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A Summer Training Report


A STUDY OF Production &m

arketing in Parag

Allahabad Dugdh Utpadak Sahakari Sangh Ltd. Allahabad
Submitted to the partial fulfillment of

Master of Business Administration program

Session: 2011-2012

Guide by
Mr. Anil Singh (Marketing Manager) Mr. K.M.Panday (Factory manager)

submitted by
sanjay kumar gupta MBA (SIM) IIInd Sem.

Shambhunath institute of management (SIM) jhalwa Allahabad

The making of this project has been a great experience for me on PARAG DARIY ALLAHABAD. During partial fulfillment of my course. I like to tanks Mr. Anil Singh, marketing of Parag dairy for given me an opportunity to my training in their organization and helping me painstakingly. I am thankful for providing me with guidance and resource to my work.






Preface Management is the function of an organization. It is the science and art of preparing plan to organize then as well as direct the human efforts to control the force &until size the materials for the benefits of human beings. The ability to manage is one of the most crucial skills in the . organizing. directing and controlling of various marketing activities. which concerns with planning. to attain the business objective.

A. ihad by training at Parag (Allahabad Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari today. Ltd. . In pursuance of the said requirement.P. students are required to undergo a practical training in some organization. all.) Allahabad U. The main objective of this training is to supplements student’s theoretical knowledge with exposure to practical operation of an organization. M.B. this provide students with better understanding of the area of management and marketing skills applied in enhancing those areas. As an integral part of the curriculum. It is vital to the continued growth of the advance countries and is an essential element in meeting the aspiration of developing nations.


HISTORY The Allahabad Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd was register on February 1975 covering Allahabad district of eastern Uttar Pradesh .s. Union established on co-operative principles w.initially command operations as Allahabad milk supply.f. 1941.february 25.douring .

The new dairy plant with processing capacity of 60TLPD was established with the financial assistance form NDDB Under operation flood –II program.75 lakh &grant Rs. 2002 is Rs. The present it is covering the districts of Allahabad & Kaushambi (Now separate district covered out of Allahabad). At the time when the state of utter Pradesh adopted anent pattern of co-operative during operation flood-II.80 lakh as march .1975 a 20TLDP dairy was commissioned and it was renamed as Allahabad co-operative milk board.270.93 lakh (loan Rs 629. it got registered as Allahabad Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh LTD.899.371. The union in the past has not been paying its regular in statement to NDDB the over due repayment to MDDB as on March 31. The paid up share capital is Rs244.5%to 10%interest for the period of default). As on march 31.18lakh) under difference phases of operation flood program.87Lakh (including the interest at 8. 2000 the union receives finical assistance of Rs.

2002 of which equity form members are only Rs.91 lack and balance Rs.82Crore is form the state government. There are number of religious fairs organized in Allahabad namely a magh each year Ardh kumbh meal every six year and purn kumbh mela 12 years. A total milk production in the milk –shed area is about 10 lakh kg per day and the marketable surplus is about 4. . Lucknow (PCDF).61.31.since the dairy plant is situated in Allahabad it has location advantage of serving to a large floating population due to Allahabad being an important pilgrimage in country. The union caters to the liquid milk demand of the urban centers located with in the milk shed Allahabad (population of about 11lack).182. Private dairy plant with 15 TLPD processing capacity are operating in the milk-shed. The officer in the cadre of manager is also deputation from the PCDF. The union has an elected board and the chief executive is form the common cadre of the Pradeshik co-operative dairy federation.32 kg per day.

The unions own milk procurement is about 28 TLPD small vendors are handing rest of the surplus milk. .

P is the highest milk product state in India having a share of 18% of the total Production of country.DAIRY DEVELOPMENT IN UTTAR PRADESH U. The per capital availability of milk has .

To accelerate the pace of dairy development in the state a state level autonomous unit PARDESHIK CO-OPRATIVE DAIRY FEDRATION LIMITED was established in the year 1962. Kanpur.Initially the federation played the role of a Technical Advisor. In the Coming years Allahabad Varanasi. Become proficient and was given the World Bank assisted operation flood programme in the state. . As years went by PCDF LTD. It was then in the year 1938 LUCKNOW PRODUCTION CO-OPERATIVE MILK UNION was established. Co-operative sector Private sector Co-operative sector The year 1997 saw the advent of the first co-operative milk society at Katra Allahabad. Meerut milk unions saw the light of the day.gone up to 224 games dairy development programme is being Implemented in state though the following sectors. It was unfortunate that no special efforts were made in this direction for the next two decades.

Organization Structure .



(1)Capturing a dominant share of the urban milk market hitherto served in multitude of small milk venders.  Co-operative milk unions at the district level engaged in processing and product manufacturing. . (2)Creating a procurement network to link numerous Cooperative producer Service in different milk shed area to the organized urban dairy industry. (3)Upgrading the milk production capacity of India bovine stock through a programme of crossbreeding veterinary service and auxiliary activities The operation flood programme in the state was being implemented by tree tier co-operative structure  Dairy co-operative societies at the village level handling procurement on milk.

. Pradeshik co-operative dairy federation (PCDE) at the State level changed was the coordination of marketing. OPERATION FLOOD-II coverage was extends to 28 districts started in 1982. where in OPERATION FLOOD-lll launched in 1987 and included two more districts that of the total 83 districts. was implemented in 30 district/as of date in coverage has been extended to 41 districts the operation flood programme completed its third phase in the year 1994-95. Be side’s cattle feed factory of one handed metric tone capacity each at Meerut and Varanasi ware established. OPERATION FLOOD-I was initiated in 1971 and covered 8 districts the Meerut and Varanasi milk sheds.

