You are on page 1of 21

Page |1

IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA

CRIMINAL APPELLATE JURISDICTION CRIMINAL APPEAL NO. 29 with 30 of 2008

STATE OF RAJASTHAN THROUGH SECRETARY, HOME DEPARTMENT……………………………………………...........Appellant(s) Versus ABDUL MANNAN……………………………………………………..…Respondent(s)

WITH

STATE OF RAJASTHAN Versus ABDUL ZABBAR & ANOTHER.

BENCH
DR B.S. CHAUHAN AND SWATANTER KUMAR JI.

Page |2

FACTS OF THE CASE
(1) On 9th December, 1992, at about 11.15 a.m. that morning Satyanarain Baheti, the complainant, was standing outside his house in Bahetiyon-ke-Mohalle in Ward No.6 of Kasba Malpura. Hearing the noise of the stampede and uproar, he entered his house and closed the door. After a while a crowd of 60-70 persons came from the side of Hathai and started shouting, “Maro Maro !!!” and pelting stones at his house. Two or three persons came inside the house after breaking the bolt of the door. Satyanarain ran to stop them but those persons started beating him.

(2) Thereafter, 8-10 persons including Afzal, son of Mota, Mahboob son of Jumma, two brothers of tractorwala, Syyed Jabbar Ahmad tractorwala, Abdul Manjan, son of Jabbar, Hanif, son of Iqbal and Qadir Islam came inside by climbing the back wall. These persons were duly armed with knife, pharsi, sword and lathies. They gave two or three blows with swords on the head of Govind Narain, father of Satyanarain. The remaining persons also inflicted injuries on the head of Govind Narian. Hari Narain, kakaji of Satyanarain, was also standing there and these persons also inflicted injuries with sword and pharsi on his head.

(3) Govind Narain fell down, even then these persons did not stop inflicting injuries on his arms and shoulders with lathies. Besides Kanhaiya Lal Baheti, Babulal Aggarwal and Mahesh Mukar Kacholiya had also witnessed the occurrence. These persons, who had witnessed the occurrence, along with the complainant, brought Govind Narain and Hari Narain to hospital at Malpura.

(4) At the hospital, doctor after examining them declared both of them dead. Resultantly, FIR was registered on 9th December, 1992 at about 12.45 p.m. The case was investigated. On completion of the investigation, the charge-sheet was filed before the court of competent jurisdiction. The case was committed only with regard to two accused namely Hanif and Mehboob. Vide its judgment dated 12th August, 1997, the trial court acquitted both the accused persons.

1998.Page |3 (5) The case in relation to other accused was then committed to the trial court. 1999 relates only to the three accused namely Abdul Zabbar. the subject matter of the judgment of the trial court dated 7th September. Two other accused. namely. Thus. . Afzal and Abdul Mannan. Firoze and Anwar were discharged by the court vide judgment dated 21st March.

Page |4 TRIAL COURT The trial court vide its judgment dated 7th September. 324/149 and 449 of the Indian Penal Code (for short `IPC') was fully established beyond reasonable doubt and sentenced them as follows: (a) For committing an offence under Section 302/149 IPC. Afzal and Abdul Zabbar under Sections 302/149.000/.5. all three accused were awarded rigorous imprisonment for life along with fine of Rs. under Section 449 IPC. all the accused were awarded one year's rigorous imprisonment each and (d) Lastly. 148. to undergo simple imprisonment for three months. (b) Under Section 148 IPC. they were awarded three years' of rigorous imprisonment each along with fine of Rs. 1999 returned a finding that charge against three accused namely Abdul Mannan.each. (c) Under Section 324/149 IPC. in default of payment of fine.1.each and in default of payment of fine to suffer six months' simple imprisonment. .000/. all the three accused were awarded one year's rigorous imprisonment.

1999. 302/149. 324/149 and 449 of IPC. We acquit the appellants Abdul Zabbar. raising various issues in relation to the appreciation of evidence. The High Court vide its judgment dated 15th March. On these premises. 2005. contradiction in statements of witnesses and that no evidence had been led against them. Afzal and Abdul Mannan of the charges under Sections 148.Page |5 HIGH COURT Aggrieved by the judgment of the trial court. Learned trial judge in our opinion did not properly appreciate the prosecution the evidence and committed illegality in convicting and sentencing the appellants. they prayed for setting aside of the judgment of the trial court and claimed acquittal. ” . reliable and trustworthy evidence. false implications. acquitted all the three accused and held that: “A through and scrupulous examination of the facts and circumstances of the case leads to an irresistible and inexplicable conclusion that the prosecution has not established the charge levelled against all the three accused by producing cogent. all the three accused preferred an appeal before the High Court. For these reasons we allow the instant appeals and set aside the judgment dated September 7.

