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Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester
Prof. Rogelio V. Quevedo
[Ch 6&7 -
CHAPTER VI: DISCHARGE
FOX V KROEGER 119 Tex. 511, 35 S.W. (2d) 679 (1931) ~kooky~ FACTS: SUBJECT: promissory note for $769.03, payable 12 mos. from June 28, 1921 MAKERS: Mrs. C.M. Fox as principal and J.H. Kroeger as surety PAYEE: Levi State Bank & Trust Company -Mrs. Fox as principal and Kroeger as surety executed the above note. Mrs. Fox died before its maturity. At maturity, on agreement with the payee, Kroeger executed and delivered his own note of the same amount to the payee. The payee bank then assigned the principal note to Kroeger. More than two years later Kroeger sued BJ Fox, executor of Mrs. Fox’s estate. ISSUE: WON the payment of Kroeger as surety discharged the obligation HELD: NO -Under the Texas statute (Sec 119 and 121 taken together), the payment by the principal debtor or by the party accommodated discharges the instrument, but payment by a party secondarily liable, other than the principal debtor or party accommodated, does not extinguish or discharge the debt. By sec 121, the party accommodated is excluded from those secondarily liable, payment by whom does not discharge the instrument. The statute requires payment by the principal debtor to discharge a negotiable promissory note, and that the payment thereof by the surety does not discharge the obligation. Disposition Affirmed. NOTE: the other issue in the case is regarding the right of the surety to collect from the principal what he has paid the creditor. Court held: where the surety pays the debt of the principal, he has his election to either pursue his legal remedies and bring an action on an assumpsit, or the obligation implied by law in his favor for reimbursement by the principal; or he can prosecute an action on the very debt itself, and in either event he stands in the shoes of the original creditor as to any securities and rights of priority. EQUITABLE BANKING CORP V IAC G.R. No. L-74451, May 25, 1988, 161 SCRA 518 ~aida rose~
FACTS -In 1975 Casals (who represented himself as general manager of Casville Enterprises, a business engaged in processing and procurement of lumber products) went to Edward J. Nell Co. and told the company’s sales engineer Claustro of his interest in purchasing a Garrett skidder, one of the many merchandise the company was selling. -Casals was referred to Javier, Nell’s EVP, who asked for cash payment for the skidders. Casals said that Casvile had a credit line with Equitable Bank. Javier then agreed to have two units of skidders paid by way of domestic letter of credit instead of cash. Each unit was to cost P485,000. The domestic letter of credit was to be payable in 36 months and was to be opened within 90 days after date of shipment of the skidders. The first installement was to be due 180 days after shipment and interest was pegged at 14% p.a. -Casals requested that one unit be delivered to Cagayan de Oro before April 24, 1976 together with all its accessories. The letter of credit was to be opened on or before June 30, 1976. The skidder was shipped on May 3. -June 15, 1976 – Casals handed Nell Co. a check amounting to P300,000 postdated August 4, 1976 followed by another check with the same date. Nell Co. considered the checks as partial payment for the skidder or as reimbursement for the marginal deposit due from Casals. -Casals informed Nell Co. that its application for a letter of credit had been approved by Equitable but informed the company that a sum of P400,000 was needed to stand as collateral in favor of Equitable. The amount include P100,000 to clear the title of the Estrada property which was to act as security for the trust receipts issued by the bank. To facilitate the transaction, Nell Co. issued a check for the said amount in favor of Equitable even if the marginal deposit was supposed to be produced by Casville. -Casals wrote Equitable to apply for two letters of credit (an on sight letter of credit for P485,000, a 36-month letter of credit for P606,000 and cash marginal deposit of P300,000) to cover its purchase of the skidders. The skidders were to be mortgaged as security. The bank responded favorably, stipulating a required 30% cash margin deposit, a real estate collateral and chattel mortgage of the equipment. -Casville sent three postdated checks to Nell Co. attached to a letter informing the latter of the bank requirements. The cash margin deposit was to amount to P327,300 and adding the P100,000 needed for the Estrada property, the total amount due to Equitable was P427,300. The postdated checks from Casville
were intended to cover the checks issued by Nell Co. to Equitable. The postdated checks amounted to P427,300. -Nell Co. issued a check worth P427,300 payable to Equitable Bank. The check was made payable to the “order of Equitable Banking Corp. A/C of Casville Enterprises.” The check was sent to Equitable through Casals. Casals deposited the check in Equitable Bank and the teller accepted it as deposit in Casals checking account. Casals then withdrew the amount deposited. -Upon presentation for encashment, Nell Co. discovered that the three checks amounting to P427,300 were all dishonored for having been drawn against a closed account. Nell Co. checked the status of the letter of credit and was informed by Equitable that no letter of credit had been opened and that the entire amount of P427,300 had been withdrawn. -Casals and Casville recognized their liability towards Nell Co. so they assigned the Garrett skidder to the latter for the amount of P450,000 as partial satisfaction. -In determining the liability of Equitable Bank to Nell Co., the trial court held that Casals, Casville and Equitable Bank were solidarily liable to Nell Co. for the amount of P427,300 erroneously credited by Equitable to Casville’s account. ISSUE WON Equitable is liable to Nell Co. HELD: NO -The check was patently ambiguous. By making the check read “Pay to Equitable Banking Corp., order of A/C of Casville Enterprises,” the payee ceased to be indicated with reasonable certainty. As worded it could be accepted as deposit to the account of the party named after the symbols A/C or payable to the bank as trustee or as agent for Casville Enterprises with the latter being the ultimate beneficiary. The ambiguity was to be construed against Nell Co. who caused the ambiguity. -The check was also initially negotiable and neither was it crossed. The crossing of the check and the stamping of the words “non-negotiable” were made by the bank and not by Nell. It simply meant that the same check would thereafter be no longer negotiated. -Nell’s own acts and omissions were the proximate causes of its own defraudation. Disposition Petition granted. IN RE HARNAUGH’S ESTATE 320 Pa. 209, 182 Atl. 394 (1936) ~lora~
677. Rogelio V. 1919 MAKER: Decedent PAYEE: Flora Moore. 249. -Payment is always an affirmative defense and the burden of proving it rests on the party asserting it. Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - FACTS SUBJECT: P/N in the sum of $7. -The findings of fact of an auditor will not be disturbed unless they are unsupported by the evidence.B] B] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester AY 2008-09 Prof. Harbaugh -Peyton. must show that the indorsee received the money in discharge of the note. -If the holder receives payment through an agent or the surrounding circumstances show that money in discharge of the instrument actually reached his hands he cannot recover merely because he retains possession of the instrument. Disposition Decision affirmed. -April 4. -In this case.[Ch 6&7 . HELD: YES. -The auditor and the court below found that the claimant indorsee holder had received payment of the note in question. ISSUE WON the maker of a negotiable instrument who makes payment to the payee after the latter. before maturity. Moore for $13. may be relieved of liability on the note if evidence is received showing that the payee acted as the indorsee’s agent or that payment was in fact received by the indorsee. It must be shown by preponderance of evidence. due April1. there is no testimony on record to show agency and therefore appellee. claimant and decedent were all children of Flora Moore. administrator of Peyton Harbaugh INDORSEE: Jessie P. 1919: decedent gave a check to Flora M. 40 which included the amount due on the note and certain other items payable by decedent to Flora Moore. -Payment to the payee of a negotiable instrument when title and possession of the instrument has passed to another before maturity will not protect the maker. to sustain her position. .17. has indorsed the note to another.
