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Design and Construction of Passive Infrared Radial (PIR) Sensor Based Security System

This project has been submitted to the department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering of World University of Bangladesh (WUB) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Electrical and Electronic Engineering.

Submitted by
Sumon Kumar Karmaker Md. Akteruzzaman (ID: WUB 09/08/26/687) (ID: WUB 09/08/26/700)

Under the Supervision of
Mir Afzal Hossain Lecturer, Dept of EEE World University of Bangladesh

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Faculty of Engineering World University of Bangladesh October 2012


Letter of Transmittal

To Mir Afzal Hossain Lecturer Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering World University of Bangladesh Dhaka, Bangladesh

Sub: Submission of project report.

Sir, We are hereby pleased to submit the project report on Design and Construction of Passive Infrared Radial (PIR) Sensor Based Security System. It was a great pleasure to work on such an important topic. This project report was done according to the requirement of the World University of Bangladesh. We believe that this report will certainly help us to evaluate our project work on Design and Construction of PIR Sensor Based Security System. We would be very happy to provide any assistance interpreting any part of the paper whenever necessary.

Sincerely Yours

Sumon Kumar Karmaker Reg. No: WUB 09/08/26/687

Md. Akteruzzaman Reg. No: WUB 09/08/26/700

We do hereby solemnly declare that the work presented in the project report has been carried out by us and has not been previously submitted to any University/ College/ Organization for any academic degree of certificate. We hereby ensure that the work has been presented does not breach any exciting copyright. We further undertake to indemnify the university against any loss or damage arising from breach of the foregoing obligation.

Sumon Kumar Karmaker Reg. No: WUB 09/08/26/687

Md. Akteruzzaman Reg. No: WUB 09/08/26/700


This is to certify that the project report on Design & Construction of PIR Sensor Based Security System is the fide record of project record done by Sumon Kumar Karmaker, Reg. No. WUB 09/08/26/687 and Md. Akteruzzaman, Reg. No. WUB 09/08/26/700 for partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of B. Sc in Electrical & Electronic Engineering from World University of Bangladesh (WUB). The project report has been carried out under my guidance and is a record of benefitted work carried out successfully. I wish their success in future.

Faculty Guide

Mir Afjal Hossain Lecturer Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering World University of Bangladesh


At first we express our heartiest gratefulness to Almighty Allah, without his divine blessings it would have never been possible for us to complete this project successfully. Next, heartfelt thanks go to our supervisor Mr. Mir Afzal Hossain to allow us to complete our project under the guidance with the topic that we were interested in. We are very grateful to his for his valuable suggestions, correction and cordial help through all over the project. Our special thanks goes to professor Dr. Md. Amanullah Choudhury, Head of the Dept of EEE, World University of Bangladesh for his valuable advice and constant guidance in preparing the project paper. We would also like to thank Tanvir Ahmad Tarique, Lecturer and our honorable coordinator and all respected teachers of the Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EEE) for their cooperation and valuable suggestion for us. We are really grateful for their continuous help, support and advice. Without their proper guidance our work would never been completed. Finally, we are thankful to our parents for coordinating with us both mentally and financially to do this project.

Thanks you to all Authors


The Passive Infrared Radial (PIR) Sensor based security system is designed to work for all kind of indoor security purposes. It provided the security mechanism in different places which do not have the security or emergency alarm system. The circuitry of passive Infrared Radial (PIR) sensor based security system is very useful in different places like bank lockers, living room, offices, shopping malls, parking areas etc. This paper evaluates the development of a Low-cost security system using small PIR sensor. The low-power PIR detectors take advantage of pyro electricity to detect a human body that is a constant source of Passive Infrared. The system senses the signal generated by PIR sensor detecting the presence of individuals not at thermal equilibrium with the surrounding environment. Detecting the presence of any unauthorized person in any specific time interval then it triggers an alarm. This highly reactive approach has low computational requirement, therefore it is well-suited to surveillance, industrial applications and smart environments. Tests performed gave promising results.

