering Science (BA route)
Year Two
Design for Manufacture
CAD-CAMM
Marketing & Conceptual Development
Information Ergonomics
Project Selection & Management
Mechanical Engineering (inc FEA) (BSc route)
Design & Society in 19th /20th Centuries (BA route)
Digital Electronics (BSc route)
Dissertation Chapter 1 (BA route)
Year Tree (BSc route)
Business Management & Professional Practice
Integrated Design and Concurrent Engineering
Design for a Competition
Advanced Design Option
Major Project
Year Tree (BA route)
Business Management & Professional Practice
Design for a Competition
Dissertation
Design Project
Major Project - Product related
Major Project - System related
































Notes Provision of product development services to businesses at National
Centre for Product Design and Development Research including:
Visualisation & Animation, Innovation Management, Product Design
& Development, Rapid Prototyping, Rapid Tooling & High Speed Ma-
chining, Low volume, High Quality Manufacture, Reverse Engineer-
ing, Graphic Design, Branding & New Media, Research, Knowledge
Transfer Partnership
z6 New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
Course/Training MSc Consumer Product Design; BSc (Hons) Product Design
Centre University of Central Lancashire, Department of Design
Qualifcation MSc/ BSc
structure/length/
Frequency
MSc One year, three semesters
BSc Full-time three years


Cost Undergraduate course: £3070; Masters course: £3240 or £300 per
module taught course, £1500 per annum research programme
Content/ Modules MSc Consumer Product Design: Semester 1: Consumer Design
Practice 1; Research for Creative Design Practice. Semester 2: Ad-
vanced Practice 2 (Placement/ Field Study). Semester 3: Consumer
Design Practice 3; Postgraduate Project/ Dissertation
MA Design: Semester 1: Design Practice 1; Research for Creative
Design Practice 1 Semester 2: Advance Practice 2/3; Semester 3:
Design Practice 3; Postgraduate Project/ Dissertation
BSc (Hons) Product Design: Year 1: Presentation and Visualisation;
Creative Tinking; Product Anatomy 1; Historical Contextual Stud-
ies; Model Making (elective). Year 2: Production Design Studies;
Presentation and Visualisation; Product Anatomy 2; Contemporary
Contextual Studies. Year 3: Honours Project; Presentation and
Visualisation; Design Futures; Product Anatomy 3; Contextual
Studies Design Futures.



Notes
z/
Course/Training Fellowship in Manufacturing Management
Professional Development courses
Centre/Network/ Cranfeld University
Qualifcation Fellowship/ CPD modules
structure/length/ Fellowship: 10-week residential foundation, one year industrial place-
ment; CPD Module/ Short Course :5 Days
Cost Fellowship: £3168. CPD Module/ Short course: £1295 Standard, £1195
Professional Trade Association discount, £1145 Multiple bookings

Content/ Modules Fellowship: Lean Manufacturing: Consulting skills, managing
resources, manufacturing strategy, process capability improvement,
problem solving, production management, quality management,
set-up reduction, Six Sigma, SMED (Single Minute Exchange), total
productive manufacture, value stream mapping, waste elimination
techniques, world class manufacturing Business Manufacturing:
Business improvement, change management, fnancial management
accounting, interview techniques, lean in service, project manage-
ment, supply chain management, theory of constraints
Personal efectiveness: Being assertive, coaching skills, coping
with pressure, goal setting & delegation leadership skills, learning,
the core competence, managing time to deliver results, NLP, political
skills, problem skills, self-management for success, shaping human
interaction, straight talk, team working
Relevant CPD modules available: Product Defnition: hands on
technical training using I-DEAS CAD solid modelling software includ-
ing 2D drafting, solid modelling, model editing and design change,
feature-based design, parametric design and creation of assemblies,
theoretical aspects; introduction to concepts of wireframe; surface
and solid modelling; survey of solid model representation schemes;
principles of operation; theoretical and practical criteria for compari-
son, industrial case studies.
Product Validation and Evaluation: collaborative product develop-
ment processes, principles of manufacturing planning; machining,
inspection and assembly; tolerance and process capability; knowledge
based manufacturing planning; feature based product modelling;
group technology; cost modelling; product evaluation; manufacturing
planning; generating FEA models using I-DEAS, I-DEAS simulation
system; concurrent engineering; design for manufacturing and as-
sembly; quality function deployment.
Product Life Cycle Management: product lifecycle data and processes
- product defnition, product structure and data, product lifecycle
process, product lifecycle management - data control and security,
access control, document management, workfow management, con-
fguration management, enterprise workfow, PDM and ERP, e-com-
merce standards - CALS, CAD data exchange and STEP, PLM project
implementation techniques, current PDM tools, case studies.
Research Methods: Social enquiry; qualitative and quantitative
research methods; models and modelling complex issues; creative ap-
proaches to the acquisition of data and the representation of data and
fndings; research ethics; managing research efort and the commu-
nication of trans-disciplinary research.
Innovation: Te defnitions of innovation (disruptive; incremental);
an innovation framework; innovation and competitive advantage;
triggers for innovation and opportunity recognition; creativity; in-
novation strategy; exploitation; knowledge management concepts;
characteristics of organisational learning; market environments; in-
novation ecology and human resource management; complexity and
innovation. Te operationalisation of innovation is emphasised.







