You are on page 1of 99

TABLEOFCONTENTS

Acknowledgements ListofTablesandFigures Abbreviations Abstract

ii iii iv v

1.Introduction 2.ICTsintheLiterature 3.TheJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnica(JCCE) 4.LessonsfromtheJovenClubexperience

1 6 15 27

AppendixA:CBIEReport AppendixB:JovenClubKeyDocuments AppendixC:InfoClub2005Agenda AppendixD:ProjectOutcomes

31 53 63 65

Bibliography

68

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Wordsareinsufficienttoexpressmygratitudetomyfamily,friendsand colleagueswhohaveshownthemostremarkablepatiencethroughthis interminableprocess.Myparents,JoanandPaulRushton,areowedagreatdebt fortheirunconditionalsupportovertheyears.Mydearfriend,ShukriaDini, providedconstantencouragementthroughoutthestruggle.IsaacSaney,stalwart friendandfellowcubaphile,ledbyexample.Ifonlyyourdedicationtothecause couldprovecontagious. Myprofessorsandcommitteemembers,Dr.JohnKirk,Dr.HenryVeltmeyerand Dr.SamLanfranco:yourwillingnesstoseethisthroughtotheenddemonstrates morethanacademiccamaraderie,itistheepitomeoffriendship.Iamhonoured andprivilegedtohavehadyoursupport.AsImoveforwardwithmyresearch,I willstrivetoliveuptothatexample. AnnetteWright,thankyouforyourencouragementandsupport.Theheartofa trueScotbeatswithinyou.Dr.CyrilByrne,afinerfriendtherecouldnotbe Imgladtocallyouoneofmine.IsabelWainwrightandEttaParker,who welcomedastrangerandbecamegoodfriends,thankyoubothforyour generosity. TothestaffoftheJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnicaNational Headquarters,inparticular,Sr.FlorencioBuenoMesa,ChiefMethodologistand myextremelyobligingresearchpartner,NationalDirectorPedroMartnez Pin,whorescuedmyresearcheffortwhenillnessandcircumstancestruck downmyinitialCubanpartner.Lic.MayraLiceaMarreroandIvonneMorales Rodrguez,whocheerfullyelaboratedtheintricaciesoftheJCCEsystemsothat evenIcouldunderstandit.AtthePalacioCentraldeComputacininCentro Habana,NetworkChiefMiguelAngelRamnRodrguez,YisselDaz.In Holgun,JovenClubDirectorLauraGonzalez.Therearesomanyotherswho workwiththeJovenClubmovementinCubawhoexpressedgreatfriendship andprofessionalismindealingwiththisunknownquantityfromCanada.Tothe individualJovenClubdirectorsfromSanLuisinPinardelRotoSantaClarato

iii

TerceroFrenteandSegundoFrentetoMoaandSantiago,Ithankyouforyour kindassistanceandhospitality. SpecialthankstoAuroraPrezGramatges,NelsonSnchezandIdorisfor openingtheirhomesforthedurationofmystayinCuba.Suamistadnunca olvidar.

iv

LISTOFFIGURES
Figure1. ChartofUUCPtrafficoverTinoRednetwork(domestic) 21

TERMSANDABBREVIATIONS

CBIE CanadianBureauforInternationalEducation CIDA CanadianInternationalDevelopmentAgency EEUU EstadosUnidenses/UnitedStatesofAmerica HTML ICT HyperTextMarkupLanguage

InformationandCommunicationTechnology

IDRC InternationalDevelopmentResearchCouncil JCCE JovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnica/ComputerandElectronics YouthClub PAN PanAmericanNetwork PCC PartidoComunistadeCuba/CubanCommunistParty TCP/IP TransmissonControlProtocol/InternetProtocol

Telecentros Communitylevelcomputingand/ortelecommunicationscentres UJC UUCP UnindeJvenesComunistas/UnionofYoungCommunists UnixtoUnixCommunicationsProtocol

vi

ABSTRACT
InformationandCommunicationTechnologiesinCuba: TheCaseoftheJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnica MarkRushton22December2004

In 1987, Cuba initiated the Joven Club de Computacin y Electrnica (JCCE) programme, a nationwide installation of staff and computer equipment that grew to encompass all 169 Cuban municipalities with community centres for computerrelatedtraining.Despitethesevereeconomicupheavalthatfollowed the 19891991disappearance ofCubas majortrade ties with theU.S.S.R., the JCCE project endured. As the economy gradually recovered with the rapid growthoftourismandforeigninvestment,so,too,didinvestmentintheJCCE. In2000,theorganizationhad172communitycentres. Inlessthanfouryears, that number would nearly double. Approximately onethousand centres are plannedtobeinoperationwithinthenexttwoyears(20042006).Cubasforay into this field is intended to informaticize its society, enabling Cubans to partake in the global knowledge economy through the participation of workers in jointventure operations and through the creation and export of softwareandothertechnology.SimilarICTeffortsonasmallerscaleandwith varying barriers to access not present in the Cuban example have been establishedbyherLatinAmericanneighbours,butonlyCubahasthemasslevel ofliteracyandeducationtomakethataccessrelevant.Thispaperexaminesthe developmentoftheJCCEinitiative,identifies thecontextinwhichitisbeing carriedoutandexplorestheCubanexperienceasasustainablemodelformass ICTdevelopment.

vii

1.

Introduction

FromOctober,1999throughJanuary,2000,IundertookaCIDAfundedresearch initiativeinCubafocusingontheactivitiesoftheJovenClubdeComputaciny Electrnica (hereafter, JCCE). Among the achievements, this initiative contributed totheaugmentationofCuban ITprofessionalsinvolvementwith theirpeersthroughouttheregion.Thelinkagesthatdevelopedareenablingthe Joven Club to forge new ties with colleagues in their field and promote awarenessoftheJCCEmodelforcommunitylevelICTintroduction. Inaneraofincreasingglobalizationandtheconcurrentphenomenonof privatization,competitionandremovalofthestatefromitstraditionalroleasthe guideofthedevelopmentprocess,Cubarepresentsadeparturefromthenorm.

viii

While foreign investors have been courted with gusto throughout the past decade, thatinvestmenthasbeen strictly controlled bythestateanddirected towardparticularsectorsoftheeconomy,withothersectorsnotably,education andhealthcaredesignatedofflimits. ThisisnotanewroleforCuba,whichhasgoneagainstthegrainforover 40 years as it pursues an indigenous and unique development path free of influencefromglobalagenciessuchastheInternationalMonetaryFundandthe World Bank. Still, Cubas path has not always been of its own choosing: circumstancesdictatedisolationfromitsnearestandhistoricaltradingpartners in the hemisphere, particularly during the years of the Cold War, due to its economicandideologicalalliancewiththeformerU.S.S.R. Contemporary development projects throughout the world have incorporated technology as both a methodology and goal in the process of raisingtheconditionsoflife. Theincreasingabilityofpeopletocommunicate,inbothquantitativeand qualitativeterms,isseenasavitalcomponentinthatprocess. Since1993,in particular, that communication has been manifest in the use of computer networks(which,interconnectedandwidespread,combinetodefinetheglobal Internet).Thesenetworksprovidetheenablingconditionsforthedispersaland

ix

collationofvastamountsofinformation,availabletoeveryonewhopossesses evenaminimumofliteracyandaccesstoalinkedcomputer. Accessibilityisakeyconditioninthisdevelopmentequation.Throughout Latin America, Africa and Asia, the creation of technological access points knownastelecentrosisviewedbyagenciesofdevelopmentasanimportant step in bringing that wealth of information from the world to everyone and anyoneatthecommunitylevel.ThuswecanseeinPerutheprojectstolinkrural indigenouscommunitieswiththeirpeersinotherpartsofthecountry,oraround the world. In Ecuador, innercity youth are given access and training in computertechnology.InAfrica,millionsofdollarsarespentonthecreationofa highcapacity fibre optic line that rings the continent, bringing network capabilitytoareaswheretelephoneshaveyettopenetrate. These instances where information and communication technologies (ICTs)arethefocusofdevelopmentprojectsare,forthemostpart,inthehands of development agencies whichchannel theirfunding andpersonnel through universities, specific recipient government ministries and private initiatives. Rarelyaretheyconductedonabroadscale;moreoftenthannottheseinitiatives are directed to specific communities (in both the geographic and conceptual sense). An ICT project may target indigenous peoples, atrisk youth, small

businesscreation,environmentalawarenessamyriadofpossibilities.Yetthey are characteristically smallscale, very specific initiatives conducted within a specificcommunity.

Theroleofthestateintheseprocessescanbesummedupasthefollowing:

apartnerintheprocessviatheappropriateministry(e.g.,health)which supports the project with personnel, and which is responsible for the managementofprojectfundsprovidedbytheexternalpartneragency;

onabroadscale,responsibleforcreatingtheconditions(legal,political, commercial)withinwhichtheprojectmayproceed.

Thedesignofthese projects isoften explicitly intended to include significant involvementfromtheprivatesector. Whereasthestateispermittedtosetthe overall objectives and strategy for ICT deployment, when it comes to implementationthereislittleroomforthestateasagent. Cubaistheexception.InthecontextoftheRevolutionarygovernments 45yearolddevelopmentprojectthereisroomforthestateasagentandnoother. Neitherareefficiencyandmodernitythepriority,asICTimplementationbecame

xi

apartofthesocialistdevelopmentprocess. TheexampleofICTintroduction exploredinthisresearch effort,theJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnica (JCCE),isforthemostpartthedirectoppositeofmostothermodelsinscope, implementationandstructure.Thisprojectundertookacasestudyapproachto theJCCEinanefforttoidentifyitsuniquecharacteristicsandpossiblelessons which can be taken to the conceptualization of ICTs as both a development objectiveandtool.1ThestatedirectednatureoftheJCCEdiffersmarkedlyfrom other ICT efforts around the world, where the private sector and / or international development agencies take centre stage in the process of implementation.Thisstudyisprimarilyconcernedwiththeopportunitieswhich ICTspresenttothedevelopmentofaninformedsocietyintheCubancontext.It isacentralpropositionofthisthesisthattheCubanmodelcontainsaspectsand methodologieswhichcontainvaluablelessonsforothersituationswhereICTs arebeingimplemented. Giventheunique(i.e.socialist)natureoftheCuban governmentvisvisothergovernmentsintheregionwhereICTinitiativesare being pursued, the differences which arise in the Joven Club model are of particularinterest,andraisethequestion:Whatlessonscanbederivedfromthe

A broader exploration of Cubas experience with ICT, beyond the Joven Club, can be found via American University: ImpactsofNationalInformationTechnologyEnvironmentsonBusiness. URL:
1

http://www.granma.cu/ingles/julio1/27compui.html

xii

Cubanmodelforimplementationonthesamescaleandwiththesamelevelof integrationwithnationaldevelopmentpolicyinothercountries? ThereareanumberoffactorsthatcomeintoplaywhendiscussingICT developmentintheCubancontext. GiventhegeopoliticalsituationofCuba throughoutthepastfourdecades(i.e.,asatargetofanisolationistpolicyonthe part of the United States of America),2 Cuban technologists had far greater interactionwiththeirSovietcounterpartsthanregionalcolleagues(Lazou,1982; Press et al., 1992; Valds, 1997;). The Soviet era saw a great transference of industrialtechnicalknowledgeandcapitalinvestment,butnothinginthewayof distributedcomputingsystemsforpopularcommunication. ThisisnotuniquetotheCubanexperience,sincethebeginningof the personalcomputingepochinNorthAmericaonlybeganinthemid1980s,and didnotreachamasspresenceuntiladecadelater. LatinAmerica'sforayinto computing networks began shortly thereafter, with the greatest push for development in most areas with the "birth" of the WorldWide Web in

The U.S. economic embargo goes far beyond not trading with Cuba. Successive U.S. administrations have, since 1961, drafted additional legislative measures which, among other things, prevent ships from docking in U.S. ports if they had visited a Cuban port in the previous six months. Diplomatic pressure has also been exerted on Cubas regional neighbours, with the aim of further cutting trade ties. The HelmsBurton Act of 1994 extended the restrictions on doing business with Cuba to the point where third-country companies were threatened with lawsuits and their directors banned from U.S. entry if those companies in any way made use of property in Cuba which was illegally expropriated by the Cuban government. A broader discussion of the embargo can be found at http://www.canadiannetworkoncuba.ca
2

xiii

1992/1993, when the technological advantages in terms of access to vast quantitiesofinformationoutweighedthesubstantialinfrastructuralcosts.

xiv

2.