-The uncontradicted testimony of L. of their note payable to Parsons. -It would injuriously affect the value of commercial paper.” -This provision must be interpreted with reference to the general purpose of the NIL. Parsons put up the defense of payment. upon which there was neither date nor signature. for value about Nov. Jones’ domestic servant for 15-16 yrs -Kate presented his claim against WR Jones and Jack Shell. 119. 885 (1915) ~anton~ FACTS SUBJECT: promissory note executed on Sept. -TC judge rendered judgment in favor of plaintiff Kate Coleman. 4. -Kate’s brother Beverly (an ignorant man) gave a vague and unsatisfactory testimony re: existence of the subject note. he did not allege that he was the holder thereof.E. ISSUE WON plaintiff may recover on the basis of the mutilated note HELD: NO. -June 3. Virginia. -To sustain the motion. 910 (1917) ~marge~ FACTS SUBJECT: negotiable promissory note for $500. NIL] -It is assumed that the date and the signature were originally upon the paper presented. Parsons executed his negotiable note on Sept. The delivery of the Colts was on June 3. in order to effect a discharge of negotiable paper. 1910. or w/o the authority of the holder is inoperative. Post paid $2. MAKER: L. & a 3rd party paid $500. Parsons PAYEE: Burton & Co. before the note became due. 123. and therefore the payment to the original holders did not discharge it.W. -The acts which will discharge a simple contract for payment of money. 87 NYS 872 (1903) ~jonas~ FACTS -Defendant Post executed a note for $5. Disposition Judgment reversed. The mutilated remnant shows that the figures “500” and “365” as well as the name “Kate D.675. She moved for judgment on the basis of the notice she filed in court. MAKER: Reps Jones. 33. Burton (the surviving partner of Lee Whorton) is that it had been indorsed to Manchester. his father and by defendant Postawalsky.000 payable to his own order on demand. -Payment by Parsons to Burton & Co. He testified that sometime in 1914 he saw in Kate’s room in a sewing machine drawer a note for $500 with Reps Jones name on it. [motion for judgment on the pleadings? ^_^] -Jury was waived. for value. Lawrenceville. payable at Bank of Brunswick. SCHWARTZMAN V POST 94 App. 18 months from date. or without authority. -Negotiable paper in the hands of a holder in due course is not discharged by payment made to his transferor. Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - JONES’ ADM’RS V COLEMAN 121 Va. 1911. now deceased PAYEE: Kate D. At the .A. as to permit equities between the original parties to a negotiable instrument to defeat the title of an innocent holder for value in due course. with the understanding between the parties that this transaction was to pay the note. Kate presented a mutilated paper. indorsed by him..E. -Manchester is suing Parsons for payment. Div. and the rights of an HDC must be considered in construing Sec. on November 1. 1. Case was submitted to TC judge. Kate’s motion dismissed. 119 of the NIL describes how a note may be discharged.” Plaintiff failed to sustain this burden. 93. Rogelio V. The presumption is that the burning was intentional and done for the purpose of cancelling the instrument. almost a year after the indorsement of the note to Manchester.W. and the balance was to be paid for the execution and delivery by Burton & Co. for $800 payable to the order of Burton & Co. or under a mistake. MANCHESTER V PARSONS 75 W. ISSUE:WON there was discharge (payment) of the instrument. 92 S. could not defeat collection by an innocent bystander for holder for value who acquired it in due course. Kate showed him a mutilated envelope w/ the subject mutilated (partly burned) paper. and that after Jones’ death. by putting it on a plane with simple contracts for the payment of money. The payment was made on the condition that the note for $5. -Subequently. -Schwartzman sued Post for the balance due on the note. [Sec. Subsection 4 reads “by any other act which will discharge a simple contract for the payment of money. -There was no attempt to explain or account for the mutilation of the paper. whether before or after they had negotiated it. 1911: Parsons sold and delivered to the payee some Percheron Colts for $1. and delivered the same to the payee for value. Va.[Ch 6&7 . for $800. Evidence showed that these words and figures were written by Reps Jones himself. -A cancellation made unintentional[ly] or under a mistake. -The note was negotiated to Manchester (plaintiff). 1910. 86. HELD: NO. but as Post had possession of the same. 84 NYS 922. it is apparent that it was never the legislative intent to make a radical change in the general law as would be brought by the literal interpretation argued by Parsons. 33. the burden of proof lies on the party who alleges that the cancellation was made unintentionally or under a mistake or without authority.750. but where an instrument or any signature thereon appears to have been cancelled. allegedly dated 1 Jan 1915.C] C] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester AY 2008-09 Prof. 474. Coleman. The note was delivered to plaintiff Schwartzman in payment of his interest in a partnership of which he & Postawalsky were members. administrators of [the estate of] Reps Jones. There was no explanation why the same have been destroyed by burning. 1910. Disposition Judgment is affirmed. are not affected by the equities of the maker. either before or after the transfer. The paper originally was a printed blank form of a negotiable instrument note. It does not include a holder in due course. -The elements constituting what a holder in due course is. must be necessarily limited to such acts as relate to and affect the holder of the paper demanding payment of it. payable at the bank of Lawrenceville.000 be surrendered to him. 1910. The rights of a bona fide assignee of such a note. -Sec. The legislature did not contemplate making so vital a change in the law. indorsed to Manchester -L. Reading Sec. both apparently destroyed by burning. in due course. 84 S. Said note waives the benefit of the homestead exemption. 365 days after date. Coleman” and the words “five hundred” had been inserted in ink. This presumption can only be overcome by evidence showing that such burning was done “unintentionally.
the effect would only be to release the indorser as a person secondarily liable. It was adopted by the English Bills of Exchange Act. -History: French law . should be distinguished from Sec 119 and 120. It was surrendered to him. -Hall v Wichita: S122 inapplicable to an oral novation. particularly S119 and S120. Reasoning Post was the maker of the note. ISSUE WON the oral contract released the maker (and thus the indorser too) HELD: YES -The requirement of writing in Sec 122 pertains only to renunciation. plaintiff claims that even if he did agree. renunciation should be in writing. which under S120 must be in writing. why the need to change the terminology between the two? -Examining the instances in S119 and S120.[Ch 6&7 . -McGlynn relies on Sec 122 of the NIL. Defendant claims that the cancellation was part of their claims against each other while plaintiff claims that the cancellation was not authorized and that there was no consideration for such cancellation. Also. we are constrained to hold that the renunciation. it suggests that one is different from the other. it can be seen that the requirement in S122 was intended to apply only to renunciation and not extend to discharge in S199 and S120. ISSUE Who bears the burden of proving the cancellation without authority? HELD -A cancellation made unintentionally or under a mistake or without the authority of the holder is inoperative. the note was dishonored. In S119 and 120. so is the indorser. but not always. no requirement exists. where the written requirement was added. The principle was approved by Foster v Dawber and it was held there that it applies to bills and notes. Roberts sued Chappell -Defense of Chappell: No claim against the estate of Lewis Daily (now dead) was filed by Roberts. -Gorin v Wiley: S122 does not apply to novation which discharged the makers of a note. The latter indorsed it to Roberts. McGLYNN V GRANSTROM 168 Min 164. If there was an intention to apply the requirement of writing to S199 and 120. There was also no delivery of the note to the maker. & he became the “holder” thereof without fraud or mistake. ISSUE WON the instrument has been discharged HELD: YES Ratio Subdivision 5 of Section 200 of the Negotiable Instruments Law provides that a negotiable instrument is discharged “when the principal debtor becomes the holder of the instrument at or after maturity in his own right”. So. Lewis Daily executed a note for S237 payable to the order of Chappell. which speaks of discharge. Since he failed to do so. Under S122. McCORMICK V SHEA 99 NY Supp. Reasoning -Sec 122. it would be radical and impractical to require writing in the discharge of the instrument. That meaning cannot be expanded without impringing upon the intended effect of other provisions of the statute. Ordinarily. 210 NW 892 (1926) ~monch~ FACTS SUBJECT: Promissory note MAKER: not named PAYEE: McGlynn INDORSERS: Granstrom -The action was brought by payee McGlynn against indorser Granstorm for recovery of the note.D] D] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester AY 2008-09 Prof. ROBERTS V CHAPPELL 63 Ohio Apple 397. defendant moved to dismiss the complaint on the ground that the surrender of the note to defendant constituted a discharge thereof. 467 (1906) ~ice~ FACTS SUBJECT: Promissory Note MAKER: Thomas Shea PAYEE: John McCormick INDORSER: Annie Shea -Before maturity Annie Shea as indorser was cancelled through the representative of the attorney of Shea in the presence of McCormick. is absolutely required to pay the same. 2: “Holder means the payee or indorsee of a bill or note who is in possession of it. Lewis Daily PAYEE/INDORSER: Chappell HOLDER: Roberts -George Daily. ISSUE WON Chappell was discharged . Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - conclusion of the case. Disposition Judgment reversed. -The lower court ruled in favor of the indorser. but where an instrument or any signature thereon appears to have been cancelled. 26 NE 2d 930 ~rean~ FACTS SUBJECT: Promissory note MAKER: George Daily.obligation by a bill of exchange could be voluntarily remitted by the holder without consideration. In that form and meaning it came to our uniform statute. Upon presentment. McGlynn denied liability and said that the payee was a party to an oral contract between the maker and third parties which discharged the maker from liability. Since renunciation and discharge are separated. Audrey Daily. if the maker is discharged. by the terms of the instrument. 3: “The person ‘primarily’ liable on an instrument is the person who. it will be without consideration. -The burden of proof was with the plaintiff Disposition: Judgment affirmed. saying that such renunciation must be made in writing and thus the contract did not have an effect of releasing the maker from its obligation. Chappell should be discharged. & primarily liable thereon. or the bearer thereof. It does no apply to Sec 119 and 120 which talks about discharge. in “his own right”.” Person Primarily Liable on Instrument – Sec. -Chappell bases his claim on S8225 of the General Code which says that a person secondarily liable on the instrument is discharged by the discharge of a prior party. the burden of proof lies on the party who alleges that the cancellation was made unintentionally or under a mistake or without authority.” In his own right – merely excludes such a case as that of a maker acquiring the instrument in purely a representative capacity. is one accomplished by the unilateral act of the holder. S122 intended to deal only “with the formal and express release of common law” while Sec 119 was intended “to continue in effect other recognized methods of discharging obligations of this character” -In these cases. Rogelio V. The estate has now been administered and closed. Roberts should have presented the note to the administrator. DEFINITIONS: Holder – Sec. which speaks of renunciation. And according to Sec 120 of the NIL. Audrey Daily.
