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Consumer Behavior

Buying, Having, and Being
Ninth Edition

Michael R. Solomon
Saint Joseph's University and The University of Manchester (U.K.)

Prentice Hall Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

Subliminal Perception 73 Attention 74 Personal Selection Factors 76 Stimulus Selection Factors 77 Interpretation 79 The Eye of the Beholder: Interpretational Biases 82 Semiotics: The Symbols Around Us 83 Chapter Summary 86 Key Terms 87 Review 87 Consumer Behavior Challenge 88 Case Study 88 Notes 89 \ VII .CON TENTS About the Author xiii Preface xvii Acknowledgments xxiii Should Consumer Research Have an Academic or an Applied Focus? 41 Two Perspectives on Consumer Research 42 Taking It from Here: The Plan of the Book 43 Tk IS Section 1:% Consumers In the Marketplace 3 Chapter Summary 44 Key Terms 45 Review 46 Consumer Behavior Challenge 46 Case Study 48 Notes 49 Chapter 1: Consumers Rule 4 Consumer Behavior: People in the Marketplace 6 What Is Consumer Behavior? 7 Consumer Behavior Is a Process 8 Consumer Behavior Involves Many Different Actors 8 Consumers' Impact on Marketing Strategy 9 Consumers Are Different! How We Divide Them Up 9 Marketing's Impact on Consumers 15 Popular Culture 15 / Consumer-Generated Content 16 What Does It Mean to Consume? 17 The Global Consumer 18 Virtual Consumption and the Power of Crowds 20 Blurred Boundaries: Marketing and Reality 22 Marketing Ethics and Public Policy 23 Needs and Wants: Do Marketers Manipulate Consumers? 25 Are Advertising and Marketing Necessary? 26 Do Marketers Promise Miracles? 27 Public Policy and Consumerism 28 The Dark Side of Consumer Behavior 33 Consumer Terrorism 34 Addictive Consumption 34 Compulsive Consumption 36 Consumed Consumers 37 Illegal Activities 37 Consumer Behavior as a Field of Study 39 Where Do We Find Consumer Researchers? 40 Interdisciplinary Influences on the Study of Consumer Behavior 40 Consumers as Individuals 53 Chapter 2: Perception 54 Sensory Systems 56 Hedonic Consumption and the Design Economy 58 Exposure 68 Sensory Thresholds 68 .

Bisexual. and Transgender (GLBT) Consumers 190 Body Image 192 Ideals of Beauty 192 Working on the Body 199 Body Image Distortions 203 Chapter Summary 204 Key Terms 205 Review 205 Consumer Behavior Challenge 205 Chapter Summary 120 Key Terms 121 Review 121 Consumer Behavior Challenge 121 Case Study 122 Notes 123 Case Study 206 Notes 207 Chapter 4: Motivation and Values 126 The Motivation Process: Why Ask Why? 128 Motivational Strength 129 Needs Versus Wants 132 How Do Our Needs Influence What We Buy? 134 Consumer Involvement .viii Contents Chapter 3: Learning and Memory 92 Learning 94 Behavioral Learning Theories 94 Marketing Applications of Classical Conditioning Principles 97 Cognitive Learning Theory 102 Memory 105 How Our Brains Encode Information 106 Types of Meaning 106 Memory Systems 107 How Our Memories Store Information 108 How We Retrieve Memories When We Decide What to Buy 111 What Makes Us Forget? 112 How We Measure Consumers'Recall of Marketing Messages 116 Bittersweet Memories: The Marketing Power of Nostalgia 119 Chapter 5: The Self 164 What Is the Self? 166 Does the Self Exist? 166 Self-Concept 167 Fantasy: Bridging the Gap Between the Selves 168 Self-Consciousness 172 Consumption and Self-Concept 173 Sex Roles 179 Gender Differences in Socialization 180 Female Sex Roles 184 Male Sex Roles 186 Gay.-137 Levels of Involvement: From Inertia to Passion 138 The Many Faces of Involvement 140 Values 146 Core Values 147 How Do Values Link to Consumer Behavior? 150 Conscientious Consumerism: A New American Core Value? 154 Materialism: "He Who Dies with the Most Toys.WhatWeDo 226 Lifestyles as Group Identities 228 Products Are the Building Blocks of Lifestyles 230 Psychographics 233 Psychographic Segmentation Typologies 239 Geodemography 242 Behavioral Targeting 247 Chapter Summary 248 Key Terms 248 Review 249 Consumer Behavior Challenge 249 Key Terms 159 Review 159 Consumer Behavior Challenge 159 Case Study 160 Notes 161 Case Study 250 Notes 251 . Wins" 156 Chapter Summary 158 Chapter 6: Personality and Lifestyles 212 Personality 214 Consumer Behavior on the Couch: Freudian Theory 214 Neo-Freudian Theories 218 Trait Theory 220 Brand Personality 221 Lifestyles and Psychographics 226 Lifestyle:WhoWeAre. Lesbian.