ICTsintheLiterature

The World Development Report 1998/99, subtitled "Knowledge for Development," may well have been given the title "Knowledge for Market Development." TheWorldBankcontinuedtoseeopentradingregimesasthe primarypathtoeconomicdevelopment,withsocialandpoliticaldevelopment apparentlyridingitscoattails. TheReportisalsoheavilyladenwithwestern value perspectives regarding technology and its necessity in the "modern" society.Forexample,

"Oneofthegreathardshipsenduredbythepoor,andbymanyothers wholiveinthepoorest countries, istheirsense ofisolation. The new communicationstechnologies promiseto reduce thatsense ofisolation, andtoopenaccesstoknowledgeinwaysunimaginablenotlongago." (IBRD,p.9)

Thetheory oftrickledown economics,whichdominatedofficialdevelopment policyformanyyears,allgoodthingswillfollowICTimplementation.Farmers willhaveknowledgeofweatherandcanprotecttheircrops;smallscalelenders

can do credit checks on potential borrowers; and public health projects can becomemoreeffective. Admirablegoals,thoughthewordsremindoneofthe valueless modernization theory. "Modern" society requires an adoption of communicationstechnologiestoconnectthedisconnected,bringingthemintoa spherewherebytheymayreceiveknowledge. Theexperienceofthepastfifty yearsshowsthatthemorelikelyresultisthecreationofstillmoreconsumers whoreceiveteachingsinthevalueofthingsthroughthesenewmedia. Itwouldbehypocritical to reject manyoftherecommendations of the Report, as this thesis does advocate the development of communitybased computernetworks.Theissueisnotthetool,buthowitisused,conceptualized andimplemented.MacLuhansrealizationthat"themediumisthemessage"led communicationstechnologyanalyststoappreciatenotonlypolicyimplications ontheirface,butalsothebroader,lessobviousbutnolessprofoundcultural impactthatsuchtechnologiesinevitablybring(1967).However,knowingfrom theoutsetthatthetechnologycarrieswithitimplicationsforthewayinwhich knowledgeistransferred,onecantakestepstomitigatethoseimplicationsand/ or adjust them to suite the context. The valueless application of ICTs as advocatedbytheReportfollowsthedecadesoldtraditionofanopenmarket ideology.

Thereportisausefulcontrasttowhathashappened/ishappeninginthe Cuban context. While the Report argues strongly and frequently for the privatizationoftelecommunicationsinfrastructures(IBRD,Box4.5,p.65),Cuba remains steadfastly opposed to that sort of marketdriven development of services.Althoughthenationaltelephonecompanyhasbeenopenedupforjoint venturedevelopment(withfirstMexico'sGrupoDomosasapartner,andnow anItalianfirm),statecontrolanddirectionremainthedefinitiveguidingforce. Cuba's telecommunications development continues to advocate an equitable distribution ofnewcapacity,rather thanconcentrating thatcapacity inurban areas,orwithinurbanareas,tospecificneighbourhoods. Itisthischaracterof nationaldevelopmentplanningwhichpermeatesallsectors,andinthecontextof this study is most relevant when discussing the developmental nature of the JovenClubsystem. Technologyasadrivingforcebehindthedevelopmentprocessisawell discussed concept (Kuri Gaitn, 1995; Patel, 1995). The past decade of innovations and implementations of ICTs in the developing world context, though,providessufficientrealworldexamplesfromwhichtoconcludethatthe nature of ICTs has changed in a quantum fashion from the first days of telephone, facsimile and HAM radio. The world now possesses satellite

telephoneswhichprovidefornearuniversalaccess.Internettechnologieshave pushedoutfromtheirnorthernbarrierstoreachallcornersoftheearth.Internet cafsexistinmajorcitiesofsomeofthepoorestcountries.3 Privatecommercial internetconnectionsexistinevensmallercentres.Theworldcontinuestoshrink, ascitizenshorizonsexpand. One of the great promises of ICT implementation is the democratic enabler they represent. Using community networks to inform the people, providingdetailedinformationtomanywithlittleexpenditureofmoneyand resources. OneformofICTimplementation, theCommunityNetwork(REF), providestoolsforcivicempowermentandisafacilitatorfororganizinggroups toconductcollectiveaction. ContemporaryICTs,unlikeanytechnologythathasgonebefore,havean exponentiallygreaterliberating/empoweringcharacteristic inthecontextof national/socialdevelopment(UNDP,2000).ThecapacityofICTstocontribute todevelopmentinallspheresislarge,providedtheinfrastructureisconstructed withdevelopmentalgoalsinmind. Thisliberating,orempowering,characteristicofICTsgoesfarbeyondthe formerhitechplateauoftelephoneandfaxcapability: ICTspermitthenear
3

Visit http://www.world66.com/netcafeguide for a comprehensive listing of cybercafs around the world.

instantaneouscommunicationofinformationtounlimitednumbersofrecipients (limitedonlybyaccess)withanincrediblysmallcostpenalty.Thecapacityfor twoway communication, just as rapid, is as impressive. The ability to coordinate collective action in this manner surpasses anything that has gone before. In the South, ICTs are being implemented in many ways, some with objectives appropriate or atleast intended fordiffering cultural, political and economiccontexts.Thevastmajorityoftheseareledbytheprivatesector,with government support for certain sectors (infrastructure development, research funding,policy). Thisisapointofdepartureintheliterature;anopenmarketapproachto theimplementationofICTstendstofollowthemoneytrail;businessleadsthe way,followingthosewhocanpayfortheservices.Itcanbearguedthatinmany cases of ICT implementation, the motivation is not one that serves local developmentinterests,butrathertheagendaofsomeoneoutsidethecommunity, perhapsoutsideofthecountry.Justasthedevelopmentofbetterqualityroads through the Brazilian Amazon served not the interests of the people but the interests of resource extractors, ICTs may also be developed contrary to communityinterests.

Governments can encourage ICT development in ways that serve the broader community. Through regulatory means, infrastructural development andeducational support,ICTscanbecomeatoolofthepeoplerather than a diversionatbest;aculturalthreatatworst. Yetthisgovernmenthandinthe process is often decried by such international bodies as the International Monetary Fund, which sees such involvement as inappropriate and contaminatingtothenaturalprocessofdemandleddevelopment. Forthat reason,governmentpolicieswhichencourageICTdevelopmentofacharacter that is conscious of the implications may fall into the same disfavour as protectionisteconomicpoliciesofthe1970s. With each majortechnological advancecomes anexpanded productive capacity. ICTsprovidemorethansimplyawaytoimmediatelycommunicate information,theyprovideamethodforinstantaneouscollaboration(Lanfranco: 1998)toachievegoalsbothintentionalandpredetermined,andgoalsthatarise outofthatinteractivecommunication. Thereareadditionalissuestoconsider.ICTsarebigbusiness;theycannot beimplementedeasilywithoutaninvestmentininfrastructure,modernizationof existingcapacity,andsomedegreeoftrainingandskillsenhancement.Tiedto thisisdominantopenmarketideologythevastmajorityoftheliteratureonICT

implementation refers to economic development objectives. ICTs will enable developingcountriestoprovideforitscitizensandtheinternationalcommunity suchservicesaselectroniccommerce,VISAauthorizations,hotelbookingsand thelike. In the Cuban context, this requires an adjustment in the analysis. Although there have been entrepreneurial and open market experiments, the stateretainscontroloveralleconomicinitiatives,infrastructuredevelopmentand strictlycontrolsforeigninvestment,particularlyinkeysectors.Theinformation sectorinCubaisrapidlyexpanding,andispoisedtorepresentasignificantnew economiccontributiontonationalproduction. TheCubanExample

Larry Press' work is a valuable technical survey of Cuban networking capacityinthe1990s,thoughitshouldbenotedthathisanalysisisweightedto technicalbarriersandpolicies,notthebroaderissuesofsocietaldevelopment. Heidentifiestheinfrastructuraldifficultiesfacedbyplannersastheyattemptto implementnewdigitalnetworksforcommunicationsacrosstheisland. Press incorporates a multidimensional evaluation of Cuba's networking capacity, whichisusedtocomparethecountrywithotherCaribbeanandLatinAmerican

states.Hisownnotespointtoadiscrepancyintheanalysis,asCubarankslow for"GeographicDispersion"ofnetworkingcapacityduetothefactthatithas onlyoneconnectiontotheglobalinternet(CENIAI). "If,however,wewereto consideremailconnectivity,wewouldfindaccessineveryprovinceandnearly every municipality" (Press, 1998). Also noted is the communications infrastructuregrowthrate,whichissubstantiallyhigheroutsideofthecityof Havana,pointingagaintothestate'sdesiretoprovideequalityinICTaccess.In afollowupexaminationofCubasICTinfrastructure,Pressnotes: in the spring of 1999, Cuba's total international bandwidth was 832 kb/s, which is less than a home with highspeed DSL service or cable modem and less than 1/50th of the bandwidth from my campus of the CaliforniaStateUniversitytotheInternet.Furthermore,connectivitywas concentratedinHavana(thoughlessconcentratedthaninmanydeveloping nations)andlimitedtorelativelyfewpeople,almostexclusivelythrough theirwork.Africaisaneven strongercaseinpoint.manynations have international connectivity speeds roughly equivalent to a single analogmodem.inmanyAfricannations,accessisavailableonlyinone city(Press,2000).

IncomparingCuba'sICTdevelopmentmodelwiththatofothercountries, Press speculates that"(i)fCubaretainsthisgeographicbalance,wemaylearn somethingoftheability ofnetworks toimprovequality oflife" (Press, 1998). ThisisbaseduponUNDPestimatesthatdevelopingcountrieswillcontinueto see higher rates of ruraltourban migration, as services continue to be concentratedincitiestothedetrimentofthecountryside.ShouldCuba'sefforts stemthattidebyprovidingtheserviceswhichthesocietydesires/needs,itmay well end up with a more sustainable situation in terms of urban / rural population balance. While Cuba has a long history of postRevolutionary triumph in the dispersion of services of education and health, its continuing commitmentintheinformationagetothatpathlendsitadistinctionfromother countries'initiatives. TheissueofwhatCubanshavecalled'culturalimperialism'israisedby Press (1997), who notes "Cuba has moved slowly out of concern for the preservationofthevaluesofthenation."Whilethesesentimentsaresharedby mostotherdevelopingnations,henotesthat"Cubaisfurtherconcernedbecause ofitssocialisteconomyandpoliticalphilosophy."HecitesCITMAMinisterRosa Elena Simeon, who states "The First World uses the network to introduce

viewpoints that work to the detriment of the ethical and cultural values of developingnations." Beyond these threatsbynature come more overt threats undertaken intentionallybytheFirstWorld. PressreferstotheuseofICTsbytheUnited Statestospreadpropagandaviaradioandtelevisionsignals. Therehaseven beenonerecordedincidentoftheU.S.interestssectionpersonnelusingCuba's fledgling email network to spread U.S. origin information to many of those Cubanswhohademailaccessatthetime. Cisler(1994)andPress(1996)make referencetoincidentsof"ebombing"undertakenbyMiamiexileswhoflooded Cuba'snetworkwiththousandsofemailmessages,amovewhichledtheCuban state to exercise stricter control over access to the technology (American Libraries,1996:25). Press' analysis overall is preoccupied with the development of IP connectivity;thatistosay,thetechnologicalprotocolsutilizedandaccesstothe globalinternet.HeseestheprotectivenatureofCubanICTdevelopmentasan impediment to its ultimate success. The fact that Cuba's model for ICT developmentemphasizesinternalcapacitybuildingandtraining,withsecondary considerationgiventoprovidingthecitizenrywithglobalinternetaccess,isa problem. He does not appreciate, though the evidence is within his own

material,thatCubaisproceedinginaculturallyappropriatemanner,guidedby itsfiscalandtechnicalcapacity,anditsgeopoliticalsituation.Evendeveloped nations such as France have decried the homogenizing effect of the global internet and its predominantly U.S.based content (Coleman, 1997). Cuban resistance to following the dominant model is characterized as a "strategy of building internal networks and skills at the expense of international connectivity.aresultofpoliticalambivalencetowardnetworking(adesireto reaptheeconomicalandeducationalbenefitswithoutthepoliticalandcultural risks)(Press:1997). Ifthereisapaucityofinformationintheliteraturewhichappreciatesthe uniquenatureofCubasdevelopmentofICTs,itseemstolieprimarilywithan inabilitytoassesstheprojectincontext.AnalysesoftheCubaneffortwhichbase theircritiqueonnormsthataretransferredfromamarketeconomysimplywill notwork. Itisonlybyfirstestablishingtheparametersofasocialiststateand plannedeconomythatonecanassesstheJovenClubinitiative,andallofCubas foraysintoICTdevelopment,withanyhopeofdivininganaccuratepicture.