the surety is thereby discharged. Dispositive CA affirmed. Reasoning . is discharged from liability in lieu of Maglione’s agreement with maker-mortgagor HELD: YES -If the plaintiff made a valid and binding agreement with the makers of the note extending the time of payment without the knowledge and consent of the surety.” -This section is without direct application to a party to the instrument who has voluntarily waived presentment of payment. No steps need be taken by the holder upon maturity to charge the waiving indorser. 424 (1929) ~javi~ FACTS SUBJECT: a note secured by mortgage MAKER/MORTGAGOR: unnamed PAYEE /INDORSER/DEFENDANT/: PENTA INDORSEE/HOLDER/PLAINTIFF:MAGLIONE -Penta is a payee of a note secured by mortgage. Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - HELD: NO -The discharge of a prior party referred to is a discharge by an act of the holder and not a discharge accomplished by operation of law. The maker had funds on deposit in this bank at the date of maturity of the note sufficient to pay it. it is both the right and the duty of the bank to pay the note from the funds of the maker on deposit with it. and such tender might have constituted such “a valid tender of payment made by the prior party” as would have operated to discharge the indorser.” So. MAGLIONE V PENTA 266 Mass. presentment was not necessary to charge the maker. -Some months later. against those primarily liable.E] E] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester AY 2008-09 Prof.W. HELD: YES. there is no evidence of “willingness” on the part of the maker to have such application made of its funds of deposit. and was made payable at the American National Bank.[Ch 6&7 . in the instant case. French continued to be secondarily liable. et al. who engages that it shall be paid according to its tenor. while under Sec70. in the meaning of this term as used in Sec. the bank has the right to so apply its depositor’s fund only when the bank is the place of payment and the payee and holder of the instrument as well. Thus. not having so waived. But he dropped the foreclosure suit (mortgagor paid $300). The note was not presented at this bank on the day of maturity nor thereafter. Rogelio V. it is equivalent to an order to the bank to pay the same for the account of the principal debtor thereon.70 which states that: “If the instrument is. but without the right to interpose the defense based upon want of presentment. Penta indorsed the note and assigned the mortgage to Maglione. -Nichol was held liable. 294 S. CORLEY V FRENCH 154 Tenn. without presentment. such meaning refers to a discharge by an act of the holder and not a discharge accomplished by operation of law.87 provides: “Where the instrument is made payable at a bank. the prescribed steps have been taken. if it appears that the maker had been both able and willing (as does not appear) to pay the note at the bank named therein at maturity. and that constructive tender by the maker “primarily liable” took place under the provision of Sec. by which it is provided that one so liable only is discharged “by a valid tender of payment made by a prior topic”. -The words “discharge by a prior party must be given its common and accepted meaning. -The Negotiable Instrument Act provides that “when the instrument is dishonored by non-payment. The maker was later adjudged bankrupt.Romero case: discharge in the NIL contemplates some affirmative act by the holder and does not contemplate passive conduct. French did not become technically or strictly “primarily” liable (CA found French liable saying that he became primarily liable). Under such law. Penta was secondarily liable. 672. -Sec. Prior to the enactment of the law. His obligation by virtue of the waiver became absolute and unconditional with respect to defenses so grounded. mere failure to claim of a creditor against the estate does not discharge the surety. and against those secondarily liable who have waived presentment. -Note contained a waiver of presentment and notice. payable at a special place and he (the person primarily liable) is able and willing to pay it there at maturity. notice and protest. -While the effect of the waiver was to make the indorser liable without the necessity of presentment. 165 N. -Maker defaulted so Maglione sued indorser Penta -Jury found that Maglione had entered into a valid and binding agreement with maker to extend deadline of note ISSUE WON Penta being secondarily liable for the note. -As an indorser.120. Penta inquired of Maglione whether the note and mortgage have been paid. Co. But the jury found that there was a valid and binding agreement between Maglione and the makers thereby discharging Penta from his liability. PAYEE-HOLDER: Corley INDORSERS: French Nichol. The other indorsers were discharged in bankruptcy. and these element must concur to be equivalent to a tender of payment upon his part. the holder has his right of recourse upon dishonor that is failure to pay.” Under this section. The rule relating to sureties becomes important since the rights and duties of sureties correspond to that of indorsers. In the present case.E. 513 (1927) ~eva~ FACTS SUBJECT: Note for $2. -Every indorser who has waived presentment is liable to the holder without reference to presentment. (ON THE TOPIC) -Defense insists that he is “secondarily liable” only. ISSUE WON French is liable on the note as indorser. no tender was made by or on behalf of the maker primarily liable on the instrument which operated to discharge the indorser. 413. -Corley sued French and other indorsers. -BUT while there is evidence that the maker had funds in the bank at the maturity of the note (to show “ability”. This interpretation is in accord with the Ohio law relating to suretyship. such ability and willingness are equivalent to a tender of payment upon his part.500 MAKER: Volunteer Mfg. and whether proceedings on dishonor be taken or not. an immediate right of recourse to all parties secondarily liable thereon accrues to the holder. Maglione said that he had a satisfactory arrangement with the maker-mortgagor. despite his waiver. -Defense: discharge by constructive tender of payment and by laches in failing to collect from the maker. A subsequent foreclosure (on the mortgage) was instituted by Maglione. by its terms. However. CHAPTER VII: OTHER FORMS OF COMMERCIAL PAPER . which discharged the indorser. without presentment. or those as to whom. a constructive tender would have accrued as to him.
As in past transactions. the party who has the burden of proof upon an issue may be aided in establishing his claim or defense by the operation of a presumption. De Leon. refused to acknowledge their obligations to PBCom under the surety agreements. -On March 26.00) as evidenced by a promissory note. or.000. Metro Manila. letters of credit. the proceeds of all the loan availments were credited to MICO’s current checking account with PBCom. for which MICO may be held accountable by PBCom. PBCom filed a complaint with prayer for writ of preliminary attachment before the Regional Trial Court of Manila. all the documents involved therein. Two more loans to complete the three million were availed by MICO under the same terms. For failure of petitioner MICO to pay the obligations incurred despite repeated demands. MICO availed of the first loan of One Million Pesos (P1. 2002 ~kitik~ FACTS -A petition for review of the decision of the CA ordering defendants-appellees jointly and severally to pay plaintiff PBCom a certain sum arising from ordinary loans. private respondent PBCom extrajudicially foreclosed MICO’s real estate mortgage. Jr. MICO caused the same to be renewed. the party having the burden of proof must establish his case by preponderance of evidence. MICO METALS CORP v.000. whereby they jointly and severally guaranteed the prompt payment on due dates or at maturity of overdrafts. Richard Velasco and Alfonso Co (hereinafter referred to as petitioners-sureties). Hence. Thereafter. wrote PBCom and applied for an additional loan in the sum of Four Million Pesos (P4. Mariano Sio. CA and PBC 375 SCRA 579. however. in his capacity as president of MICO.000. trust receipts and all other obligations of any kind and nature for which MICO may be held accountable by PBCom. inasmuch as no consideration ever passed from PBCom to MICO. -CA reversed the said decision and pronounced: “Every negotiable instrument is deemed prima facie to have been issued for valuable consideration and every person whose signature appears thereon to have become a party thereto for value”. the domestic letters of credit was negotiated and accepted by MICO as evidenced by the corresponding bank draft issued for the purpose. petitioner Charles Lee. Upon maturity of the loan. -Upon maturity of all credit availments obtained by MICO from PBCom. -As per agreement.00) from PBCom for the purpose of opening letters of credit and trust receipts. Charles Lee requested for another discounting loan/credit line of Three Million Pesos (P3. MICO likewise had another standing obligation in the sum of Four Hundred Sixty-One Thousand Six Hundred Pesos and Six Centavos (P461. 1980.000. drafts. Alfonso Yap and Richard Velasco. letters of credit. -The trial court gave credence to the testimonies of herein petitioners and dismissed the complaint filed by PBCom. discounts. 1979 Charles Lee. After the suppliers of the merchandise was paid. executed on May 16. as President of MICO wrote private respondent Philippine Bank of Communications (PBCom) requesting for a grant of a discounting loan/credit line in the sum of Three Million Pesos (P3. -Petitioners (MICO and herein petitioners-sureties) denied all the allegations of the complaint filed by respondent PBCom. Rogelio V. Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - LEE. in their personal capacities executed a Surety Agreement in favor of PBCom whereby the petitioners jointly and severally.000. guaranteed the prompt payment on due dates or at maturity of overdrafts.600. promissory notes.00). -As security for the loans.000. MICO filed with PBCom an application for a domestic letter of credit. Feb 1. In ruling for herein petitioners. and alleged that: a) MICO was not granted the alleged loans and neither did it receive the proceeds of the aforesaid loans and since no loan was ever released to or received by MICO. the last renewal of which was made on May 21. Chua Siok Suy. The .000.[Ch 6&7 . and other obligations of every kind and nature. 1979 a Deed of Real Estate Mortgage over its properties situated in Pasig. Aside from the unpaid balance of Five Million Four Hundred Forty-One Thousand Six Hundred Sixty-Three Pesos and Ninety Centavos (P5. the latter made a demand for payment. -On two occasions. Charles Lee. trust receipts. such as the promissory notes.00) from PBCom. -On July 14. On three occasions MICO applied for authority to open a foreign letter of credit in favor of various corporations and thus. A presumption may operate against his adversary who has not introduced proof to rebut the presumption. the Court of Appeals said that while the subject promissory notes and letters of credit issued by the PBCom made no mention of delivery of cash. To induce the PBCom to increase the credit line of MICO. 1979. PBCom turned over to MICO the necessary documents such as the bills of lading and commercial invoices to enable the latter to withdraw the goods from the port of Manila. was executed in favor of PBCom. -Petitioners contend that there was no proof that the proceeds of the loans or the goods under the trust receipts were ever delivered to and received by MICO. real estate mortgage including the surety agreements were all void or nonexistent for lack of cause or consideration. bills of exchange. promissory notes. The corresponding irrevocable letters of credit was approved. trust receipts upon MICO’s own initiative. the corresponding real estate mortgage and the surety agreements signed concededly by the petitionerssureties are null and void. Upon approval of the said application for loan. executed another surety agreement in favor of PBCom on July 28.663.90). Mariano Sio. the trial court said that PBCom failed to adequately prove that the proceeds of the loans were ever delivered to MICO.00) for the purpose of carrying out MICO’s line of business as well as to maintain its volume of business. Mariano Sio. bills of exchange. the corresponding letter of credits was then issued by PBCom with cables sent to the beneficiaries advising that said beneficiaries may draw funds from the account of PBCom in its correspondent bank’s New York Office. 1979.000. 1980.F] F] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester AY 2008-09 Prof. Charles Lee.000. MICO through its VicePresident and General Manager. Alfonso Yap.000. MICO availed of the additional loan of Four Million Pesos (P4. In all the transactions involving foreign letters of credit. The loan was intended for the expansion and modernization of the company’s machineries. drafts. ISSUE WON the proceeds of the loans and letters of credit transactions were ever delivered to MICO HELD: YES -In civil cases. -On March 26. by the probative value which the law attaches to a specific state of facts. expressed differently. Hence. 1982 under a promissory note. letters of credit and trust receipt transactions granted by the plaintiff plus legal interest until fully paid.441. The trial court said that the lack of proof as regards the existence of the merchandise covered by the letters of credit bolstered the claim of herein petitioners that no purchases of the goods were really made and that the letters of credit transactions were simply resorted to by the PBCom and Chua Siok Suy to accommodate the latter in his financial requirements. PBCom then demanded the settlement of the aforesaid obligations from herein petitioners-sureties who. it is presumed that said negotiable instruments were issued for valuable consideration.On the same day. During the trial of an action. discounts. MICO executed in favor of PBCom a corresponding trust receipt. -On March 2.06) representing its trust receipts liabilities to private respondent. Chua Siok Suy.