Contents IX Chapter 7: Attitudes and Persuasion 254 The Power of Attitudes 256 The ABC Model ofAttitudes 257 Hierarchies of Effects 257 How Do We Form Attitudes? 259 All Attitudes Are Not Created Equal 259 The Consistency Principle 260 Self-Perception Theory 262 Social Judgment Theory 262 Attitude Models 264 Do Attitudes Predict Behavior? 267 Trying to Consume 270 How Do Marketers Change Attitudes? 271 Decisions. Decisions: Tactical Communications Options 271 The Elements of Communication 272 An Updated View: Interactive Communications 272 New Message Formats 274 The Source 275 The Message 280 Types of Message Appeals 283 The Message as Art Form: Metaphors Be with You 287 The Source Versus the Message: Do We Sell the Steak or the Sizzle? 289 t Steps in the Decision-Making Process 310 Problem Recognition 310 Information Search 311 Do We Always Search Rationally? 313 Mental Accounting: Biases in the Decision-Making Process 314 How Do We Decide Among Alternatives? 320 Product Choice: How Do We Selectfrom the Alternatives? 325 Neuromarketing: How Your Brain Reacts to Alternatives 326 Cybermediaries 327 Heuristics: Mental Shortcuts 329 Do We Choose Familiar Brand Names Because of Loyalty or Habit? 332 Chapter Summary 336 Key Terms 337 Review 337 Consumer Behavior Challenge 338 Case Study 339 Notes 340 Chapter 9: Buying and Disposing 344 Situational Effects on Consumer Behavior 346 Our Social and Physical Surroundings 348 The Shopping Experience 354 When the Going Gets Tough. the Tough Go Shopping 355 E-Commerce: Clicks Versus Bricks 356 Retailing as Theater 357 Store Image 360 Atmospherics 361 In-Store Decision Making 362 The Salesperson: A Lead Role in the Play 366 Postpurchase Satisfaction 367 Just What Is Quality? 367 What Can We Do When We're Dissatisfied? 369 TQM: Going to the Gemba 370 Product Disposal 371 Disposal Options 371 Lateral Cycling: Junk Versus "Junque" 372 Chapter Summary 2 9 1 Key Terms 292 Review 292 Consumer Behavior Challenge 2 9 3 Case Study 2 9 4 Notes 295 Mlntel Section 2: General Instructions for the Mintel Memo and Dataser Exercises 300 We Are Problem Solvers 306 Perspectives on Decision-Making 307 Types of Consumer Decisions 308 Chapter Summary 373 Key Terms 374 Review 374 Consumer Behavior Challenge 374 Case Study 376 Notes 376 .

