ISBN: 9788190904223 ©2012 IEEE
Abstract—A high performance electrical drive requires suitable
control method, even when the load and parameters of the motor
are varying during the motion. This paper proposes Adaptive
Neural Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS) controller for minimum
switching loss PWM algorithm based vector controlled induction
motor drives. In the conventional space vector PWM (CSVPWM)
algorithm, the zero voltage applying time is distributed equally in
every sampling interval. The proposed algorithms use the concept
of division of zero state. By varying the zero state time, various
discontinuous PWM (DPWM) algorithms are generated and from
which minimum switching loss PWM (MSLPWM) algorithm has
been developed. Moreover, to reduce the complexity involved in
the conventional space vector approach, the proposed PWM
algorithms are developed by using the concept of imaginary
switching times. By analyzing the switching loss characteristics,
the minimum switching loss PWM algorithms are developed for
induction motor drives. The theoretical evaluation is validated
through the numerical simulation studies.
Index Terms—ANFIS, CSVPWM, DPWM, MSLPWM
I. INTRODUCTION
he growth of high speed power switching devices has
brought high frequency switching operations to power
electronic equipments and has improved the dynamic
performance of inverter fed ac drives. Many schemes have
been proposed for the speed control [1] of induction motor
drives, among which the vector control is most effectual
method. The controllability of torque in an induction motor
with good transient and steady state responses form the main
criteria in the designing of a controller. With the advent of
artificial intelligent techniques, these drawbacks can be
mitigated. One such technique is the use of Fuzzy Logic in the
design of controller either independently or in hybrid with PI
controller [2]. Fuzzy Logic Controller yields superior and
faster control, but main design problem lies in the
determination of consistent and complete rule set and shape of
the membership functions. On the other hand, ANN alone is
insufficient if the training data are not enough to take care of
all the operating modes. These drawbacks can be overcome
by the use of Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference System. The
main concept of a neurofuzzy network is derived from the
human learning process, where an initial knowledge of a
function is first setup by fuzzy rules and then the degree of
function approximation is iteratively improved by the learning
capabilities of the neural network. Hence ANFIS combine the
learning power of neural network with knowledge
representation of fuzzy logic [34].
PWMVSI fed induction motor drives have continuously
drawn the attention of many researchers. Several PWM
algorithms exist, and a survey of these was given in [56]. Out
of several approaches, triangular comparison (TC) approach
and space vector (SV) approach are main implementation
techniques. Conventional space vector PWM (CSVPWM) is
popular and widely used PWM strategy [78].The CSVPWM
algorithm employs equal division of zero voltage vector times
within a sampling interval. Then, a novel of voltage
modulation technique has been proposed using the concept of
effective time to reduce the computational burden involved in
CSVPWM. Also various discontinuous PWM (DPWM)
methods have been proposed by utilizing the freedom of zero
state division. The DPWM methods give less harmonic
distortion at higher modulation indices compared to
CSVPWM and less switching losses at all modulation indices
[9]. To reduce the current ripple at all modulation indices, a
few hybrid PWM algorithms have been developed. In these
algorithms, expressions for rms stator flux ripple for each
sequence have been derived in [10]. Whereas [11] uses a
single expression using the conventional space vector
approach, which increases the complexity of the algorithm. To
avoid the requirement of reference voltage vector, sector
identification and angle determination, the effective time is
determined using the concept of imaginary switching times in
[9, 1216].
But, in the present years, investigate is focussed on the
analysis of the switching loss of the inverter. Several authors
have proposed various methods for reduced switching loss of
the inverter [1718]. The proposed algorithms use the concept
Combining the Priniciples of Minimum
Switching Loss PWM Algorithm and ANFIS for
Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drives
N. Ravisankar Reddy
1
, T. Bramhananda Reddy
1
, D. Subba Rayudu
1
, and J. Amarnath
2
,
Associate Professor, Professor, Professor, E.E.E Department
1
G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India
2
Professor, E.E.E Department
2
J.N.T. University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
netapallyravi@gmail.com, tbnr@rediffmail.com, amarnathjinka@yahoo.com
T
IEEE International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM 2012) March 30, 31, 2012 430
ISBN: 9788190904223 ©2012 IEEE
of division of zero state time. By varying the zero state time,
various discontinuous PWM (DPWM) algorithms have been
generated and from which minimum switching loss PWM
(MSLPWM) algorithm have developed. This paper combines
the principle of Minimum Switching Loss PWM Algorithm
and ANFIS controller for Vector Controlled Induction Motor
Drive.
II. PROPOSED SWITCHING SEQUENCES
In the CSVPWM, the reference voltage vector situated in
the appropriate sector is approximated by the time averaging
over a sampling interval of the two adjacent active voltage
vectors and two zero voltage vectors. The switching turnon
times of the two active states and two zero states are utilized to
determine the duty cycle information to program the active
switching gate signals. When the inverter is operating in the
linear modulation region, the sum of the times the two active
states are utilized is less than the duration of the subcycle, in
which case the remaining time is occupied by using the two
zero states.
A. Generation of DPWM Algorithms
In the proposed algorithm, the switching times can be
calculated by using the concept of imaginary switching times
which uses instantaneous values of the reference voltages of a,
b and c phases. This method does not depend on the magnitude
of the reference voltage space vector and its relative angle with
respect to the reference axis. The imaginary switching time
periods proportional to the instantaneous values of the
reference phase voltages are defined as [9, 13, 2122]
cn
dc
s
cn
bn
dc
s
bn an
dc
s
an
V
V
T
T V
V
T
T V
V
T
T


