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# Sums: Operations Scheduling Type 1 - Scheduling n jobs on one machine

Priority Rules for Job sequencing:
1. FCFS (First-come, first-served) orders are run in the order they arrive in the department. 2. SOT (Shortest operating time.)Run the job with the shortest completion time first, next shortest second and so on. It is also referred to as SPT (Shortest processing time). 3. EDD (earliest Due date first) Run the job with earliest due date first. 4. STR (Slack time remaining) Orders with shortest slack time remaining (STR) are run first. STR = Time remaining before due date – Remaining processing time. 5. STR/OP (slack time remaining per operation). Orders with the shortest slack time per number of operations are run first. STR/OP = STR/ Number of remaining operations 6. CR (Critical ratio) this is calculated as the difference between the due date & the current date divided by the number of work days remaining. Orders with smallest CR are run first. 7. LCFS (Last-come, first-served). As orders arrive they are placed on top of the stack the operator usually picks up the order on top to run first. 8. Random order or Whim. The supervisor or operators usually select whichever job they feel like running.

Sum: 1
Job ( in order of Arrival) A B C D E Processing Time (Days) 3 4 2 6 1 Due Date 5 6 7 9 2

Solution: Method :1 First Come First Serve ( FCFS )
Processing Time (Days) A 3 Due Date (Days Hence) 5 Late by (Comparing Due date with Flow time ) 0
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Flow Time 0+3=3

Job Seq.

B C D E Total Flow Time / Late by Average Flow Time / Late by

4 2 6 1

6 7 9 2

3+4=7 7+2=9 9 + 6 = 15 15 + 1 = 16 50 10 divide 5 10

1 2 6 14 23 23 divide 5 4.6

Method :2

Shortest Operating Time ( SOT )
Processing Time (Days) 1 2 3 4 6 Due Date (Days Hence) 2 7 5 6 9 Late by (Comparing Due date with Flow time ) 0 0 1 4 7 12 12 divide 5 2.4

Flow Time 0+1=1 1+2=3 3 +3 = 6 6 + 4 = 10 10 + 6 = 16 36 36 divide 5 7.2

Job Seq. E C A B D Total Flow Time / Late by Average Flow Time / Late by

Method :3

Earliest Due Date ( EDD )
Processing Time (Days) Due Date (Days Hence) 2 5 6 7 9 Late by (Comparing Due date with Flow time ) 0 0 2 3 7
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Flow Time

Job Seq. E A B C D 1 3 4 2 6 0+1=1 1+3=4 4+ 4 = 8 8 + 2 = 10 10 + 6 = 16

Total Flow Time / Late by Average Flow Time / Late by

39 39 divide 5 7.8

12 12 divide 5 2.4

Method :4

Last Come First Serve ( LCFS )
Processing Time (Days) 1 6 2 4 3 Due Date (Days Hence) 2 9 7 6 5 Late by (Comparing Due date with Flow time ) 0 0 2 7 11 20 20 divide 5 4

Flow Time 0+1 = 1 6+1 = 7 7+2=9 9 + 4 = 13 13+ 3 = 16 46 46 divide 5 9.2

Job Seq. E D C B A Total Flow Time / Late by Average Flow Time / Late by

Method :5

Slack Time Remaining Per Operation ( STR )

Calculation of Slack Job ( in order of Arrival) A B C D E Processing Time (Days) 3 4 2 6 1 Due Date STR = DD - PT 2 2 5 3 1

5 6 7 9 2

Note : Orders with shortest slack time run first
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Job Seq. E A B D C Total Flow Time / Late by Average Flow Time / Late by

Processing Time (Days) 1 3 4 6 2

Due Date (Days Hence) 2 5 6 9 7

STR = DD - PT 1 2 2 3 5

Flow Time 0+1=1 1+3=4 4+4=8 8 + 6 = 14 14 + 2 = 16 43 43 divide 5 8.6

Late by (Comparing Due date with Flow time ) 0 0 2 5 9 16

16 divide 5 3.2

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Type 2 – Scheduling n jobs on two machines – (Johnson’s rule) Johnson’s Rule is:
1. From the list of unscheduled jobs, select the one with the shortest processing time in either work center. 2. If the shortest time is at the first work center, do the job first in the schedule otherwise do the job last in the schedule. 3. Remove the job assigned in Step 2 from the list of unscheduled jobs. 4. Repeat steps 1,2 and 3 filling in the schedule from the front and the back until all jobs have been scheduled.

Sum: 1 Job
J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6

Machine A Machine B ( Times in hours) ( Times in hours)
8 6 5 7 3 9 4 7 5 4 6 8

Solution:
Optimum Sequence 1 J5 2 J3 3 J2 4 J6 5 J4 6 J1

• • • • •

Choose the smallest time – 3 hrs – J5 ( on 1st Machine) – so placed this job in the beginning; Next lowest time J1 or J4 – 4 hrs. – Since tie – choose J1 (earlier in numbering of jobs.) ( on 2nd machine ) – So place J1 end of sequence. And place J4 at the end (unfilled space) Next lowest J3 – 5 hrs (same time on both machine so tie) – choose 1st machine – so place J3 from beginning after J5. J2 – 6 hrs (1st Machine) – Place this job from the beginning of sequence. J6 in vacant place.