3.

TheJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnica(JCCE)

Overaperiodof3.5months(October,1999January,2000)Itravelledthroughout Cuba, visiting Joven Club installations in cities, coastal villages, mountain settlementsandontheplains.Imetwithcurrentandpastadministratorsofthe JovenClub,staffatthelocalandnationallevelandthosemembersofthegeneral publicwhomadeuseoftheJovenClubfacilitiesineachcommunity. Asthe researcheffortbegan,Iattendedanationalmeetingofnetworkadministrators for the Joven Club, held in Havana. I promptly had access to those who implementandoperatethiscommunitylevelinformaticsnetwork. The extent of the organization was impressive; in almost every municipalitythereexistedacommunitycentrewherethepubliccouldundertake computertraining.ThescopeoftheJovenClubinitiativewouldbeintimidating toanyplannerinadevelopingnation:169municipalities,someofwhichwere still using horses as a primary mode of transportation, limited infrastructure (though perhaps more equitably distributed than in other countries) and continual problems with electric power availability. Despite these and other challenges,theJovenClubmanagedtoconstruct174communitycentres,equip eachofthemwithcomputersandstaff,andinitiateaneducationalprogramme

thatwouldtargetnotjustyouth,butchildren,adultsandseniors.

FoundationAndDevelopment TheJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnicawasfoundedin1987withthesupport ofPresidentFidelCastro(Daz,2000).Thestaterecognizedtheneedtodevelop aCubancultureofinformationtechnologytopreparethepopulationforitspart inthecontinualadvanceoftechnologyintheworld.

LocalexpertssayDecree209,passedinJunetointegrateCubaintoglobal informationnetworks,demonstrates thegovernment's decisiontomake progressinthatindustry.''Thereisnoalternative,andwemustnotlose time,''VicePresidentCarlosLagetoldaseminaronCuba'sinvolvement intheInternet,theglobalcomputernetwork(Acosta,1996).

The implementation of the project, or "movement" as the Joven Club team describesit,wasundertakenaccordingtoamodelthatwouldbechallengingin any other context. Rather than create areas ofspecialization andconcentrate scarceresourcestoachieveacriticalmassofknowledgeandtechnicalcapacity, theJovenClub model insteaddistributed itsresources equitably,bringing all

localitiestoapproximatelythesamelevelinbothtechnicalandstaffingterms, withtheexceptionsbeingprovincialcapitalcentres termedpalacioswherea concentration of the newest technologies existed. This initial direction has remainedacorepolicy,witheveryJovenClubinthecountryreceivinganew multimediacomputerovertheNewYear(2000)holidayperiodandtherecent announcementbytheCubangovernmentofafurthercapitalenhancement.4

ObjectivesAndMethodologies

AstheJovenClubmovementgrew,sotoodiditsmandate,objectivesand methodologies(seeAppendixB).Initiallyviewedasausefultooltoengageidle youth and provide a nonformal training opportunity, the Joven Club as an organizationnowemploysmethodologistsatthenationalandprovinciallevels. These administrators oversee the implementation of programmes, attempt to reconcile the wide variety of individual skill bases amongst communitylevel instructorsandformulatefuturedirectionsfortrainingandspecialprojects.
Field Notes. Compiled during a research visit to 30 communities across the breadth of Cuba from 04 October 1999 to 16 January 2000. Unpublished.
4

TheJovenClub'smissionisto"developaninformaticscultureamongthe community with a priority toward children and youth, playing an active, creativeroleintheformationofvaluesintheprocessofinformaticizingCuban society"(Daz,2000). Fromtheresearch visitsto several communitycentres throughafourmonthperiod,itwasclearthattheJovenClubshaveassumed centralrolesintheirrespectivelocations.IntegrationwiththeYoungPioneers,a childrensorganizationtowhichvirtuallyallCubanyouthjoin,isverymuchin evidence. They arepresent on aregular basis forcomputer literacy classes, which initially take the form of gameplaying sessions and which gradually become more complexas thechildrens comfortlevel rises. Thispartnership withlocalschoolsatalllevelsallowstheJovenClubtoreachitstargetaudience whileprovidingtechnologicaltrainingtostudentsthatschoolsarenotequipped todeliver.

IssuesofAccess

The objective of raising the technological capacity of Cuban society

appearstotakeprecedenceoveranyconcernsordesiretorestrictaccesstoonly thosewhoareseenassupportersoftheCubangovernment.Thischaracteristicis somewhatatoddswithexamplesoffaxmachinesandcomputersbelongingto dissidentsbeingconfiscatedbytheInteriorMinistrywhentheiractivitiesare seentoposeathreat,howeversmall,tothestateandsociety.AlthoughtheJoven ClubisanorganizationundertheadministrativecontroloftheUnionofYoung Communists(UJC)theyouthwingofCuba'sCommunistParty(PCC)there issurprisinglylittleoverttoptowncontrol.Theindividualcommunitycentres, though,arecloselyintegratedwiththeactivitiesoflocalUJCchapters. Inthis respect,itisnotunreasonabletoassumeacertaindegreeofpeerinfluence. Atthecommunitylevel,theonlyrestrictionsonaccesstothefacilityare based on hours of operation and the availability of electricity. There is no prerequisitetobeamemberoftheUJCorPCC.Childrenarefirstexposedtothe JovenClubthroughprogrammesdevelopedbetweenthecommunitycluband local schools. Once or twice a week, children spend a halfday at the club playingcomputergamesandlearningabouttheequipment.Astheygrowolder, otheravenuesforinvolvement,suchas"CirclesofInterest,"aremadeavailable forspecializedinstructionbypeergroups. Anexampleofthesegroupsisthe radioaficionado club, which is a problembased approach to learning about

packet radio transmission of computer data, an initiative that even young teenagerspursue. At this point in the Joven Club's development, there has not been an opportunity for counterrevolutionary persons or groups to abuse the technological capacities of the organization. The potential exists, as the proliferation of ICTs provide rapid communication of information, for such activities to developonce email becomes moreubiquitous. FewoftheJoven Clubsprovideemailaccessforindividuals,notforanyideologicalreasonbut ratherforpractical,technicalreasons.CurrentlyeachJovenClubhasoneemail address,usedbythedirectorandotherstaff.Thereisatthispointnoprivacy, beyondthatwhichthestaffwishtoimplementandagreeupon(althougheach Clubhasadirectorwiththreetofourstaffunderhim/her,theteamapproachto management is very evident). For a counterrevolutionary member of the communitytohaveunrestrictedaccesstoemailviatheJovenClubnetworkis highlyunlikely.Likewise,guaranteeinganyprivacyfortherecipientisnextto impossibleifthedestinationemailiswithintheJovenClubdomain. With the rapid development of the technical capacities, however, the potential for abuse of the system (e.g. dissident groups organizing,unofficial journalism, etc.) will grow as well. Incidents that will provoke policy

developmentinthisregardwilllikelyhappenslowly,astheJovenClubsystem byitsnaturedoesnotcannotgrowquickly.Allequipmentinvestmentsofany valuearemadebythestate.5 Thepotentialforrapidtransformationdoesexist as international partnerships and state commitment to expanding capacities grow. Atthetimeofthefieldresearch,however,thelikelihoodwasverylow thatanyrapiddevelopmentwouldoccur.Theequityprinciplethatrequiresall Clubstoremainmoreorlessonparwithoneanothermeanstherewillnotlikely bearapidjumpintofullglobalaccessinternetinanylocation. Multiplelocal emailaccountsmaycomefirst,followedbyaprovincialand/ornationalemail service.Eventuallytheglobalemailbarriermaybebroken,butonlyifthereisa realanddemonstratedneedorbenefitthatwouldoutweightherisks. Even barriers of ability are being overcome, as some Joven Clubs undertake special programmes to hold classes or incorporate into existing courses,peoplewithphysicalormentalchallenges.Adultsandseniorsarealso included,thoughtheyarelesslikelytobeactivelyrecruited.TheJovenClubis open to their participation in courses, and becoming involved for volunteer activitiesiftheirskillsandtimeallowsforthatcommitment.
Individual Joven Clubs do have the discretion and autonomy to enter into partnerships with foreign bodies and individuals. Field visits to communities in Santiago de Cuba and Pinar del Ro revealed three such partnerships, each with European NGOs or individuals who procured donations of equipment, typically used computers of low capacity.
5

InfrastructureandCapacity

TheJovenClubnationalnetworkstructurehasatitscoreTinoRed,oneof thefirstnationalcomputernetworksinthecountry,whichbecameactivein1991. Asofspring,2000,TinoRedconsistsofcentralserverslocatedinthePalaciode ComputacininHavanawhichcoordinatethetransferofemail,programfiles, andotherdataamongthevarioususersintheprovinces.Thedatatransmission protocolthroughoutthisnetworkisUUCP,asithasbeenfromthedayitwas formed, which presents limitations on growth and future development (see below).TinoRed'scentralserversinHavanaexchangedata(email,primarily) amongoutlyingregionsinthismanner: Figure1

EachofthedoubleendedarrowsrepresentsaUUCPconnection,whichis

tosay,onecomputercallsanotherusingamodemoverpoorqualitytelephone linesandexchangesdata,thendisconnects.Ifauserinanyprovincewishesto send a message to someone in another province, then that message passes through the central servers in Havana. At the provincial level, the above diagramisduplicated,withtheprovincialserverhandlingemailmessagesfor thevariousclubsthatconnecttoit. ThereareseveralJovenClubsthatdonothavethetechnicalcapacityfor simpleemail.Inmostcases,itisnotaquestionofhardwareontheJovenClub's end, but rather a lack of capacity at the local Communications Ministry operation. Theresimplyisnottheabilitytoaddanymoretelephonelinesto certainareas. The Clubs are getting around this limitation by exploring wireless networking alternatives. "Packet radio" is the term applied to the use of shortwave radio signals as a method of sending and receiving data. Transmissioninmostcasesislimitedtoarateof9600baud,thespeedatwhich mostfacsimilemachinesintheworldoperate.Whilenotsufficientforlargedata files, it is more than appropriate for small textonly communications. This methodisbeingputtouseprimarilyinremotemountainousareaswherethe communicationsinfrastructureispoorest.