will prevail. Petitioner MICO did not proffer a single piece of evidence. but by the presumption the one who has that burden is relieved for the time being from introducing evidence in support of his averment. the presumption that the drafts drawn in connection with the letters of credit have sufficient consideration. or the fact that they were negotiated at less than their par value. among others. if the necessities of commerce require that they should be so. When a corporation covenants by these means and obtains funds for the accomplishment of the useful enterprises of the day. under the authority of an act of Assembly of this Commonwealth…” -A number of bonds were obtained. Under Section 3. A mere technical dogma of the courts cannot prohibit the commercial world from inventing or using any species of security not known in the last century. and which if no proof to the contrary is presented and offered. annually… upon delivery of the coupons severally hereto annexed … the faith. d) it must be payable on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time. (20yrs after date). however. be received to defeat the recovery of Hackett HELD: NO -The species of bonds is a modern invention. letters of credit and trust receipts were issued allegedly without any consideration. 1 Wall. to support its allegation that the loan transactions. The pertinent obligatory part. ISSUE WON evidence of fraud practiced by the railroad company to whom these bonds were delivered. Negotiable instruments which are meant to be substitutes for money. apart from its bare denials. and f) where it is a bill of exchange. 230 Pac. -The epidemic insanity of the people. Under Section 3(r). the folly of county ofiicers. assigned. Hence. for some technical reason. MERCER COUNTY V HACKETT US Supreme Court. cannot be made payable to bearer. aside from their bare denials petitioners did not present sufficient and competent evidence to rebut the evidence of private respondent PBCom. Letters of credit and trust receipts are. drafts. On the other hand. -Rightly or wrongly – w/ or w/o authority – the bonds to the extent of several thousand of dollars were issued. The bonds provide that: . however. real estate mortgage. after they have been negotiated and have come into the possession of bona fide holders Disposition Judgment affirmed. or transferred by the PEC at less than par value. But drafts issued in connection with letters of credit are negotiable instruments. and by whom they were paid to bona fide holders for value. and through it to inspire confidence. petitioners should have presented credible evidence to rebut that presumption as well as the evidence presented by private respondent PBCom. had a restriction wherein the bonds to be issued shall in no case be sold. bona fide and for value paid. intended to pass by manual delivery. and authenticated by the county seal conspicuously put. b) it must be signed by the maker or drawer. must conform to the following requisites to be considered as such a) it must be in writing. a similar presumption is found in Section 24 of the Negotiable Instruments Law which provides that every negotiable instrument is deemed prima facie to have been issued for valuable consideration and every person whose signature appears thereon to have become a party for value. Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - effect of a legal presumption upon a burden of proof is to create the necessity of presenting evidence to meet the legal presumption or the prima facie case created thereby. The drafts signed by the beneficiary/suppliers in connection with the corresponding letters of credit proved that said suppliers were paid by PBCom for the account of MICO. Irrevocable letter of credits. credit and property of the County of Mercer are hereby solemnly pledged.[Ch 6&7 . the knavery of railroad “speculators” are pleas which might have just weight in an application to restrain the issue or negotiation of these bonds. But there is nothing immoral or contrary to good policy in making them negotiable. in favor of respondent PBCom. 83. with such external indications as were calculated to arrest the eye. Hackett sued the county of Mercer. the drawee must be named or otherwise indicated with reasonable certainty. attested by their clerk. read: “… the County of Mercer (Pennsylvania) is indebted to (PEC) in the full and just sum of ($1k). e) it must be payable to order or bearer. it cannot be allowed to evade payment by parading some obsolete judicial decision that a bond. It was signed by the Mercer commissioners. The letters of credit show that the pertinent materials/merchandise have been received by MICO. and to have qualities of negotiable paper. are satisfactory if uncontradicted: a) That there was a sufficient consideration for a contract and b) That a negotiable instrument was given or indorsed for sufficient consideration. The instruments were elegantly engraved. -Circuit Court pointed out the “faith. credit and property…” part and declared that the instruments were on their face complete and perfect. bills of exchange and checks. and their value depends mainly upon this character. The act. 131 Wash. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania PAYEE: PEC or bearer BEARER: Hackett -Legislature of Pennsylvania authorized Mercer’s commissioners to subscribe to stock of PEC. It was announced as issued for stock in the PEC. While the presumption found under the Negotiable Instruments Law may not necessarily be applicable to trust receipts and letters of credit. c) it must contain an unconditional promise or order to pay a sum certain in money. The burden of proof remains where it is. As observed by the Court of Appeals. as sureties of MICO. which sum said county agrees to pay. 430. Negotiable instruments include promissory notes. being due and unpaid. 406 (1924) ~mini~ FACTS SUBJECT: 2 local improvement bonds which were stolen from the appellant’s safety deposit box. -The above-cited documents presented have not merely created a prima facie case but have actually proved the solidary obligation of MICO and the petitioners. to (PEC) or bearer. because the presumption stands in the place of evidence unless rebutted. except from the special assessment made for the improvement for which bond was issued . Being issued by States and corporations they are necessarily under seal. trust receipts. by Hackett. MANKER V AMERICAN SAVINGS & TRUST CO Washington SC. exhibiting no defect in form of substance. Rule 131 of the Rules of Court there is also a presumption that sufficient consideration was given in a contract. -Private respondent PBCom presented the following documentary evidence to prove petitioners’ credit availments and liabilities: Promissory Notes.G] G] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester AY 2008-09 Prof. And the coupons. Rule 131 of the Rules of Court the following presumptions.the holders shall have no claim against the city. Rogelio V. 1863 ~brian b~ FACTS SUBJECT: Bonds issued for stock in Pittsburgh and Erie (Railroad) Company [PEC] payable in 20 years MAKERS: County of Mercer. but cannot prevail to authorize their repudiation. where the railroad if built would pass through their county and benefit it. not negotiable instruments.
