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Q2a. what is a CAD software? http://en.wikipedia.

org/wiki/Computer-aided_design Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as computer-aided design and drafting (CADD),[1] is the use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.[2] Computer-aided drafting describes the process of creating a technical drawing with the use of computer software.[3] CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing.[4] CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print or machining operations. CAD software uses either vector based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may also produce raster graphics showing the overall appearance of designed objects. CAD often involves more than just shapes. As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings, the output of CAD must convey information, such as materials, processes, dimensions, and tolerances, according to application-specific conventions. CAD may be used to design curves and figures in two-dimensional (2D) space; or curves, surfaces, and solids in three-dimensional (3D) space.[5]

Q3a. What are the applications of computers in manufacturing? Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) is the use of computer software to control machine tools and related machinery in the manufacturing of workpieces.[1][2][3][4][5] This is not the only definition for CAM, but it is the most common;[1] CAM may also refer to the use of a computer to assist in all operations of a manufacturing plant, including planning, management, transportation and storage.[6][7] Its primary purpose is to create a faster production process and components and tooling with more precise dimensions and material consistency, which in some cases, uses only the required amount of raw material (thus minimizing waste), while simultaneously reducing energy consumption.[citation needed] CAM is now a system used in schools and lower educational purpoeses CAM is a subsequent computer-aided process after computer-aided design (CAD) and sometimes computer-aided engineering (CAE), as the model generated in CAD and verified in CAE can be input into CAM software, which then controls the machine tool.[3] Q3b. What is data base management system? How it is related to CAD/CAM?

A database management system (DBMS) is a software package with computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and use of a database. It allows organizations to conveniently develop databases for various applications. A database is an integrated collection of data records, files, and other objects. A DBMS allows different user application programs to concurrently access the same database. DBMSs may use a variety of database models, such as the relational model or object model, to conveniently describe and support applications. It typically supports query languages, which are in fact high-level programming languages, dedicated database languages that considerably simplify writing database application programs. Database languages also simplify the database organization as well as retrieving and presenting information from it. A DBMS provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data integrity, managing concurrency control, and recovering the database after failures and restoring it from backup files, as well as maintaining database security. (page 123 , chapter 5.2 of book) Q4a. What are various geometric trans formations?Explain 2D transformations in detail. Page 423 of book..chapter 12.2.fifth line of first paragraph. _TRANSFORMATION.pdf Two-Dimensional Transformation Geometric transformations have numerous applications in geometric modeling, e.g., manipulation of size, shape, and location of an object. In CAD, transformation is also used to generate surfaces and solids by sweeping curves and surfaces, respectively. The term sweeping refers to parametric transformations, which are utilized to generate surfaces and solids. When we sweep a curve, it is transformed through several positions along or around an axis, generating a surface. The appearance of the generated surface depends on the number of instances of the transformation. A parameter t or s is varied from 0 to 1, with the interval value equal to the fraction of the parameter. For example, to generate 10 instances, the parameter will have a value t/10 or s/10. To develop an easier understanding of transformations, we will first study the two-dimensional transformations and then extend it to the study of three-dimensional transformations. Until we get to the discussion of surfaces and solids, we will limit our discussion of transformation to only the simple cases of scaling, translation, rotation, and the combinations of these. Applications of transformations will become apparent when we discuss the surface and solid modeling. There are two types of transformations: Modeling Transformation: this transformation alters the coordinate values of the object. Basic operations are scaling, translation, rotation and, combination of one or more of these basic transformations. Examples of these transformations can be easily found in

any commercial CAD software. For instance, AutoCAD uses SCALE, MOVE, and ROTATE commands for scaling, translation, and rotation transformations, respectively. Visual Transformation: In this transformation there is no change in either the geometry or the coordinates of the object. A copy of the object is placed at the desired sight, without changing the coordinate values of the object. In AutoCAD, the ZOOM and PAN commands are good examples of visual transformation. Q4b. Explain the concept of parametric and non-parametric representation of curves. Ans: Q3a of assignment.

