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B.O.D.

In respond to Question 31 Paper 1 SPM 2009

From a study on river X, this finding is obtained: Biochemical oxygen demand (B.O.D) value is high: Which statement is correct about the river: 1. The river is POLLUTED. 2.The content of dissolved OXYGEN is LOW 3.The river contains LESS/NO living aquatic organisms. 4.The DECOMPOSITION activity by microorganisms is HIGH. Many students get confused over the B.O.D stuff which is related with the BOD experiment to test the pollution in different water samples.. Biochemical oxygen demand or BOD is a chemical procedure for determining the uptake rate of dissolved oxygen by the biological organisms in a body of water. It is not a precise quantitative test, although it is widely used as an indication of the quality of water.

Since less dissolved oxygen is available in the water. This results in a high BOD level. plants grow faster and also die faster. The difference between the two DO levels represents the amount of oxygen required for the decomposition of any organic material in the sample and is a good approximation of the BOD level. In this case. the bacteria will begin the process of breaking down this waste. which is then decomposed by bacteria. This contributes to the organic waste in the water. wrap the water sample bottle in aluminum foil or black electrical tape and store in . fish and other aquatic organisms may not survive. If there is a large quantity of organic waste in the water supply. Untreated sewage varies. much of the available dissolved oxygen is consumed by aerobic bacteria. the rate of photosynthesis by algae and other plant life in the water also increases. When plants grow quickly. When the plants die. 3. Nitrates and phosphates in a body of water can contribute to high BOD levels. Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a measure of the oxygen used by microorganisms to decompose this waste.Record the DO level (ppm) of one immediately using the method described in the dissolved oxygen test. dissolved oxygen (DO) levels decrease because the oxygen that is available in the water is being consumed by the bacteria. Municipal sewage that is efficiently treated by a three-stage process would have a value of about 20 mg/L or less.Take 2 samples of water 2. but averages around 600 mg/L in Europe. The BOD level is determined by comparing the DO level of a water sample taken immediately with the DO level of a water sample that has been incubated in a dark location for 5 days. 1. robbing other aquatic organisms of the oxygen they need to live. For example. sewage. increased water temperatures will speed up bacterial decomposition and result in higher BOD levels. The temperature of the water can also contribute to high BOD levels. warmer water usually will have a higher BOD level than colder water.Moderately polluted rivers may have a BOD value in the range of 2 to 8 mg/L. leaves. When this happens.Place the second water sample in an incubator in complete darkness at 20 °C for 5 days. When this happens. When organic matter such as dead plants. Therefore. When BOD levels are high. The bacteria require oxygen for this process so the BOD is high at this location. If you don't have an incubator. BOD levels will begin to decline. or even food waste is present in a water supply. they also die quickly. Nitrates and phosphates are plant nutrients (maybe from organic fertilisers) and can cause plant life and algae to grow quickly. the demand for oxygen will be high (due to all the bacteria) so the BOD level will be high. they fall to the bottom where they are decomposed by bacteria. The following notes will help you to understand more abot BOD: Microorganisms such as bacteria are responsible for decomposing organic waste. manure. As the waste is consumed or dispersed through the water. As water temperature increases. there will also be a lot of bacteria present working to decompose this waste. Test Procedure: The BOD test takes 5 days to complete and is performed using a dissolved oxygen test kit.

5. 6. we are using methylene blue solution (which is blue in colour ) and will DECOLORIZE faster if there is less dissolved oxygen in the water sample…Vice versa… …The more polluted the water sample is. there is a decline in DO levels..2 Very Good:There will not be much organic waste present in the water supply. . Subtract the Day 5 reading from the Day 1 reading to determine the BOD level. After 5 days. 3 . 4. If there is no organic waste present in the water. This is because the demand for oxygen by the bacteria is high and they are taking that oxygen from the oxygen dissolved in the water.5 Fair: Moderately Clean 6 .. 100 or greater Very Poor: Very PollutedContains organic waste.a dark place at room temperature (20 °C or 68 °F). take another dissolved oxygen reading (ppm) using the dissolved oxygen test kit. there won't be as many bacteria present to decompose it and thus the BOD will tend to be lower and the DO level will tend to be higher. RESULT: BOD Level(in ppm) Water Quality 1 .As for our experiment in our Bio Lab (Malaysian version). when BOD levels are high. the faster the methylene blue solution to decolorise .Record your final BOD result in ppm. NOTE: Generally.9 Poor: Somewhat PollutedUsually indicates organic matter is present and bacteria are decomposing this waste. .