ATypicalCommunityInstallation

A "snapshot" of a typical Joven Club (of which there were 174 spread throughout169municipalitiesasofJanuary,2000)wouldshowittoconsistofa standalonebuilding,onelevel,madeofconcrete.Ithassixrooms;areception area,anofficefortheDirector,atechnician'sshop,ageneralpurposeclassroom withachalkboard,acomputerlaboratorywithfourtosixoldIBMXTclonesor possibly 286's, and a second laboratory with up to two computers running Windows95or98. Staffingatthecommunitylevel typicallyconsistsofoneDirector, with twohardwarespecialistsandtwosoftwarespecialists.TheDirectorwouldfall intooneofthosetwocategoriesalso.Allarecertifiedteachersintheirfield.The software specialists teach computer literacy, programming, and applications. The hardware specialists offer instruction in repair, maintenance and circuit design. The Joven Club national team, based in Havana, works with local representativesofmunicipalgovernmentandpoliticalinstitutionstoidentifyan appropriatelocationwithinthecommunityfortheclub. Inmanycasesapre

existing building is converted for use; in others, the community and local governmentraisefundstoconstructabuildingifnoacceptablestructureexists. Themunicipalgovernmentalsocontributestotheongoingoperationoftheclub throughadonationofutilities(e.g.electricity)andsupplies(paper,lightbulbs, etc.). Theclubwouldbephysicallylocatednearthecentreofthecommunity, maximizingaccessforresidents. Withtherecentphenomenaofjointventureswithforeigninvestors,the development of the tourism industry, and other similar creations of new organizational"wealth" orcapacity,theJoven Clubs havetaken advantage of personal and political connections to augment their capacities locally. Some clubshaveformedpartnershipswithlocal"empresas"ornewbusinessestomake useoftheirequipmentfortrainingpurposes,ortoaddressatechnologicalneed (e.g.aJovenClubthathascreatedawebsitethatrelatesthecommunityhistory may make use of an empresa's CDburner to facilitate distribution of that material). Incertaincommunitiesofaparticulargeographicnature,theJovenClub incorporates community outreach activities. There are, in some localities, "MobileClubs"whichseethestaffpackingupcomputerequipmentandusing ruralbustransportorothermeanstovisitcommunities,schools,etc.whichare

inremotelocations.TheMobileClubsconcentrateoncomputerliteracymoreso than structured programming, as their presence in any one community on a regularbasisisnotguaranteed. TheNationalOfficehasindicatedadesireto augment the capacity of these specialized services to perform more effective outreachservices.

IntegrationwithNationalDevelopmentProgrammes

TheextensivepresenceoftheJovenClubsystematthemunicipallevel allowsforsomeinterestingpossibilities. Inthe1997elections,theJovenClub networkwasusedtotransmitballotboxcountsfromcommunitiestothetallying officeinHavana.Whilenotthe"televoting"proceduresthataregainingground in North America, it represents a solid step forward in the inclusion of appropriatetechnologiesintoStateoperations. The Joven Club project intended, as one objective, to address idle or disaffectedyouthbyengagingtheminsomethingnewandexciting. Thisisa primaryconcernforthemethodologistswhohavenationalmeetingsaimedat improvingtheiroutreachandaccess. TheJovenClubefforthasalreadybeen showntohaveasignificantimpactontheeducationalchoicesofCubanyouth.A

pollconducted by theJCCENational Office inearly 2000foundthatover 95 percentofyouthwhohadreceivedinstructionthroughtheJovenClubnetwork continuedintheinformaticsfieldthroughuniversityandtradeschools.Among thosealreadyintheworkforce,asurveyofjustunder2000workplacesfound 23.3percentofworkershadreceivedcomputerinstructionthroughaJovenClub (BuenoMesaetal.,2000).Thus,theJovenClubislayingthegroundworkfor theemergingICTsector,whichwillrequireknowledgeworkers.

InfrastructuralNeedsAssessment

In1999/2000,theJovenClubcommunitycentres,regionalcentresandnational networkwereateachleveldeficientofhardware/resourcesinsomerespect. Thehumanresourcesweremorethansufficient,withinstructorsandmanagers (atalllevels)inabundantsupply. The Joven Club initiative provided each regional centre with adequate materialfortheachievementofstatedobjectives.Whilecommunitylevelcentres wereupgradedcollectivelyasthesituationallowed,regionalcentres(locatedin theprovincialcapitals)wereinstitutionswhereequipmentandpersonnelcould beconcentratedtoserveabroaderrangeofneedsandgreatercapacityofclients.

Indiscussionswithendusers,instructors,managersandnationalheadquarter personnel,theJovenClubsinfrastructuraldeficienciesincluded:

IndividualJovenClubs Outdatedcomputerequipment(486modelPCswerethenorm) Spareparts Protectedpowersupplies Airconditioning Basicmaterialsforinstruction(paper,pens,chalk,overheadprojectors) Telephone service (both for the staff and for regional / national networking)

JCCENationalNetwork Severelydeterioratedtelecommunicationslines Nonexistenttelecommunicationslinkagetoremotesites UUCPtechnologyforexistinglinkages(whereasTCP/IPisthestandard) Insufficientredundantcapacityattheserverlevel

Performance

AccordingtotheJCCEs CentrodeInformacin,intheperiodbetweenOctober, 1998andJanuary,2000,theJovenClubsystemsaw35,302citizens(ofallages) receive training in the community centres. This represents a 92.7 percent retention of those who signed up for classes, with 99 percent successfully completingthecourses. Thesefiguresdonotinclude,amongothers,the9017 students in secondary, preuniversity and university classes, which function cooperativelywithlocalJovenClubstoprovideresourcesandtraining.Nordo theyincludethe11,273studentsattheprimaryandbasicsecondarylevelswho likewisespendpartoftheirschoolweeklearningcomputerliteracythroughthe JCCE(Daz,2000).

4.LessonsfromtheJovenClubmodel

To attempt to compare the Joven Club model of bringing information and communication technologies to the citizenry with similar efforts in other Caribbean orLatinAmerican contextsisdifficultand,ultimately,notentirely fruitful. Cubas developmentoftheICT sectorisas uniqueas theprocesses whichbroughttheRevolutionintobeing.Replicatingtheconditionsforsuccess andtheJovenClubisasuccess,inmyopinionisnotlikelytohappeninother countries. Attheheartofthisquestionisstateinvolvementinthesector. Cubas centrallyplanned economy dispenses with the vast majority of market mechanismswhicharecalledupontodriveconsumerdevelopmentintherestof Latin America. Whereas the market economy counts on demand to fuel an industry built around selling a product, Cubas strategy discounts the individualsconsumeristdesiresandplacesthenationalgood(inthiscase,the needforatrainedworkforceintheICTarea)attheforefront. Cuba sees the potential economic benefits that can come from a combination of its alreadysignificant achievements in education and the emerging ICT field. Whereas her neighbours must first be concerned with findingalreadyskilledpeople,orthosewhocanhavetheirskillsupgraded,to enterthissector,Cubahasthebesteducatedpopulaceintheregion.Thereisno needforsomethingasbasicasaliteracy campaignCubacovered thatbase threedecadesearlier. ThesuccessoftheJovenClubinitiativeisallthemoresignificantwhen one considers the economic context. Shortly after the first Joven Club was

opened,Cubassocialistbloctraderelationswereseverelydisrupted.Combined with the continuing (and strengthened) U.S. embargo, there were scarce resources to commit to an emerging economic field. It was a gamble which ultimately succeeded. In any other nation, there might have been a push to createacentreofexcellenceoutofwhichasmallbutwelleducatedbodyof workerscouldrapidlyemerge.ButinCuba,thesocialistprincipleofequalityfor allresultedinagrowthplanwhichensuredabroadprogrammeaimedatgiving asmanypeopleaspossiblesomethingtoworkwith.Perhapsthiswasintended alsotogivethemasses theimpressionthatthecountrywasmovingforward together. Alsounusual in its execution ofthis plan,atleastinsofarastheusual implementationofcommunitylevelICTprojectsisconcerned,wasthelackof anyfees whatsoeverfortraining. Therearefewexamples intherestofthe developingworldinwhichtelecentrostaketheformofnofeetrainingcentres.In mostcases,useofa telecentro impliesacertaindisposableincome,aminimum levelofeducationandselfdirection.Cubaturnsthedominantmodelonitsear, giving away the training so that the citizenry can be utilized for future ICT relatedprojects,businessventuresandotherneedsofthestate.

TheJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnicaisaprimeexampleofwhat canbedonetomeetadevelopmentobjectivewhenthelongtermfillof theStateisbehindit.Foralmosttwentyfiveyears,theJovenClubhas receivedconsistentsupportfromthestateintermsofresourcesand politicalendorsement.Itrapidlyintroducedanewtechnologytothe masses,continuestoprovideinitialtraining(foryoungandold),and preparesthesealumniforamoreprobablefutureinresearch,astate ICT/Softwarecompany,orforworkinaninternationaljointventure. Thiscertainlywouldnotbearealitywereitnotforaconsistentpolitical willonbehalfofthegovernment.Thestabilityprovidedbyanon confrontationalelectoralsystem,aconsensusmodeloflegislating,thorough consultationwithworkersandbureaucrats,allcometogethertoenableeconomic planningunlikeanyothercontextinthehemisphere.Itispreciselythis characteristicthatmakesreplicationoftheJovenClubmodelthroughoutthe regionproblematic,particularlywiththecontinuedpushforprivatizationofany venturewhichcouldbeturnedintoaprofitmakingenterprise.UntiltheIBRD andrelatedagenciesseethevaluethatliesinraisingthebar,collectively,forall tobenefit,Cubasneighboursmaywellbelefttolookonenviouslyasthenation createsapowerhouseofprogrammers,researchers,designersandotherrelated

positions.Whilenonstatetelecentrosbringaprofitaspecttotheprovisionof technologicaltraining,theybringnoguaranteeofsubsequentbenefittothe nationalproject.When,asinCuba,thestatesetstheeconomicagendawithout externalinterference,scarceresourcescanbemarshalledstrategically,without waitingforthemarkettoadjusttodemand,orsupply. TheJovenClubin2004isadifferentcreaturefromitshumblebeginnings. Whereasitoncewastheonlysourceforcomputertraining,noweveryschoolin thecountryofferssomesortofinhouseaccessandtraining,regardlessofthe distancefromurbancentresorinfrastructuralbarrierssuchaselectricity(Riera, 2001).Itspromisenowlies,notinthebasictrainingofthepopulationinICTs, butinthecontinuedpresenceforallcitizenstohaveaccessandputtheirskillsto use.SomecommunitiesareutilizingtheJovenClubstoarrangevirtualwork groups,otherstaketrainingasretireesinordertomakeuseofthecomputerson localhistoryprojects.Thepossibilitiesareendless. Onechallengewhichremainstobeconfrontedwillarriveonthedaythat CubasinternalintranetisconnectedfullytotheWorldWideWeb.Thefloodof primarilyU.S.based(andhighlynegative,towardCubaatleast)information willpresentathreattoCubansociety.Itishopedthattheseyearsofpreparation, ofinformaticizacinoftheCubanpeople,willenablethemtoweedoutthegood

andthebad.Thisisnotashorttermconcern,asCubasabilitytopayforafaster connectionandonewithmorebandwidthisnotlikelytochangeinthenear future.ItmaybeyearsbeforeCubancitizenscansitdowninalocaltelecentre andsurftheinternetwithCNNandtheCubanAmericancommunitysweb presence.Butthatchallengewillonedaybecomereal,andrequireavery consideredapproach.

AppendixA:CBIEReport

CIDAAWARDSPROGRAMMEFORCANADIANS

RUSHTON,Mark

Information&CommunicationTechnologiesandCuba: BuildingfortheFuture

ProjectYear:

1999/2000

Country:

CUBA

Sectors:InfrastructureServices,Democracy,HumanRights,GoodGovernance.