scanning the bonds. -PNB debited Araneta’s overdraft with the amount of the balance. which provide for the particular fund out of which the bonds are to be paid.Y.533. It only means that the bonds are to be issued not only upon the general credit of the corporation but upon the faith of some collateral mortgage. Araneta re-transmitted the check. hence. ISSUE WON the bonds are negotiable instruments. however.55 balance. They are all equally secured by and entitled to the benefits and subject to the provisions of a trust mortgage and redeemable at 105% and interest at . this refers merely to the time when the plaintiff was bound to pay.. which purchased it in due course of business. “to which reference is hereby made for a description of the property mortgaged and pledged. to the registered holder does not affect the bonds’ negotiability. if registered. Where the law is as plain as it is here.194. The lower court (called the Trial Term) held that the bonds were negotiable hence the purchaser in due course may retain them but the Appellate Division reversed. -Although the plaintiff’s application provides for payment at maturity of the draft. Disposition Decision of the Appellate Division reversed and that of the Trial Term affirmed.727. 1928 ~ricky~ FACTS SUBJECT: series of bonds for $7. the rights of the holders of the bonds with respect thereto. Barclay’s Bank Ltd. except where registered. the nature and extent of the security. -On the first business day after the maturity of the draft.0325 to $2.000 payable on Nov1. and the terms and conditions under which said bonds are issued and secured. and notice. then the promise is no longer unconditional. because large sums of money are now invested in securities of that sort.H] H] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester AY 2008-09 Prof. the manner in which notice may be given to such holders. sentences. Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - .13 was negotiated by PNB’s correspondent bank in London. the construction most favorable to the bondholder must be adopted. It was obliged to create a sinking fund to provide for its purchase and redemption. Ratio The NIL deals with the form of the instrument – with what a mere inspection of its face should disclose. the decision must be governed by the law. speaking of possible redemption. of a sinking fund.” MAKER/ISSUER: The Manitoba Power Company. CONTROVERSY: It appears from the disposition of the case that some of these Manitoba bonds were purchased in due course from a thief. that because of something contained in the mortgage he might be unable to collect the amount due him. The provisions all have to do with the trust mortgage. if they are not negotiable. -A draft for $4. NAT’L BANK 95 Phil. a purchaser in due course from a thief may retain them. of acceleration of payment. PNB paid Barclay’s the amount of the draft. Hence. It would never occur to a purchaser. the obligation to create a sinking fund or the fact that the bonds are payable to bearer. “they are to be treated as negotiable.” -There is no modification of the promise to pay made in explicit terms. the privilege given the obligor to redeem before maturity at certain dates.[Ch 6&7 . and not ENOCH V BRANDON New York CA. Because of differences in the words used. they are not negotiable instruments. The instrument must be considered as a whole and when the meaning is doubtful. to the registered holder. Rogelio V. it continues: “All as provided” in the trust mortgage. these bonds. -By the time the draft matured. The bonds may become due in advance of maturity in case of default under the mortgage. 36562 of said city ( local improvement fund district No. and to hold them as non-negotiable would be to destroy their market value. or.500. Reasoning If in the bond or note anything appears requiring reference to another document to determine whether in fact the unconditional promise to pay a fixed sum at a future date is modified or subject to some contingency. 164 N. or in the arrangement of paragraphs. the British pound was devaluated from the rate of $4. 1941 to bearer. 3032)… and not otherwise . certain dates. Therefore. against Araneta’s credit. 249 N. ISSUE (Who is entitled to the payment on the bonds.80124. The court cannot decide these questions upon a matter of public policy. and. The trouble lies in its application to particular facts. The respondent City of Seattle has the funds ready to pay the bonds. An order or promise to pay only out of a particular fund is not unconditional. or clauses. The bonds contain a provision allowing it to be registered in the usual way. the title of the purchaser was put in issue. PNB sent Araneta a bill of P33.the holders or owners of this bond shall look only to said fund for the payment of either the principal or interest in this bond HOLDER: respondent bank (American Savings) -The bonds were stolen and came into the possession of the respondent bank. and all persons are invited by the company to act accordingly. -The check was returned without acknowledgment. -The bonds in this case. Araneta filed present complaint. -The acceleration clause in case of the default. -Respondent bank argues that these bonds should be held negotiable as a matter of public policy. There is no infallible test as to whether there is a modification of the promise. They refer to the rights conferred by it upon the bondholders and limit and explain those rights. HELD: YES. if registered.E. are not negotiable. as granted by PNB. -Negotiable instruments must contain an unconditional promise or order to pay a sum certain in money.37 in full payment of its indebtedness. hence. appellant or respondent bank?) WON these bonds are negotiable instruments HELD: NO.440. ARANETA V PHIL. The rule itself is not a difficult one. Reference to the paper itself said to be negotiable determines its character. Disposition The appellant will be entitled to the amount held by the city of Seattle for the exctinction of his bonds. 263. Therefore the appellant is entitled to payment on the bonds. is the contract between the parties.013.the city of seattle promises to pay… or bearer… out of the fund established by ordinance No. or. and few persons would assume the risk incident to purchasing these bonds. 45. -CFI dismissed complaint ISSUE WON Araneta should be liable for the value of the draft under the devauated exhange rate HELD: NO -Araneta’s application for a commercial letter of credit. each instrument must be interpreted by itself. PNB issued a receipt stating that it was received as partial payment and that there was still a P10. 160 (1954) ~joey~ FACTS -PNB granted Araneta’s application for a commercial letter of credit in favor of Allied National Corporation for $7. They are speaking solely of security.92 and on the same date Araneta forwarded to PNB a check for P23.
But one thing is certain. executed a bond. -The lower court ordered the defendants to pay BPI w/ interest. -Pan-Phil claims the LC was subsequently cancelled. -As per bank regulations then in force. -But even w/o said stipulation. as sureties. Pan-Phil says nonshipment was due to causes beyond its control – that the rice wasn’t shipped bec Nicholas Graver & Sons relinquished its interest in the LC upon alleged ground that its terms didn’t conform w/ conditions of the contract. 1970 ~’del~ FACTS -On 4 different occasions in 1961. -As each of the shipments arrived. ISSUE WON Pan-Phil is liable AY 2008-09 Prof. Moreover. per 100 pounds net shipped weight final. quality. -It is admitted that the PNB actually paid for the draft in question was P33. -It’s a banking practice for bank to collect commission & charges for its svcs in opening of LC irrespective of WON beneficiary uses the LC. Pan-Phil. in case of non-shipment by Nov 30. First. -Naric applied to PNB for opening of LC. -Consequently. quality. JB Distributing Co.I] I] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester LC. the aforementioned officers bound themselves personally as joint and solidary debtors with the corporation. Rogelio V. arranged w/ and transmitted by cable to Anglo-California Nat’l Bank irrevocable LC No. that they have been authorized to negotiate the latter’s sight drafts up to the amounts mentioned therein. defendants are liable for recoupment. where Pan-Phil agreed to sell & deliver to NARIC 850 metric tons of Ecuadorian Fortuna Canilla rice at US $12. No. plus commission thereon. to answer for faithful performance by Pan-Phil of its obligations. endorsed and forwarded all documents to BPI. as principal. De Reny delivered to BPI peso marginal deposits as each L/C was opened. covering the merchandise appearing on the L/Cs (ie dyestuffs). PanPhil’s liability to reimburse Naric for bank expenses is inescapable. -Pan-Phil failed to ship the rice. of California and/or assignee. in providing financing in int’l business transactions such as those entered into by the defendants. or fraud by the shipper or anyone else in connection with the property the shippers or vendors and ourselves(purchasers) or any of us.G. Sept 16. -PNB. Mere refusal of beneficiary to use LC can’t be force majeur w/in meaning of the law.” -Having agreed to these terms. for any difference in character.42. But the LC. payable on sight against complete shipping docs w/ certificate as to weight. do NOT deal with the property to be . CIF Manila. they are still liable because banks. secretary of the corporation. being irrevocable and in favor of a specified party. the equivalent of any “amount that might be drawn or paid upon the faith” of the plaintiff’s credit and that the plaintiff agreed to “reimburse” the defendant bank in said manner.51. -Goods were shipped in good condition fr Ecuador. Co. in favor of Nicholas Graver & Sons (agent of Pan-Phil). by full set of negotiable clean “on board” ocean bills of lading. -Accdg to contract. the former became exposed to liability thereon until it was cancelled. the corresponding banks debited the account of BPI w/ them up to the full value of the drafts presented by the JB Dist. 11. jointly and severally.727. for $2. delay.579. because svcs were actually rendered by bank in negotiation of LC w/ the bank’s addressee at San Francisco and second. -Under the agreements. the tern “reimburse” requires the return of something paid. De Reny made partial payments to BPI however. further payments were discontinued subsequently as a result of the chemical test wherein it was found that the goods that arrived in Manila were not dyestuffs but were colored chalks. or failure or omission to ship any or all the property referred to in the Credit. Appellants obligated themselves. and thereafter. In accordance w/ this. character. 5564. Distributing Co. Pan-Phil shall pay/reimburse Naric for bank commission and miscellaneous banking charges in connection w/ contract. -BPI then issued irrevocable commercial L/Cs addressed to its correspondent banks in the US with uniform instructions for them to notify the beneficiary thereof. -PNB charged Naric P12. or value of the property from that expressed in documents. -Under the terms and conditions of their commercial L/C agreement with BPI. the defendants have to comply w/ their covenant. default.77 for the opening of the HELD: YES -Naric complied w/ its obligations. Disposition Appealed judgment is affirmed. quantity. quantity. except force majeure beyond control of Pan-Phil.[Ch 6&7 . can’t be changed by Naric or the bank w/o consent of the beneficiary and Pan-Phil.” as well as “for any deviation from instructions. value or delivery of the property purporting to be represented by documents. conditions. NATL RICE & CORN CORP V PAN-PHIL SHIPPING (CA) 51 O. if accompanied upon presentation. on same date of contract. president and Aurora Tuyo. Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - to the rate of exchange at which the draft was drawn and presented or negotiated. ISSUE WON it was the duty of the correspondent banks of BPI to take the necessary precaution to ensure that the goods shipped under the covering L/C conformed w/ the item appearing therein TF having failed to do so. condition.92.155. -De Reny refused to take possession of the goods so BPI caused them to be deposited w/ a bonded warehouse and sued De Reny. De Reny through Aurora Carcereny (aka Aurora Gonzales).” or for “partial or incomplete shipment. 25865. -The application provides that the plaintiff promised and agreed to pay at maturity in Philippine currency. because the minute the said bank cabled the LC to its correspondent at San Francisco. 1947. 1948. B. -All the applications of the corporation were approved and the corresponding commercial L/C agreements were executed pursuant to banking procedures. -The contract also provides that Naric agrees to open by cable an irrevocable letter of credit (LC) against full shipping docs w/ certificate of quality issued by representative of Naric. -Contract calls for bond of P20K by Pan-Phil in favor of Naric. the defendants agreed that BPI shall not be responsible for the “existence.907. and RF Navarro w/ Julian Salgado (deceased). payable in New York negotiation of drafts to expire not later than Jan 31. applied to the BPI for 4 irrevocable commercial letters of credit (L/C) to cover the purchase of goods such as dyestuffs from their supplier J. quality and moisture content of the rice. PNB debited Naric’s account. BPI V DE RENY FABRIC INDUSTRIES 35 SCRA 256. no claim for recoupment could be had against the defendants HELD: NO. packing. The LC is in accord with the contract. Castro. Sanchez ~chriscaps~ FACTS -The parties entered into contract of purchase and sale.