Note:
• When there is a tie in two stages for two different jobs. In this case, place the job with the smallest time in the first stage as early as possible in the unfilled job sequence.

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Calculation: Cycle time / idle time Machine A & B Machine A Machine B Max Time ( Times in hours) ( Times in hours) Required 8 6 5 7 3 9 38 4 4 7 5 4 6 8 34 42 8 8 7 5 7 6 9

Job J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6 Operation time Machine A /B Idle time machine A/B

Determination of Cycle time & idle time of the two machines: Two methods that can be used: 1. Graphical method or Gantt chart method

2. Tabular column method
Tabular Column method: Machine A Job Sequence J5 J3 J2 J6 J4 J1 Operation Time OT 3 5 6 9 7 8 Time In TI 0 3 8 14 23 30 Time out TO Machine B Operation Time OT 3 6 5+3=8 5 14 7 23 8 30 4 38 4 Time In TI 3 9 14 23 31 38 Time out TO 6+3=9 9 + 5 = 14 21 31 34 42 Idle time Machine A Machine B 4 4 3 2 3 8

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Graphical method or Gantt chart method: - last page.

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Type 3 – Scheduling a set of number of jobs on the same number of machines (n “things” n “destination”) – The Assignment method.
The assignment method is appropriate method in solving problems that have the following characteristics: 1. There are n “things” to be distributed to n “destination” 2. Each thing must be assigned to one & only one destination. 3. Only one criterion can be used (minimum cost, maximum profit, or minimum completion time etc...)

Steps:
Step : 1 Subtract the smallest number in each row from itself & all other numbers in that row. (There will be at least 1 zero in each row.) Subtract the smallest number in each column from itself & all other numbers in that column. (There will be at least 1 zero in each column.) Determine if the minimum number of lines required to cover each zero is equal to n. If so optimal solution has been found, because job machine assignments must be made at the zero entries, & this test proves that this is possible. If minimum number of lines required is less than n, go to step 4. Step : 4 Draw the least possible number of lines through all the zeros. Subtract the smallest number not covered by lines from itself & all other uncovered numbers & add it to the number at each intersection of lines Repeat step 3.

Step : 2

Step : 3

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Sum: 17 Machine 1 A B Job C D E 7 4 5 14 15 13 13 16 17 8 7 11 12 9 12 6 5 2 11 12 3 12 10 4 3 7 5 10 9

Solution:
Step: 1 Row reduction Machine 1 Job A B C D E 3 0 0 0 0 8 7 7 11 8 9 5 6 12 12 0 2 1 3 6 7 4 5 5 7 2 3 4 5

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Step: 2 Column reduction

Machine 1 Job A B C D E 3 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 4 1 3 4 0 1 7 7 4 0 2 1 3 6 5 3 0 1 1 3

Step: 3 Minimum number of lines

Lines = 4 not equal to machines = 5

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Step: 4 Smallest uncovered number was 1. So subtracting 1 from uncovered numbers and adding in to the number at each intersection of lines.

Optimum Solution:

Note: Start assigning with line with 1 zero. Delete row & column & carry out the same process for all jobs.
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Assign 1st - A 4th - B 5th - C 3rd - D 2nd - E Total 4 3 2 5 1

Cost Rs3 10 14 9 5 Rs41

Type 4 - Consecutive days-off (Sums 4, 8, 9, 16)
Objective: Finding the schedule that minimizes the number of five-day workers with two consecutive days off. Steps: Step: 1 Assign the first worker to all of the days that require staffing. Simply recopy the total requirement for each day. Circle the two consecutive days with the lowest numbers, These will be considered for days off. In case of ties: Choose the days-off pair with the lowest requirement on an adjacent day. If tie still remains choose the first of the available tied pairs. For worker 2, Subtract 1 from each of the days not circled with positive number & enter this in the worker 2 row. This indicates that 1 less worker is required on these days because the first worker has just been assigned to them. The 2 steps are repeated for the second worker third so forth until no more workers are required to satisfy the schedule.

Step: 2

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Sum: 4 Jumbo’s restaurant is trying to create a consecutive-days-off schedule that uses the fewest workers. Use the following information to create a 5 days on 2 days off schedule. Day Requirements M 2 Tu 2 W 1 Th 3 F 3 S 4 Su 2

Solution:

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Type – 5 First-hour principle

The first-hour rule says that for the first hour we assign a number of workers equal to the requirement in that period. For each subsequent period assign the exact number of additional workers to meet the requirements. When in a period one or more workers come to the end of their shifts add more workers only if they are needed to meet the requirement.

Sum: 2 A hotel has to schedule its receptionist according to hourly loads. Mgt has identified the number of receptionist needed to meet the hourly requirement which changes from day to day, Assume each receptionist works a 4 hour shift. Given the following requirement in a certain day use first-hour principle to find the personnel schedule:

Period 8AM 9AM Requirement 2 3 10AM 5 11AM 8 Noon 8 1PM 6 2PM 3PM 4PM 5PM 6PM 7PM 5 8 8 6 4 3

Solution:

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