Co-operative have succeeded in the social and economic upliflment women and down trodden in the rural society. Later on in the year 1990 the parishad was viven the charge to work parallel in milk operation flood unions. .GENERAL INPACT OF PROGARAMME Real ground work in dairying has been done by the co-operatives. Due awareness has been created in the minds of producers and consumers of state. Rural migration to the cities curtailed because of continuous and sustainable employment generation at village level. Loss of genetic material by the middle man checked considerable extent. In its efforts to replicate the programme and accelerate that development in the remaining districts of the state a parallel body in the form of Raiva Dugdh parishad played the role of mainly a licensing authority.

UPDASP. PRAIVATE SECTOR : Presently 25 registered private dairy are functioning in different districts the state. WDP. The programme was launched in 17 districts of state in the first phase.procurement and sales figure for the year reflect 1. IMDP-Intensive mini dairy project: The largest employment Generation programmer named at IMDP under Dean Dayal Roiger yojna was initiation in the year 1991. SHWET Kranti yojna. with a total handling capacity of 46. The progress achieved till the year 1999-2000 indicates the total functional VCD: at5381 with a membership of 2. . RFWP. The dairy development in state utter Pradesh such as: IMDP. SCP.sand1.64lacks liter per day.g.The net capacities available with me affiliated milk unions including the newly acquired PARAG dairy noida-stand at (dairy 155 TLDP Challenge).09lacks liter respectively.75lackes.57lacks k.

Further 3 new districts will be added up. RFWP-Rural family Welfare Programme: Under the aegis of SIFPSA a family welfare project is running at present it is an ideal programme for family through dairy Co-operative societies.In due course of time the scheme at the Government level was renamed as Vishes Roiger yojna. It is currently operating in 13 districts.500 in73 districts of the state. Wherein part of the programme is being funded under the STEP programme of the state Government. WDP-Women dairy project: In the efforts to remove gender basis the state Government has minted WDP through Government of India. . The progress as on date reflects 2096 women Societies with a membership of 80345. For the year 1999-2000 the total number of mini dairies stands at 18.

Of the state for period of.Of the State for a period of MRCB-Milk recording& Conservation of Breed.UPDASP-Uttar Pradesh diversified Agriculture Support Project: A word Band assisted project it is operative though the following components. HAP-Public Health awareness program the programme is operational in 15 distts. . The programme is operational in 07 distts.


Allahabad. The main objectives of the operations flood were following.U.the head office 29park road Lucknow.S)LTD P. The common brand name of the company is’’PARAG’’ the meaning of PARAG is the pollen of the slogan in the logo is:- PURE NATURALE &GOOD HEALTH  In the year 1983 P.THE COMPANYs name is PRADSHIK CO-OPATIVE DAIRY FEDERATIN LTD.S.LTD take royalty of common brand PARAG and the important policy take by Pradeshik co-operative dairy federation ltd who monitors to all the D.C.D. .D.U.F.C.LTD started working under operation flood-!!(Whit revolution) scheme. Mostly unit of milk Sahakari board where connected under operation flood-!!Having the name dough Utpadak Sahakari Sangh (D.  To collect the milk directly form reducers though society.F.S.S LTD. Kanpur. Banarsh ……………  Parag provides hygiritious milk product in year 1983 Operation flood!! Scheme was lunched.

e.S. Uttar Pradesh. Kaushambi Allahabad.S level finely in comes under the state level i.U. Road. To insure the supply of quality milk collected Form the villagers which being sold in the market area of city. Ahmadpur Asrauli is necessary to show the basic sense of project work. India. federation. the new production unit having a capacity of producing milk 60. Manori Dist. T. To save the producer villagers and the customer form the middle man the milk is collected firstly to the society level then it comes to D. . In the year 1995 the unit was sifted form Near Talab Tiwari.000 liters per days is made by NATIONAL DAIRY DEVELOPMENT BOARD. ANATOMY OF WORD ‘’PROJECT’’ Each alphabet of word project itself has come meaning .

O for overhead expenses:These are the expenses is planning and other activities. ANATOMAY OF PARAG:P= Proper A=Arrangement R=Row milk A=Assertion to G=Good Health .P for Planning:It is a technique of looking ahead a constructive reviewing of future need so that present action can be adjusted in view of the established good it is necessary for arrangement and rehabilitation of resource. R for resource:These are helpful in promotion planning.

ANATOMY OF SALES:S=Service A= And L=Low E=Economic ANATOMY OF MARKETING M=Managing Turbulence A=Aggressive forays R=Responsive K=Knowledge building E=Entry into United Area .

T=Timely Initiative L= Ignitions of Innovation N=Newness in approach G=Gaining focus and benefit .

Product Range of Parag Parag-Forms of Goodness & Purity .

And the goodwill & loyalty of its consumers. Mattha. Whole Milk Powder (WMP). As a result. Quality is controlled at as many as five stages under the close observation of trained technicians and all products conform to highest standards. Flavored Milk. The total product range under the Parag brand name include Ghee. Parag Products List S. Milk Cake. Skimmed Milk Powder (SMP).Parag is a brand name for a range of milk products manufactured & distributed by PCDF. Table Butter. The name Parag has become synonymous with high standards of hygiene & quality. Curd. Dairy Whitener & an array of indigenous products like Paneer. This is because the products are processed using the most modern technology & sophisticated machinery. 1.0 Product Liquid Milk Packing . the products retain their natural purity & goodness. Khoa besides all varieties of milk.