Q5a. What is solid modeling? Explain CSG representation in solid modeling. Solid modeling (or modelling) is a consistent set of principles for mathematical and computer modeling of three-dimensional solids. Solid modeling is distinguished from related areas of geometric modeling and computer graphics by its emphasis on physical fidelity.[1] Together, the principles of geometric and solid modeling form the foundation of computer-aided design and in general support the creation, exchange, visualization, animation, interrogation, and annotation of digital models of physical objects. The use of solid modeling techniques allows for the automation of several difficult engineering calculations that are carried out as a part of the design process. Simulation, planning, and verification of processes such as machining and assembly were one of the main catalysts for the development of solid modeling. More recently, the range of supported manufacturing applications has been greatly expanded to include sheet metal manufacturing, injection molding, welding, pipe routing etc. Beyond traditional manufacturing, solid modeling techniques serve as the foundation for rapid prototyping, digital data archival and reverse engineering by reconstructing solids from sampled points on physical objects, mechanical analysis using finite elements, motion planning and NC path verification, kinematic and dynamic analysis of mechanisms, and so on. A central problem in all these applications is the ability to effectively represent and manipulate threedimensional geometry in a fashion that is consistent with the physical behavior of real artifacts. Solid modeling research and development has effectively addressed many of these issues, and continues to be a central focus of computer-aided engineering. Constructive solid geometry (CSG) is a technique used in solid modeling. Constructive solid geometry allows a modeler to create a complex surface or object by using Boolean

operators to combine objects. Often CSG presents a model or surface that appears visually complex, but is actually little more than cleverly combined or decombined objects. In 3D computer graphics and CAD CSG is often used in procedural modeling. CSG can also be performed on polygonal meshes, and may or may not be procedural and/or parametric. Workings of CSG The simplest solid objects used for the representation are called primitives. Typically they are the objects of simple shape: cuboids, cylinders, prisms, pyramids, spheres, cones. The set of allowable primitives is limited by each software package. Some software packages allow CSG on curved objects while other packages do not. It is said that an object is constructed from primitives by means of allowable operations, which are typically Boolean operations on sets: union, intersection and difference. A primitive can typically be described by a procedure which accepts some number of parameters; for example, a sphere may be described by the coordinates of its center point, along with a radius value. These primitives can be combined into compound objects using operations like these: Applications of CSG CSG objects can be represented by binary trees, where leaves represent primitives, and nodes represent operations. In this figure, the nodes are labeled for intersection, for union, and for difference. Constructive solid geometry has a number of practical uses. It is used in cases where simple geometric objects are desired, or where mathematical accuracy is important. The Unreal engine uses this system, as does Hammer (the native Source engine level editor), and Torque Game Engine/Torque Game Engine Advanced. CSG is popular because a modeler can use a set of relatively simple objects to create very complicated geometry. When CSG is procedural or parametric, the user can revise their complex geometry by changing the position of objects or by changing the Boolean operation used to combine those objects. One of the advantages of CSG is that it can easily assure that objects are "solid" or watertight if all of the primitive shapes are water-tight. This can be important for some manufacturing or engineering computation applications. By comparison, when creating geometry based upon boundary representations, additional topological data is required, or consistency checks must be performed to assure that the given boundary description specifies a valid solid object. A convenient property of CSG shapes is that it is easy to classify arbitrary points as being either inside or outside the shape created by CSG. The point is simply classified against all the underlying primitives and the resulting boolean expression is evaluated. This is a desirable quality for some applications such as collision detection.