. “I” and “J”). Josefa T. Inc. shares. the HSBC asked permission in the insolvency courts to sell the R. As per this request the Batangas Minerals..20 representing the value of the 10. manager of the R.J.J. -On June 13. the Bank would still have been justified in believing that R. she informed him that the certificate belonged to her and she demanded that it be returned to her. at . -At the time of the delivery of Stock Certificate No. According to certificate. (Exhs. the 10. Inc. Inc. Inc. This certificate is what is known as street certificate. was declared insolvent.J. in the amountof P8. Campos & Co. Inc.J. -In Civil Case No.041.014. 1940. was prosecuted for estafa and found guilty of this crime and was sentenced by the Manila Court of First Instance in Criminal Case No. Uy-Tioco & Naftaly. Campos & Co. 1937. shares. the president of R.000 shares of Batangas Minerals..J. with the sole difference that her name was later written in lead pencil on the upper right hand corner thereof. Inc.” Certificate No. Campos & Co. 54428. Shares and Securities now deposited for any other purposes whatsoever. or the total amount of P2. Disposition Judgment affirmed. Campos & Co. R. indorsed in blank. Mrs. have no actual market value. 517. Campos & Co. The right of the plaintiff in such a case would be against the transferor. a stock brokerage firm and paid therefore the sum of P8. Inc. Campos & Co. 715. Uy-Tioco & Naftaly..J. 517 to R. Inc.” The buyer received Stock Certificate No. 715 in lieu of Certificate No. Coscolluela. bought for Mrs.225 a share. to an imprisonment and to indemnify the offended party. 1937.000 shares of the Batangas Minerals through the offices of Woo. 517 to the latter as security therefor with the understanding that said certificate would be returned to her upon payment of the 10..J] J] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester AY 2008-09 Prof. the holder was entitled to demand its transfer into his name from the issuing corporation.J. 1937. Santamaria went to R. The fact that on the right margin of said certificate the name of the plaintiff appeared written. On March 9. had the title thereto for the reason that it is a well-known practice that a certificate of stock. court granted this motion. Inc. securities listed in its motion by virtue of the document of hypothecation. -Mrs.J. “D” is the receipt of the certificates in question signed by one Mr. was no longer allowed to transact business due to the prohibition order from the Securities and Exchange Commission. Campos & Co. Santamaria said she made the claim to the bank for her certificate. 1937. and as such the transferee thereof is justified in believing that it belongs to the holder and transferor. SANTAMARIA V HSBC Bautista-Angelo. in the name of Taplin as trustee and nominee of the HSBC. Exh. 51224.. 1936 a document of hypothecation. -When Mrs. had opened an overdraft account with this bank and to this effect it had executed on April 16. 780 (1951) ~jaja~ FACTS -Santamaria bought 10.. In her interview with Taplin. Certificate No. on March 12. 89 Phil. Campos & Co.250. Inc. Inc. Exh. Santamaria 10. Inc. Taplin was an officer of this institution in charge of the securities belonging to or claimed by the bank. Mrs.. though she did not remember the exact date. Defendants-appellants contend in the first place that the trial court erred in finding that the plaintiff-appellee was not chargeable with negligence in the transaction which gave rise to this case.. Santamaria failed in her efforts to force the civil judgment rendered in her favor in the criminal case because the accused became insolvent. Santamaria received it from Woo. represented by Certificate No.00. and was transferred in due course by the latter to the Bank under their letter of hypothecation. Inc. and on July 12. Campos & Co. on March 11.J. The offended party and RW Taplin were among the witnesses for the prosecution in this criminal case No.J.000 Batangas Minerals shares formerly represented by Certificate No. Upon its face. Inc. 517. Inc.J. was sent by the latter to the office of the Batangas Minerals. 715 were sold to the same bank by the Sheriff for P300. Coscolluela then informed her that R. or else on March 13. Taplin as trustee and nominee of the banking corporation. 517.” by the term of which pledged to the said bank all the stocks.. Josefa Santamaria.. “I.. Santamaria placed an order for the purchase of 10.W. Campos & Co. Inc. this certificate was in the same condition as that when Mrs.J. she filed her complaint in this case on October 11. ISSUE WON defendant bank was obligated to inquire who the real owner of the shares represented by the certificate of stock was HELD: NO. Inc. Campos & Co. “E.000 shares of the Crown Mines Inc.J. for it was given to the Bank pursuant to their letter of hypothecation. The Bank was not obligated to look beyond the certificate to ascertain the ownership of the stock at the time it received the same from R. Mrs. 54428. to pay for her order of 10.000 Crown Mines. and that he could not do anything until the case of the bank with Campos shall have been terminated. Taplin then replied that the bank did not know anything about the transaction had between her and and R. as shown by Exh. Inc. Campos & Co. Exh. and securities which I/We may hereafter come into their possession on my/our account and whether originally deposited for sale custody or for any other purpose whatever or which may hereafter be deposited by me/us in lieu of or in addition to the Stocks.000 shares of Batangas Minerals. issued Certificate No.000 shares of the Crown Mines.” issued in the name of Woo Uy-Tioco & Naftaly and indorsed in blank by this firm..000 shares of the Crown Mines. This declaration was not contradicted by the adverse party. cannot be considered sufficient reason to indicate that its owner was the plaintiff considering that said certificate was indorsed in blank by R. already indorsed by R. “G. Said indicium could . Campos.00 at the foreclosure sale authorized by said order. the defendants are bound by said established usage. Rogelio V. Campos & Co. a brokerage firm and delivered Certificate No. Inc.” R. which in turn indorsed it in blank. but it was most likely on the following day of that when she went to Coscolluela for the purpose of paying her order for 10. -The certificate of stock in question was issued in the name of the brokerage firm—Woo. 1938. with R. “E. At the trial both parties agreed that the 10.000 Crown Mines shares and to get back Certificate No. Campos & Co. Campos & Co.J. 517. is deemed quasi negotiable. Inc. Campos & Co. R. Uy-Tioco & Naftaly and that said indorsement was guaranteed by R.. Inc.20 as shown by receipt Exh.[Ch 6&7 . “B. granting it to be true.J. Inc.J. She was also informed that her stock certificate was in the possession of the Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC). 517 came into the possession of the HSBC because R. the bank’s representatives. 1937. -A mere claim of ownership does not establish the fact of ownership.. to the HSBC. Even if said certificate had been in the name of the plaintiff but indorsed in blank. -On March 11. with the request that the same be cancelled and a new certificate be issued in the name of R. 517 and thereafter by Certificate No.J. Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - exported or shipped to the importer but deal only with documents (as per Art 10 of the Uniform Customs and Practices for Commercial Documentary Credits Fixed for the 13th Congress of Int’l Chamber of Commerce) -Having proved that there exists a custom in int’l banking and financing circles negating any duty on the part of a bank to verify whether what has been described in the L/Cs or drafts or shipping docs actually tallies with what was loaded in the ship. -Two days later. Exh.