Notes MSc also available Design for Sustainability/ Innovation and Design for
Sustainability and MRes Innovative Manufacturing
z8 New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
Course/Training Design Innovation
Centre/Network/
organisation/Contact
De Montfort University
Qualifcation/
outcome
MA/MSc/PGDip/
PGCert


structure/length/
Frequency
One year full-time
Cost £3236
sector Semester 1: Research methodology: conceptual and practi-
cal research skills, e.g questionnaire design and interview
techniques, Individual Major Project proposal with specifed
aims, objectives, research methods and expected outcomes
Design process: advances in technology, projects manage-
ment, design method theories, concept development, pro-
totyping techniques, design testing, user centred/universal
design, ethical, environmental and sustainable design issues
Design in context: contemporary theoretical contexts,
consumer identity, cultural/national identities, gender, craft
theory, design as a commodity
Semester 2: Creative Professional Brief: portfolio of investiga-
tive design development work in response to main idea or issue
Strategic Management and Marketing: marketing and cor-
porate strategy issues in relation to design, market segmenta-
tion and buying drivers, Concepts of corporate identity and
branding, Corporate responsibility and sustainability, Te
value chain and business agility in the global economy
Design Entrepreneurship: supports a student in planning
a business based on innovative design idea, close links with
industry, case studies of micro-business and entrepreneurial
practice, business ethics, intellectual property rights, con-
tracts, fnancial planning
Semester 3: Major Project: detailed design (develop design to
prototype) or design concept and dissertation (develop design
to concept stage) or dissertation







Notes Research MPhil PhD available in: built environment, design
management, design history, digital media design, fashion,
interior design, product development, product, furniture and
industrial design
zg
Course/Training MDes Product Design, Innovation and Management
MSc Design Engineering


Centre/Network/
organisation/
Contact
Middlesex University
Qualifcation/
outcome
Masters
structure/length/
Frequency
One year
Cost MDes : £2,600 -£2,780
No fees for MSc Design Engineering


Content/ Modules MDes: Product Forecasting and User Centred Design. Innova-
tion, Design Management and Technology. Design Project: Self-
directed study. Tesis (during Summer)
Msc: Semester One: Applied Mathematics for Design Engi-
neers, Manufacturing Processes and Materials, Computer Aided
Engineering, Validation of Design Concept and Design Develop-
ment Project. Semester Two: Industrial Placement (duration 12
weeks) Semester Tree : Industrial Research Project


