You are on page 1of 23

Definition of LEUCITE

: a white or gray mineral consisting of a silicate of potassium and aluminum and occurring in igneous rocks

     

Chemistry: KAlSi2O6, Potassium Aluminum Silicate Class: Silicates Subclass: Tektosilicates Group: Feldspathoids Uses: mineral specimen and as a minor source of potassium and aluminum. Specimens

Leucite is a popular and interesting mineral. Its name comes from the greek word for "white" in allusion to its typical color. At high temperatures, leucite is isometric and will form the isometric trapezohedron crystal form. Interestingly, as leucite cools, the isometric structure becomes unstable and transforms into a tetragonal structure without altering the outward shape. Although the mineral is actually tetragonal, the outward shape is pseudoisometric and thus the crystal form is actually pseudotrapezohedral. Leucite is one of the few minerals that forms the unique trapezohedron. The trapezohedron has 24 deltoid shaped faces, where each face occupies one third of the position of a single octahedron's face. The minerals of the garnet group and the mineral analcime are the only common minerals that will also form the trapezohedron.

Distinguishing leucite from the garnets and analcime is relatively easy in some cases. The garnets are much harder and usually deeply colored. Leucite has a much lower density and usually has a duller luster than analcime. Also leucite is typically embedded in host rock where as analcime, when displaying good crystals and not massive or granular, is loose or attacted to other minerals in volcanic cavities. Leucite, KAlSi2O6 is actually distantly related to analcime, NaAlSi2O6-H2O. Leucite is a member of the feldspathoid group of minerals. Analcime, although usually considered azeolite, is sometimes placed in the feldspathoid group since its chemistry and occassional occurrences are similar. Minerals whose chemistries are close to that of the alkali feldspars but are poor in silica (SiO2) content, are called feldspathoids. Leucite, like other feldspathoids, is found in silica poor rocks containing other silica poor minerals and no quartz. If quartz were present when the melt was crystallizing, it would react with any feldspathoids and form a feldspar.. At one time leucite was used as a source of potassium and aluminum. Probably due to the high aluminum to silicon ratio, its structure is easily destroyed by acids and this frees the aluminum ions. Leucite, already a pseudomorph from a high temperature phase, commonly is altered to pseudoleucite. Pseudoleucite is not a mineral but a mixture of nepheline, orthoclaseand analcime.
   

Color is clear, white or gray, with yellowish and reddish tints possible. Luster is vitreous or greasy to dull. Transparency: crystals are transparent, translucent to commonly opaque. Crystal System is isometric; 4/m bar 3 2/m at temperatures above 605 degrees C, and tetragonal; either 4 2 2 or 4/m, below 605 degrees C.

USA.2.          Crystal Habits include the characteristic trapezohedron (actually pseudo-trapezohedron). Cleavage is absent. http://www.5 (slightly below average) Streak is white. Notable Occurrences include Mt. Fracture is conchoidal Hardness is 5. Vesuvius. labradorite. Leucite Hills. Ontario. Maine. neph eline and other feldspathoids. Best Field Indicators are crystal habit. low hardness. luster and associations.galleries. dull or has a weathered look.4 .5 . Brazil and Hastings Co. Associated Minerals include olivine. Also granular and massive. Wyoming and Litchfield. Specific Gravity is approximately 2. Magnet Cove. . biotite.6. Arkansas. density. Other Characteristics: surface is usually pitted. Italy. .http://www.

Valid Species (Pre-IMA) 1791 Bearpaw Mountains.06 % SiO2 Empirical Formula: Environment: IMA Status: Locality: Name Origin: Name Pronunciation: Synonym: KAl(Si2O6) Acid volcanic rocks. Scale: 20x20x20 mm.74 % 43.99 % ______ 100."white.58 % K2O 23." Leucite Amphigene Leucite Image Images: Leucite Comments: Large single crystal of dark gray leucite.00 % K Al Si O ______ 100.91 % 12. Campania.36 % 25. Location: Roccamonfina. Italy. © John Betts .25 gm Potassium Aluminum Silicon Oxygen 17. USA.05042 .org Location Data.Fine Minerals Leucite Crystallography Axial Ratios: a:c = 1:1. Caserta Province..General Leucite Information Chemical Formula: KAlSi2O6 Composition: Molecular Weight = 218.36 % Al2O3 55. From the Greek leukos .00 % = TOTAL OXIDE 21. Montana. Link to MinDat.