director & executive VP of Monte Oro Mineral. Therefore. It was proven that Mitsui never sold or otherwise disposed of the shares.777 bales of tobacco from Felisa Roman -Of the P78. the said owner/stockholder. to the Asia Banking Corporation -De Poli became insolvent and insolvency proceedings were filed -In said proceeding. -Even if the owner of the certificate has endorsed it in blank. the transfer shall not be valid. As for the other certificate. would be the same.[Ch 6&7 . HELD: NO. He executed 4 notes of P15. in the name of Madrigal.815. and it is stolen from him. the instrument is non-negotiable. The shares were registered. Sept 13. de Poli. coupled with its delivery. However. and are still. -Sec 49 of Act No. except if the circumstances properly call for application of estoppel. de Poli paid P15. the person to whom he entrusted the certificates. ISSUE WON CA erred. 2. WON stock certificates are negotiable instruments HELD 1. ROMAN V ASIA BANKING CORP Ostrand. Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - at best give the impression that the plaintiff was the original holder of the certificate. Ownership of said shares was vested in the Alien Property Custodian of the US by virtue of an order in 1945. 1990 ~chrislao~ FACTS -Capco was a stockholder. ISSUES 1. -Capco INDORSED and delivered his 2 stock certificates (02 and 26) to Macasaet.000 in cash. -Capco demanded the return of his certificates. -TC in favor of Capco. 2138 provides: Where a negotiable receipt has been issued for goods. he lost over 300K. The Administrator denied plaintiff's claim on the ground that the stocks were bought by Madrigal in trust for and for the benefit of Mistui Busaan Kaisha (a Japanese corp). whether such negotiation be prior or subsequent to the notification to the warehouseman who issued such receipt of the seller's claim to a lien or right of stoppage in transitu. issued a negotiable receipt (quedan) covering 576 bales of tobacco. are in plaintiff's possession.6 M shares of stock of Lepanto Consolidated Mining Co. The certificates except one.K] K] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester AY 2008-09 Prof. CA reversed. CA did not err. -Certificates of stocks are considered "quasinegotiable" instruments. covering 55k shares. Note that both certificates were not returned on demand. this appeal ISSUE WON Felisa Roman's right over the 576 bales of tobacco is superior to that of Asia Banking Corporation HELD: NO. Capco signed the printed form at the back of both certificates without filling in the blanks. 715 DELOS SANTOS V McGRATH 96 Phil 577 (1955) ~iNa~ FACTS -Plaintiff is claiming ownership of 1. because the holder thereof takes it without prejudice to such rights or defenses as the registered owner may have under the law. It doesn't bind Madrigal of Mitsui. -Santos claims he bought the shares from different persons (Campos and Hess) in 1942. Because of this. When the owner/shareholder of these certificates signs the printed form of sale /assignment at the back of every stock certificate without filling in the blanks provided for the name of the transferee and name of atty-in-fact.69 total value. 1920. -He owned shares of capital stock of Monte Oro. 46 Phil. Nor shall the warehouseman be obliged to deliver or be justified . covered by several stock certificates issued in favor of Vicente Madrigal. It was not disputed that he was a mere trustee. -This is the way to look at the case.953. no seller's lien or right of stoppage in transitu shall defeat the rights of any purchaser for value in good faith to whom such receipt has been negotiated. confers on another all the indicia of ownership of said certificates. -Even if Campos and Hess did sell the shares. NO. for value received. WON plaintiff had purchased the shares of stock 2. -Macasaet said that there was delay because Feliciano. notwithstanding the Acknowledgment Receipt. CAPCO V MACASAET L-9088. the result. insofar as plaintiff is concerned. who is the registered owner in the books of Lepanto and whose indorsement in blank appears on the back of said certificates. Capco's acts of indorsement and delivery conferred on Macasaet the right to hold them as though they were his own. Macasaet received it with an ACKNOWLEDGMENT RECEIPT wherein he acknowledged that he received said certificates in trust and for safekeeping only to be delivered to Capco ON DEMAND. in effect. Macasaet replaced cert 26 with his own. -According to the Corporation Law.92 each for the balance -On November 18. it was returned later than cert26. the alleged sale by Campos and Hess is not valid except as between them and plaintiff. NO -Although a stock certificate is sometimes regarded as quasi-negotiable. -Capco filed a complaint saying that because of the delay. coupled with delivery. a local mining company. -The title of the true owner of a lost or stolen certificate may be asserted against any one subsequently obtaining possession although the holder may be a bona fide purchaser. and that the certificates were never sold or otherwise disposed of so that they were probably stolen during the war. -Plaintiff couldn't produce as witnesses the persons from whom he bought the stocks because they died in the war. -In the case at bar. there was nothing irregular about Macasaet delivering the certificates to Feliciano for a consideration in connection with the contemplated business tie-up. Disposition Decision modified in the sense of ordering the defendant to deliver to the plaintiff certificate of stock No. It's total value was over 565K.. failed to return the same. 705 (1922) ~apple~ FACTS -Umberto de Poli purchased 2. until it is entered and noted upon the books of the corporation. Rogelio V. President of Monte Oro. 189 SCRA 561. Inc. no title is acquired by an innocent purchaser for value. that Mitsui kept the certificates in its office in Manila until liberation. in the sense that it may be transferred by endorsement. except as between the parties. the CFI declared the vendor's lien claimed by Felisa Roman on the 576 bales of tobacco superior to that claimed by Asia Banking Corporation -Hence. a share of stock may be transferred by endorsement of the corresponding stock certificate.
Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - in delivering the goods to an unpaid seller unless the receipt is first surrendered for cancellation. not indorsed by person to whose order goods were deliverable. -The instrument must be construed to mean that de Poli was the person authorized to endorse and deliver the receipt. drawn on Union and Planters’ Bank.' In case of the warehouseman's failure to do so. the vendor's lien of Felisa Roman cannot prevail over the rights of Asia Banking Corporation as the indorsee of the receipt. made possible the negotiation of the warehouse receipts (2) SouthPac knew at the time when it obtained the title from PNB that its agent wrongfully delivered the goods to the vendee and that the vendee assigned the warehouse receipts to BA for value ISSUE WON SouthPac could acquire the goods from BA HELD: NO. -A warehouse receipt. Transferee of order bills of lading. CO V BANK OF AMERICA District Court of Illinois. a holder of the receipt who purchased it for value supposing it to be negotiable may. 200 SW 994 (1927) ~rach~ FACTS -Hale Co. who has purchased his title with full knowledge of the facts. BA loaned the vendee $34k.' or 'not negotiable. but. they could not be indorsed and negotiated by anyone else. the persons to whom the carrier had undertaken to deliver the goods. -The question of whether or not the receipt issued in favor of Asia Banking Corporation is negotiable is not entirely free from doubt because the receipt is not perfect. aggregating $33. however. when they came into the hands of the bank.L] L] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester AY 2008-09 Prof. so that. and the clearance certificates were expressly nonnegotiable. the Beley Co. the remaining warehouse receipts. HALE & CO V BELEY COTTON CO Tennessee SC. the receipt was not marked "non-negotiable. Rogelio V. except by an instrument to which the law gave negotiability. Transferee of "order" warehouse receipts." Modern statutes have enlarged the negotiability of warehouse receipts. and pinned the clearance certificates to the draft made on account of this lot of cotton and deposited with the bank. SOUTHERN PAC." JOHN S. All these checks were dishonored. *so SouthPac now wants to recover the goods from BA. -There can be no doubt that if the quedan or the warehouse receipt in question is negotiable. Beley’s credit with the bank had been exhausted by other checks. Beley Cotton then attached these clearance certificates. demanded from SouthPac to pay for it.[Ch 6&7 . to prevail against a bona fide purchaser." -Sec 7 of our Warehouse Receipts Act says: "A nonnegotiable receipt shall plainly place upon it's face by the warehouseman issuing it 'non-negotiable.738. SouthPac took the assignment of the bill of lading and draft for $37k. Re: SECOND LOT represented by warehouse receipts-The bank got no better title to the cotton represented by these warehouse receipts than was possessed by the Beley Cotton. and the negotiable warehouse receipt is the security for the loan. taking warehouse receipts. 939. took no better title than transferor.83. unnamed Carrier: Southern Pacific Railway Company -how Bank of America (BA) obtained the warehouse receipts: the vendee fraudulently made SouthPac’s agents to deliver to them the crab meat without the production of the bill of lading (in violation of the condition that the crab meat should not be delivered until the bill should be surrendered). Beley acquired no title by reason of the fact that its checks given for the cotton were dishonored. sold and assigned the bill of lading and sight draft for $37k to Pacific National Bank (PNB) Vendee: definitely not PNB. at his option. acquired no greater title than transferor. 1928 ~cHa~ FACTS Subject: crab meat from Japan. Under these circumstances. 222 bales of cotton represented by warehouse receipts and bills of lading. Vendee deposited goods in a public warehouse. ISSUE: WON the bank acquired the title to the goods (being an innocent purchaser for value from Beley Cotton of the said documents of title) HELD: NO. which issued them for clearance certificates of that warehouse.. or his order.. 23 Fed. Re: THIRD LOT represented by bills of lading-The bills of lading in controversy had not been indorsed by Manget Bros. must be interpreted according to its evident intent -It is quite obvious that the deposit evidenced by the receipt was intended to be made subject to the order of the depositor and therefore. "por orden" instead of "a la orden" or sujeto ala orden" of the depositor and it contains no other direct statement showing whether the goods received are to be delivered to the bearer. for its act (through its agent) made possible the procurement of the negotiable warehouse receipts and the sale thereof by the vendee . These documents of title were delivered by Hale to the Beley Cotton upon receipt of checks of that company. procured clearance certificates. bill of lading. instituted replevin suit -claims of SouthPac: (1) Ono & Co’s title never passed to BA. and the bills of lading to drafts drawn by it on customers and deposited these drafts to the credit of its account in defendant bank. such indorsement by it was not effective for purposes of negotiation. -The SC held that it must be considered a negotiable receipt. Although Beley Cotton did indorse the receipts. For BA. to a specified person. as well as the entire receipt. treat such receipt as imposing upon the warehouseman the same liabilities he would have incurred had the receipt been negotiable. Re: FIRST LOT represented by warehouse receipts-Beley Cotton did not undertake to negotiate these receipts to the bank. the bank acquired no better title to this lot of cotton than the Beley Cotton Company possessed. -It would be contrary to the established law to allow Southern Pac. 154 Tenn 689. exchanged said receipts with the Memphis warehouse. making such receipts negotiable unless marked "non-negotiable. certiorari denied. issued by a Memphis warehouse. The clearance certificates recited on their face that they were not negotiable. not indorsed by person to whom goods were deliverable. could not pass a title which it did not have. warehouse receipts Shipper (presumably also the consignor): Ono & Co. It recited that the merchandise is deposited in the warehouse. the checks for Hale were returned unpaid. would be rendered nugatory -Also. They were not in negotiable form at all. any other interpretation would mean that no one had such power and the clause. Disposition No error in CA decision. -In exchange for warehouse receipts thus acquired by Beley Cotton. sold to the Beley Cotton Co. The Beley Cotton Company. negotiable. BA not aware that vendee fraudulently acquired the goods. -how SouthPac had title over goods: PNB found out that the vendee fraudulently obtained the goods. like any other document. They were not in such shape that they might be negotiated by delivery. (2)SouthPac had superior title over BA who obtained title from a fraudulent vendee -claims of BA: SouthPac ESTOPPED: (1) SouthPac’s agents wrongfully delivered the goods. Since the receipts we are considering had not been indorsed by the person to whose order the goods were deliverable.