Notes MDes:
Te course describes itself as:
“Te programme aims to produce a new type of professional: a
design leader who is a strategist, a visionary and an innovator.
It is designed to encourage individuals to think creatively, plan,
manage and lead multidisciplinary teams. Tey will acquire the
intellectual and management capability to make informed in-
novation and design planning decisions when applying new and
emerging technologies to the development of new product plat-
forms. Te programme explores a formal approach to innovation
and the development of ‘breakthrough’ or ‘disruptor’ products.
In order to bring ‘breakthrough’ products to the market place,
there is a requirement for an in depth understanding of the prac-
tice of design and emergent approaches to innovation in a global
context. Success in developing discontinuous concepts is char-
acterised by the successful marriage of, and interplay between,
the market, design, management and technology. We cover the
practice of design and the emergent approaches to innovation
needed to bring ‘breakthrough’ products to the marketplace. You
will learn how to achieve the successful marriage of and interplay
between design, management, technology and the market in
developing successful discontinuous innovations”
MSc:
“A truly unique engineering course for design graduates.
Launched in 2005, it is believed to be the frst conversion pro-
gramme in the UK that ofers graduates of industrial, product or
three-dimensional design the opportunity to re-train or up-skill
to fll vacancies in design engineering. Every place on the course
is funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research
Council (EPSRC) to help meet industry demand - there are no
tuition fees for UK/EU students.”
¿o New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
appendix 2:
University of Bournemouth CPD framework
List of units generally available on the CPD Masters Framework at University of Bournemouth
DesiGN eNGiNeeriNG & CoMPUTiNG iNsTiTUTe oF BUsiNess aND law
Aesthetics
Applied Artifcial Intelligence
Artifcial Neural Networks
CAD/CAM
Cell-Based ASIC Design
Competitive Product Development
Control & Sensing Systems
Databases
Design Analysis
Design for Waste Minimisation
Design Management
Design Modelling
Distributed Component Technologies
e-Business Software Technologies
Embedded System Design
Environmental Law & Cultural Pressures
Ergonomics
Evolutionary Computation
Facilities Planning & Management
Fitting Out Place and Space
Full-Custom ASIC Design
Interlocking Nature of Sustainability
Internet Systems Management
IT Project Management
Knowledge Based systems
Materials in Design
Object Oriented Analysis & Design
Object Oriented Programming
Object Oriented Programming
Object-Oriented Software Development
Processor Architecture
Product Analysis & Design
Project Management
Requirements Engineering
Signals and Systems
Software Engineering Management
Sustainable Product Design
System-Level Design
Validation, Verifcation & Test
VHDL and Logic Synthesis
Accounting & Financial Analysis
Accounting for Decision Making
Banking & Insurance Law
Commercial Transactions
Copy & Trade Marks
Corporate Administration and Control
Corporate Financial Management
Corporate Governance
Corporate Governance Law
Corporate Tax Management
Economic & Political Context of Tax
Export Practice
Financial Information Analysis
Global Economics & Strategy
Indirect Taxation
Intellectual Property Ethics & policy
Intellectual Property Exploitation
International Dispute Resolution
International Finance
International Investment Management
International Market Strategy
International Patent and Trade Mark Practice
International Taxation
Law of International Trade
Legal Regulation of International Business
Operations
Management Regulation and Conduct
Marketing of Financial Services
Patents and Designs
Personal Taxation & Estate Planning
Principles of Law
Strategic & Operations Management
Strategic Management Accounting
¿:
serViCes MaNaGeMeNT BoUrNeMoUTh MeDia sChool
Analysing the Services Marketing Environ-
ment
Business Strategy
Conference Tourism
Entrepreneurship
Events Management
Events Marketing & Communications
Events Principles & Practice
Integrated Marketing Communications for
Services
Integrated Marketing Strategy for Services
International Hospitality Management
Management of Environmental and Cultural
Heritage Resources
Managing Organisations
Marketing for Tourism & Hospitality: Con-
temporary Issues Leadership
Marketing for Tourism & Hospitality: Princi-
ples & Practice
Resort & Leisure Development
Sports Tourism
Strategic Market Planning for the Services
Sector
Tour Operation Management
Tourism Impacts & Sustainability
Tourism Planning & Projects
Tourism Principles and Practice
Transport & Travel
Comm Management & Organisation
Internal Communications
Communications and Media Research
Computer Graphics Fundamentals
Corporate Strategy
Customer Relationship Management
Developing & Managing Brands
Form & theory of moving image
Integrated Marketing Communications
Interactive Media Strategies
International Public Relations
Law for Media Freelancers
Legal & Ethical context
Managing Consumer Marketing
Managing People
Marketing Communications
Marketing Strategy
Media & Marketing
Media Finance
Media Law
New Media Environmental
Perspectives in Marketing Communications
Persuasion and Infuence
Product Unit
Professional Studies
Research
Researching Consumer Markets
Research Principles & Practice
Sound & Music Analysis
Understanding the Consumer
¿z New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
appendix 3:
Examples of publicly available courses, reproduced with permission from Underoak Ltd Database
of Training Providers, www.underoak.co.uk.
DesiGN eNGiNeeriNG & CoMPUTiNG iNsTiTUTe oF BUsiNess aND law
Aesthetics
Applied Artifcial Intelligence
Artifcial Neural Networks
CAD/CAM
Cell-Based ASIC Design
Competitive Product Development
Control & Sensing Systems
Databases
Design Analysis
Design for Waste Minimisation
Design Management
Design Modelling
Distributed Component Technologies
e-Business Software Technologies
Embedded System Design
Environmental Law & Cultural Pressures
Ergonomics
Evolutionary Computation
Facilities Planning & Management
Fitting Out Place and Space
Full-Custom ASIC Design
Interlocking Nature of Sustainability
Internet Systems Management
IT Project Management
Knowledge Based systems
Materials in Design
Object Oriented Analysis & Design
Object Oriented Programming
Object Oriented Programming
Object-Oriented Software Development
Processor Architecture
Product Analysis & Design
Project Management
Requirements Engineering
Signals and Systems
Software Engineering Management
Sustainable Product Design
System-Level Design
Validation, Verifcation & Test
VHDL and Logic Synthesis
Accounting & Financial Analysis
Accounting for Decision Making
Banking & Insurance Law
Commercial Transactions
Copy & Trade Marks
Corporate Administration and Control
Corporate Financial Management
Corporate Governance
Corporate Governance Law
Corporate Tax Management
Economic & Political Context of Tax
Export Practice
Financial Information Analysis
Global Economics & Strategy
Indirect Taxation
Intellectual Property Ethics & policy
Intellectual Property Exploitation
International Dispute Resolution
International Finance
International Investment Management
International Market Strategy
International Patent and Trade Mark Practice
International Taxation
Law of International Trade
Legal Regulation of International Business
Operations
Management Regulation and Conduct
Marketing of Financial Services
Patents and Designs
Personal Taxation & Estate Planning
Principles of Law
Strategic & Operations Management
Strategic Management Accounting
¿¿
CoUrse CosT Days loCaTioN
AutoCAD Essentials £697 3 London
VectorWorks £547 1 London
AutoCAD 3D Drawing & Modelling £417 2 Worcestershire
AutoCAD Essentials £417 3 Worcestershire
AutoCAD Intermediate £672 3 Worcestershire
AutoCAD Advanced £417 2 Worcestershire
AutoCAD Advanced £595 2 Bristol
AutoCAD Introduction £795 3 Bristol
Design Secrets for Non-Designers £395 1 London
Creative Tinking and Problem Solving £450 1 Bristol
Creativity and Innovation £395 1 London
Innovative Business Tinking £700 2 West Sussex
Design and Production Overview £275 1 London
Developing Suppliers and Contractors –
Risks and Opportunities
£2,240 5 London
Efective Expediting £495 2 York
Forecasting Techniques £395 1 Midlands
Introduction to Lean £200 1 York
Introduction to Production Planning and Control £940 2 Midlands
Leadership Skills Training for Manufacturing Excel-
lence
£699 2 Middlesborough
Lean Manufacturing Practitioner £900 5 York
Brand Management Programme £3,700 5 Hertfordshire
Briefng and Evaluating Creative Work £1,095 2 Middlesex
¿q New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
appendix 4
Example break-down of programme ofered by Time to Market Ltd. to companies engaged in
product development activities are as follows:
1 Product Management and Product Marketing - 2 days plus 1 day follow-up A two day
overview of Product Management and Product Marketing with a 1 day facilitated follow-up to
embed understanding using real-life client scenarios.