Q7a. What is NC? What are the elements of NC system?Explain the functions of NC machines. Numerical Control (NC) or control by numbers, is the concept, which has revolutionised the manufacturing scene that is partially due to the rapid advancement in microelectronics. Numerical control of machine tools may be defined as a method of automation in which various functions of machine tools are controlled by letters, numbers and symbols. In NC machine tools one or more of the following functions may be carried out, a) starting and stopping of machine tool spindle b) controlling the spindle speed c) positioning the tool tip at desired locations and guiding it along desired paths by automatic control of the motion of slides d) controlling the rate of movement of the tool tip (i.e. feed rate) e) changing of tools in the spindle. ( see question 5a. of assignment) Q7b.what do you understand by part programming? Explain the function of punched tape in NC machine tool. PART PROGRAMMING The part program is a sequence of instructions, which describe the work, which has to be done on a part, in the form required by a computer under the control of a numerical control computer program. It is the task of preparing a program sheet from a drawing sheet. All data is fed into the numerical control system using a standardized format. Programming is where all the machining data are compiled and where the data are translated into a language which can be understood by the control system of the machine tool. The machining data is as follows : (a) Machining sequence classification of process, tool start up point, cutting depth, tool path, etc. (b) Cutting conditions, spindle speed, feed rate, coolant, etc. (c) Selection of cutting tools. While preparing a part program, need to perform the following steps : (a) Determine the startup procedure, which includes the extraction of dimensional data from part drawings and data regarding surface quality requirements on the machined component. (b) Select the tool and determine the tool offset. (c) Set up the zero position for the workpiece.

(d) Select the speed and rotation of the spindle. (e) Set up the tool motions according to the profile required. (f) Return the cutting tool to the reference point after completion of work. (g) End the program by stopping the spindle and coolant. The part programming contains the list of coordinate values along the X, Y and Z directions of the entire tool path to finish the component. The program should also contain information, such as feed and speed. Each of the necessary instructions for a particular operation given in the part program is known as an NC word. A group of such NC words constitutes a complete NC instruction, known as block. The commonly used words are N, G, F, S, T, and M. The same is explained later on through examples. Hence the methods of part programming can be of two types depending upon the two techniques as below : (a) Manual part programming, and (b) Computer aided part programming. 4.2.1 Manual Part Programming The programmer first prepares the program manuscript in a standard format. Manuscripts are typed with a device known as flexo writer, which is also used to type the program instructions. After the program is typed, the punched tape is prepared on the flexo writer. Complex shaped components require tedious calculations. This type of programming is carried out for simple machining parts produced on point-to-point machine tool. To be able to create a part program manually, need the following information : (a) Knowledge about various manufacturing processes and machines. (b) Sequence of operations to be performed for a given component. (c) Knowledge of the selection of cutting parameters. (d) Editing the part program according to the design changes. (e) Knowledge about the codes and functions used in part programs. 33 Fundamentals of Part Programming 4.2.2 Computer Aided Part Programming If the complex-shaped component requires calculations to produce the component are done by the programming software contained in the computer. The programmer communicates with this system through the system language, which is based on words. There are various programming languages developed in the recent past, such as APT (Automatically Programmed Tools), ADAPT, AUTOSPOT, COMPAT-II, 2CL, ROMANCE, SPLIT is used for writing a computer programme, which has English like statements. A translator known as compiler program is used to translate it in a form acceptable to MCU. The programmer has to do only following things : (a) Define the work part geometry. (b) Defining the repetition work.