ABSTRACT ProjectDescription ThisprojectassistedtheJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnica(JCCE) toconnectwithinternationalinstitutions/movements.Insodoingtheyare gainingaccesstoexperiencesinothercountrieswithintheregionandalsoa foruminwhichtosharetheirownexperiencesinthisregard.Theproject contributestobuildingthecapacityofCubasICTsector.Itisonecrucialstepin thedesignofatelelearningstrategyappropriatetoCubascontemporary circumstancesandconstraints. Goals: developacomprehensiveoverviewoftheJovenClubmodelforICT introduction. completeaneedsassessment(infrastructure). identifythepedagogicalprocessesinuse. initiate new linkages with regional professionals / organizations workingintheICTfield. formulateapartnershipwithaCanadiansoftwarecooperative.

ContentofReport PartI: Questionnaire PartII: Abstract

PartIII:FinalReport 1.0 GoalsandObjectives(original) 2.0 MethodologyandImplementation 3.0 Results 4.0 Impact 5.0 PersonalImpressions 6.0 PendingInitiatives PartIV:StatementofExpenditures PartV:EvaluationLetters(ProjectSupervisor/HostOrganization) Appendix Methodology Inachievingthegoalsindicatedabove,theresearcherandpartner collaboratedcloselyindesigningappropriatemethodologiesfortheCuban context.Theorganizationprovidedinternaldocumentationoutliningitsown goals,pedagogy,infrastructuraldesignandaims,futuredirectionsand evaluations.Fieldinterviewswithstaffatmorethan30communitysiteswere conductedtoassessuniformityandcohesionofimplementation.Enduser interviewsweresoughtwheneverpossibletocorrelateinformationfromstaff interviews.TheresearcherutilizedpreexistingcontactsintheICTfieldto introducenationalofficerepresentativeswithregionalICTprofessionals.

StatementofAccomplishments:

AdministratorsattheJCCEdonothaveeasyaccesstotheglobalinternet andthereforehavenowayofdiscoveringonlinecommunitiesand contemporaries.Thisprojectscomponentofinitiatingcontactdirectlybetween theJCCEadministratorsandmembersoftheIDRCsupportedPanAmericas Networkinginitiativemayinthelongtermprovetobethemostsignificant accomplishment.Theprojectundertookaneedsassessment/inventoryofthe infrastructuralconditionspresentintheJovenClubnetwork.We(andother researchers/developmentworkers)arenowbetterabletoformulatefuture projectsandinitiatives.Oneofthoseprojects,thepartnershipconnectingthe JovenClubandtheCsuiteCommunityNetworkingCooperativeinHalifax, NovaScotia,iswellintotheplanningstage.Thisprojectrepresentsa revitalizationofthecommunitytelecentresoperatedbytheJovenClub,anda largeincreaseintheinstalledbaseofCSuitescommunitynetworkingsoftware. TheIDRCPANconnectionbroughttheJovenClubintoanIDRCfunded documentaryshortwhichwillpremiereattheMalaysianGlobalKnowledgefor Developmentconference.InthemonthofFebruary,2000,aCalifornia,USA, highschoolteacherbrought18youthtotheJovenClubforadigital videoproject.TheU.S.groupdedicatedcomputerandvideoequipmenttothe JCCEandisinitiatingajointprojecttoexchangevideosmadebyyouth.This

connectionwasfacilitatedbytheresearcher,andgiventhelackofexpertisein thisareaonthepartoftheJCCEadministration,maynothavedevelopedif contacthadbeenmadeinanyotherfashion.

ResultsandBenefitstotheHostCountry:

TheJovenClubisnowinvolvedinmultipleinternationalinitiatives;(a) implementationofanimprovedmodelforcommunitynetworking(CSuite),(b) formulationofajointsoftwaredevelopmentprogramme(CSuite),(c) participationintheIDRCsPanAmericanforumforcommunitynetworking professionals,(d)adevelopingUSACubayouthconnectionusingcomputers andvideo.TheimplementationofCSuitessoftwareprovidesindividualemail accountsandagreatersenseindividuality,whileprotectingprivacy.Theend usersgainnewskillsasthenetworkevolvesmorerapidlythanadministrators hadplanned.Thisnewabilitytoparticipateandlearnresultsingreater economicandsocialopportunities.TheJCCEsystemhastbeenusedtotransmit electionresultsasCubastrengthensitssystemofrepresentativegovernment.

Conclusion:

AnimportantnewcharacteristicofCubascommunitynetworkingefforts isitsinternationalexposure.Asthisresearchispublicized,andtheIDRCPAN connectionsdevelopfurther,morepeoplewillhearoftheuniqueefforts undertakeninthatcountry.CubacannowpromoteitsinstalledcapacityofIT workers,itsuniqueexperienceswithstatedirectedICTdevelopmentatthe communitylevel,includingpedagogicalcomponentsofadifferentnaturethan thoseemployedinthestandardtelecentremodelusedthroughoutLatinAmerica andtheworld.Theprojectsradicalrestructuringresultedinasuccessful researchinitiative,thanksinlargeparttotheprofessionalismandflexibilityof theJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnica.Thisunderfundedbut omnipresentnationalorganizationisnowpoisedtobecomeCubasflagshipin internationalITrecognition.Witharapidupgradingofitscapacitiesthrougha parternshipwithCSuite,aCanadiancommunitynetworkingorganization,ICTs canfinallybesaidtobenearingnotonlyuniversalaccess,butaccesswitha capacitytobeusefulandrelevanttoCubaschangingeconomyandsociety.

CIDAAWARDSPROGRAMFORCANADIANS

FinalReportPartIII:NarrativeReport

InformationandCommunicationTechnologies&Cuba:Buildingforthe Future

Researcher: Rushton,Mark Institution: SaintMarysUniversity,Halifax,NovaScotia,Canada

AwardYear: 1999

GoalsandObjectives:
[seeAppendixAforgoalsspecifictotheCSuite/JovenClublinkage]

1. InpartnershipwiththeJovenClubNationalOffice,thisprojectperformed acomprehensivestudyofthehistory,developmentandplannedfuture directionofnationaleffortstodevelopcommunitylevelcentresfor informationdistributionandinformaticscapacitybuilding.Thefocus wasontheJovenClubefforttointroducewidespreadcommunity trainingtoaddresstheneedsofthenewknowledgebasedeconomic revolution. 2. ThisprojectalsoassistedCubanprofessionalswithintheseinstitutionsto

connectwithinternationalinstitutions/movementstointroduceand studytheimpactofcommunitylevelICTcentres,suchasthePan AmericanTelecentreInitiative.InsodoingtheCubanprofessionals gainedaccesstoexperiencesinothercountrieswithintheregionandalso aforuminwhichtosharetheirownexperiences. 3. TheresearchconductedcontributestobuildingthecapacityofCubasICT sectorinthedistributionofinformation.Itisonecrucialstepinthe designofatelelearningstrategyappropriatetoCubascontemporary circumstancesandconstraints. 4. Supplementarytothecoreresearchprojectisalinkageeffortthatdirectsa portionofoneNGOsmaterialdonationsalreadyflowingintoCuba directlytoICTagencieswithanindicatedneedforequipment.TheNova ScotiaCubaAssociationfeeds(amongotherthings)personalcomputers intoCubastechnologysectorviathedistributionalassistanceofICAP (CubanInstituteofFriendshipwiththePeople).Thisprojectalsoserves asanassessmentofthepotentialtargetagenciesforthatequipment, leadingtothecreationofadirectNGOICTsectorlinkagebetween CanadaandCuba. 5. Alocalcommunitynetworkingcooperative(CSuite: http://www.csuite.ns.ca)isformingnotsimplyalink,butatechnological partnershiptofurthercitizensaccesstoanduseoftechnologyforcultural sharingandcollaboration(inthefieldofpublicdomainsoftware).This linkagewilleventuallyproduceaseriesofprofessionalexchangesfor learningandteachingbetweenCanadaandCuba.

METHODOLOGY&IMPLEMENTATION

Overviewoforiginal(revised)projectimplementationtimeline: planning,proposalcompletionandresearchdesign(Nov.98 Sept.99) orientationandadjustmenttoprojectparameters(Oct.99)

initialassessmentofICTstrategies,agencyobjectives(Oct./Nov.99) interviewswithstakeholders(Nov./Dec.99) distillationofinterviews/identifytasksandrecommendations (Dec.99) presentationofrecommendationstoparticipatingorganizations(Jan. 00) reportwriting,translationofmaterialintoEnglish(Jan./Feb.00) preparationofpapersforconferencepresentations(Feb.00) completionofthesis(April.00)

Theprojectproceededwiththerevisedtimeline(previouslysubmittedtoCBIE) withadditionalminoradjustmentsasthesituationchanged.Currentlythe projectisinthereportwritingandtranslationphase,withconference presentationsandthesiscompletionontrackaspertheoriginalschedule. Inachievingthegoalsindicatedabove,theresearcherandpartner collaboratedcloselyindesigningappropriatemethodologiesfortheCuban context.Theorganizationprovidedinternaldocumentationoutliningitsown goals,pedagogy,infrastructuraldesignandaims,futuredirectionsand evaluations.Norestrictionswhatsoeverwereplacedonaccessto documentation. TheJovenClubnationalofficefacilitatedmeetingsandinterviewswith

formerstaffmembersoftheorganization,includingtwonationaldirectorsand variousmethodologists/pedagogistsandtechnicians.Fieldinterviewswith staffatmorethan30communitysiteswereconductedtoassessuniformityand cohesionofprogrammeimplementation.Enduserinterviewsweresought wheneverpossibletocorrelateinformationfromstaffinterviews. Sr.FlorencioBuenoMesa,theJovenClubschiefmethodologistandmy researchpartner,wasveryopenandencouraginginourdiscussionssurrounding myexperiences.Wefrequentlydebriefedmeetingsandevents,adjustingplans anddirectionasthesituationwarranted.Myparticipationinplanningmeetings andnationaladministratorsgatheringswasneveraquestion;itwasassumed thatIwouldparticipateatthatlevel. IutilizedpreexistingcontactsintheICTfieldtointroducenationaloffice representativestoregional(LatinAmerican)ICTprofessionals.TheJovenClub alsoaskedthatIparticipateinanationalconferenceatthebeginningofthe fieldwork(whichIdid),andIwillreturntoCubainlateMaytoparticipateina followupinternationalconference.

RESULTS:

Inlinewiththegoalsandobjectivessubmitted,thisprojectachievedthe followingresults:

DevelopedacomprehensiveoverviewoftheJovenClubmodelfor InformationandCommunicationTechnologyimplementation.

Completedaneedsassessment(infrastructure)uponwhichtobuildfuture developmentalplansanddonationsschemes.

Identifiedthepedagogicalprocessesinuse,includingspecificmethodologies forteachingchildren,teensandseniors.

Initiatedwiththepartnerinstitutionnewlinkageswithregionalprofessionals /organizationsworkingintheICTfield(withemphasisonotherCanadian aidorganizationsupportedinitiatives).

FormulatedapartnershipwithaCanadiansoftwarecooperativeto(a) developaSpanishlanguageversionofcommunitynetworkingsoftwareand (b)introducethatsoftwareintotheCubancontext,asappropriate.

InitiatedatestphaseintwolocationsfortheCanadiandeveloped communitysoftware.Followinganevaluationofthesetests,wider introductionisexpected.

Establishedsolidprofessionalandpersonalcontactswhichwillbebrought intoplaywithfutureprojectsofthisnature.

IMPACT:

TheprimarystakeholdersinthisresearchprojectweretheJovenClubde

ComputacionyElectrnica(JCCE),theCSuiteCommunityNetworkingCo operative,andtheresearcher.SecondarystakeholdersincludetheUninde JvenesComunistas(UJCadministrativebodyoverseeingtheJCCE)andthe ChebuctoCommunityNetwork(whichismonitoringtheprogressoftheCSuite project,withaneyetojoininginafutureinitiative).