.

\

÷


.

\

=


.

\

= ; ; (1)
Where V
an
, V
bn
and V
cn
are the instantaneous voltages. The
switching times T
an
, T
bn
and T
cn
could be negative when the
instantaneous reference voltages are negative. Hence, these
times are called as imaginary switching times. The active
vector switching times can be calculated in each sampling
interval as follows:
Let
) , , (
) , , (
) , , (
cn bn an Mid
cn bn an Min
cn bn an Max
T T T Mid T
T T T Min T
T T T Max T
=
=
=
(2)
where Max, Min and Mid are the nominal values used
during the sampling interval. The
function ) , , (
cn bn an
T T T Max selects the maximum value
among
cn bn an
T T T and , . Similarly ) , , (
cn bn an
T T T Min selects
the minimum value and ) , , (
cn bn an
T T T Mid selects the middle
value. Finally, the active state times T
1
and T
2
may be
expressed as
Min Mid Mid Max
T T T T T T ÷ = ÷ =
2 1
; (3)
2 1
T T T T
s Z
÷ ÷ = (4)
The zero voltage vectors switching time is calculated using
(4). The conventional SVPWM algorithm employs equal
division of zero voltage vector times within a sampling
interval. However, by utilizing the freedom of zero state
division, various DPWM methods can be generated. In the
proposed method the zero state time will be shared between
two zero states as
0
T for
0
V and
7
T for 7 V respectively, and
can be expressed as [12]
z o z o
T k T T k T ) 1 ( ;
7 0
÷ = = (5)
In the DPWM methods, any one of the phases is clamped to
the positive or negative DC bus for utmost a total of 120
0
over
a fundamental cycle. Hence, the switching losses of the
associated inverter leg are eliminated. Moreover, within a
sampling interval three switching’s will occur in CSVPWM
algorithm where as two switching’s in DPWM algorithms.
Hence, the switching frequency of DPWM algorithms is
reduced by 33% compared to CSVPWM. Hence a switching
frequency coefficient is introduced as defined in (6)
swDPWM
swCSVPWM
sw
f
f
k = (6)
Fig. 1. Modulating waveforms of various PWM methods at Mi = 0.7
The modulating waveforms of sinusoidal PWM (SPWM),
CSVPWM and all possible DPWM algorithms at modulation
index of 0.7 are shown in Fig. 1.
B. Analysis of Flux Ripple in a Sampling Interval
A In order to generate the required fundamental voltage
sample, the states of the inverter are switched in an average
sense at appropriate instants and not in an instantaneous
fashion. The difference between applied voltage vector and
reference voltage vector is the ripple voltage vector, which
depends on space and modulation index. Fig. 2 represents the
ripple voltage vectors and trajectory of the stator flux ripple
along daxis and qaxis. From Fig 2, it can be observed that the
application of a zero voltage vector results in a variation of the
qaxis component of the stator flux ripple and the application
of any active voltage vector results in variation of the both the
daxis and qaxis components.
IEEE International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM 2012) March 30, 31, 2012 431
ISBN: 9788190904223 ©2012 IEEE
Over a sampling interval, the mean square stator flux ripple
can be calculated using (7) and the mean square flux ripple can
be easily computed and graphically represented for CSVPWM,
DPWMMAX, DPWMMIN, DPWM0, DPWM1, DPWM2 and
DPWM3 methods. The mean square stator flux ripple