200 ML 1000 ML. 200 gm.0 4. 100 ml 200 ml.3 1.M. 500ML.1 1.5 1. 1 Ltr.6 2.20Gm 1 Kg.C.1 7.0 7. 500 ML 1 Ltr.4 1. 100 ml 200 ml 200 ml . 200 ML 500 ML Loose Loose 1000 ML.1 2.100Gm.0 2.1.0 5.50Gm.2 1.2 2.) PARAG TAZA (Tonned) PARAG LITE (DTM) Parag Super Milk Homoganised Standard Milk Standard Milk (Loose) GHEE Poly Pack Sika Pack Tin (A-Mark & Non A-Mark) Table Butter Paneer Peda Sweet Plain Flavored Milk Plain UHT 5 Ltr.2 PARAG Gold (F. 500 ML. 500ML 15 Kg 500Gm.1 6.3 3. 100 gm 250 gm 200 ml.2 7. 180 ML 500 ML.0 6.

500 gm. 200 gm 1 Kg.0 16.0 10.1 10.0 12.0 10.0 Curd Milk (Mattha) Chhach Kheer Rice Kheer Chhena Kheer Besan Laddoo Khoya Rasgolla Gulab Jamun Kalakand Rajbhog 200 ml 500 ml 100 ml 100 ml 250 gm 1 Kg. 500 gm.0 14. 200 gm 1 Kg.2 11. 250 gm 500 gm.0 15. 250 gm .0 9. 500 gm 1 Kg.8. 500 gm.0 13.

Milk products (1) Butter .

(3) Paneer In Parag Paneer is produced by the traditional method in which citric acid is added to the boiled milk and the milk immediately gets Adulated and which is separated and Paneer is obtained. It is prepared exclusively form milk cream of curd of over or Buffalo milk without the addition of salt. color or any preventive And is intended for cooking on the preparation of ghee. (2) Ghee About 43% of total quality of milk produced in India is manufactured into butter and then converted in to ghee. (4) Sweet curd . Bulk of ghee is derived form buffalo milk because it is richer in fat that then cow milk. it contains less then 50% fat or move then 60% moisture. In Parag surplus butter is mutted in steam-jacket kettles’ which are equipped stirrers and heated with steam till moisture is removing.It contains less then 80% milk for more then 15% moisture and high acidity.

Khoya are other products produced by Parag. (6) Others Skimmed milk power. Step involved in evaporated milk & sweetened condensed milk processing . Future products Some new product like coffee powder. (5) Muttha This product is very much in demand. cake. reday to ice-cream power body and other milk drinks are in the testing stages. It is spicy & tasty and the spices added in it are good quality packed Ashok masala. which give it more taste. lassie.It is also prepared by the traditional method. It is packet in small pots of soil. milk.

many used it as a beverage.Evaporated and Condensed Milk Evaporated and condensed milk are two types of concentrated milk from which the water has been removed. However. and candy manufacture. Evaporated milk is milk concentrated to one-half or less its original bulk by evaporation under high pressures and temperatures. ice cream processing. The milk is then canned for consumer consumption and commercial use in baking. This gives regular evaporated milk—the shelf life differs with the fat content—up to 15 months of shelf life. without the addition of sugar. History . This product has a shelf life of two years. Condensed milk is essentially evaporated milk with sugar added. this is rarely the case today. When concentrated milk was first developed in the mid-1800s before the advent of refrigeration. and usually contains a specified amount of milk fat and solids. with the exception of some tropic regions.

Borden met Jeremiah Milbank. a wealthy grocery whole-saler. the first Eagle Brand Consolidated Milk production . Borden wondered how milk could be processed and packaged so that it would not go bad. determining that it was 87% water. this time by train to Washington. This was a problem not only on long ocean voyages but on land. infant passengers began to go hungry. Borden eventually obtained a condensed milk that resisted spoilage. as well. In 1864. By boiling the water off the top of the milk in an airtight pan. On another trip. to apply for a patent for his new product. a young dairy farmer named Gail Borden was on a ship headed home to the United States from the Great Exhibition in London.In 1852. DC. he began to experiment with raw milk. When rough seas made the cows on board so seasick that they could not be milked. Milbank was impressed with Borden's ideas and agreed to finance a condensed milk operation. milk was shipped in unsanitary oak barrels and spoiled quickly. because at the time. When Borden returned home.

To differentiate his own product from that of the licensed plants. Others complained about its appearance and taste because they were accustomed to milk with high water content and that had been whitened with the addition of chalk. condensed milk was blamed for an outbreak of rickets in working-class children because it was made with skim milk. and therefore lacked fats and other nutrients.000 gallons of condensed milk. Borden's Elgin. Borden changed the name of his condensed milk to Eagle Brand.plant opened on the east branch of the Croton River in southeastern New York. The outbreak of the Civil War proved to be good for business when the Union Army ordered the condensed milk for its field rations. In spite of this criticism. the idea of condensed milk caught on to the degree that Borden began to license other factories to produce it under his name. In 1856. About . At the height of the war. Borden's new product was not an unqualified success. Illinois plant was annually producing 300.