InstitutionalCapacityBuilding

TheJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnicahadbeenrelativelyinsularand disconnectedsinceitsformationin1987.ManyoftheadministratorsattheJCCE donothaveeasyaccesstotheglobalinternet,althoughmostdohave internationalemailaccess.Thoughtheymaysendandreceiveemailanywhere intheworld,theyhavenosimplewayofdiscoveringonlinecommunitiesand contemporaries.Thisprojectslinkagecomponentinitiatingcontactdirectly betweentheJCCEadministratorsandmembersoftheIDRCsupportedPan AmericasNetworkinginitiativemayinthelongtermprovetobethemost significantaccomplishment. Theprojectdidresultinanimportantfirststep;aneedsassessment/ inventoryoftheinfrastructuralconditionspresentintheJovenClubnetwork.

Withthisinmind,we(andotherresearchers/developmentworkers)arebetter abletoformulatefutureprojectsandinitiatives.

InternationalContacts/StrategicLiasons

(a)ThepartnershipconnectingtheJovenClubandtheCSuiteCommunity NetworkingCooperativeinHalifax,NovaScotia,iswellintotheplanningstage. Aninitialworkplanhasbeenfinalizedandadministratorsarediscussingthe forminwhichtheprojectwilleventuallybegin.Thisproject,ifsuccessful, representsasignificantchangeinthestatusquo;arevitalizationofthe communitytelecentresoperatedbytheJovenClub,andalargeincreaseinthe installedbaseofCSuitescommunitynetworkingsoftware.Thenextphase includesjointdevelopmentofaSpanishlanguageversionofCSuite,tobe followedbyothersoftwareventures.

(b)AnIDRCPANconnectionistheJovenClubsinclusioninanIDRCfunded documentaryshortwhichwillpremiereattheMalaysianGlobalKnowledgefor Developmentconference.TheRecipientwasrequestedtoorganizeanddirect thiscomponentofthelinkageduetopreviousprofessionalexperienceinthe

field.Therewasnopreexistinginternalcapacitytoundertakethisinitiative. Throughparticipationintheprocess,fromdesigntoexecution,membersofthe JCCEnationalofficegainedexposuretoandexperienceinthisactivity.Thisis significant,giventhatoneotherinternationallinkage(seefollowing)involves videomaking.Theskillsacquiredwillbebeneficialtothehostinstitution.

(c)Thisresearchprojectbroughttogethertwoenemystatessotospeak.Inthe monthofFebruary,2000,aCalifornia,USA,highschoolteacherbrought18 youthtoHavana,connectingwiththeJovenClubonadigitalvideoinitiative. TheU.S.groupdedicatedcomputerandvideoequipmenttothenational headquarters,andisinitiatingajointprojecttoexchangevideosmadebyyouth. Thisconnectionwasfacilitatedbytheresearcher,andgiventhelackofexpertise inthisareaonthepartoftheJCCEadministration,maynothavedevelopedif contacthadbeenmadeinanyotherfashion. TheJovenClubisnowinvolvedinmultipleinternationalinitiatives;(a) implementationofanimprovedmodelforcommunitynetworking(CSuite),(b) formulationofajointsoftwaredevelopmentprogramme(CSuite),(c) participationinaPanAmericanforumforcommunitynetworkingprofessionals (IDRCSPANinitiative),and(d)adevelopingyouthtoyouthUSACuba

connectionusingcomputersandvideo. ForthoseCubansatthecommunitylevelwhotakeadvantageoftheJoven Clubsystem,newbenefitscomefromtheongoingimplementationofCSuites software.Individualemailaccountsgiveagreatersenseofidentityand individuality,whileprotectingprivacy.Theendusersgainnewskillsasthe WWWbasednetworkevolvesatamorerapidpacethanadministratorshad thoughtpossible.Thisnewabilitytoparticipateandlearnresultsingreater opportunitiesbotheconomicallyandsocially.TheJCCEsystemhasinthepast beenusedtotransmitelectionresultsasCubastrengthensitssystemof representativegovernment.Withincreasedtechnicalcapacitycomesgreater possibilitiesforthistechnologytobeemployedforbettergovernance. AnimportantnewcharacteristicofCubascommunitynetworkingefforts isitsinternationalexposure.Asthisresearchispublicized,andtheIDRCPAN connectionsdevelopfurther,morepeoplewillhearoftheuniqueefforts undertakeninthatcountry.CubacannowpromoteitsinstalledcapacityofIT workers,itsuniqueexperienceswithstatedirectedICTdevelopmentatthe communitylevel,includingpedagogicalcomponentsofadifferentnaturethan thoseemployedinthestandardtelecentremodelusedthroughoutLatinAmerica andtheworld.

FulfillingCIDAsDevelopmentPriorities

EnhancementofInfrastructureServices:Throughthisprojecttheneedsand deficienciesoftheJovenClubnetworkhavebeenidentified.AnNGOled, donationsdrivenprocessiscurrentlyunderwaywhichwilladdressatalow levelthesetechnicalneeds.Withthethirdstakeholder(CSuiteCooperative) committedtoworkingwiththeJovenClub,andinterestedinpursuingfurther projects,itisexpectedthatfurtherdevelopmentofthatnetworkwilltakeplace withinthecomingyear.Thatprojectwillfocusprimarilyontwocomponents: communitylevelcapacitytoimplementnewnetworkingsoftwareinall communitiesandanationalefforttoassistintheupgradingofdatatransmission capacitybetweenprovincialnetworknodes.

AnexpectedimpactofthisprojectisintheareaofStrengtheningCivil Society.Astheimplementationofmoreadvancedcommunitynetwork capacityproceeds,individualsandorganizationswillhavegreater opportunitiestocreatetheirownvirtualspace.Amongthepossibilitiesisthe creationoflocallydevelopedwebsiteswhichwillfirstservethelocal

community.Asthenationalnetworkcapacitygrows,sotoowilltheaudience andpotentialcollaboratorsfortheseorganizationsandindividuals. Environmentalistsmaycometousethetechnologytoshareinformationabout climatechangeimpactsandotherevents.Socialgroups(whethercultural, educational,orpolitical)likewisewillbenefitfromthelongertermcreationof virtualspacesforcollaboration. Aninformedsocietyisbetterabletoparticipateinitsowngovernance. Thus,thisprojectaddressesCanadasdevelopmentpriorityofGood Governance&Democracy.Furtherpenetrationofcommunitynetworking technologiesinaneffectiveandopenmannerwillenablemoreeffective communicationandcoordination.TheJovenClubnetworkhasbeenutilizedby regionalofficesofPoderPopulartosubmitelectioncountstothenational officeinHavana.Thepotentialfortheuseofthesetechnologiesatthe communityleveltoreceiveinformationandprovidefeedbacktothestate bureaucracyisgreat.Asystemalreadyhighlyparticipatoryinitselectoral structure,Cubamayexpectinthelongtermtoincorporatethistechnologytoits benefit.

RECIPIENTSPERSONALIMPRESSIONS

Theprojectsradicalrestructuringresultedinasuccessfulresearchinitiative, thanksinlargeparttotheprofessionalismandflexibilityoftheJovenClubde ComputacinyElectrnica.Thisunderfundedbutomnipresentnational organizationisnowpoisedtobecomeCubasflagshipininternationalIT recognition.Witharapidupgradingofitscapacitiesthroughapartnershipwith CSuite,aCanadiancommunitynetworkingorganization,ICTscanfinallybesaid tobenearingnotonlyuniversalaccess,butaccesswithacapacitytobeuseful andrelevanttoCubaschangingeconomyandsociety. IwasstruckbytheautonomyaffordednotonlytheJCCEasan organization,butalsotheregional(community)officesoftheJovenClub.One mightexpectthatacountrywithacommunistgovernmentwouldbehighly bureaucraticandcontrollingofprocess.Indeed,thatistheexpectationIhad goingintotheproject.TheJCCEisundertheadministrativecontrolofthe UnindeJvenesComunistas(UJC),theyouthwingoftheCubanCommunist Party.Assuch,thedirectoroftheJCCEreportstoabureaucratattheUJC,and mayreceivedirectivesonpolicyfromthatbody.

FromdiscussionswiththeJCCEnationaldirector,however,the relationshipbetweenthetwobodiesappearstobehighlycomplementary.The JCCEprovidesongoingreportsofitstechnicalsituationandwhatitdesiresfor futureupgrading,drawnfromanannualplanningprocessandfromdaily experiences.Likewise,theUJCandtheJCCEworktogethertodevelopand implementcommunitylevelandnationalmeetings,conferences,etc.whichhave mutualbenefits.OneexamplewilloccurinNovember,2000,whentheJoven ClubholdsanationalconferenceonCommunity&CultureinSantiagodeCuba. ThisconferenceisbeingfedintobyaJovenClubinitiativetodevelop communityhistoriesforeventualpublicationonlocalwebsites. ThereisanotheraspectofcontemporaryCubathatmakesthisautonomy veryunusualtotheoutsideobserver.SincethecollapseofCubasSovietbloc tradingpartnersin1989,theeconomyhasbottomedoutandbegunalong,slow recovery.Thepasttenyearshavebeenonesofhardshipandmaterial deficiencies.TheprofoundeffectonCubansingeneral,asitisinmanysocieties, tooktheformofyouthfulexpression.Newformsofculturaloutlet(grungerock music,newfashionexperimentation,etc.)bytheyouthsectorwerenoteasily acceptedbythesocietyatlarge.Unemploymentcoupledwithanovereducated andidlepeopleledtothecreationofalargepopulationofdisaffectedyouth.

Inthatcontext,itissurprisingthattheUJCmakessolittleovertuseofthe JovenClubnetwork.Computersareafascinationformany,andrepresentanew educationalavenuewhichcouldleadtoneweconomicgain.Youthparticularly aredrawntothiscommunitylevelnetwork.Giventhattargetaudience,thefact thattheUJCdoesnotproceedwithstrongideologicalprogrammesviatheJoven Clubwassurprising. Thatautonomyextendstothecommunityleveladministrationofthe JovenClub.Inmanyofthecommunitiesvisited,localstaffhadformeddirect partnershipswith(primarilyEuropean)foreignvisitorsororganizations.This oftentooktheformofarrangementstoobtaindonationsofcomputersandother equipment.Thatsuchinteractionsofaninternationalcharactercouldproceed withouttheinvolvementofthenationalofficerepresentedanunexpected freedomtooperate. Ifeelthatthisresearchinitiativehascreatedseveralopportunitiesforme bothprofessionallyandpersonally.ThetimespentlivinginCubahasdeepened myappreciationofCubancultureandsociety.Ihavebeen,onemightsay, reinvigoratedwithrespecttomyvolunteereffortsinCanadaonbehalfof strongerCanadaCubarelations.Icertainlybenefitedfromtheresearchandthe effectitwillhaveonmyMastersthesis,asverylittleinformationonCubas

communitynetworkinginitiativeswasavailableoutsideofthatcountry.My professionalaspirationsaredirectedtowardareturntoCubaintheformofyet anotherproject.

FutureDirections

Inthenearterm,thisprojectwillleadtothefollowinginitiatives: AdonationsdrivenschemetosupplytheJCCEnetworkwithcomputersand othertechnology,withanaimtoupgradetheirexistingcommunitylevel capacity. PursuingfundingpossibiltiestoaddressCubasnationaldatatransmission infrastructuraldeficiencies(projectproposalspendingwithCIDA). ContinuingwiththeprocessofimplementingCSuiteinthevarious communitiesacrossCuba,includingtheprovisionoftechnicalassistanceif required(currentlyunfunded). ConfirmingasoftwaredevelopmentpartnershipbetweenCSuiteandthe JovenClubtocreateaSpanishlanguageversionofthecommunity networkingsoftware. AttendanceattheMay,2000informaticsconferencebytheresearcherandthe headofCSuite. ConversationswithIDRC,WorldBankandotheragenciestofundan exchangeofresearchersfromtheJovenClubtoCanadianICTconferences.

