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JOHNSTON'S
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Sanskrit

N'ouNS

and Verbs,

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Cornell University Library

3 1924 023 201

126

USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS. IN ENGLISH LETTERS. COMPILED BT CHAELES JOHNSTON." LONDON: LUZAG 1892. . versate diurn&. & 0. . 'NocturnA versate manu. . BENOAL CIVIL SBRVIOE DnBlIN UNITEESITY SANSKRIT PRIZEMAN INDIA OIVIl SERVICE SANSKRIT PRIZEMAN.

archive. There are no known copyright restrictions in text.Cornell University Library The tine original of tiiis book is in Cornell University Library. the United States on the use of the http://www.org/details/cu31924023201126 .

and transliterated. Pending the appearance of such an ideal grammar. away and thus important differences are overlooked.PKEFACE. led from the Devan§. book does not claim to be more It owes its existence to the practical difiSculty which I have felt in putting before students the simple declensions and conjugations in a form in which they might most easily be • learnt by heart. The forms ideal : grammar would contain these two elements all separated first. which every student must learn by heart following in under- and the student who commits thirty pages will probably have to memory the come little difficulty standing all the forms he is likely to across in the . printed separately.garl forms to the English letters. limiting myself as fay as possible to the indispensable elements. Monier-Williams are open to the objection that I say that this little Need than an introduction to Sanskrit grammar ? beginners are compelled to pick out the transliterated forms from amongst the Devanagarl. so and then the Devanagari forms that the eye might follow them. while advanced is students are under the opposite diflBculty: their attention. The grammars of Professors Max-Mtiller. I have printed here a few of the most useful nouns and verbs. Whitney. following the line of least resistance. and Sir M. unimpeded by English transliterations. a section containing the rules.

in fact.IV PEEFACE. of his Sanskrit studies. behind which. My thanks are due to Dr. I have further omitted the accent. J. the larger grammars are entrenched. after wMcli he will to one of the larger two years probaWy turn first grammars for fuller information. the difficulties of which have been greatly exaggerated. Fitzedward Hall for valuable suggestions. I have omitted the rules of phonetic assimilation. 0. practice They are best learned by — in the actual course of reading —and not by rule beforehand. as by a formidable outwork. which can only be properly understood after the actual forms have been learnt by heart . I have excluded everything which might impede a beginner in the ele- mentary study of a beautiful language. . and also the rules for variations of declension and conjugation.

NOUNS. .

.

to. Instrumental. deve. DecUne thus Masculines. devebhyas. wealth annam.' Examples : deva (masculine). by.bhy£lni. with. at Locative. Xdmas. dev4s. wood kulam. devEiis. with.m. than. (subject) (direct object) jale jale jal§.m jal§. two (subject) dev§. in. than to. truth . devebhyas. devasya.bliy§. Nom. god . crow mSnavas.nS. two dev^u. Neuter. two dev§. Masculine and Neuter Stems in 'a. from. Locative. Genitive. Nominative. for.bliyi. food pushpam. devena.m of in. devis Accusative. water. jala (neuter). Accusative. Locative. Cupid hastas. Ablative. leing Neuters. /rom. deveshu. jalebhyas jalebhyas jaIi.ya "aiat for from. jaleshu jalani V. at. Genitive. of two devayos.u. deva. family dhanam. by jalam alam alena jal§. than Genitive. Masculine. Vocative. man analas. two dev§. flower satyam. by Dative.m jal^bhy§.USEFUL SANSKEIT NOUNS AND VERBS. at jale jala Vocative.bhy§. devam Instrumental.n§. IfBUTER.m. Singular.u. Ablative. Sin- Note Masculine D. two (object) devS. Vocative. Dative. two devayos. dev§. devas Accusative. to. Nominative. Plural. hand Mkas. VOWEL STEMS. gular and N. dev§. (subject) (direct object) with.m jalayos jalayos jale Nominative. dev§. for Ablative.bhy am. Dative.t. dev§. two Plural.ya. devS-n jalini jalini jalais Instrumental. Dual. vanam. fire iias. Dual. Dual and D. in.

/re .USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS. Masculine and Feminine Stems in 'i. mati (feminine). thought. Singular.' Examples: agni (masculine). .

/a^'. . dhenu (feminine).USEFUL SANSIvRIT NOUNS AND YEKBS. Singular. Masculine and Feminine Stems in 'u. cow.' Examples: ketu (masculine).

' Examples: datr (masculine).lO USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS. Masculine and Feminine Stems in sister. giver. svasr (feminine). . 'r. Singular.

girl .USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS.. . goddess . devi. u. vadhu. woman. II Feminine Stems in 'i.' Examples : bala. i.

Example : harit.12 USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS. CONSONANT STEMS. Normal Consonant Stem. green. .