Eldridge Amos Stuart. suggested that the company use a similar process but eliminate the addition of sugar to produce evaporated A diagram showing the manufacturing steps involved in making evaporated milk.this time. Meyerbeer was producing the first commercial brand of evaporated milk at his Highland Park. Charles A. Texas. Convinced that his idea held merit. One of their employees. an Indiana grocer in El Paso. Page. Illinois plant. Meyerbeer quit the company and immigrated to the United States. Meyerbeer’s idea was rejected. noted that milk was spoiling in the heat and causing illness in children. two American brothers. By 1885. John Baptist Meyerbeer. and George H. Milk. In the late 1880s. the Helvetica Milk Condensing Company. Stuart developed a method for . founded the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company in Switzerland.

Raw Materials The primary ingredient is raw cow's milk. Louis. In this process. which causes reactions to produce Vitamin D. In 1934. . developed in 1923 by Harry Steenbok. Evaporated and condensed milk processors purchase the milk from nearby dairy farms. enriching the milk. An article on homogenization in the April 16. Missouri. Meyerbeer’s company. became the first to fortify its evaporated milk with Vitamin D.1904 issue of Scientific American had an impact on the concentrated milk industry. the milk is exposed to ultraviolet light. Further improvements followed. Stuart partnered with Meyerbeer to supply Klondike gold miners with evaporated milk in 16-ounce cans.processing canned. which employed the process long before fresh milk plants. In 1899. sterilized evaporated milk. This was accomplished by the process of irradiation. a chemist at the University of Wisconsin. and renamed the Pet Milk Company. now headquartered in St.

Carrageen an. which keeps the milk from breaking down during processing. The Manufacturing Process Evaporated milk 1. the milk is tested for odor. is used as a stabilizing agent. a food additive made from red algae (Irish moss) is used as a suspending agent. The milk is also fortified with Vitamin D through exposure to ultraviolet light. a type of sugar that increases the milk's shelf life. The raw milk is transported from the dairy farm to the plant in refrigerated tank trucks. such as potassium phosphate.A salt. Powdered lactose crystals are added to concentrated milk to stimulate the production of lactose. At the plant. .

bacteria. Both methods increase the milk's stability. 3. the milk is quickly heated in one of two ways. and the composition of milk protein and milk fat.6°C) for 15 seconds. the milk has little or no cooked flavor. (exposing a liquid to a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure) the boiling point of the milk is lowered to 104-113°F (40-45°C). The Ultra High Temperature (UHT) method heats the milk to 280°F (138°C) for two seconds. the milk is concentrated to 3040% solids. decrease the chance of coagulation during storage. sediment. As a result. Through the process of vacuum evaporation. Here. 2. Also. The milk is piped through filters and into the pasteurizers. . and decrease the bacteria level. The warm milk is piped to an evaporator. The composition of protein and fat is measured by passing the milk under highly sensitive infrared lights. The High Temperature Short Time method (HTST) subjects the milk to temperatures of 161 °F (71.taste.

Pre-measured amounts of a stabilizing salt. The milk is piped into pre-sterilized cans that are vacuum-sealed. Condensed milk . 6. This breaks down the fat globules into minute particles. such as potassium phosphate. The milk is then homogenized by forcing it under high pressure through tiny holes. 5. are added to the milk to make it smooth and creamy. 4. 7.A diagram showing the manufacturing steps involved in making condensed milk. This stabilization causes the milk to turn a pale tan. The milk is passed under a series of ultraviolet lights to fortify it with Vitamin D. improving its color and stability.

The milk is then concentrated under vacuum pressure until it measures between 30-40% solid. It is then piped to the evaporator where the water removed. The milk is flash-heated to about 185°F (85°C) for several seconds.1. It is this sugar that preserves the condensed milk. 3. 4. The milk is then agitated to stimulate crystallization. Quality Control The milk industry is subject to stringent regional and federal regulations regarding the prevention of bacteria and the . 2. The milk is cooled and then inoculated with approximately 40% powdered lactose crystals. The milk is piped into sterilized cans that are then vacuum-sealed. It now has a syrupy consistency.

Milk inspectors make frequent inspections. At least one-third of the labor time in the milk industry is devoted to cleaning and sterilizing utensils and machinery. Once the milk arrives at the plant. making its journey from raw milk to evaporated or condensed strictly through pipes. sweetened condensed milk must contain at least 28% by weight of total milk solids and at least 8% by weight of milk fat. it is not touched by the workers. and other machinery. The evaporated milk must also contain 25 International Units (IUs) of vitamin D. Evaporated milk must contain at least 6. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). and at least 23% by weight of total milk solids. at least 16. vats.5% by weight of milk solids that are not fat. The milk is taste-tested for freshness before it leaves the dairy farm and again when it arrives at the processing plants.composition of solids and fats.5% by weight of milk fat. .


Composition of cow’s milk .

4C) .A table showing the components in cow’s milk. The exact composition will vary between cows and between different cow breeds. Milk pasteurization process Collect the milk Checking quality &fat percentage Cleaning Weighting Pasteurization (at62C-72C) Colling (At4.

1. All the while the is held cold preferably at 4. Form the udder. body cells. and some bacteria. Clarification The milk is next passed through a centrifugal clarification to remove sediment. Removal of .4c.Packing fat percentage Selling Milk processing sequence The first step in the processing milk may be a further blending of different to a specified fat Content.