148.Page |6 ISSUES INVOLVED (1) Whether the Supreme Court may interfere with the High Court’s judgement of acquittal and if yes. then under what circumstances? (2) Whether the prosecution has proved its case beyond reasonable doubt? (3) Whether the accused would be held guilty under Sections 302/149. 324/149 and 449 of IPC? .

When an accused is acquitted of a criminal charge. a right vests in him to be a free citizen and this Court is very cautious in taking away that right. points irresistibly to the conclusion that accused is guilty then the Court can interfere even with the judgment of acquittal. However.  “There is no embargo on the appellate court reviewing the evidence upon which an order of acquittal is based. If the prosecution has succeeded in discharging its onus. and the error in appreciation of evidence is apparent on the face of the record then the Court can interfere in the judgment of acquittal to ensure that the ends of justice are met. one pointing to the guilt of the accused and the other to his innocence. The golden thread which runs through the web of administration of justice in criminal cases is that if two views are possible on the evidence adduced in the case. the view which is favourable to the accused should be adopted. The paramount consideration of the court is to ensure that miscarriage of justice is prevented. in conjunction with the chain of events as are stated to have occurred. may be adopted by the Court. if. The presumption of innocence and the right to fair trail are twin safeguards available to the accused under our criminal justice system but once the prosecution has proved its case and the evidence led by the prosecution. Generally. the order of acquittal shall not be interfered with because the presumption of innocence of the accused is further strengthened by acquittal. It is a settled principle of criminal jurisprudence that the burden of proof lies on the prosecution and it has to prove a charge beyond reasonable doubt.Page |7 ARGUMENTS RAISED (1) The Supreme Court said: An appeal against acquittal is considered on slightly different parameters compared to an ordinary appeal preferred to this Court. then the one favourable to the accused. The presumption of innocence of the accused is further strengthened by the fact of acquittal of the accused under our criminal jurisprudence. A miscarriage of justice which may arise from acquittal of the guilty is no less than from the conviction of an . This is the linchpin around which the administration of criminal justice revolves. The courts have held that if two views are possible on the evidence adduced in the case. this principle must be applied keeping in view the facts and circumstances of a case and the thumb rule is whether the prosecution has proved its case beyond reasonable doubt.

State of Rajasthan. 1098 of 2006 titled State of Kerala and Anr. leading to miscarriage of justice or its judgment 1 2 [(2003) 3 SCC 21] AIR 1973 SC 2622. State of Haryana4. If the impugned judgment is clearly unreasonable and relevant and convincing materials have been unjustifiably eliminated in the process. a duty is cast upon the appellate court to reappreciate the evidence where the accused has been acquitted. This renders the judgment of the High Court perverse (the conclusions of the courts below are contrary to the evidence on record or its entire approach in dealing with the evidence is patently illegal. Raj Kishore Jha v.1) The principle to be followed by the appellate court considering the appeal against the judgment of acquittal is to interfere only when there are compelling and substantial reasons for doing so. 7 AIR 2003 SC 4407. 6 AIR 2003 SC 3609.9 In a very recent judgment. v.Page |8 innocent. 10 [AIR 1961 SC 715]. State of Maharashtra2. These are certainly material evidence which have either been completely ignored. it is a compelling reason for interference. or not appropriately appreciated by the High Court. Phola Singh7. State of U. Phani Pal8 and Sachchey Lal Tiwari v. State of Bihar5.05. for the purpose of ascertaining as to whether any of the accused really committed any offence or not. 9 AIR 2004 SC 5039.P.P. Karnail Singh6. ocular evidence and the documentary evidence produced by the prosecution on record. (See Bhagwan Singh v.  These aspects were highlighted by this Court in Shivaji Sahabrao Bobade v. 3 AIR 1996 SC 2935.10  There is also no discussion in the judgment of the High Court on the comparative evaluation of medical evidence. Suchand Pal v. State of Punjab v. a Bench of this Court in Criminal Appeal No. In a case where admissible evidence is ignored. State of Gujarat3. v. Rao decided on 16. State of M. discussed the scope of interference by this Court in an order of acquittal and while reiterating the view of a three Judge Bench of this Court in the case of Sanwat Singh & Ors. Jaswant Singh v.P. 5 AIR 2003 SC 4664.2011. C. State of Punjab v. 4 AIR 2000 SC 1823. Ramesh Babulal Doshi v. . 8 AIR 2004 SC 973.