This is a very good home security system. It offers a very good level of security and it is versatile as well as being highly functional. It is easy to add to the system and improve it further and it has some nice extra features. Motion detectors can be used in many different ways to help make your home more secure. It’s not enough just to protect 2 or 3 doors or windows with sensors. Home owners should invest in a couple, if not several, motion detectors to ensure that your home is fully protected inside and out.

The Passive Infrared Radial (PIR) Sensor based security system which can switch on a Lamp or Alarm when it detects the heat from an object like moving person. The lamp or alarm remains on few minutes depending on the mono time setting of the PIR Sensor used. Ready to fix PIR Sensors are available with Fresnel lens to increase sensitivity and to filter ambient light. Its range is around 5 meters at 45 degree angle. Circuit maker software is used for the simulation of the circuit. The entire project is built split into different section. Each section is explained in sufficient details to understand clearly. It isn’t the cheapest system on the market, but it does offer good value for money with everything taken into account. You can certainly feel assured that you have a good level of protection if you have this system installed in your home.

Page No Letter of Transmittal Declaration Acknowledgements Summary ii iii v vi

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Introduction Background Objective of the Project Methodology Major Components of the Project

1-2 1 1 2 2 2

Chapter 2 Design Criteria of the Security System
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Introduction Block diagram Circuit Diagram Working Principle

3-5 3 3 4 4

Chapter 3 Description of PIR Sensor
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Introduction PIR Sensor Features PIR Sensor PIR Sensor Module Construction Module Circuits operation Mounting of PIR Sensor

6-12 6 7 7 8 9 9


3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11

Fresnel Lens Working of PIR Sensor Connection of PIR Sensor Main Task of PIR Sensor Applications

9 11 12 12 12 13-19 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 18 18 18 18 18 19 19

Chapter 4 Construction of Power Supply
4.1 4.2 4.3 DC Power Supply Circuit Diagram of Power Supply Transformer 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 Transformer features Step down Transformer Applications

Rectification and Smoothing 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.4 Diode 1N4007 Features Applications Full-Wave rectifier

4.4.5 The Smoothing Capacitor 4.4.6 4.4.7 4.5 Full-Wave Rectifier with Smoothing Capacitor Applications

Regulation 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5 LM 7805 Regulator IC Specifications Pin diagram for LM 7805 Pin Description Applications

Chapter 5 Transistor Switching and Relay
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Introduction Features Using Transistor as a Switch Applications Relay Specifications Relay Connection Advantages of relay Disadvantages of relay

20-23 20 20 21 21

22 22 23 23 24-29 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 28

Chapter 6 Oscillator Circuit
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 LM 555 IC Features Pin Assignment NE 555 Timer IC Pin Connections Working of NE 555 Timer IC 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.6 6.7 Monostable Multivibrator Biastable Multivibrator Astable Multivibrator

Application Light Emitting Diode 6.7.1 6.7.3 Features Applications


Buzzer 6.8.1 Uses of Buzzer

29 29


Reset Switch

Chapter 7 Price List
7.1 Price List

30-30 30

Chapter 8 Applications
8.1 8.2 Introduction Applications

31-31 31 31

Chapter 9 Discussion and Conclusion
9.1 9.2 9.3 Discussion Conclusion Recommendation

32-33 32 33 33



List of Figures

Name of the Figure
Figure 2.2: Figure 2.3: Figure 3.3: Figure 3.4: Figure 3.7: Figure 3.8: Figure 4.2: Block diagram of PIR sensor based security system Circuit Diagram PIR Sensor PIR Sensor Module Construction Working of Fresnel lens. Working of PIR Sensor Circuit Diagram of Power Supply

Page No.
3 4 7 8 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 21 22 24 25 27 28

Figure 4.3.2: Step Down Transformer Figure 4.4.1: Diode 1N4007 Figure 4.4.4: Full Wave Rectifier Figure 4.4.6: Resultant output waveform Figure 4.5.3: Pin Diagram for LM 7805 IC Figure 5.2: Figure 4.3: Figure 5.5: Figure 6.1: Figure 6.3: Figure 6.7: Figure 6.8: Transistor C1518 Transistor Switching Diagram 12V DPDT Relay Timer IC NE 555. Pin Assignment of NE 555 Light Emitting Diode (LED) 12 V Buzzer