5.9% sodium chloride (salt) solution is isotonic to blood cells. they neither gain nor lose water by osmosis.is a solution where the solute concentration of the solution that the cell is in is the same as the solute concentration of the cell's cytoplasm. 3. osmosis causes water to have a net flow into the cell. When red blood cells are placed in a 0. the force of water trying to exit and enter the cell balances out. Cell in an isotonic environment is in a state of equilibrium with its surroundings. Explain the effect of hypotonic. So 0.9% salt solution. 4. Hypertonic solution refers to a solution. the cell will neither shrink nor swell. hypotonic and hypertonic Red blood Cells/ erythrocytes Plant cells Explain what hypotonic. A hypertonic solution is the opposite of a hypotonic solution. hypertonic and isotonic solutions on plant cell and animal cell. When the amount of impermeable solute is the same on the inside and outside of the cell. osmotic pressure becomes equal. Hypotonic solution refers to a solution that contains less solute compared to the cytoplasm of the cell. Animal and plant cells in an isotonic solution When a cell is placed in a solution where the solute concentration is the same on both sides of the cell membrane. If the solution surrounding the cell is hypotonic. isotonic solution . hypertonic and isotonic solutions are 1. Such a solution is said to be isotonic. has a higher concentration of solutesthan another solution. .Isotonic. 2. so that water is drawn out of the cells and into the solutionby osmosis.

This is a possible because animal cells have no tolerance under hypotonic situations. the cell will not lyse but become turgid because of its strong cell wallthat prevents it from bursting. being in a hypertonic environment results in crenation. nitrates. Plasmolysis is the seperation of plant cell cytoplasm from the cell wall as a result of water loss. This is called deplasmolysis. The plant cell becomes flaccid (soft and weak) 5. In plant cells. 2. .When onion cell is placed in an isotonic solution such as 5% sucrose solution. 4. The effects and applications of osmosis in everyday life 1. This also ensures the concentration of water will be higher outside plant cells than inside. heamolysis and crenation. Explain plasmolysis.. and they will wither. In this situation. 30% sucrose solution 3. calcium. A red blood cell placed in a hypotonic solution (e. the cytoplasm shrink away from the cellulose cell wall and cause plasmolysis. and therefore plants prefer to live in a hypotonic environment. Plant cells plasmolysed and later on the whole plant wilt. The equilibrium of water movement is unable to provide plant cells with internal pressure for structural support. The red blood cell would take in a lot of water and might lyse ("hemolysis")due to pressure inside. 5% sodium chloride solution. hence. In addition. will cause the increase in solute concentration. 4. These allow the buildup of turgor within the cell. Osmosis has a number of life-preserving functions: it assists plants in receiving water. pure water/distilled water) water will enter by osmosis. it will absorb water causing the cytoplasm to expand and comes into contact with the cell wall again. water diffuse from the cell sap into soil water by osmosis. 5. This condition is known as plasmolysis. 3. it helps in the preservation of fruit and meat. but the cell remains joined to the adjacent cells at points called plasmodesmata. and the plants use active transport to transport solutes in.g. Plant cells in an isotonic environment are flaccid. Animal and plant cells in a hypertonic solution 1. Examples of hypertonic solution is sea water. Animal and plant cells in a hypotonic solution 1. the cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall. Turgidity is important in young plants where its help in support. Dissolved ions from chemical fertilisers such as phosphates. in the soil around the roots and root hairs. there is no change in its shape because there is no net movement of water by osmosis. 2. osmosis can be reversed to remove salt and other impurities from water. If the plasmolysed cell is placed in a hypotonic solution. 3. the concentration of solutes inside plant cells is higher than outside.In fact. and is even used in kidney dialysis. it is the osmotic pressure (or turgor pressure) that helps keep the plant from wiltingand losing its shape. When the turgor pressure equals the osmotic pressure. and magnesium. In animal cells. When water is drawn out of the plant cell. The excessive use of chemical fertilizers will cause the plant cells to lose water. 4. In a plant. When an animal cell is set to a hypotonic environment the cell will eventuallylyse (rupture) due to the osmotic pressure. deplasmolysis. where the shape of the cell becomes distorted and wrinkled as water leaves the cell by osmosis. osmosis ceases. but decrease in water molecules concentration. 2.

Which of the following is true about the movement of water molecules in the early stage? A The rate of water molecules exiting the cell is higher than entering the cell B The rate of water molecules entering the cell is higher than exiting the cell C No water molecules are entering or exiting the cell D The rate of water molecules entering and exiting the cell is the same 3. water is constantly flowing into the cell through the process of osmosis. she cuts and washed the mangoes. 7. Paramecium must constantly be expelling water to prevent the cell from becoming bloated with water and potentially bursting. Animals living in an aquatic environment which are not isotonic to their body tissue may face problem due to the process of osmosis. all the water molecules within the food cells are drawn out by osmosis. the mango pickle remains in good edible condition because I The pH of the solution is low II The bacteria that cause food spoilage loses water to the surroundings III The dehydrated condition of the fruit inhibits the grouth of bacteria IV The high concentration of vinegar in the pickles is not conducive to the growth of bacteria A I. Siti is going to prepare some mango pickle. Paramecium has a higher concentration of materials inside the cell than are present in the outside environment. 8. For example. So that it last longer. After 3 hours. Living in fresh water. 14.Which of the following statements explains this phenomenon? A The cucumber cell wall prevents it from shrinking B The cell sap is hypotonic towards the sucrose solution C The high concentration of the cell sap in the vacuole causes water to diffuse in D The cucumber cell wall allows the sucrose molecules to diffuse into the cell 2. being semi permeable to certain substances will act as a gate keeper. it is important for us to take care of our food and water intake. many essential processes in the cells cannot be carried out. After one month. unicellular organism such Paramecium sp. Osmosis helps us in preserving food. If there is any defect in the plasma membrane. Then she adds vinegar and sugar to the mangoes. A plant cell immersed in distilled water. Thus. 13. 12. III and IV 4. III and IV only C II. II and III only B I. Thus the proper functioning of the plasma membrane is important to our health. A plasmolysed cell can revert to its normal condition by being A Immersed in pure water B Immersed in a concentrated salt solution .6. Paramecium has two contractile vacuoles that eliminate water entering the cell by through osmosis and help maintain osmotic equilibrium. 10. the slices are found to be turgid and hard. 11. III and IV only D I. regulating what goes in and out of the cell. The food without water will hinder the bacteria and fungus from growing. Cucumber slices are immersed in 0. causing the whole plant to wilt.1% sucrose solution. First. By using a concentrated salt or sugar solution.The plasma membrane. II.Plasmolyzed cells lose turgidity and support. In order to maintain the proper function of the plasma membrane and the cell as a whole. 9. Questions for you to try out: 1.