Since the milk is in the layers. 2. which differ in density from the liquid milk. methods for milk pasteurization today are:- . The two accepted. these impurities.these impurities in the clarification is facilitated by distributing the milk in layers over conical disks which remove the high speed. need travel only a very short distance under the influence of centrifugal force to be removed form the milk. The clarified milk is now ready for pasteurization if it is to be processed as market milk. It may contain and to reduce substantially the total bacterial count for improved keeping quality. Pasteurization The aim of pasteurizing milk is to rid the milk of any disease predicting organisms. these impurities. Pasteurization also destroys lipase and other nature milk enzymes. which differ in density form the thin layers.

. Homogenization After pasteurization milk may be homogenized or homogenization may come just before the pasteurization step if the milk has first been warmed to melt the butterfat. (B) High temperature short time method In this method of heating every particle of milk to not less then 72C (161F) and holding at minimum 15 sec. (A) Batch method In this method of heating every particle of milk to not less then 63oC (145oF) and holding at minimum 30 minutes. 3.(A) Batch (holding) method (B) High Temperature short time (HTST) method.

These fat globules have a tendency to gather into culms and rise due to their lighter density than skim milk. This is an advantage to make the milk more uniform and prevents the cream form rising to the top of a container. Processing Sequence . subdivision and uniform dispersion of the fat given homogenized milk a richer taste and a whiter appearing color.Milk and cream have countless fat globules that very form about 0. These are then delivered in refrigerated trucks to retail and outlets. or other types of packages. Skim milk from which the cream has been removed has virtually no fat globules. The purpose of homogenization is to subdivide the fat globules and clumps to such small size that they will no longer rise to the of the milks A distinct layer in the time before the milk is normally consumed. plastic jugs.1to 20um in diameter. In addition. Homogenization and cooling of the milk is followed by packaging in paper cartons.

Cooling 9.7-0. Filling PHE Systems/VARITHERM GEA Procomac Heat treatment. PHE Systems/VARITHERM Inoculation module . Fat standardization (3.Sequence 1. Heat treatment (95°C for 4 min.5%) 3.) 6. 175 Homogeniser module. barg at 70°C) NANOVALVE 5. Inoculation of starter culture 7. Homogenizing (one stage.8 barg at 70°C) Process / Technology STANDOMAT PARAVAC module 4. Niro Soavi. Deaeration (0. Processed milk 2. Fermentation (long or short time) 8.

00 . List of selling rate Parag S.P.NO 1 Product name Parag full cream milk Per lit Per lit Agent rate 34.Allahabad Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd.50/lit Consumer rate 36. Allahabad U.

00 Per lit Per kg 31.00 325.00 32.00 300.00 Per lit 18.2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 500ml pack(gold) Parag full cream milk 1000ml pack(gold) Parag toned milk 500ml pack Parag Janta milk 200ml pack(gold) Parag Janta milk 500ml pack(gold) Parag mix milk Parag Butter 20/40g Parag Butter 100g Parag ghee 1/2lt pack Parag Paneer 100/500g Parag Mattha 200ml Parag Dahi 200ml in Per lit 33.00 Per pp 5.00 19.00 .00 151.00 Per kg Per pack Per kg 273.00 Per lit 28.00 6.00 20.50 35.00 350.00 Per cup 11.00 185.00 12.00 200.00 144.00 29.00 Per lit 19.

00 12.00 .00 200.00 Per lit Per lit 286.00 Per cup 11.13 14 15 16 17 kullhar Parag peda250g pack in Parag Chena Kheer 100g pack in Parag Chhach (500ml)pack in Parag ghee 1it pack in Parag F C M loose milk 6%fat Per kg 185.00 300.00 33.00 Per pack 6.30 7.00 34.


1. . Marketing channels Set of independent organization involved in the process of making product available for consumption. 2.meerut are the main central for milk demand.The basic goal of marketing is the matching the segments supply &demand. Marketing net work of Parag may be representing by the following parts.delhi. metros of up &Delhi under the direction of PCDF ltd lucknow . Sale force 1-Merchant 2-Agents 3-Facilitators LIQUID MILK MARKETING BY PCDF At present the liquid milk having the name ‘’Parag’’ is being marketing thought local unit milk unions major cities.

Marketing channel in Parag  Agent  Customer  Wholesale 3-Distribution system Currently there are 10 Rought (ABC road) in Allahabad city on which Parag supplies milk and near about 1200agent in Allahabad district.One level marketing channel In general the supply of Parag milk product is directory made available to retailers. Tow level marketing channel Few bulk buyers of Parag product. butter. also play the role of wholesalers who supply these products to smaller outlets like one retailer in Allahabad area. like ghee. Paneer. . Mattha. who are only one selling intermediary form factory.

m. Parag agent are given fixed commission on sale of every .4-Supply network Parag milk in supplier dairy in two shift morning and evening. Generally the delivery of milk agent is made to agent is made by the transporter between 4:00to 6:00am in morning &4:30 to 5:30 p. 5-Commission The price of Parag product is fixed according to affordability of the customers. evening after 3and4 hours the vehicle come bake to evening collect the crates and also table payment form agents and the demand voucher for next day B-Payment to transportersOutside transport agencies is hired for distribution and vehicles owners are paid per route according to the type of vehicles.

Paneer. The bulk customer like army canteen are treated as Parag agent and supplier the products at the give to Parag agent Commission rates Gold milk 500ml Toned milk 500ml Janta milk 500ml Butter.item the agent at Parag milk booths are paid slightly more commission. Ghee : 50paise per packet : 50paise per packet : 50paise per packet : 6to8% Competitors .

we can see it by the market shair given below. Parag has no competitor in the pouched milk category. But loose milk given buy dudhiya as is the main competitor.In Allahabad. Total milk supply in Allahabad (market share) Milk vendor’s (60%) retail booths (40%) duly milk (2%) Advertisement of Parag .