Conchoidal .2052 . Gray.356.75.RMB Resize/Rotate Keyboard S .Very brittle fracture producing small.09.108115. Gottardi G . Galli E . 2.Coarse . 3. Crystalline .2064.85).where the CI = (1-KPDcalc/KC) KPDcalc= 0.Atoms On/Off P .Cell Dimensions: Crystal System: X Ray Diffraction: Crystal Structure: Mouse drag1 .Stereo Pair on/off H . Z = 16.266(1).Occurs as well-formed coarse sized crystals.04 Den(Calc)= 2. White. V = 2.8). The crystal structure of tetragonal leucite View Additional jPOWD Structure files for Leucite [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] Physical Properties of Leucite Cleavage: {110} Indistinct Color: Density: Diaphaneity: Fracture: Colorless.Polyhedra On/Off B . c = 13. Mazzi F .Data Info A .DipyramidalH-M Symbol (4/m) Space Group: I 41/a By Intensity(I/Io): 3.Orthoclase Non-fluorescent.438(0.2072. 5.006 (Superior) .where the CI = (1-KPDmeas/KC) Gladstone-Dale: CI calc= -0.Bonds On/Off Help on Above a = 13.46 Tetragonal .01 (Superior) .Help Screen I . Vitreous (Glassy) Nonmagnetic white Habit: Hardness: Luminescence: Luster: Magnetism: Streak: Optical Properties of Leucite CI meas= -0.47 Translucent to transparent Brittle . 6 .39(0.LMB Manipulate Structure drag2 . 61 (1976) p. Yellow gray. conchoidal fragments.KPDmeas= 0. American Mineralogist .KC= 0.

02.GB -Chains of single connected 4-membered rings 09.02.99 PELeucite = 3.05 Ammonioleucite (NH4.02.5 .02 Ammonioleucite (NH4.01 (76)Tectosilicate Al-Si Framework (76.Ncalc = 1.02.44 gm/cc Electron Density: note: Specific Gravity of Leucite = Optical Data: Isotropic.01 Leucite KAlSi2O6 I 41/a 4/m 76.05 09 .1.barely detectable Leucite Classification Dana Class: 76.GB.G .SILICATES (Germanates) 09.67 barns/cc.39 (%) Estimated Radioactivity from Leucite .81 (Gamma Ray American Petroleum Institute Units) Concentration of Leucite per GRapi unit = 0.47 gm/cc.K)AlSi2O6 I 41/a 4/m 09. Calculated Properties of Leucite Bulk Density (Electron Density)=2.02.GB. n=1.01 Boson Index = 0.508-1. Fermion Index: Fermion Index = 0.K)AlSi2O6 I 41/a 4/m Strunz Class: 09.Tektosilicates with Zeolitic H2O 09.511.14 barns/electron U=PELeucite x electron= 7.05 Hsianghualite Ca3Li2Be3(SiO4)3F2 I 213 2 3 .02)Feldspathoids and related species (76.GB. Photoelectric: Radioactivity: GRapi = 255.GB.05 Analcime NaAlSi2O6•(H2O) P1 1 09.02)Leucite group 76.