the cells are said to be plasmolysed (1m) (ii) To make the vegetables crisp again.Distilled water is hypotonic to the cytoplasm of red blood cells and the cell sap of the onion cells.The vacuoles in the onion cells expand. and the plant cells become turgid (1m) .(1m) . The effects of distilled water on red blood cells differ from those on onion cells when both are placed in equal volumes of distilled water. [5 marks] (b) Some housewives believe soaking vegetables in salt solution before cooking can help eliminate the harmful effects of insecticides that are sprayed on the vegetables.The red blood cells will swell and eventually burst (1m) . resulting in a net flow of water from the surrounding into the cell.However.Osmosis occurs. Preservation of the food by eliminating water from the food involves A osmosis B simple diffusion C active transport D facilitated diffusion ESSAY QUESTION: 1(a) A student made the following observation. (i) Explain why vegetables become soft if they are soaked too long in salt solution. (ii) Suggest how the housewives can restore the vegetables which Have become floppy to their normal condition. -The plasma membranes pull away from the cell walls (1m) -In this condition. the cell wall prevents the onion cells from bursting because it is tough and rigid (1m) (b)(i) -Vegetables which are soaked too long in a salt solution will become soft because the salt solution is more hypertonic than the cytoplasm of the vegetable cells (1m) -Water flow out of the cells. Which of the following processes is affected by the presence of a metabolic poison? A Absorption of water by root hairs B Uptake of iodine by algae living in the sea C Absorption of digested food in the small intestine D The movement of amino acids across the plasma membrane 6.C Immersed in 10% sugar solution D Taken out quickly from the solution 5. housewives can soak the vegetables in water (1m) .(1m) . Explain the student’s observation. causing the cytoplasm and the vacuoles to shrink (1m). [5 marks] Suggested Answer: 1(a).

· Structure Z allows small charged molecules to move in and out of the cell. steroid hormones. Explain why the plasma membrane is known as a semi permeable membrane (6 marks) Suggested Answer: (a) · Structure X allows hydrophobic molecules which can dissolve in lipids such as fatty acids.Sample QS The figure shows a fluid mosaic model of the plasma membrane (a) Explain the functions of the structures X. (b) · The plasma membrane is known as a semi permeable membrane because it only allows the passage of certain molecules and limits the passage of other molecules. vitamins A. · It consists of two layers of phospholipids with protein molecules scattered in them · Molecules that can pass through the plasma membrane easily are those that can dissolve in lipid and small uncharged molecules. Y and Z in the movement of substances across the plasma membrane [4 marks] (b) All movements of substances have to pass through a plasma membrane. D. · Structure Y allows bigger molecules which do not dissolve in lipids like glucose and amino acids to move in and out of the cell. .Plasma membrane. · The conformational change opens a hole through which the molecule can enter or leave a cell. · Molecules which cannot move through the plasma membrane but require proteins include large molecules that do not dissolve in lipid and small charged molecules. · However a carrier protein allows specific molecules to cross the cell membrane by undergoing a conformational change upon the binding of the molecule. E and K to move in and out of the cell. glycerol. · Channel protein allows molecules to steadily diffuse across the membrane through diffusion. · Channel protein does not require the binding of a molecule and conformational change to open.

The conformational change opens a hole through which the molecule can enter or exit a cell. Carrier protein· a protein which transports specific molecules or ions pass through the plasma membrane in which it is embedded and into the cell. Channel proteins allow molecules to diffuse across the membrane through diffusion . whereas Carrier protein allow specific molecules to cross the cell membrane by undergoing a conformational change upon the binding of the molecule. Both are transport proteins which regulate the movement of water-soluble molecules and ions through the plasma membrane.Pore protein Versus Carrier protein The protein molecule that forms a channel or a pore is known as channel or pore protein. ***Carrier protein is used in BOTH facilitated diffusion (which is a passive transport) and Active traansport!! . while the protein that acts as a carrier is known as carrier protein. What is the difference between the behavior of Channel Protein and Pore protein? Answer: Channel proteins do not require the binding of a molecule and conformational change to open.