Holdings.Parag seems unable to utilize this most power full promotional too. Earlier Parag contract with Aleksandra Advertises (Delhi) for advertisement but at present Ajanta art is dealing with issue or promotion by Poster. Boards& wall paintings. The quality not conveyed forcefully to the customers. Procurement of input Section . Only small hoarding &provided to retailers Parag painted over vehicle and its logo (Smiling sun) only do little to convert a positive image Organization &production.

vitamin A are added in it a provide nourishment to the masses at relatively low price. As The name suggestion this P&L section.  The milk is collection form willagers at the society collection center and then it is pumed into delivery taken by which is taken to the row milk reception dock at milk union plant. transporting&delivering the collection milk. Work function of P&I managers .  Due to delicate nature of milk and risk of section experiences constant time pressure for collection.  Here the milk is filter and used as an input for further processing which involves making of different categories of milk having fat & SNF percentages. working under the P&L manager hears the responsibility of procurement of collected milk and its timely delivery to the factory for further processing. Other additional substance like iodine.

 Milk procurement  Farmer organization  Technological input Quality control and research & development section .

(A.S.S. they are full cream milk. After this goes for pasteurization and finally three type of milk is obtained. At Allahabad Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd. After the pasteurization number of vital test is conducted they are1-total solid test 2 -milk fat test .It is integral and most important department for any Organization. After surpassing one hurdle milk is chilled. skimmed milk. Quality control was implemented in Japanese companies for outstanding performance and Japanese products are known all over the world for their quality.) the quality control department runs Supervisor quickly performs basic test and clear the milk for further processing.tonned milk.D. Today every organization has efficient quality Control system and operating of brings Satisfaction and faith in consumers.U.

P.3-acidity test 4-sources test 5-texture test For different status different standard have been established by government of U. Finance & account section Finance .

Finance Section keeps the records of daily transportation of much such payment to outside parties as supplier, contactors, societies, vehicle owner & individual it also maintains the records of cash collected by the vehicle owner item records.

Accounts section prepares the account of salaries and wages paid monthly to the workforce. It also finds ways of proper allocation of funds auditing & prejudicing are done here.

Ledger Procedure
The entry to items purchased is made on vouchers is stored there fore storekeeper cheeks the Quality & packing of the items and enters then into purchase daybook and a seal is put it. The bills are sent to purchase section for assessment & therefore to accounts section for payments. The purchase day book entries as well as the records of supplies form the stores are transferred to different ledgers according to various

classifications. The maximum minimum & re-order level of inventory are kept in cheek equilibrium is maintained. A monthly progress report is made the beginning of each month of each month for previous month inventory.

Purchase Section

Purchase section maintains regular if flow the required item of deferent use section. These required may be stationary equipments, row material etc. The purchase section keeps the quantity & cost purchase under check following type of purchases takes place in this Organization.

(1)Purchases form approved parties
Some P.C.D.F. Approved parties supply items at lived price on requirement.

(2) Purchases by inviting Quotation
Purchases by inviting quotation For some purchase, quotations are invited and order are given to those who offer good quality products at lower rates.

000. According the bill is passed by the purchasing the required material according the bill passed by the purchase section. which is sent to finance section of payment. distributors & Manufacturer after the approval of general manager (4) Purchases made by purchasing committee The purchasing committee comprises person form purchase sector finance section & other concord user sections for the purchases less than 10. A quality control report is obtained form store or user section after purchasing the required material. Store Section .(3) Direct purchases Direct purchases are also form dealers.

4. Engineering store –comprises of Space part of machines tools etc.have low rate of usage e.S. polythene for milk packing detergents fillings machine.U. spares etc. 2. – FMPS has readymade products for sale in marketed. buchets paper weights etc. A class item – involves heavy amount of money and are fast moving item e. Cooler. C Class Items . PVC Wire tapes Butter. sugar etc. cast involved etc. packing material.for vehicles.g. 3. Allahabad companies of four types of stores1. B class items . 1.S. 3.g.The store section at D. . 2. Firushed milk product store store . chemical and general items. Bulk The item are classified into classes according to their importance frequency of usages.g. General stores -for stationery.involve lesser amount but are fast moving items e. bulk packing material.

management.M.Panday and production manager Mr. Input information. dairy milk is brought form villages where societies are formed. and capital result into desired products and services. labour. Production and marketing of good and services are the fundamental objective of an organization production is an international act of predicting of a physical object through the use of men. value should be Acidity should be less than : 99.7% : 3% : 40-30 : 1% . The content of milk products are as follows:(A) Ghee Milk fat should be less than MOISTURE should be more than P. material and machine.R.………………………. Production department of Parag milk board is under factory manager Mr. K.Production section Production is foundation on which every organization is built. Production is some act of transformed into outputs. land.

should be (E) BUTTER MILK MATTHA Fat should not be less than MOSITURE should not be more then Fat should not be less than in dry : negative : 28-32 : 80% : 16-17% : 1.N. Value (B) Butter Fat should be less than MOISTURE should be CURD Percentage should be Yeast and MOIDCURD should be (C)PANEER MOSITURE should not be more then Fat should not be less than in dry (D)SREILIZED FLAVOURED MILK Suger should be less than Fat should be near about S.F.5% : 20% : 20-25% : 7-8% .5% : 50% : 70% : 50% : 7-8% : 30% : 8.Boiling testing should be R.R.