Te course is available as in-house training (on-site or of-site) and can also be adjusted to suit
client company practices and preferences.
2 Customised Courses of between 1 and 5 days based on Core Modules these courses are
available as in-house training (on-site or of-site) and can be delivered as-is, or customised as a
5 day intensive programme, a 3 day programme or stand- alone days. Advanced modules can be
included in any programme.
exaMPle 5 Day ProGraMMe
Day 1 Product Management of the Life Cycle
Day 2 Marketing Know How
Day 3 In Life Product Management
Day 4 Voices of Customers tools and techniques
Day 5 Market Driven Product and Project Defnition
exaMPle 3 Day ProGraMMe
Day 1 Product Management of the Life Cycle
Day 2 Marketing Know How
Day 3 In Life Product Management
3 advanced 1 day or 2 day courses based on specifc topic areas
Based on Core and Advanced modules (see below) these courses are available as in-house
training (on-site or of-site) and can be delivered as-is or as customised 1 or 2 day courses.
Core MoDUles:
Product Management of the Life Cycle; Marketing Know How; In Life Product Management;
Voices of Customers tools and techniques; Market Driven Product and Project Defnition
By way of example, Product Management of the Life Cycle module has the following format:
1 to 2 days course aiming to provide in-depth understanding of the best practices relating to
managing the life cycle stages of products and markets in B2B and B2C situations. Uses case
studies and examples to help understand how this could apply to the participating company.
¿g
CoUrse aiMs aND oBjeCTiVes:
By the end of the course participants should have understood:
Te breadth and depth of Portfolio & Product Life Cycle Management
Te roles and responsibilities for Portfolio & Product Life Cycle
Management
Te principles of Portfolio & Product Management
Best practice for successful Portfolio & Product LC Management
Experienced practical tools and techniques
Participated and shared experiences
style of the course (as described on the website):
Participative, informative, interactive and fun
Practical examples to aid understanding
Experiential - ‘thematic’ exercises
Practical examples to aid understanding
Pragmatic hints and tips
Bias towards understanding principles and practices vs manipulating software tools
sPeCiFiC CoUrse CoNTeNT:
Day 1
session 0 Course Aims and Objectives and Issues Board
session 1 What is Product Life Cycle Management?
session 2 Some Market ‘Dimensions’ for Solutions and Portfolios
session 3 Product Development and Launch Framework
session 4 Organising for Product and Portfolio Life Cycle Management