gave a chattel mortgage on his cotton crop to Yielding Bros. Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - Ratio.050. except by his consent. and (2) the direct obligation of the warehouseman to hold possession of the goods for him according to the terms of the receipt as fully as if the warehouseman had contracted directly with him. However. Said receipt was sold by Franklin for the full cash value of the cotton to W.. BROWN MERCANTILE CO V YIELDING BROS. Registration laws were enacted for the purpose of giving notice. Rogelio V. Code 1907. is repealed by HELD: NO. Here. which was recorded in the office of the probate judge of the county where said cotton was grown and stored. which had no actual knowledge of the prior chattel mortgage. Warehouse Receipt Act A person to whom a negotiable receipt has been duly negotiated acquires thereby – (a) Such title to the goods as the person negotiating the receipt to him had or had ability to convey to a purchaser in good faith for value. induced by fraud. and also such title to the goods as the depositor or person whose order the good were to be delivered by the terms of the receipt had or had ability to convey to a purchaser in good faith for value.S. . Brown) for $ 1. It follows that the purchaser from the vendee stands in the position of the purchaser from any fraudulent vendee. and took a negotiable receipt. Reasoning. convey a good title thereto. the recording of the mortgage operated as a notice of the contents thereof. If the purchaser had actual notice. The goods were not stolen. 3373. they were not received by the vendee as a result of a trespass. having been duly recorded gave the purchaser a constructive notice so as to prevent him from being a purchaser in good faith. Franklin stored the cotton in the Warrant Warehouse Co. That delivery was a conscious. by its fraudulent representations. or by the existence of such facts as will create an estoppel against him to assert his title. as chattel mortgagee. the vendee persuaded the delivering carrier to surrender the goods. one who secures title to property by fraudulent misrepresentations may convey good title to a bona fide purchaser.. providing for the negotiability of such warehouse receipts. but consent to delivery was fraudulently procured. -Yielding Bros. nor can a trespasser. The vendor is there stopped to assert its rights. Brown. Subsequently. 41. a delivery within the apparent scope of the plaintiff’s agent’s authority. true it is. no one would contend that he was a purchaser in good faith.) sued the purchaser of the warehouse receipt (W. Sec. W. No owner of merchandise may be deprived of title thereto. -The phrase “ or had ability to convey to a purchaser in good faith for value” means provided such person was such purchaser in good faith for value.[Ch 6&7 .S. The chattel mortgagee (Yielding Bros. DEPT STORE SC of Alabama (1917) ~jojo~ FACTS -Franklin. ISSUE WON the Warehouse Receipts Act. is entitled to the value of the cotton. whose rights by virtue of the doctrine of estoppel are well recognized as being superior to those of the vendor or parties in privity with him. or other tortuous taker of merchandise. -Under the provisions of Sec. the value of the cotton. A thief can convey no title to a bona fide purchaser. and the mortgage herein. but none the less a delivery consciously and voluntarily made.M] M] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester Code 1907 AY 2008-09 Prof.S. voluntary delivery. -The purchaser whom the act protects is he who is entitled to assume that the carrier has not delivered the goods and will not thereafter deliver them except to a person who holds the bill of lading. a tenant farmer.
Luhrs. and it appears that in previous transactions of the same kind. Judgment in favor of Griffin. The bank had perfect right to act. demand had been made by the plaintiff on the defendant bank for the return of the quedans or their value. or the payment of value. Ranft was indebted to HSBC. ISSUE WON the defendant bank is a holder in due course HELD: YES. the value of 464 bales of hemp deposited in certain bonded warehouse as evidence by the quedans (warehouse receipts) FACTS -Ranft called at the office of the plaintiff to purchase hemp (abaca)and he was offered the bales of hemp as described in the quedans. 2d 250 (1941) ~kiyo~ FACTS -Dunagan employed Whitehead to haul beer from Houston to Big Springs.W. Quevedo [Ch 6&7 - DUNAGAN V GRIFFIN CA of Texas. Defendants refused to deliver to plaintiff. Lter on.” Harrison was a purchaser in good faith. but was told that the quedans haed been sent to the defendant soon as they were received by Ranft. When the quedans were negotiated. or to bearer. which was refused by the bank on the ground that it was the holder of the quedans in due course. it is a representation of title upon which bone fide purchasers for value are entitled to reply. ISSUE WON Griffin acquired rights to the beer HELD: NO -Article 5616 of the Uniform Warehouse Receipts Act provides that an indorsee of a negotiable receipt acquires such title as the indorser or depositor had (or the latter’s ability to convey to a purchaser in good faith and for value).645. but the plaintiff's understanding was that the payment would be made against the same quedans. providing that it could not be compelled to surrender the seized property until the receipts were either surrendered or impounded by the court . Rogelio V. -Griffin. He had no reason to doubt the authority of Franklin to sell the cotton as the latter was running the ranch and selling the products for three or four years. on the other hand. Griffin only received such title as Whitehead could have conveyed to a purchaser of the goods in good faith and for value. The whole purpose of the section is to protect the warehouseman who comes into possession of the property from being liable to two parties. 151 S. Ranft died. despite breaches of trust or violations of the agreement on the part of the apparent owner. Texas. Third. Since the quedans were negotiable in form and duly endorsed in blank by the plaintiff and Ranft. it immediately demanded the return of the quedans. it follows that on the delivery to the bank they were no longer the property of the indorser unless he liquidated his debt with the bank. 27 Ariz. First. in turn. There upon. that such of the quedans were issued in the name of the plaintiff were duly endorsed in blank by the plaintiff and Ranft. which indebtedness was partly covered by quedans. wherein it alleged that it had sold the quedans to the deceased for cash. Griffin was interpleaded. the plaintiff files a claim for the said sum in the intestate proceedings of the estate of the deceased. could acquire no better title than Whitehead. without having paid for the hemp. filed intervention stating he loaned money to Whitehead and took the receipt as security in good faith and for value ($730). -Luhrs instituted and action in replevin to recover possession of the bales but the defendant refused by virtue of the Uniform Warehouse Receipts Act (Section 25 ). Whitehead hauled the beer to Fort Worth for storage in defendant Storage Company’s warehouse and received a warehouse receipt in his own name. .On the date the quedans were delivered to the defendant. ISSUE WON Section 25 of the WRA includes an action of replevin HELD: YES. the person in-charge of the ranch of Luhrs sold to Harrison four bales of cotton. The importance of Sec 47 and Sec 41 is that if the owner of the goods permits another to have the possession or custody of negotiable warehouse receipts running to the order of the latter. who was in possession of the beer only by virtue of his contract to transport it. argues that Section 25 of the WRA does not cover an action of replevin by the real owner of the goods. and gave him a check payable to Gulf Brewing Co. 306. as payment upon receipt of the goods. INC SC of Arizona. the quedans were sent to Ranft. In the mean time. that the 2 remaining quedans which were issued directly in the name of Ranft were also duly endorsed in blank to him. P. Company alleged it was told Griffin was the owner and holder of the receipt. Fourth. despite his good faith. but the entrusting of the receipt is more than the mere delivery of the goods. under all the evidence.N] N] Law 108: Negotiable Instruments First Semester AY 2008-09 Prof. the plaintiff filed its first complaint against the defendant. Franklin was “a person whose act…would bind the owner. 1014 ~athe~ FACTS -Franklin. delivered it to Valley Ranch for ginning and storage. SIY CONG BIENG & CO V HSBC 55 Phil. quedans were paid on or 2 days after their delivery. Second. Moreover. -TC decision is not tenable.[Ch 6&7 . LUHRS V VALLEY RANCH CO. -Shortly after. plaintiff filed an amended complaint wherein they changed the word 'sold' to 'attempted to sell'. -TC rendered in favor of the plaintiff on the ground that the defendant bank could not have acted in good faith for the reason that according to the statement of his own witness. Harrison. that they were pledged by Ranft to the defendant bank to secure the payment of debt t bank. 598 (1932) ~giulia~ NATURE Recovery of money for P31. it is a representation that the one to whom the possession of the receipt has been so entrusted has the title to the foods.. the quedans were in negotiable in form. -The warehouse receipt represents the goods. the quedans were delivered to the bank in order to secure the debts of Ranftfor the payment of their value and from which it might be deducted that the said bank knew that the value fo the said quedans had not been paid when it was endorsed to them. Together with the covering invoice. -Nothing in the record would compel the bank to investigate the indorser. but that the deceased had not fulfilled the conditions of the sale. and held defendant’s negotiable warehouse receipts therefor. and when the plaintiff's found that such was the case.
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