they knew the accused particularly Abdul Zabbar. (2) The Supreme Court said: Satyanarain (PW 7) has also made statements which fully aid the case of the prosecution and his statement recorded on the adjourned date before the trial court i. There is no animosity between the parties. The statement of these witnesses must be appreciated in the proper perspective.  It is not a case where the medical evidence does not support or corroborate the ocular evidence.e. assault the deceased. and in fact according to these witnesses. 18th March. Some discrepancies or some variations in minor details of the incident would not demolish the case of the prosecution unless it affects the core of the prosecution case. it may not be appropriate for the Court to completely discard such evidence. PWs 4 and 5 ran to their houses. PW5 and PW6. We do not find it appropriate to discard their statements as not inspiring confidence. 1999 which is at variance cannot be treated as gospel truth. This statement clearly shows the trustworthiness of these witnesses as they have stated that there were some other persons whom they could not identify. There is no reason for the Court to hold that PWs 4 and 5 are not trustworthy. PW4. the appellate court should interfere with the order of acquittal) and provides strong reasons for this Court to interfere with the judgment of acquittal. Afzal and Mannan for quite some time. and the doctor would involve the accused falsely. went to the roof of the houses which were adjacent to the house of the deceased and watched some members of the mob. of whom they could identify a few. Unless the discrepancy in the statement of witness or the entire statement of the witness is such that it erodes the credibility of the witness himself. There is no reason. Even if we exclude the statement of PW7 from consideration.Page |9 is unreasonable based on erroneous law and facts on the record of the case. then identity of the accused is still fully established by the statements of PW3. whatsoever advanced. In fact the bare reading of the statement clearly shows this fact. Their statements describe the occurrence in its proper course and are compelling evidence of the same. locked their doors. The core of the prosecution case is that when the mob came. as to why PW4 and PW5 (neighbours of the deceased) who are otherwise independent witnesses. .

the common object can be held to be to cause grievous hurt only and not to commit murder. the case of the prosecution is not that the entire mob had entered the house of the deceased. We may also refer to a very recent judgment of this Court. it was established by the prosecution that A-1 to A. (4) Convicting A1 and A2 under S. 302/149. 1693-1994/2005. However.P a g e | 10  In our considered opinion the cumulative effect of the ocular evidence and documentary evidence is that the prosecution has been able to establish its case beyond reasonable doubt. 2011 where by upsetting the judgment of acquittal passed by the High Court. [1994 Supp 3 SCC 235]. A4 and A5 only dealt blows on legs and arms with their sticks but A1 and A2 dealt blows to the head with the butt end of their axes which proved to be fatal. then the onus stood shifted on the defence to have brought forth suggestions as to what could have brought them to the spot at that dead of night. Mohd. in the present case. Second. common object to commit murder has been fully proved.” (3) Learned counsel for the accused had placed reliance upon the judgment of this Court in Shivalingappa Kallayanappa v. and having failed to do so. Ikram & Ors. State of U. they were under an obligation to rebut this burden discharged by the prosecution. In that case. The High Court committed an error by concluding that the prosecution had failed to discharge its burden.11 decided on 13th June. v. Out of the mob of 50-60 persons only 7 to 10 persons had 11 12 2011 AIR SCW 3844.5 formed an unlawful assembly wherein A1 and A2 were armed with axes and A3. IPC and A3-5 under S. The accused were apprehended and therefore. the facts of that case are entirely different from those of the case in hand. the trial court was justified in recording its findings on this issue. the Court held that taking all the circumstances of the case into consideration.P. A4 and A5 with sticks in order to assault the two deceased persons amongst others. 326/149. Thus. given by us in Cri. this Court held as under: “Once the prosecution had brought home the evidence of the presence of the accused at the scene of the crime. Appeal Nos. . While A3 did not participate. The appellants cannot derive much advantage from the judgment of this Court in that case: First. State of Karnataka12 to contend that there was no common object to commit murder. the judgment proceeds on a surmise that renders it unsustainable.