The first basic thing Hahnemann didtoprove.building. there exists a science beyond the materials. .revision. “An inquiry process that has clearly defined parameters and involves discovery and creation of knowledgefortesting.confirmation. was by means of experimentation and observation. observing it to the levels of criticism and analysing story.refutationofknowle dge and theory by means of investigation of a problem for local decision making”.Research Methodology INTRODUCTION A basic research process can be defined as. Research not only means noting down the observation to analyse them and to reach to a conclusion which is the landmark for future research.

. The major emphasis on the discovery of ideas and insight. Descriptive this study is typically conceded with determine frequency with something occurred or how tow variables very together it situated by an initial hypothesis.RESEARCH design Exploratory Exploration study can be used to establish priorities. It helps in formulating hypothesis for the further research.

The common of drugs types and are:their Descriptive: Symptomatology.TYPES OF RESEARCH There are numerous ways by which we can do research activities. There can be a mixed type of research on one topic as in also. The type of research depends upon our aim. description .

. as in action of different potencies in different Applied: as in application of remedies in specific conditions. as in clinical proving. clinical verifications and Fundamental: collaborative research. Quantitative: as in drug standardization. Conceptual: as in making new treatment concepts in different diseases. Diagnostic: as in action of various remedies in specific conditions and vice versa. Qualitative: conditions. Empirical: research based on experience or observations.Analytical: as in analysing already proved drugs for new spheres of actions.

Secondary data analysis saves time that would otherwise be spent collecting data and. In addition.Data Collection Methods Secondary data Secondary data is data collected by someone other than the user. are collected by the investigator conducting the research. analysts of social and economic change consider secondary data essential. Primary data. . provides larger and higher-quality databases that would be unfeasible for any individual researcher to collect on their own. particularly in the case of quantitative data. Common sources of secondary data for social science include censuses. by contrast. since it is impossible to conduct a new survey that can adequately capture past change and/or developments. organizational records and data collected through qualitative methodologies or qualitative research.

It can be accomplished through various methods. amongst others. there are computer-assisted interviews. Survey can be performed by sending a . It is often undertaken after the researcher has gained some insight into the issue by reviewing secondary research or by analyzing previously collected primary data. Survey Surveys are based on short interviews either face-to-face or on telephone. The term primary research is widely used in academic research. market research and competitive intelligence.Primary data Primary research consists of the collection of original primary data. including questionnaires and telephone interviews in market research. Also. These are based on simple questions. or experiments and direct observations in the physical sciences.

The qualitative research interview seeks to describe and the meanings of central themes in the life world of the subjects. The main task in interviewing is to understand the meaning of what the interviewees say. Interview An interview is a conversation between two people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee.questionnaire and quantifying the response when questionnaires are returned. Definition of 'Sampling' A process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined number of observations will be taken from a larger population. Definition" . The methodology used to sample from a larger population will depend on .

design a sampling scheme that details how and when samples will be taken 3. systematic sampling and observational sampling Define Sampling Plan A sampling plan is a detailed outline of which measurements will be taken at what times. on which material. The steps involved in developing a sampling plan are: 1. identify the parameters to be measured. design data storage formats . as stated in the goals. select sample sizes 4. and by whom. Sampling plans should be designed in such a way that the resulting data will contain a representative sample of the parameters of interest and allow for all questions.the type of analysis being performed. but will include simple random sampling. the range of possible values. to be answered. in what manner. and the required resolution 2.

Market Research Definition: The process of gathering. location and needs of your business's target market. and about the past. present and potential customers for the product or service. spending habits. . the industry as a whole. research into the characteristics. analyzing and interpreting information about a market. and the particular competitors you face. about a product or service to be offered for sale in that market.


Zones of marketing Allahabad city Zone of East Name of ward’s Kishana nager Katghar Mohitismganj Muthiguni Barirhana Sadiabad Daragunj Baghambai Gaddi Alopibag Allahapur Tilaknagar Tagore town Madhawapura Hrishna nagar Khalashi lane Nai Basti Jahngriyabad Trivani nagar .

T.I.I factory and residential colony Bharat pumps and company factory Chak dondi Mukta Bihar Sadar bazaar HBI bazaar & CDA pension Rail bazaar Old cant Ford cant Malaviya nagar Zone of west Naini Bamlauli Sulem-sarai Chek niratul Lookerganj Subeddargunj Doobani nagar Zone of north ADA colony AG officer’s line Pura manohardas Bakshi bazaar Attala .

Meerapur Zone of south Dariabad Malvia nagar Katra (old) Katra (new) Civil lines Rajapur Beli Area Zone of central Shahganj Mumfordganj Phafamou Khuldabad Dandipur Shahganj (old) Atarsuiya Chowk Badshai Mandi Bahadurganj Railway area .


 There should be regular meeting of officers of Parag.  Supply of milk packets should be streamlined. Damaged crate should be replaced.  Freezer on loan should be provided. Agent and delivery man.  Commission on milk packets should be increased.  Proper supply should be provided to agents in all times. .  Non agent should not be allowed to sell Parag products.  Cash system should be properly maintained in cash book.RECOMMNDATIONS  Leakage in packet should be checked and Replacement of leakage packets system should be followed.  Order for more supply should be booked on phone.

 Quality of milk and its byproducts should be further improved. other brands of milk  Price of each product should be printed on the packing in order to avoid the exploration of customers.  Parag product should be advertised in various media. Agents should not be allowed to sale to products simultaneously. so that people May be come more aware of several of products marketed by Parag. .