PartIV

FinancialStatement

(NOTE:StatementonfilewithCBIE)

Item
Aifare LocalTransport Visas HealthInsurance Immunization Accommodation Subsistence Phone/Fax Postage/ Courier Equipment Translation Supplies Editing/ Printing Contingency Total

Budget
1250 640 150 200 200 3600 1800 200 150

Actual

Difference

244.51 300 200 200

456.73 9591.24

PartV:LettersofEvaluation
a)ProjectAdvisor(Canada):Dr.SamLanfranco,YorkUniversity,Toronto

(filedwithoriginalCBIEreport)

b)DireccinNacionaldeJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnica InformedelasactividadesdesarrolladasporMarkRushtonduranteelperodo octubrede1999enero2000.CiudaddelaHabana,Cuba


Postal:5669InglisSt.Apt.5,Halifax,N.S.,B3H1K2, Tel:(902)4295547/Fax(902)4205181 Email:Mark@chebucto.ns.ca(Canada) Web:http://chebucto.ns.ca/~Mark/index.html

Actividadesmssignificativas: Presentacin de conferencia especializada Las redes comunitarias. (TallerNacionalderedes,2y3denoviembrede1999,PalacioCentralde Computacin,CiudaddelaHabana) Reunindecoordinacinyorganizacindeltrabajo(8denoviembre1999) DiseodelaestrategiadetrabajoconjuntoconelasesoramientodeLic. FlorencioBuenoMesa,especialistadeldepartamentometodolgicodela DireccinNacionaldeJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnica,9,10,11 noviembrede1999) Recorrido de familiarizacin y observacin (trabajo de campo) en tres provincias: PinardelRo SantiagodeCuba Holgun Total
(6centrosvisitados)(15y16denoviembre) (9centrosvisitados,dosinaugurados)(6y7diciembre) (8centrosvisitados)(8,9,10diciembre)

23centrosdeestos7enregionesdemontaa

Trabajo de asesoramiento e intercambio con Tinored (centro de administracindelaRedNacionaldelosjvenescubanos)(permanente) VisitayrecorridoalPalaciocentraldeComputacin(10diciembre)

EntrevistaapersonalidadesrelacionadasconJovenClub: Ing.AdalbertoMora(EspecialistaICID,Cuba) Lic.NestordelPrado(DirectorCENSAI,Cuba) Lic.JackelnNez(SubdirectoraInformticadelSIME,Cuba)

ContribucinaldocumentalsobretelecentrosquepreparaelAntroplogo ScottRbinson(Mxico)paraIDRC,teniendoasucargolaelaboracindel guinydireccin,preparacindeladocumentacinyasistentedecmara (12,13,14deenerode2000)

Otrasactividadesdesarrolladas: Contribuydemanerapositivaaladivulgacininternacionaldeltrabajo quedesarrollaJovenClub. Contribuyalaelaboracinydiseodelasestrategiasparaeltrabajoen los Joven Club de Computacin y Electrnica en zonas de montaa y participaenelproyecto. Aport a las actividades cientficas del coloquio internacional La informticaylosjvenes Seleccionyasesorloslugaresdondesedesarrollarlaexperienciade trabajo conjunta Joven Club Chebuco Suite, implementando redes comunitariasconelsoftwareCSuite. FacilitlavisitadelDr.GaryBaycomalJovenClubdeVialesenPinar delRo. Coordin con laecuatoriana KarinDelgadillo parainsertar alos Joven ClubdeComputacinalareddetelecentrosenAmricaLatina.

Valoracin: Consideramos que el resultado del trabajo fue excelente, aportando elementossignificativosparanuestrainstitucin. DebeapoyarsesuinvestigacinporlarepercusinquetieneparaCubay paraLatinoamrica. Permite mostrar el trabajo de los Joven Club como una alternativa en

cuantoaltrabajodelainformticaenlascomunidades. Inici una nueva etapa de divulgacin internacional de Joven Club, institucin que ha sufrido tambin de manera severa el impacto del BloqueoNorteamericano.

Evaluacin:ExcepcionalmentePositiva

Fdo: Lic.FlorencioBuenoMesa Dto.Metodolgico DireccinNacionalJovenClubdeComputacin

CBIEReportAppendix:ProjectGoals

CSuiteCommunityNetworkSoftware:IntroducingCSuitetotheJovenClub Introduction
Aftermorethantwomonthsofresearch intotheJovenClubstructure,operation, andinfrastructuralcapacity,wefeelthe timehascometobegincreatinga technologicalpartnershipbetweenthe JovenClubdeComputacin(Cuba)and theCSuiteCooperative(Canada). Additionalsupportmaybeprovidedby theNovaScotiaCubaAssociation (NSCUBA)intransportingequipment,etc. CSuiteofferstheJovenClubafree packageofsoftwareforthedevelopment ofcommunitynetworks(pleasereferto thelicensedocumentincludedonthis disk).ItisfortheJovenClubtodecide whetherthesoftwaremeetstheneedsand interestsoftheorganizationandits developmentalplan.Wehopethatan evaluationofCSuitesoftwarewillleadtoofficial tiesbetweenourtwoorganizations.

PotentialBenefitstotheJoven Club
a) theinstallationof CSUITEineachJovenClub willprovidethebasisfor developingHTMLbased informationonthe communitiesinadvanceof thecreationofanational TCP/IPnetwork(i.e.when thenetworkisfunctioning, theJovenClubswillhave materialalreadyprepared forpublication) b) theinstallationof CSUITEineachJovenClub willinitiatetheprocessof teachingHTMLandJAVA, twoprogramming languageswhich c) areingreatdemandin

augmentCuba'simageinthisfield, sharing e) Cubanexperienceswithothers workingtoconstructcommunity levelnetworks. f) professionaldevelopment

throughexchangeswithCanadian counterparts

theworld,andinstruction intheLINUXoperating system. d) thispartnershipwillbe advertisedinCanadaand otherforumsfor communitynetworking,to

PotentialBenefitstoCSuiteCoop. a. b. exposure c. professionaldevelopmentthroughexchangeswithCuban thedevelopmentofaSpanishlanguageversionofCSuitesoftware propagationofthesoftwareinCuba,andgreaterinternational

counterparts d. awarenessoftheCubanexperience(12years!)inthedevelopmentof

communitynetwork(methodology,pedagogy)

Wepropose: a. b. JCCEinstallandtesttheCSuitesoftwareinatleastonelocation. Thatfollowingthistest,CSuiteandtheJovenClubformapartnership

todeveloptheSpanishlanguageversionofthesoftwareforuseinCuba,and eventuallyforpropagationthroughoutLatinAmerica. c. Thatthispartnershipmayincludeprofessionalexchanges(i.e.visitsby

techniciansandadministrators)betweenHalifaxandHavana. d. Thatthispartnershipmayincludethefacilitationofdonationsfrom

CanadatoCubatoaugmentthecapacityoftheJovenClubs.

Wesuggest: a. OneofthetestsbeconductedatJCCEHolguin#1(Dra.Sonia

Freeman),whichiscurrentlyoperatingaLINUXlocalareanetwork,hasthe capacitytoeasilyundertakeatestofthistypeandhasrespondedenthusiastically tothepossibilityofparticipating. b. ThesoftwarealsobeevaluatedinHavanatoprovideasecondbase

ofexperiencesforevaluation. OthersitetestsmaybeconductedatthediscretionoftheJovenClub.

AppendixB:JovenClubKeyDocuments

OneofthereasonsforCubasscantreputationintheICTfieldistheinformation barrierwhichexistsintheUnitedStates.WiththeU.S.governmentsuppressing thepublicationofscientificworksfromcountriessuchasCuba,6andthe additionalburdenofalanguagebarrier,meansmanyresearchersintheICTfield havelittleknowledgeofCubasachievements.Forthisreason,keyinformation fromtheJovenClubisreproducedbelow.

US Publishers Demand End to Cuban Book Ban, November, 2004. http://www.cubavsbloqueo.cu/Default.aspx? tabid=677

1.History LosJovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnica(JCCE)constituyenun programadelaUnindeJvenesComunistasdeCuba,queabarcatodoelpas paraalcanzarelobjetivoprincipaldeproporcionarlaculturainformticaala comunidadconprioridadhacianiosyjvenes,representandounpapelactivo, creativoydeformacindevaloresenelprocesodeinformatizacindela sociedadcubana.

Surgimiento LosJovenClubsurgenen1987,comoresultadodeunainiciativadela UnindeJvenesComunistas(UJC)enelplanvacacionaldeeseao,apoyada porlaempresaCopextelyelINSAC.Surgenel8deseptiembrede1987por iniciativadelComandanteenJefedespusdeevaluarsecomopositivala experienciadelJovenClubradicadoenelPabellnCuba(Calle23entreMyN, Vedado,CiudaddeLaHabana);conunplande35centrosinicialmente. EnlaactualidadlacifradeJCCEhallegadoalos400,distribuidosentodos losmunicipiosdelpas,inclusoenlosmsapartadosylosdemsdifcilacceso. Contamoscondoslaboratoriosmvilesdecomputacinquebrindanun serviciodeformaitinerante,ademsdeunPalacioCentraldeComputacinenla

capital,ydosmsenlasprovinciasdeCienfuegosyPinardelRo respectivamente,dotadosderecursostcnicosyhumanosnecesariosparala realizacindeproyectosdocentes,recreativos,decomunicacinsocial,tcnicay experimental. LosPalacioscuentanconcentrosdedocumentacinespecializadaen materiainformticayelectrnicaparasatisfacerlasdemandasinformativasde todoslosusuariosqueaccedanasusservicios.

Cronologa Sedecidicrearuncentroprovistodemediostcnicosdecomputaciny deelectrnica,paraqueniosyjvenesemplearansutiempolibreenalgo provechoso.Estapropuestaalcanzgranxitoyluegodealgunasorientacionesa lasinstitucionesparticipantes,el8deseptiembredeesemismoaoseaprobun planparaquesefundaranlosprimeros35JovenClubdeComputaciny Electrnica.UnoencadamunicipiodelaCapital,unoenlacabeceradecada provinciayelmunicipioespecial,ylos5restantesenotrosmunicipiosconalta concentracinjuvenil.

2.Mission

Ensusinicioscontribuiralainformatizacindelasociedad LamisindelJovenClubenlaactualidadesservircomoenlaceatodoslos programasdelaRevolucinqueactualmenteseejecutan,yserunmedioms parasudifusin Nuestramisinesensearanuestrosjvenesautilizarcorrectamenteesta autopistainformtica,pueslamismaesunarealidadinnegablequedebemos dominarnosoloparaobtenerinformacin,sinoporqueesunaherramienta eficazparatransmitirnuestraverdad,larealidaddelaRevolucincubana

Objetivos Hacermasivoelaprendizajeyperfeccionamientodelosconocimientosdelas tecnologasinformticasyelectrnica,fundamentalmenteentrelosniosy jvenesypropiciarlaformacindeunaculturainformticaennuestra poblacin. Contribuiralarecalificacinpermanentedetcnicosyprofesionalesdetodas lasespecialidades. ParticiparactivamenteenelProcesodeInformatizacindeLaSociedad CubanaascomoenlaIndustriaNacionaldelSoftware. Participarmediantelosgruposdeinvestigacincreadosenlosterritoriosenlas

investigacionesdelainformticaeducativa. Detectarjvenestalentosenestasramasyatenderlossistemticamenteensu formacincomoespecialistas. Continuarsiendoelmarcopropiciodeintercambiodelosjvenesyniosa travsdeloseventosqueserealizanparaestastemticas. Sercanteradecuadrosrevolucionariosyconaltacalificacinparalas organizacionespolticas,estatalesyempresariales. Atenderespecialmenteeltrabajoconlosterritoriosdemontaasydedifcil acceso. TrabajoenlaFormacinVocacionalyOrientacinProfesional. Potenciarlosserviciosdeinformacinelectrnicosconeldesarrollode TinoRed. Propiciaratravsdelainformticaunespacioparaelentretenimientodenios yjvenes.