The case of Lokeman Shah v. not only caused injuries to the vital body parts of the deceased. including head injury. (6) Section 149 consists of two parts.B.P a g e | 11 broken the door of the house and some of them had climbed the wall to enter the house of the deceased. the second part deals with commission of an offence by any member of an unlawful assembly in a situation where other members of that assembly know the likelihood of the offence being committed in prosecution of that object. therefore. Accused have inflicted the injuries after raising slogan and have commonly participated in committing offence which resulted in the death of the deceased. We. (5) Thus. but kept on inflicting injuries even after the deceased had fallen to the ground. The common intention could even develop at the spur of the moment when the three accused. (7) The final point is the common object. were actively inflicting injuries on the body of the deceased. every member of that assembly is guilty of the same offence. which other members have committed in prosecution of the common object. have no hesitation in holding that there is no merit in this contention of the accused and the trial Court applied the law correctly. 13 [(2001)5 SCC 235] . ultimately resulting in their death. in the present case. therefore. The efforts of Satyanarain to save them were in vain and he himself suffered certain injuries. These persons had raised the slogan `maro! maro!' and thereafter had inflicted the injuries upon the body of the deceased. State of W. They. it has been established that more than five persons constituted an unlawful assembly and in furtherance to their common object and intent. the first deals with the commission of an offence by any member of an unlawful assembly in prosecution of the common object of that assembly. In either case. as duly identified.13 on this point would further substantiate the case of the State and diminish the worth of the defence. assaulted and caused injuries to vital parts of the bodies of the deceased.

are cancelled. Rajasthan shall ensure to take them into custody and they shall undergo 14 [1934 L.P a g e | 12 JUDGEMENT (1) An appellate court has full power to review the evidence upon which the order of acquittal is founded. then the Court may interfere with an order of acquittal For the reasons afore-recorded. We concur with the finding of guilt and the quantum of punishment awarded by the trial court. District Tonk.A. but should also express those reasons in its judgment. the judgment of the High Court is set aside and that of the trial court is restored. 398].R. . `distorted conclusions'. but in doing so it should not only consider every matter on record having a bearing on the questions of fact and the reasons given by the court below in support of its order of acquittal in its arriving at a conclusion on those facts. (2) Emphasizing that expressions like `substantial and compelling reasons'. which lead it to hold that the acquittal was not justified. (3) The bail bonds of the accused. `very strong circumstances'. the prosecution evidence points to the guilt of the accused and the judgment is on the face of it perverse. `glaring mistakes' etc are not intended to curtail the extensive powers of an appellate court in an appeal against acquittal. Thus. (2) the principles laid down in Sheo Swarup's case14 afford a correct guide for the appellate court's approach to a case in disposing of such an appeal. the appeals of the State are allowed.e. the court stated that such phraseologies are more in the nature of `flourishes of language' to emphasize the reluctance of an appellate court to interfere with the acquittal. who are on bail. where it is possible to take only one view i. They are directed to surrender within four weeks from today failing which the Chief Judicial Magistrate. we find the present case a fit case for interference in the judgment of acquittal recorded by the High Court. Consequently. such as (i) substantial and compelling reasons (ii) & good and sufficiently cogent reasons and (iii) strong reasons are not intended to curtail the undoubted power of an appellate court in an appeal against acquittal to review the entire evidence and to come to its own conclusion. and (3) the different phraseology used in the judgments of this Court. 61 I. `good and sufficient grounds'.

(4) A copy of the judgment be sent to the concerned CJM for information and action.P a g e | 13 the remaining part of their sentence in terms of the judgment of conviction and punishment awarded by the trial court. .