The Rainbow of Gems 20 .Google Scholar 10 .05 Pollucite (Cs.(Mason68) See Also: Links to other databases for Leucite : 1 .1990) References: OPTIC PROP.Handbook of Mineralogy (UofA) 12 .Am.Ruff.Petrography Thin-Sections 21 .UCLA .Mineralienatlas (Deutsch) 14 . Min.GeoScienceWorld 7 .Tradeshop.(Enc.MinDAT 13 .Google Images 9 .WWW-MINCRYST Search for Leucite using: Leucite Search .GB.05 Lithosite K6Al4Si8O25•(H2O) P 21 (pseudo ORTH) 2 09.Handbook of Mineralogy (MinSocAm) 11 .2nd ed.GB.GB.EUROmin Project 5 .09.Glendale Community College 8 .Info 19 .QUT Mineral Atlas 18 .GB.Na)2Al2Si4O12•(H2O) I a3d 4/m 3 2/m 09.05 Wairakite CaAl2Si4O12•2(H2O) I2/a 2/m Other Leucite Information NAME( Duda&Rejl90) PHYS. Crystal Structure Database 2 .Online Mineral Museum 17 .Amethyst Galleries' Mineral Gallery 3 .Minerals in Thin Section-University of North Carolina 15 .Minerals in Thin Sections-Humboldt State 16 .com ..05 Leucite KAlSi2O6 I 41/a 4/m 09.Ecole des Mines de Paris 6 . of Minerals. PROP.Athena 4 .

Web webmineral.COM] [Netscape] [Scirus] [Teoma] [Wikipedia] [YAHOO] Visit our Advertisers for Leucite : B & L Fine Minerals Dan Weinrich Fine Minerals Dan Weinrich Auctions Excalibur Minerals Exceptional Minerals Fabre Minerals John Betts Fine Minerals Lapis Mineral Journal .com [ALTAVISTA] [AOL] [bing] [GeoScienceWorld] [HotBot] [Ixquick] [MAMMA] [MSN.

GB.shtml .org's Discussion Groups Original Rockhounds Discussion Group Rockhounds Discussion Group on Yahoo Groups Mineral Discussion Forum from Fabre Minerals .Mineral News Wrights Rock Shop Translate Leucite Mineral Data : Ask about Leucite here : Ask-A-Mineralogist from the Mineralogical Society of America Locality: Notes: http://webmineral.02.also available in Español Print or Cut-and-Paste your Leucite Specimen Label here : Leucite KAlSi2O6 Dana No: 76.01 Strunz No: 09.

Photo is made in 2005. Bad Gleichenberg. Collection/photo: ReMi/ReMi © ReMi Photo ID: 73509 View Count: 504 Leucite : K(AlSi2O6) Cascata. Bohemia (Böhmen A 4cm single leucite crystal. Águas da Prata.Sayamov Photo ID: 34471 View Count: 693 Leucite : K(AlSi2O6) . Styria. Brazil single leucite crystal. Rafael Hernandes Corrêa-Silva C © Brhounds Photo ID: 45120 View Count: 498 Leucite : K(AlSi2O6) Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge). © 2005 S. São Paulo. Karlovy Vary Region. + Apatite(white needles). Field collected /by: 2003/ReMi. Size 2x1. Picture width: ~10mm. Diopside(green -"-).5x1cm.Leucite : K(AlSi2O6) Stradner Kogel. Austria Grey Leucite-xl. Wilhelmsdorf.

Aveyron. France Field of wiew: 1. Ústí nad Labem (Aussig).Radešin Hill. Field of view 5mm © Petr Fuchs Photo ID: 65207 View Count: 442 Leucite : K(AlSi2O6) Radešin Hill.Journet © D. Midi-Pyrénées. Ústí nad Labem (Aussig). Bohemia (Böhmen. Bohemia (Böhmen. FOV 3mm © Petr Fuchs Photo ID: 134600 View Count: 292 Leucite : K(AlSi2O6) Lapanouse-de-Sévérac (slag locality). Ústí Region.JOURNET Photo ID: 340881 View Count: 163 Leucite : K(AlSi2O6) . Ústí Region.5mm Collection & Photo: D.

Rhineland-Palatinate. Germany Leucite from the Emmelberg. Daun. Rhineland-Palatinate. Kaiserstuhl.Oberrotweil. Daun.8x0. Eifel. Eifel. Image width: 4 mm. Germany Field of view: 6 mm © mk Photo ID: 75180 View Count: 529 Leucite : K(AlSi2O6) Emmelberg.6 mm © JDehove Photo ID: 8141 View Count: 3106 Leucite : K(AlSi2O6) Emmelberg. Üdersdorf. Üdersdorf. Baden-Württemberg. Germany Field of view: 0. Collection: Willi Schül © Fred Kruijen Photo ID: 359042 View Count: 148 Leucite : K(AlSi2O6) .