characteristics obtained from (7) for various PWM algorithms,
switching frequency coefficient and for different modulation
indices, are shown in Fig.3 – Fig.4.
¸ ¦
¸ ¦
, )
)
`
¹ +
+ +
+ + + + +
+ + + + +
¹
´
¦
=
s
d
s
q
s
q q q q q q
s
q q q q q q
s
q
T
T T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
2 1 2 7 2
7
2 2
7 1 0 7
2
1 0
1
1 0 0
2
1 0
2
0
0 2
0
(rms)
2
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
3
1
(7)
Fig. 2. Voltage ripple vectors and trajectory of the flux ripple
Fig. 3. Variation of stator flux ripple over the first sector for Mi = 0.8 and
ksw=1 (E: CSVPWM, AB: DPWM1, CD: DPWM3, AD: DPWMMAX,
DPWM2 and CB: DPWMMIN, DPWM0)
Fig. 4. Variation of stator flux ripple over the first sector for Mi = 0.906 and
ksw=2/3 (E: CSVPWM, AB: DPWM1, CD: DPWM3, AD: DPWMMAX,
DPWM2 and CB: DPWMMIN, DPWM0
III. SWITCHING LOSS CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROPOSED
PWMSEQUENCES
The switching losses of a PWMVSI fed induction motor
drive are dependent on the current magnitude and type of
PWM method. With continuous PWM methods, all the three
phase currents are commutated within each carrier cycle of a
full fundamental cycle.
Therefore, for all continuous PWM methods the switching
losses are the same and independent of the load power factor
angle. However, with the DPWM methods, the switching
losses are significantly influenced by the type of modulation
method and load power factor angle. Hence, to study the
switching losses of the inverter, it is sufficient to consider the
product of instantaneous line current magnitude of a particular
phase and the number of switchings per sampling time period
in that phase (
a
n ), corresponding to the PWM sequence
considered. This product is referred to as the switching loss
factor (SLF). Since the three phases are symmetric, it is
enough to analyze one phase only. The switching losses of a
PWMVSI induction motor drive can be modeled analytically
by assuming linear current turnon and turnoff characteristics
with respect to time for the inverter switching devices and
considering only fundamental component of the load current.
Let the phase current is
) sin(
max
÷ = t I i
a
(8)
where
a
i is the instantaneous fundamental phase current,
max
I is the maximum value of the fundamental phase current
and is the line side power factor angle. The average
switching energy loss per subcycle ) (
sub
E in an inverter leg is
as given by [5][8]
) ( ) sin(
1
) (
) sin(
1
) (
0
0
max
max
t d t n
t d
I
t I n
avg E
a
a
sub
}
}
÷ =
÷
=
(9)
To obtain the measure of the inverter switching losses, the
average switching energy loss per subcycle must be multiplied
by the number of subcycles per second, i.e., the sampling
frequency (
s
f ). The sampling frequency of the CSVPWM
and ADPWM algorithms is two times the switching frequency
(
sw
f ), while it is three times the switching frequency (
sw
f )
for the existing DPWM methods. The average switching
energy loss over a fundamental cycle for CSVPWM equals
(2/ ). The normalized switching loss due to given PWM
algorithm can be obtained as given in (10).
, )
sw
s sub
sw
f
f avg E
P
2
*
2
) (
= (10)
From (10), the normalized switching loss due to existing
DPWM methods can be obtained and given in (11).
) (
4
3
avg E P
sub sw
= (11)
1
V
2
V
7 0
V V ,
ref
V