13 ..USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VEEBS.

r^jnos N. Ac. r^jabliyas G. V. rajanam I.m L. No Feminines follow this declension. Plural of the Masculine. n&mn). and N. atma(ns)]. rajnas L. rajnas /. rajabhis D. rEij^nas Note that the stem nations. V. r§. raj an N. naman (neuter). r§. r§. rajani V. [raja(ns). Ah.jabliyas Ah. Plural. rSjnas G. Singular N. atman) in the N. D. Ac.janas Ac. L. rajasn V. Stems self .jn§.jne Ah. loses the n before consonant termi- Note the strong stem (raj an. N. r§. rajni. D. r§. Ac. name. lingular. . dtman (masculine). rljabhyam G.' Examples: raj an (masculine). raja Ac. V. Note the strong stem (n^m&n) in the Neuter N. in 'an. Note the contracted stems (rajn. Dual.janau /.H USEFUL SANSKEIT NOUNS AND VERBS. V. Idng . Masculine. rajnS. Ac.

. feminine). well- minded. manas mind. IS Stems in Examples : 'as.USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS.' sumanas (masculine and (neuter).

bhavat.i6 USEFUIj SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VEEBS. /. Singular. mahati V. Ac. agnimati Plural. D. (at). mali§. nialiat§. mahadbhy^m G. mahantau /. iiialiS. Neuter. are the same as the Masculine. /. Ac.4c. all through. L.. bhavadbhyam bhavatos N.ii Ac. V. mahati N. Ac. mahatas G. agnimate agnimatas agnimatas agnimati bhavate bhavatas bhavatas bhavati mahan agniman Dual. bhavan b]iavant§. I). vcLshkatSkB agnimadbhyas agnimatam agnimatsu agnimantas Neuter.ntam maiiatS. mah^nti agnimat Dual. Note N.ntas Ac. .m L. mahat N. bhavantl (which are the same in form as the Neuter Dual) are declined like devi.m agnimatos Plural. N. bhavan bhavantam bhavattl D. fiery. mahate At. V. agnimati.u N. mahatsu V. v. especially Neuter Dual of bhavat. agnim^n agnimantam agnimatS. V. mahadbhyas G. A. . The Peminines mahati. mahatos agnimant^u agnimadb]iy§. bhayat bhavanti agnimanti bhavanti The oblique cases. agnimat. leing. V. niali3. Masctjline.m bhavatsn bhavantas N. bhavadbhyas bhavadbhyas bhavat§. Singular. maliatas agnimantas agnimatas mahadbhis mahadbliyas agnimadbHs agnimadbliyas bhavantas bhavatas bhavadbhis Ah. mahatas L.. great. Ac. Stems in 'ant' Examples : mahat.

Singular. 17 Stems Examples in : 'yans' (yas) and 'vans' shreyans. and vidvans. Masoulinb. N. knowing. (ush). letter.USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS. .

Base (in composition). PRONOUNS AND PRONOMINALS. First and Second Person.i8 USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUKS AND VERBS. .

. AND RELATIVES. 19 DEMONSTRATIVES. INTERROGATIVES.USEFUL SANSKEIT NOUNS AND VERBS.

Interrogatives. Demonstratives. ^—continued. and Relatives.20 USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS. .

VERBS. .

.

USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS. . 23 Bhu. Gerund.

.24 USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS.

Gerund.USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS. 25 . Su.

26 USEFUL SANSKEIT NOUNS AND VERBS. .

27 .trSEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS.

.28 USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS.

Infinitive.USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS. . 29 As.

fowcZ ej"?" stk§. tremble tf. raj.. delight tras.^ skisk.. obtain drsk. §. measure muck. sAme shame vack. sacrifice kr. chit. teme dak. produce ji.i. strike ma.. command wane purify ^. cross mn^. dyut. seroe gam.sh. breathe sad. ^?i<^ vid. (?rmA. fear vraj. kr. speak vad. dk§. give ram. go dvisk. sacrifice. injure ykgo ranj. restrain k^. praise co»er muk. die tap. 5e vrdk. perish sanj. sit i. Zeai. sj)or^ hu. yea?" skru. sAme vah. phal.e kins. str. proclaim pr. Hanson & Co. go vrt. Aear* skvas. 5^0 kram. pfl. 5'rasj? think jan. stem^^ mr. kve. <iw^e tyar. vr. Sitrw d^. p^. sound visk. ea^ khy^. sprsk. fea^'e skt. complete srj. hate ish. s^eep kan.30 USEFUL SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VEEBS. cAoose kam. s<M% yaj. see Ish. nam. g'o gup. tofe krt. paskya. carry vid. /aJ^ pad. 6mc^ budh. Zifi khad. rule nad. protect guh. abandon stu. CM^ nash. see vas. S^ame pat. caw sk§. SIM^' bandk. shiTie krt. A HUNDRED USEFUL ROOTS.. roam mantk. iear kshi. speaA. wish ^fece 5e9i«^ know pervade tksh. ^oMc/i svap. ^row vyatk. rfo love k§. pace ksham. ca^^ Printed by Ballantyne.p. produce skri. Zji^^ yam. siJtc/c bkr. cZweZ^ ^s. &M?*TO trp. perish nind. conquer bhram. see skak. Sear grak. Edinlnrgh and London . tan. feow bkl. Aiirry dam.s. loosen sMk. Aic^e gS.

SANSKRIT NOUNS AND VERBS. p. p. rajani. 14 for rajani read read jnitum. 27 for inatum . 10 (note) for matarau read mitarau. p. CORRECTIONS.