P a g e | 14 CRITICAL ANALYSIS  Generally. 2011 where by upsetting the judgment of acquittal passed by the High Court. decided on 13th June.  In a considered opinion the cumulative effect of the ocular evidence and documentary evidence is that the prosecution has been able to establish its case beyond reasonable doubt. The golden thread which runs through the web of administration of justice in criminal cases is that if two views are possible on the evidence adduced in the case. this Court held as under: “Once the prosecution had brought home the evidence of the presence of the accused at the scene of the crime. Thus. State of U. It has been rightly held that an appellate court has full power to review the evidence upon which the order of acquittal is founded. Appeal Nos.P. The paramount consideration of the court is to ensure that miscarriage of justice is prevented. 1693-1994/2005. The accused were apprehended and therefore.” . Mohd. the judgment proceeds on a surmise that renders it unsustainable. the view which is favourable to the accused should be adopted. The High Court committed an error by concluding that the prosecution had failed to discharge its burden. We may also refer to a very recent judgment of this Court. then the onus stood shifted on the defence to have brought forth suggestions as to what could have brought them to the spot at that dead of night. and having failed to do so. they were under an obligation to rebut this burden discharged by the prosecution. A miscarriage of justice which may arise from acquittal of the guilty is no less than from the conviction of an innocent. Ikram & Ors. given by us in Cri. one pointing to the guilt of the accused and the other to his innocence. the trial court was justified in recording its findings on this issue. v. the order of acquittal shall not be interfered with because the presumption of innocence of the accused is further strengthened by acquittal.

The first part of the section means that the offence to be committed in prosecution of the common object must be one which is committed with a view to accomplish the common object.P. every person who.” In State of Karnataka v. Intention of assailants as established by evidence of witnesses was to cause death of the deceased and not to cause grievous injury. at the time of the committing of that offence. sticks etc. therefore. In order that the offence may fall under the first part. or imprisonment for life and shall also be liable to fine. Even if the offence committed is not in direct prosecution of the common object of the assembly. Code consists of two parts. it was observed that Section 149 of l. it may yet fall under Section 141. or such as the members or that assembly knew to be likely to be committed in prosecution of that object.P a g e | 15  Now we discuss the related provisions of IPC: SECTION 302: PUNISHMENT FOR MURDER: “Whoever commits murder shall be punished with death. the offence must be connected immediately with the common object of the unlawful assembly of which the accused was a member. The distinction between the two parts of Section 149 cannot be ignored or obliterated. is guilty of that offence. Chikkahottappa alias Varade Gowda and others. In every case it would be an issue to be determined whether the offence committed falls within the first part or it was an offence such as the members of the assembly knew to be likely to be In this case the accused persons allegedly formed unlawful assembly and assaulted deceased with machus. is a member of the same assembly. Accused persons were. Additionally multiple fractures on the base of occipital bone were noticed. held liable to be . if it can be held that the offence was such as the members knew was likely to be committed and this is what is required by the second part of the Section. There were three injuries on head and most of them were deep incised wounds of varying sizes.” SECTION 149: EVERY MEMBER OF UNLAWFUL ASSEMBLY GUILTY OF OFFENCE COMMITTED IN PROSECUTION OF COMMON OBJECT: “If an offence is committed by any member of an unlawful assembly in prosecution of the common object of that assembly.

.P.P. Police guards were posted to provide security to deceased on account of previous rivalry between parties.C. LJ 2034 (S.C read with section 149 of I. The accused were not told that they had to face charge of being member of the unlawful assembly and the common object of such assembly was to commit murder of the deceased and in furtherance of that common object murder was committed and thereby they had the constructive liability and thus they committed the offence punishable under section 302 of I.P a g e | 16 convicted under Section 302 read with Section 149 instead of Sections 326 read with Section 149/148. read with section 149 of I.C.C. Such failure is not merely an irregularity. LJ 829 (S. In the absence of any charge framed against accused under section 302/149 of I.C.m.C. 1999 Cri.C. is not permissible. On account of such firing Jai Dayal died.C. It is not proved from the records that police guards have seen the accused firing the deceased and therefore they cannot be termed as eye15 16 2004 Cri.P. It was held that the testimony of eye-witnesses was neither inconsistent nor contradictory.). The relevant prosecution allegations so as to bring in the ingredients of the offence punishable under section 302 of LP. None of the police guards were examined as witnesses.P.P. In Bala Seetharamaiah v. But by the time they reached the scene of occurrence the accused had already shot at the deceased and have tried to escape from the place. also were not incorporated in the charge framed by the Session Judge. In Bharat Singh v. While deceased was on the field PW-1 Jai Prakash and PW-2 Satya Pal Singh were also there but they ran away for their lives to a certain distance and came only after the assailants left the place. and opened fire at him.16 five appellants were tried for offences under section 302/149 and section 148 Indian Penal Code. the alteration of conviction under section 326 to section 302 read with section 149 of I.00 p.C. ingredients of offence committed by accused in charge-sheet is not a mere irregularity. Rao.C read with section 149 of I.. It was held that failure to mention nature. State of Uttar Pradesh. If any of the police guards posted would have been examined they would have unfolded the fact of their chasing the accused persons and their escape.).P. Perike S. These police guards arrived at the scene of occurrence and even chased the assailants and fired at them but all assailants escaped.P.15 the Session judge did not frame charge against the accused persons for offence punishable under section 302 of I. on the allegation that all of them came armed and surrounded the deceased Jai Dayal Singh while he was busy in cultivation work at 1.