rz
V
2 r
V
1 r
V
r 1
r 2
r 7
r 0
q
d
IEEE International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM 2012) March 30, 31, 2012 432
ISBN: 9788190904223 ©2012 IEEE
By observing the DPWM0, DPWM1 and DPWM2
modulating waveforms, it can be given that there is a 30
o
phaseangle ( ) distance between their dclink clamped 60
o
segments. Hence, a new PWM algorithm can be introduced as
generalized DPWM (GDPWM) algorithm which covers the
DPWM0, DPWM1 and DPWM2 algorithms. The and
dependent switching phase current and normalized switching
energy loss per subcycle waveforms of GDPWM algorithm is
shown in Fig.5. The GDPWM algorithm can be represented by
using space vector as shown in Fig. 6. For =0
o
, 30
o
and 60
o
,
DPWM0, DPWM1 and DPWM2 algorithms can be obtained
respectively.
The variation of average switching energy loss per
subcycle ) (
sub
E over a fundamental cycle for various DPWM
algorithms for different values of and is shown in Fig. 7.
From these, it can be observed that at unity power factor
(UPF) DPWM1 clamps a phase around its current peak, which
leads to a significant reduction in ) (avg E
sub
over the
remaining DPWM and conventional SVPWM algorithms.
Therefore, the switching loss mainly depends on the power
factor angle by which the line current lags/leads the line
voltage. Moreover, it may be observed that the effect of
different PWM sequences on the switching loss does not
depend on
ref
V or the fundamental frequency.
Fig. 5. The average switching loss of GDPWM
From Fig. 7, the expressions for normalized inverter
switching loss corresponding to different DPWM algorithms
can be derived as given in [11,19,2122]. The variation of
normalized switching loss of different DPWM algorithms with
power factor angle (both at lagging and leading) is shown in
Fig. 8. The minimum switching power loss solution of the
DPWM0, DPWM1, DPWM2 and DPWM3 yields to minimum
switching loss PWM (MSLPWM) algorithm. The variations of
normalized switching losses of various DPWM algorithms and
proposed MSLPWM algorithm are shown in Fig.9. The
comparison between GDPWM and proposed MSLPWM is
shown in Fig.10.
Fig. 6 Space vector illustration of GDPWM algorithm
7(a)
Fig 7(b)
Fig. 7 (c)
Fig.7. Variation of normalized switching energy loss for existing DPWM
method at UPF (a) DPWM0 (b) DPWM1 (c) DPWM2 (d) DPWM3
ref
V
I
1 =
o
k
1 =
o
k
0 =
o
k
0 =
o
k
1 =
o
k
1 =
o
k
1
V
3
V
2
V
4
V
5
V
6
V
IEEE International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM 2012) March 30, 31, 2012 433
ISBN: 9788190904223 ©2012 IEEE
90 75 60 45 30 15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Power factor angle (degrees)
P
s
w
A
B
D
C
Fig. 8. The variation of normalized switching loss of different DPWM
algorithms (A: DPWM0; B: DPWM1; C: DPWM2 and D: DPWM3)
90 75 60 45 30 15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Power factor angle (degrees)
P
s
w
B
C
A
D
E
Fig. 9. The variation of normalized switching loss of different DPWM
algorithms with power factor angle (A: DPWM0; B: DPWM1; C: DPWM2;
D: DPWM3 and E= MSLPWM)
90 75 60 45 30 15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Power factor angle (degrees)
P
s
w A
B
Fig.10. The variation of normalized switching loss of GDPWM (A) and
MSLPWM (B) algorithms
IV. MSLPWMBASED VECTOR CONTROLLED INDUCTION
MOTOR DRIVE USING ANFIS CONTROLLER
Fig.11 shows the block diagram of MSLPWM based
indirect vector controlled induction motor drive with ANFIS
controller. Adaptive NeuroFuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS)
is a class of adaptive networks that are functionally equivalent
to fuzzy interference system. The ANFIS neurofuzzy system
[4] has been used to implement the proposed model. First, it
uses the training data set to build the fuzzy system in which,
membership functions are adjusted using the backpropagation
algorithm, allowing that the system learns with the data that it
is modeling. The computational work to obtain the parameters
and their adjustments is helped by the gradient descendent
technique.
V. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
To validate the proposed MSLPWM algorithms based
vector controlled induction motor, numerical simulation
studies have been carried out by using Matlab/Simulink. For