Day 2: review of Day 1
session 5 Decision Making within Product and Portfolio
Life Cycle Management
session 6 Skills for Product and Portfolio Life Cycle Management
session 8 Market Development of a Launched Product Portfolio
Other Core modules follow a similar format but detail will not be provided in this report.
aDVaNCeD MoDUles:
Product Planning and Project Selection; Best Practice Overview of Product and Portfolio
Life Cycle Management; Commercial Know How; Strategic and Innovative Tinking and
Planning; How to write winning product spec’s; Time t Market Compression; Leading Virtual
and X-Functional Product Development Teams;
Metrics for efective Product Development; Risk Reward Management; Project Management
for Product Development; Technology Acquisition for Product Development










¿6 New Product DeveIopment: aProgrammefortheCreativeIndustries
Appendix 5
Bibliography
Benchmark research (2006), ‘Battle of Britain- International Competitiveness Survey – Topline
Summary’, http://www.benchmark-research.co.uk/survey/index.cfm
Benchmark research/ Findlay Publications (2004), ‘Trends in UK Manufacturing’, http://
www.benchmark-research.co.uk/survey/index.cfm
Burns owen Partnership (2007), Te Economic Importance of London’s Design Dependent
Sectors’, for London Development Agency
Cox, G. (2005) Te Cox Review of Creativity in Business, H M Treasury, http://www.hm-treasury.
gov.uk/independent_reviews/cox_review/coxreview_index.cfm
Creative and Cultural skills Council/ Design Council (2007), ‘Higher-level skills for Higher
Value’, http://www.ukdesignskills.com , London, Design Council and Creative and Cultural
Skills Council.
Design Council (2006), ‘Design in Britain 2005/2006’, http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/
factfnder
house of Commons Trade and industry Committee (2007), ‘Better skills for Manufacturing:
Fifth Report of Session 2006-7’, London: Te Stationery Ofce Ltd
house of Commons Trade and industry Committee (2007), ‘Better skills for Manufacturing:
Government Response to the Committee’s Fifth Report of Session 2006-7’, London: Te
Stationery Ofce Ltd
helen hamlyn research Centre (2007), Innovate: the research and development journal for
small frms in the care and disability sector (4), London, RCA. Http://www.rca.ac.uk/images/
lib/pub55.pdf
larsen, P. & lewis, a. (2007), ‘How Award-Winning SME’s Manage the Barriers to Innovation’,
Creativity and Innovation Management, 16 (2), pp. 142-151.
Millward, h., Byrne C., walters, a., lewis, a. (2006), ‘Small and Medium-sized Enterprises:
Analysis Trough Technology Management Maps’, International Journal of Innovation and
Technology Management, 3 (3), pp. 283-302.
Phillips, P. (2002), ‘Lessons from the Trenches: Insights from Design Management Seminars’,
Design Management Journal, 13 (3), pp.53-57.
Veryzer r.w. & Borja de Mozota, B. (2005), ‘ Te Impact of User-Oriented Design on New
Product Development: An Examination of Fundamental Relationships’, Te Journal of Product
Innovation Management, 22, pp. 128-143
web references
Personnel Today, http://personneltoday.com
Time to Market ltd., http://www.ttm.co.uk
Underoak ltd., www.underoak.co.uk

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