(c) Specifying the operation sequence. Over the past years, lot of effort is devoted to automate the part programme generation. With the development of the CAD (Computer Aided Design)/CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) system, interactive graphic system is integrated with the NC part programming. Graphic based software using menu driven technique improves the user friendliness. The part programmer can create the geometrical model in the CAM package or directly extract the geometrical model from the CAD/CAM database. Built in tool motion commands can assist the part programmer to calculate the tool paths automatically. The programmer can verify the tool paths through the graphic display using the animation function of the CAM system. It greatly enhances the speed and accuracy in tool path generation. Figure 4.1 : Interactive Graphic System in Computer Aided Part Programming PUNCHED TAPE IN NC The part program is converted into a sequence of machine tool actions bymeans of the input medium, which contains the program, and the controller unit, which interprets the input medium. The controller unit and the input medium must becompatible. That is, the input medium uses coded symbols which represent the part program, and the controller unit must be capable of reading those symbols. [be mostcommon input medium is punched tape. The tape has been standardized, 0 that type p u n c h er s a r e m a n uf a ct ur e d to pr e p a r e t he N C t a pes , a n d t a p e r ea de r s p a r t o f th e controller unit) can be manufactured to read the tapes. The punched ape used for NCis 1 in. wide. It is standardized as shown in Figure by the electronics IndustriesAssociation (EIA), which has been responsible for many of the important standards inthe NC industry. T h e r e a r e tw o ba s i c me t ho ds o f pr e pa r i n g t he p u n c h e d t a p e. T h e firstm e t h o d a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m a n u a l p a r t p r o g r a m m i n g a n d i n v o l v e s t h e u s e o f a typewriter like device. Figure illustrates a modern version of this kind of equipment.The operator types directly from the part programmer's handwritten list of codedinstructions. This produces a typed copy of the program as well as the punched type.T h e s e co n d m et ho d i s us e d w i t h co m pu te r - a s s i s ted p a r t p r o g r a mm i n g . B y t h i s approach, the tape is prepared directly by the computer using a device called a tape punch.By either method of preparation, the punched tape is ready for use. During production on a conventional NC machine, the tape is fed through the tape reader once for each workpiece. It is advanced through the tape reader one instruction at atime. While the machine tool is performing one instruction, the next instruction is being read into the controller unit's data buffer. This makes the operation of the NCsystem more efficient. After the last instruction has been read into the controller, thetape is rewound back to the start of the program to be ready for the next workpart. Q8b. The Design Workstation

The CAD workstation is the system interface with the outside world. It represents a significant factor in determining how convenient and efficient it is for a designer to use the CAD system. The workstation must accomplish five functions [3] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. It must interface with the central processing unit. It must generate a steady graphic image for the user. It must provide digital descriptions of the graphic image. It must translate computer commands into operating functions. It must facilitate communication between the user and the system.

Q8d. Graphic user interface: archPaper/parcgui01.pdf Graphical User Interface: . A GUI is a Graphical User Interface, usually part of a computers operating system which is characterized by WIMPs and WYSIWYG. WIMPs are Windows, Icons, Menus, and Pointing devices (such as a mouse or a trackball). WYSIWYG or What You See is What You Get, refers to the ability to print out exactly what you see on the screen, this made effective desktop publishing possible. The GUI is based on the principle that pointing in menus to a command you want to computer to do is easier than having to remember hundreds of key words like in command line operating systems such as MS DOS or Unix. The GUI is based on the idea that pointing to something is the most basic human gesture, and the mouse is easier to use than a keyboard. In a graphic user interface a user points at windows, icons, and menus by means of a mouse on a metaphorical desktop environment which relates to the users known physical office environment. The graphical desktop is a metaphor of an office desk, which files and folders on top of it, making it easier for new users to visualize how the computer works. The innovations of the GUI and WYSIWYG where first developed in the 1970s by Xeroxs Palo Alto Research Center

years ahead of the rest of the computer industry.Xerox PARCs researchers would fundamentally alter the nature of computing, and the relationship of human-computer interaction.

Q8e. NASTRON package: NASTRAN is a finite element analysis (FEA) program that was originally developed for NASA in the late 1960s under United States government funding for the Aerospace industry.[1] The MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation (MSC) was one of the principal and original developers of the public domain NASTRAN code. NASTRAN source code is integrated in a number of different software packages, which are distributed by a range of companies. NASTRAN is written primarily in FORTRAN and contains over one million lines of code. NASTRAN is compatible with a large variety of computers and operating systems ranging from small workstations to the largest supercomputers. NASTRAN was designed from the beginning to consist of several modules. A module is a collection of FORTRAN subroutines designed to perform a specific taskprocessing model geometry, assembling matrices, applying constraints, solving matrix problems, calculating output quantities, conversing with the database, printing the solution, and so on. The modules are controlled by an internal language called the Direct Matrix Abstraction Program (DMAP). Geometry and topology Definition: Geometry relates to the information containing shape-defining parameters, such as the coordinates of the vertices in a polyhedral object. Definition: Topology describes the connectivity among the various geometric components, i.e. the relational information between the different parts of an object.