or by means of any poison or any corrosive substance. or by means of any animal. shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years. ARMED WITH DEADLY WEAPON: “Whoever is guilty of rioting. Therefore the conviction of the accused under section 302/149.P a g e | 17 witnesses to the occurrence merely because they chased the assailants. voluntarily causes hurt by means of any instrument for shooting. and shall also be liable to fine. or any instrument which. to swallow. or to receive into the blood. or with both. stabbing or cutting. used as a weapon of offence.” . used as weapon of offence. or with rigorous imprisonment for a term not exceeding ten years.” SECTION 148: RIOTING. or by means of fire or any heated substance. shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years. shall be punishable with 1 [imprisonment for life]. except in the case provided for by section 334. and 148 Indian Penal Code solely on the basis of testimony of eye-witnesses was held to be proper. is likely to cause death. or with both. being armed with a deadly weapon or with anything which. is likely to cause death. or with fine. SECTION 324: VOLUNTARILY CAUSING HURT BY DANGEROUS WEAPONS OR MEANS: “Whoever. Therefore nonexamination of such police people who cannot be termed as eye-witnesses will not be fatal to the prosecution.” SECTION 449: HOUSE TRESPASS IN ORDER TO COMMIT OFFENCE PUNISHABLE WITH DEATH: “Whoever commits house-trespass in order to the committing of any offence punishable with death. or by means of any explosive substance or by means of any substance which it is deleterious to the human body to inhale. or with fine.

after seeing him. 17 accused gathered at the residence of Sudhakaran (A-1) and waited for the appropriate time knowing it well that Sobhanan (P. 2012): Shambhu Lal (PW-1). when they were attacked by the respondents Mohan Lal. 2) would return from the temple. and dhariyas (Scythes) which they used freely to cause injuries to the deceased and Shambu Lal (PW-1). The accused were. Piru (PW.30 a. The prosecution case is that Piru (PW-7) somehow managed to escape from the clutches of the respondents and rushed to the Police Station to lodge an oral report at about 11. on the basis whereof the police registered a case for offences punishable under Sections 147. he ran away and entered into "Sophia Bhawan".W.7) and Lalu (deceased) all real brothers and residents of village Sewana in the State of Rajasthan were on their way back from the house of one Arjunsha Ghanava on 23rd January. 2000 at about 6. Mohan Lal & Ors. 323 and 341 of the IPC.m. also residents of village Sewana.m. Immediately. v. (2) In the case of Ramachandran and Ors. before he could enter the house. 2) succeeded in entering the house and closing the door from inside.W. A charge under Section 302 IPC was accordingly added by the police who completed the investigation and filed a challan before the jurisdictional Judicial Magistrate. Nathu.m. chase him"..P a g e | 18 LATEST CASE LAWS (1) In the case of State Of Rajasthan v. In order to save his life.. 307. However. 2000 at about 9. Kalu and Balu Ram. Laxman. Suraj Mal. (on 23 March. according to the prosecution. . and hurried to the place of occurrence to take the injured Shambhu and Lalu to Pratapgarh Hospital where Lalu succumbed to his injuries on 24th January. Sudhakaran (A-1) shouted "chase him. he was inflicted injury by Sudhakaran (A-1) with the sword stick. armed with lathis.10 p. State of Kerala17. The accused/appellants broke open the door and caused injuries of very 17 AIR 2011 SC 3581. 149. 148.30 p. Sobhanan (P.