Contents .ChapteLl0:JGImup.s__3£LQ Reference Groups 382 When Are Reference Groups Important? 382 Types of Reference Groups 385 Conformity 391 Opinion Leadership 392 How Influential Is an Opinion Leader? 392 Types of Opinion Leaders 393 How Do We Find Opinion Leaders? 395 Word-of-Mouth Communication 398 Negative WOM and the Power of Rumors 400 Cutting-Edge WOM Strategies 401 Chapter Summary 410 Subcultures 455 Chapter 12: Income and Social £Iass_45fi Consumer Spending and Economic Behavior 458 Income Patterns 458 To Spend or Not to Spend. That Is the Question 458 Social Class Structure 461 Pick a Pecking Order 461 Class Structure in the United States 464 Class Structure Around the World 465 Social Class and Consumer Behavior 468 Components of Social Class 469 Status Symbols 475 How Do We Measure Social Class? 479 Chapter Summary 482 Key Terms 483 Review 483 Consumer Behavior Challenge 484 Case Study 484 Notes 485 Key Terms 4 1 1 Review 4 1 1 Consumer Behavior Challenge 412 Case Study 413 Notes 414 Chapter 11: Organizational and 5 Organizational Decision Making 420 Organizational Decision Making 420 B2B E-Commerce 424 The Family 425 The Modern Family 426 Animals Are People Too! Nonhuman Family Members 427 The Family Life Cycle 429 The Intimate Corporation: Family Decision Making 432 Sex Roles and Decision-Making Responsibilities 433 Heuristics in Joint Decision Making 437 Children as Decision Makers: Consumers-inTraining 439 Consumer Socialization 440 Sex-Role Socialization 442 Cognitive Development 442 Marketing Research and Children 443 Chapter Summary 445 Key Terms 446 Review 446 Consumer Behavior Challenge 447 Case Study 448 Notes 449 Mintel Section 3: Mintel Memo and Dataset Exercise 453 Chapter 13: Ethnic. and Consumer Identity 490 Ethnic and Racial Subcultures 491 The "Big Three"American Subcultures 499 Religious Subcultures 504 How Religion Influences Consumption 504 Born-Again Consumers 505 Chapter Summary 506 Key Terms 506 Review 507 Consumer Behavior Challenge 507 Case Study 508 Notes 509 . Racial. Subcultures. Microcultures.

Act Locally 602 Cultural Differences Relevant to Marketers 603 Does GlobalMarketingWork? 605 The Diffusion of Consumer Culture 606 Emerging Consumer Cultures in Transitional Economies 606 XI Review 567 Consumer Behavior Challenge 567 Case Study 568 Notes 569 Chapter 16: Global Chapter Summary 532 Key Terms 533 Review 533 Consumer Behavior Challenge 533 Case Study 534 Notes 535 Mintel Section 4: Mintel Memo and Dataset Exercise 537 Chapter 15: Cultural Influences What Is Culture? 542 Cultural Stories and Ceremonies 545 Myths 546 Rituals 550 Sacred and Profane Consumption 561 Sacralization 561 Domains of Sacred Consumption 562 From Sacred to Profane.Contents Chapter Summary 566 Key Terms 567 Age and Consumer Identity 514 The Youth Market 516 Teen Values. and Desires 517 Gen Y 518 How Do We Research the Youth Market? 522 GenX 523 The Mature Market 524 Baby Boomers 525 The Gray Market 527 Gray Power: Seniors'Economic Clout 527 Perceived Age: You're Only as Old as You Feel 528 How Should Marketers Talk to Seniors? 529 How Can We Segment Seniors? 531 Where Does Popular Culture Come From? 574 How Do We Know What's "In?" 577 High Culture and Popular Culture 580 Reality Engineering 582 The Diffusion of Innovations 587 How Do We Decide to Adopt an Innovation? 587 Behavioral Demands of Innovations 589 Prerequisites for Successful Adoption 590 The Fashion System 591 Cultural Categories 591 Behavioral Science Perspectives on Fashion 593 Cycles of Fashion Adoption 595 Global Diffusion 601 Think Globally. and Back Again 565 Chapter Summary 609 Key Terms 610 Review 610 Consumer Behavior Challenge 611 Case Study 612 Notes 612 Mintel Section 5: Mintel Memo and Dataset Exercise 617 Glossary 619 Index 631 . Conflicts.