Rhineland-Palatinate.5 x 1.Emmelberg. Üdersdorf. Daun.php?min=2465 .org/gallery.2 mm http://www. Germany Field of view: 1. Eifel.mindat.

Z = 16 Identification Color White to grey .05 Crystal symmetry Tetragonal 4/m dipyramidal Unit cell a = 13.Leucite From Wikipedia.GB.056 Å.751 Å. c = 13. the free encyclopedia Leucite Leucite crystals in a rock from Italy General Category tectosilicates Chemical formula K[AlSi2O6] Strunz classification 9.

as first observed by Sir David Brewster in 1821. rarely granular.001 References [1][2] Leucite is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and aluminium tectosilicate K[AlSi2O6]. Crystals have the form of cubic icositetrahedra but.6 Luster Vitreous Diaphaneity Transparent to translucent Specific gravity 2.Crystal habit Commonly as euhedral. they are not optically isotropic. pseudocubic crystals. massive Crystal system Tetragonal Twinning Common and repeated on {110} and {101} Cleavage Poor on {110} Fracture Conchoidal Tenacity Brittle Mohs scalehardness 5.5 . and are therefore pseudo-cubic.50 Optical properties Uniaxial (+) Refractive index nω = 1.509 Birefringence δ = 0. Goniometric measurements made byGerhard vom Rath in 1873 led him to refer the crystals to the tetragonal system.508 nε = 1. Optical investigations have since proved the crystals to be .45-2.

For the presence of this mineral it is necessary that the silica percentage of the rock should be low. and to consist of several orthorhombic or monoclinic individuals. they are brittle and break with a conchoidal fracture. many countries such as England being entirely without them. The rounded shape of its crystals. since leucite is incompatible with free quartz and reacts with it to form potassium feldspar. Inclusions of other minerals. However. The crystals are white or ash-grey in colour. are frequently present in the crystals. their white or grey color. hence the name suggested by A. giving rise to twin-lamellae and to striations on the faces. and absence of planar cleavage make the presence of leucite easily determinable in many of these rocks by inspection. leucite is most common in lavas of recent and Tertiary age. especially when the crystals are large.5. They are transparent and glassy when fresh. This pseudo-cubic character of leucite is very similar to that of the mineral boracite. analcite and other secondary minerals. from 'λευκος'. Leucite also is rare in plutonic rocksand dike rocks. if sodium is abundant nepheline occurs rather than leucite. but leucite syenite and leucite tinguaite bear witness to the possibility that it may occur in this manner. [edit]Leucite rocks Rocks containing leucite are scarce. they are of wide distribution.47. but readily alter to become waxy/greasy and then dull and opaque. . albeit with a noticeably subdued 'subvitreous' lustre due to the low refractive index. they exhibit a considerable variety of types and are of great interest petrographically. or at any rate have potassium equal to or greater than sodium. French authors in older literature may employ René Just Haüy's name amphigène. When the crystals are raised to a temperature of about 500 °C they become optically isotropic and the twin-lamellae and striations disappear. which have a fair amount of potassium. Taken collectively. arranged in concentric zones. '(matt) white'. although they reappear when the crystals are cooled again. which are optically biaxial and repeatedly twinned.still more complex in character. In pre-Tertiary rocks leucite readily decomposes and changes to zeolites. The Mohs hardness is 5. Werner in 1701. and the specific gravity 2. Because it weathers rapidly. G. but 'leucite' is the only name for this mineral species that is recognised as official by the International Mineralogical Association. occurring in every quarter of the globe. On account of the color and form of the crystals the mineral was early known as white garnet.