In view thereof. Then A-1 carried the head of the deceased out of the room and then A1. it had developed at the time of incident. accused A-1 to A-4 and A-6. Accused were held liable under Sections 302. Even if it was not so. 1995. A-1 to A-4 stabbed the deceased indiscriminately and when the deceased fell down. Ravi(PW-19) was playing carom. Kuttappan (deceased) received as many as 34 injuries.324. All these weapons were used by the appellants for committing the offences and causing injuries to their victims. A2 and A-4 caught hold of the deceased whereas A-1 and A-3 cut the head of the deceased. A-1 to A-4 entered the room where the deceased. 302 of IPC. on 20th December. The accused were having one sword stick. 449.W. one knife and twelve iron rods. armed with knives. PW 1 and PW 19 were playing carom. 18 2011(3) RCR (Criminal) 497. if all the circumstances are taken into consideration. State of Andhra Pradesh18: Around 7. A-6 stood near the door. (3) In the case of Shaik Bade v. 449. got into the 2nd floor of a house belonging to Vali (PW-14). 2) and left him under the impression that he had died. when Madamsetti Venkateswara Rao @ Konda (deceased) alongwith Pinapati Yacob(PW-1) and J.00 p. A-2 and A-3 went on a scooter to the house of Maddamsetti Siva Kumar (PW13) and threw the head in front of his house. two choppers.m. Accused were held liable under Sections 149. 148 of IPC. 149. .P a g e | 19 serious nature to Sobhanan (P. it cannot be held that the appellants had not participated to prosecute a 'common object'.

Allahabad. 2. Gaur. Sarkar. Ltd. 10th Edition.. “Indian Penal Code”. 2003.D. “Textbook on the Indian Penal Code”. Supreme Court Cases. Allahabad.. 3. New Delhi. Allahabad.. 117. AIR Pvt Ltd. S. S. “The Indian Penal Code”.. 2007. Lexis Nexis Butterworths. BOOKS          Basu.C. Vol. Part 1342: October 2011. Eastern Book Company. Lucknow. 4th Edition. Universal Publications. Edition 2006. N. October 2011. Vol. 3. Central Law Agency. Wadhera Publishing House. Allahabad. Nagpur. Part 2: October 2011.P a g e | 20 BIBLIOGRAPHY ACTS AND REPORTERS     Bare Act. Nagpur. Lal. “Commentary on Indian Penal Code. 1st Edition. Orient Publishing Company. 31st Edition. Dwivedi Law Agency.. 4th Edition. “The Indian Penal Code”. Criminal Law Journal. Law Publishers (India) Pvt. New Delhi. Ratanlal & Dhirajlal. 1860”. “The Indian Penal Code. “Penal Law of India”. 3. S. 2011. . Misra. Vol. 2010. Vol.N. 2004. New Delhi. Universal Law Publishing Company. All India Reporter.. “Indian Penal Code”. 1860”. 2006. Hari Singh. Ashoka Law House. AIR Pvt. “R. K. Ltd. Sarvaria. 11th Edition. 9th Edition. Bhattacharya. Gaur. “Commentary on Indian Penal Code.A. Central Law Publications. Nelson’s Indian Penal Code”.. 1860”. 98. Vol. Vol. 18th Edition 2011.. Criminal. 6th Edition. 2007.D. Part 1174.K. Batuk. Nagpur. Allahabad.

2012 at 11:48 a. http://ncrb.vakilno1. http://lawmirror.m.03.03.12 at 9:30 p. http://www. http://indiankanoon.2012 at 6:00 p.m.pdf accessed on 23.m.in/supremecourt/chejudis.in/CII2010/cii-2010/figure%20at%20a%20glance.htm accessed on 16.nic.2012 at 9:00 p.12 at 11 p.nic.com/bareacts/indianpenalcode/s302.m.com/search.m.P a g e | 21 WEBIOGRAPHY          http://www.in/pers/Personalized.com/users/viewfile. http://judis.2012 at 8:19 p.in/CII2010/cii-2010/Chapter%203.03.m.2012 at 11:35 p.12 at 9:30 p.03.asp accessed on 22.03.2012 at 11:30 p.03. http://ncrb.htm accessed on 20.03.03. .php?passed=&searchterm=section%20417%20ipc&sel=h eadnote&court=0 accessed on 22.com/bareacts/indianpenalcode/S495.m.aspx accessed on 21.03.pdf accessed on 23.php?file_id=23897 accessed on 18.vakilno1.org/doc/1342950/ accessed on 22. http://lawmirror.m. http://www.m.manupatrafast.nic.