the simulation, the induction motor used in this paper is a
1.5Kw, 1440 rpm, 4pole, 3phase induction motor having the
following parameters: R
s
= 4.1ohm R
r
= 2.5ohm, L
s
=0.545H,
L
r
=0.542H, L
m
=0.51H, J=0.04Kgm
2
. Various conditions such
as staring, steady state and speed reversal are simulated and
results are shown from Fig.12  Fig.15. As the proposed
MSLPWM algorithms give less switching losses at unity
power factor conditions.
Fig.11.Block diagram of proposed indirect vector control
Method
Fig.12. Starting transients of MSLPWM based Vector controlled induction
motor at Unity power factor
Fig.13.Ttransients during step change in load for MSLPWM based Vector
controlled induction motor at Unity power factor
VI. CONCLUSION
To reduce the complexity involved PWM algorithms and
switching losses this paper presented various DPWM
algorithms along with the CSVPWM algorithm, which are
generated by using the concept of imaginary switching times.
Finally to reduce the switching losses of the inverter, minimum
ds
V
*
Slip &
Angle
Calculatio
n
P
I
P
I
p
p
p
p
p
p
p
P
P
P
I
3
Phase
Invert
er
H
P
W
M
2Φ
To
3Φ
I
M
3ф
to
2
ф
Field
weak
en
contr
ol
ANFIS
controll
er
qs
i
a
i
b
i
a
S
b
S
c
S
ds
V
*
qs V
*
ds
i
e
qs
i
*
ds
i
*
qs
i
r
r
dc
V
IEEE International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And Management (ICAESM 2012) March 30, 31, 2012 434
ISBN: 9788190904223 ©2012 IEEE
switching loss PWM algorithm have proposed. To verify the
proposed algorithms, switching loss characteristics of the
various PWM algorithms are given and compared. Finally, the
simulation results for proposed PWM algorithm based vector
controlled induction motor drive are presented.
Fig14.Transients during speed reversal for MSLPWM based Vector
controlled induction motor at Unity power factor
Fig15.Transients during speed reversal for MSLPWM based Vector
controlled induction motor at Unity power factor
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N.Ravi Sankar Reddy obtained a A.M.I.E. in electrical engineering from
The Institute of Engineers (IEI), India, Kolkata, M.tech from
J.N.T.Univeristy, Hyderabad in the year 2004.He is presently working as
Associate Professor in the Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Department at G.Pulla Reddy Engineering college, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh,
India. He is currently pursuing Ph.D at J.N.T.University, Hyderabad. He
presented 15 research papers in various national and international conferences
and journals.
His research areas include PWM techniques, and control of electrical
drives.
Dr. T. Brahmananda Reddy was born in 1979. He graduated from Sri
Krishna Devaraya University, Anantapur in the year 2001. He received M.E
degree from Osmania University, Hyderabad, India in the year 2003 and Ph.D
from J.N.T.University, Hyderabad in the year 2009. He is presently Associate
Professor in the Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, G. Pulla
Reddy Engineering College, Kurnool, India. He presented more than 90
research papers in various national and international conferences and
journals.
His research areas include PWM techniques, DC to AC converters and
control of electrical drives.
Dr. J. Amarnath graduated from OsmaniaUniversity in the year 1982, M.E
from Andhra University in the year 1984 and Ph.D fromJ.N.T.University,
Hyderabad in the year 2001.He is presently Professor and Head of
theElectrical and Electronics Engineering Department,JNTU College of
Engineering, Hyderabad and alsohe is the Chairman, Board of studies in
Electrical and Electronics Engineering, JNTU College ofEngineering,
Hyderabad. He presented more than 140 research papers invarious national
and international conferences and journals.
His research areas include Gas Insulated Substations, High Voltage
Engineering, Power Systems and Electrical Drives.
Dr. D. Subba Rayudu received B.E degree in Electrical Engineering
from S.V. University, Tirupati, India in 1960, M.Sc (Engg) degree from
Madras University in 1962 and Ph.D degree from Indian Institute of
Technology, Madras, India in1977.He is at present working as
professor in Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering at
G. Pulla Reddy Engineering College, Kurnool, India.