nepheline. olivine... sodalite and decomposition products. and the rock has a spotted character recalling that of the leucitesyenites. Of these the former consists of orthoclase. which have developed from leucite because this mineral is not stable at ordinary temperatures and can be expected under favorable conditions to undergo spontaneous change into an aggregate of other minerals. but are of irregular structure at their centres. many-sided crystals in the ground mass. garnet and melilite. analcite. they are pseudoleucites. These have a radiate arrangement externally. among the feldspars and nephelines of the ground mass. Nepheline decreases in amount as leucite increases since the abundances of the two reflect the Na:K ratio of the rock. and under the microscope prove to consist of orthoclase. alkali feldspar and aegirine. diopside andaegirine. augite andbiotite. nepheline. or in other cases scattered acicular prisms. Two occurrences are known. sodalite. The latter forms bright green moss-like patches and growths of indefinite shape. Rocks of this group are known from Rio de Janeiro. it is interesting to note that in both rocks melanite is an important accessory. Scotland. one in Arkansas. Montana and a few other places. which have the shape. . The leucite-hearing dike-rocks are members of the tinguaite and monchiquite groups. composition and sometimes even the outward crystalline shape of leucite. The plutonic leucite-bearing rocks are leucite syenite and missourite. biotite and sphene. sodalite or nosean. Brazil "Pseudoleucites" are rounded areas consisting of feldspar. or in larger masses which have the same characters as the pseudoleucites. it is always euhedral in small. Kola (in Finland). The Scottish rock has been calledborolanite. Arkansas. The missourites are more mafic and consist of leucite. Biotite occurs in some of these rocks. they are probably pseudomorphs or paramorphs. the other in Sutherland.Pseudoleucite from São João Alkaline Massif. equant. &c. other minerals which make their appearance with some frequency are melanite. RJ. Leucite is very often accompanied by nepheline. The leucite tinguaites are usually pale grey or greenish in color and consist principally of nepheline. Where leucite occurs. Both examples show large rounded spots in the hand specimens. and melanite also is present. It has been found only in the Highwood Mountains of Montana. nepheline. the leucite is partly fresh partly altered to analcite.

The commonest ferromagnesian mineral is augite (sometimes rich insodium). often vesicular. The augite varies a good deal in chemnistry and optical character. By far the greater number of the rocks which contain leucite are lavas of Tertiary or recent geological age. The former consist mainly of plagioclase. Those leucite rocks which contain abundant essential plagioclase feldspar are known as leucite tephrites and leucite basanites. Sardinia and Roccamonfina similar rocks are obtained. containing phenocysts of sanidine.In Greenland there are leucite tinguaites with much arfvedsonite. They are black or ashy-grey in color. being usually a variety of labradorite. hauyne and nosean. in Java. Rocks of this class occur also in the tuffs of the Phlegraean Fields. but nepheline is typically absent. Laacher See. which are not sharply distinguished from one another by most authors. In Brazil leucitophyres have been found which belong to the Carboniferous period. titaniferous augite and iron oxides. . as in the leucite syenites. leucitephonolites and leucitophvres. brown hornblende. Melanite is found in some of the lavas. brown or violet (suggesting high Na and Ti content). some of them are rich in melanite. etc. orthoclase is scarce. Leucite monchiquites are fine-grained dark rocks consisting of olivine. The leucitophyres are rare rocks which have been described from various parts of the volcanic district of the Rhine (Olbrck. Microscopic sections of some of these rocks are of great interest on account of their beauty and the variety of feldspathoid minerals which they contain. The rocks in which orthoclase (or sanidine) is present in considerable amount are leucite-trachytes. They have been described from Czechoslovakia. but are less common. (hornblende) and eudialyte. leucite and augite. with olivine in the more basic varieties. melanite and nepheline may also occur. but contain also some sanidine and often much nepheline with hauyne or nosean. From Volcan Ello. but it is rarely high enough in Na and Fe to qualify as aegirine-augite or aegirine. Hornblende and biotite occur also. They are rich in leucite. Many of them also contain nepheline. The ground mass of these rocks is only occasionally rich in glass. Celebes. They are of trachytic appearance. butfeldspar is usually present. Among the accessory minerals biotite.) and from Monte Vulture in Italy. Of these groups the two former. Sodalite or hauyne may also be present. both porphyritic and as an ingredient of the ground mass. near Naples. hauyne. sodalite. augite and biotite. while the latter contain olivine in addition.and nepheline syenites. iron oxides and apatite are the commonest. Although these never contain quartz. being green. It is always idiomorphic with rounded outlines. The feldspar ranges from bytownite to oligoclase. they occur also in Bohemia. The leucite is often present in two sets of crystals. Their pyroxene is principally aegirine or aegirine-augite. are common in the neighborhood of Rome. though there are certain groups of leucite lavas which are non-feldspathic. with a glassy ground mass in which small rounded crystals of leucite are scattered. the much rarer mineral melilite appears also in some examples. Their black augite and yellow green olivine are also easily observed in hand specimens. and may contain many large grey phenocysts of leucite. Wherever they occur they accompany leucite. Kilimanjaro (Africa) and near Trebizond inAsia Minor. leucite. The leucite-tephrites and leucite-basanites of Vesuvius and Somma are familiar examples of this class of rocks.