0%said that commission should be increased and the same member said that thickness of polythene should be mereased 9.0%compaint that non agent were also selling Parag products.5% said that Parag products should be advertised. The agent survey bolsterd some aspect of Parag is the faith in . Broken and unclear creates should be Changed.40. 12.SUGGESTIONS GIVEN BY AGENTS A verity of suggestions were given on Parag. The agent who sells any other products also should be punished.0% suggested that should be regular meeting of officers and agent 10. Other suggestion were that order should be booked on phone.0% suggested for leakage replacement 20. Freezer on loan should be provided etc.0%companied that depot were affecting their sale 7. complaints be heard and action taken on them.


 The company should make efforts for home delivery packed milk to boost the sales and no check the exploitation of consumer of Milk at the hand of milkman.  These needs attention to education People about the nutritious value of packed milk by proper advertisement.  The company should provide promotional tools such as tin board glow shine board etc. to retailers for increasing sales.  Most of agents do not have any fridge visit coolers but PARAG Choose such a point those who are selling more than 100 liters and give such of visit coolers.  The leakage should be taken care of and the leaked packs should be replaced at the time next delivery.  There should a need of proper printing of price and manufacturing date of the pack.

 Company should use holding at Public. Place like bus stop. Railway station parks and Main squire and solo sponsor’s cultural programme for making best relations with consumers.  At the occasion of kumbh mela company should introduce new product like Shrikhand Rasgulla Ramallah etc. in the field of packed sweets.  There should be a need to organize monthly meeting among the Management and retailers/agents for solving the confliction and better communication.

Parag has thus proved that the hard work done in quality control section is paying of and it should keep it up  But it seems that quality is the only assist that Parag has on all other aspect Parag has to show some improvement. An over whelming majority of agents are satisfied with the quality Parag products and only about 10% had complaints regarding this aspect .Conclusion  The agent survey bolstered some aspects of Parag is the faith in its Quality consciousness. This area . Above 80% of the agents are not satisfied with packing and only 10% of the agents are satisfied with packing. About 25% of the agents are dissatisfied will delivery time and 75% are satisfied with the delivery time and 65% are satisfied with the deliverymen. About 17 & of the agents complained of wrong supply of demand as Demand indents were UN carefully read.  The biggest complaint about Parag is the problem of leakage of packets.

The reason for opposition is nonavailability of a helping hand . Most of the agents think that the return they get is quite less on milk and it should be at least 10% Parag needs to convince in the agents regarding this aspect.has to be deal with on a priority basis because Parag doesn’t have leakage replacement system and hence the loss of the milk has to become by the agents. .  The proposed DOOR-DELIVERY scheme of Parag was rejected by majority of his agent’s . This seems to be quite good in view of the fact their competitor some giving agent less commission to their agents.So this scheme can be implemented only it the agents are conscience about the scheme and an increase in commission is allowed in case when they provide door.  The commission rate on selling price of Parag products range for 3% to 20% milk facility.


U.D. Publication  P.D.B.References  Phillip kotler-marketing management  D. Allahabad publication  Handbook of dairy farming –N.S.S.D.C. brochures. pamphlets etc  Previous research paper .F.

Questionnaire .

Parag Flavored milk(200 ml pack) . Sl..) Parag butter(100) Parag ghee (1kg.survey of Parag’s Network 1. Since when do you have products do you sell dairy? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………. Agents name with Name of product Selling Quantity Morning evening 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Parag gold milk Parag toned milk Parag Janta milk(200) Parag Janta milk(500) Parag butter (20&50 gm. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………. 2.) Parag ghee (500) Parag Paneer(500)gm.

11 12 Parag Dahi (200 gm.Do you want improvement in Parag’s product? .Are you satisfied with the Parag’s products? 7.) 3.) Parag Mattha(200ml.Are you satisfied with Parag’s packing? 5.Are you using other company products? Shyam Mamata Amul Other 4.Are you using Parag’s products? 6.

Are you getting Parag’s products according to your demand? .Are you satisfied with the quality of Parag products? 9.8.Are you satisfied with the delivery time? 11.Are you satisfied with the delivery man? 10.

Are you satisfied with the quality of Parag products? .Are you satisfied with the packing of Parag’s products? 13.12.Are you satisfied with the commission you get form Parag’s products? 14.


S Ltd D.S Ltd Ramanager.S.U.S.S.S.S Ltd D.S Ltd D.S Ltd D.U.U.U.U.U.S Ltd D. Muradabad Buland Shahar Kanpur Bundu Kara.S Ltd D.S Ltd D. Meerut Gorakhpur Basti Barabanki Fatehpur Lucknow .S.S.S.S.S Ltd D.S.U. Agra Allahabad Faizabad Barelly Puratpur. both in U.U.U.S Ltd D.P.S.S Ltd D.S Ltd well as out side the state some of these are D.U. Parag has a wide network dairy in U.P.S.U. Varanasi Dulptpur.Member of co-operative dairies in U.U.S.S Ltd D.S.U.S Ltd D.S.

U.S.U.S.S.S Ltd D.S Ltd D.S.U.S Ltd D.U.S.S Ltd Hardoai Unnao Sitapur Rai Bareli Sultanpur Matura Hathras Badauoon Shajjahanpur Farookhabad .S.S.S.S Ltd D.S Ltd D.U.U.U.D.S Ltd D.S.U.U.U.S Ltd D.S Ltd D.S Ltd D.S.