the former do not. and in Java.Leucite lavas from which feldspar is absent are divided into the leucitites and leucite basalts. melanite. Pyroxene is the usual ferromagnesian mineral. The well-known leucitite of the Capo di Bove. hauyne and perovskite are frequent accessory minerals in these rocks. Celebes and Sardinia. The peperino of the neighborhood of Rome is a leucitite tuff. enclosing many small rounded crystals of leucite. which forms irregular plates. The leucite basalts belong to more basic types and are rich in olivine and augite. Montana. Rome. Celebes and New South Wales similar rocks occur. and accompany tephrites or leucitites in Java. Sanidine. The latter contain olivine. ^ Leucite on Mindat ^ Handbook of Mineralogy http://en. 2. is rich in this mineral. Bracciano and Roccamonfina are other Italian localities for leucitite. and many of them contain melilite in some . Laacher See) and in Bohemia. They occur in great numbers in the Rhenish volcanic district (Eifel. [edit]See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Leucite    ultrapotassic Phonolite Igneous rocks [edit]References 1. near. and resembles that of the tephrites and basanites. Montana. yellow in the hand specimen.wikipedia.

disebut feldspathoids. Leucite. NaAlSi2O6-H2O. Leucite memiliki kerapatan yang jauh lebih rendah dan biasanya memiliki luster daripada analcime yang kusam. Meskipun sebenarnya mineral tetragonal. apabila leucite mendingin. struktur yang isometrik menjadi tidak stabil dan berubah menjadi struktur tetragonal tanpa mengubah bentuk luar. Namanya berasal dari kata yunani yang berarti "putih" dalam kiasan warna yang khas. ditemukan dalam batuan yang mengandung silika miskin dan tidak ada kuarsa. Menariknya. Mineral dari kelompok garnet dan mineral analcime adalah satu-satunya mineral yang umum yang berbentuk trapezohedron.Leucite adalah mineral populer dan menarik. Mineral kimia yang dekat dengan alkali feldspars tetapi miskin dalam konten silika (SiO2). Pada suatu waktu leucite digunakan sebagai sumber kalium dan aluminium. Analcime. strukturnya mudah hancur oleh asam dan membebaskan ion aluminium. Membedakan leucite dari analcime garnet relatif mudah dalam beberapa kasus. Pada temperatur tinggi. Kelompok garnet jauh lebih kompleks dan biasanya sangat berwarna. kadang-kadang ditempatkan dalam grup feldspathoid. Trapezohedron memiliki 24 deltoideus berbentuk wajah. bentuk lahiriahnya adalah pseudo-isometrik dan dengan demikian bentuk kristal sebenarnya adalah pseudo-trapezohedral. Jika kuarsa hadir ketika lelehan tersebut mengkristal. leucite adalah isometrik dan akan membentuk bentuk kristal isometrik trapezohedron. dengan rumus kimia KAlSi2O6 sebenarnya jauh berbeda dengan analcime.blogspot. seperti feldspathoids lain. Leucite adalah anggota kelompok feldspathoid mineral. Leucite adalah salah satu dari sedikit mineral yang membentuk trapezohedron walaupun biasanya dianggap sebagai zeolit. http://aramadzgeo09. hal tersebut akan bereaksi dengan membentuk feldspathoids dan feldspar . Leucite. Mungkin karena aluminium tinggi untuk rasio silikon.html . di mana setiap wajah menempati sepertiga dari posisi oktahedron satu wajah.