Alcance Actualmenteexistenuntotalde400JovenClub(2004).Todoslos municipiosdelpascuentanconunJovenCluby59deellosconmasdeuno. Funcionanadisposicindetodosnuestrosestudiantes3248computadoras

Pentiumdeltimageneracin.EnlosJovenClublaboranactualmente2751 trabajadores,deellossoninstructores1662.

Quinessonnuestrosasociados? Nios,adolescentesyjvenesvinculadosalprocesonacionaldeenseanza. PersonasdesvinculadasdelsistemaNacionaldeEducacin Adultosdediferentessectoressociales Personasconalgunadiscapacidad.

Nios,adolescentesyjvenesvinculadosalprocesonacionaldeenseanza Formanparteactivadenuestrosasociadospuesloscursosdecomputacin queseimpartenparaniosyjvenes,lespermiteeldesarrollodehabilidadesy ampliarlosconocimientosquedediversastemticasdecomputacinposean. Laparticipacindeestosenloseventoscomosonlosconcursos,les proporcionanmotivacinydesarrollaelintercambiodeconocimientos.Esto permiteampliarenlosestudianteslacapacidaddepensar,creareinvestigar;as comoeldesarrollodelashabilidadespropiasdeestenovedososistemade enseanza,yaseandibujar,escribir,buscarinformacin,etc.

PersonasdesvinculadasdelsistemaNacionaldeEducacin Elsistemanacionaldeeducacinsehapropuestollevaracaboelllamado Programaparalavida.Elqueconsisteenvincularanios,hombresymujeres quenopertenecenaningncentroeducacionalalasactividadesdelos diferentescentros.Medianteelusodeprogramaseducativosyjuegos instructivosselogramotivaraestaspersonasqueseencuentrandesvinculadas delsistemaeducacionalyseoriginannuevostalentosquedeunaformauotra influyeneneldesarrollodenuestrosistemadeeducacin.Dehechoeste constituyeunodeloslogrosdenuestrarevolucin.

Adultosdediferentessectoressociales ParacumplirconunodelosobjetivosesencialesdelosJvenesclubque consisteenformarpartedelaavanzadadelasexperienciastcnicasy metodolgicasenelaprendizajedelacomputacinylaelectrnica,esquetodos losadultosdenuestrasociedadconstituyenparteimportantedenuestros asociados.Elaportedelconocimientocientficodecualquiersectorsocial incrementaelusodelasnuevastecnologasdelainformacin.Ademsquecada individuopuedecontribuiraldesarrollodesusectorenlamedidaque profundiceenelconocimientodelainformtica.

Personasconalgunadiscapacidad Entrenuestrosasociados,parteexcepcionallaformanlaspersonas incapacitadas.Debidoalafaltadecapacidadoactitudpararealizaralgunatarea especfica,encuentranenlaramadelacomputacinellogroygocequenole permitenestaslimitaciones.Dgaseporejemplolainvalidezderganoso miembrosinferioresquetantorestringeeldesempeodemltiplesfunciones; demuestranquepuedendesarrollarlainiciativadeltrabajo,elpensamiento lgicoylascapacidadesintelectualesgeneralespormediodelestudiode mtodosyprocedimientospropiosdelainformtica.Contribuyealdesarrollode lapersonalidadsocialistadeloseducandos,ademsdefortalecerenelloselamor altrabajoyalavida.Asimismoaquellaspersonasquecarecendedeficienteo nulocontrolmuscular,nopuedendesarrollarhabilidadesdeescrituracursiva, masconelusodelmousenoencuentranobstculosparadesenvolverseenalgn softwareyaseainstructivo,educativo,etc.

3.GuidingStatementonWorkwithChildrenandYouth: Lasnuevastecnologasdeinformacin,enespeciallasredesde computadoras,tienenunaincidenciaconsiderableenelprocesodelas

comunicaciones,hacencercanocualquierpuntodelplanetayponena disposicindetodoslainformacinenmuycortotiempo.Estotraeaparejadoun cambioenlosaspectosdelarealidadytieneasuvezrepercusionesenelorden econmicoysocialpueselindividuoqueposeeunaculturainformticaesmas productivoyhacemaseficienteelentornodondesedesenvuelve. Latendenciaactualesquelosnioshaniniciadounlargoyapasionado sueoconlascomputadoras.Llevanacabotodotipodeactividades:escribir, dibujar,comunicarseeinformarse.Portantodesarrollarypotenciarestacultura informticadesdelasedadestempranasyposibilitandoelaprendizajedenuevas destrezas,nuevosconceptosyhacerfrentealoinesperadosonpremisas fundamentalesparanuestraorganizacin. Loscursosqueseimpartenennuestromovimientosoneminentemente prcticosyseutilizanmtodosactivosdeenseanza,enseanzaproblemticay enseanzaasistidaporcomputadora.Encadaencuentroelalumnotienela posibilidaddeinteractuarlibrementeconlacomputadoramotivandodeesta formasuaprendizaje.Enmuchoscasossehacenfasisenqueelalumno descubraporsisololaspotencialidadesdelsistemaypuedadesenvolversede maneraindependiente. Elpropsitofundamentalesquelosniosaprendanlosfundamentosde

computacinascomolaoperacindelacomputadoraconfinesespecficos, mediantelaexperienciaylaorientacindelinstructor,comprendanlas caractersticasbsicasdelacomputadora. Seutilizanprogramaseducativosyjuegosinstructivosquehacenposiblela creacindeambientesdeaprendizajeactivosypermitenalosniosresolver problemas,afrontarretos,desarrollardestrezasdepensamiento,creatividady procesosdereflexin. Selograapoyarelaprendizajedelosobjetivosdelgradodelosnios, favoreciendoenelloslaconstruccindelpensamientolgicoylacreatividad acordeconsusedades.Seutilizanambientesrelacionadoscontemasdela naturaleza,loshroesdelapatria,lalenguaEspaola,lasmatemticasyen edadesde5aosquesonlosniosdepreescolarsetrabajaconlastareas educativasorientadasporelMinisteriodeEducacin. LosobjetivosdelaenseanzadecomputacinenlosJCparaniosy jvenesson: Ensearlosconceptosdecomputacinydesarrollarenelalumnolas habilidadesnecesariasparaelcorrectomanejodelacomputadora. Estimularenelalumnolaconfianzaensmismoenunambientemotivador. Crearenelalumnoelsentidodelaorganizacinyelentusiasmonecesarios

paraenfrentarloscambiosydesafosqueconstantementenosproponelavida. Desarrollarenelalumnolacapacidaddepensar. Desarrollarenelalumnolacreatividad. Desarrollarenelalumnolacapacidadparalainvestigacin Promoverenelalumnoeltrabajoenequipoylacomunicacin. Fomentarenlosalumnoslautilizacindelacomputadoracomouna herramientaparaeltrabajodiarioenlaescuela.

Losgruposparaeltrabajoconniossesubdividenenlossiguientesnivelesde enseanza:

Preescolar:eltrabajoenestasedadespersiguefamiliarizaralosniosconesta actividadypermitireldesarrollodehabilidadesinformticaseintelectuales esencialesensuinteraccinconlacomputadora,deacuerdoconlas caractersticasdesuedad. Primaria: 1er.grupo.1roa3ergrado 2dogrupo.4toa6togrado

Secundaria:7moa9nogrado

LosJCdesarrollanactividadesconniosyjvenesenlassiguientes modalidades: CrculosdeIntersdeInformticayElectrnica:estamodalidadpermitecrear yfomentarinteresesvocacionalesenfocadosalaramainformtica.Se desarrollanduranteelperodoOctubreMayo,coordinndoseconlasescuelas ylospalaciosdepioneros,culminandoconexposicionesdecadaJCenlas provincias. Cursosdecomputacinparaniosyjvenes:permitendesarrollarhabilidades yampliarlosconocimientosenlasvariadastemticasquesetratan. BsicamenteseconcentranenlaenseanzadelsistemaoperativoWindowsyel empleodeaplicacionescomoelPaintyelconjuntodeprogramasdeMicrosoft OfficequeincluyeWord,ExcelyPowerPoint,seexcluyeAccessenestenivel deenseanza. Concursosdeconocimientosyolimpiadasdejuegos:estoseventospromueven elintercambiodeconocimientosycreanmotivacionesenlosestudiantespara prepararsecadavezmas.Serealizanencoordinacinconlasescuelaspara apoyarlasactividadesdocentesysevinculanasuvezconlosconocimientos adquiridosporlosalumnosenelJC.Estosencuentrosmotivansensiblementea

losalumnosypropicianelesfuerzoporaprenderydesarrollarhabilidades. Sepromueveelaccesoaenciclopediasenformatodigitaldetemticasvariadas ymultimediassobrelanaturaleza,lacienciaetc. Sefacilitaelaccesoatodoslosjuegosdidcticosquehansidodistribuidospor elMinisteriodeEducacin,tambinlosenviadosporlaDireccinNacionalde JC,ascomootroselaboradosporinstructoresdelospropiosJCy/o colaboradoresdelosmismos. Elaboracindepginaswebinfantilesydetemasvariados:estamodalidadha obtenidoresultadosexitososenniosdesde3er.grado. Cursosparaniosdiscapacitados:estamodalidadsehaextendidoamuchas provinciasdelpas.Seatiendeindistintamenteaniosconretrasode aprendizaje,ciegosodbilesvisuales,sordomudos,minusvlidosodificultad paralalocomocinyniosconSndromeDawn.Sehalogradobrindaruna atencindiferenciadaaestaspersonasquenosonatendidasporotras instituciones,consiguiendoocuparproductivamentesutiempolibre,logrando suintegracinyeldesarrollodehabilidadesenlaejecucindejuegosde computadoras.

SerpartedelmovimientoJCpermitiralosniosyjvenescompartiruna

culturatecnolgicadevanguardiaydesarrollarunsentidodepertenencia,al aprendera"navegar"enelmardelastelecomunicacionesparacooperar, competirycolaborarenproyectoscomunitariosmedianteelusodelas computadoras.

AppendixC:

InfoClub2005Agenda

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

IX Evento Nacional de Informtica para Jvenes:

Infoclub 2005
Todospuedenparticiparesnecesarioleerelcontendo.

Objetivos: Propiciarunespacioparalosjvenesvinculadosalainformticayla electrnica,dondeseintercambienexperiencias. Conocerresultadosdetrabajosinformticosyelectrnicosenlosltimos dosaosenlosJovenClubafavordelacomunidad. Mostrarlosavancesdelainformticaylaelectrnicaenelmundo.

Participantes: InstructoresytrabajadoresdelosJovenClub. Nios,jvenesycolaboradoresmenoresde35aos. Enlascomisionesdetrabajosdeelectrnicaparticiparnsoloinstructores deJovenClub.

Cronogramaylugar: Certamennacional:27dejunioal1dejuliode2005enelPalacioCentralde Computacin. Eventosprovinciales:entreel15defebreroyel15demarzodel2005,encada

provincia. Encuentrosdebase:entreel1deeneroyel15defebrerodel2005,encada JovenCluboterritorio. Lostrabajosseleccionadosalcertamennacionalsedarnaconocerenlaprimera quincenadelmesdeMayodel2005. Lostrabajospropuestosporlascomisionesprovincialesdebenserenviadosala ComisinTcnicaNacionalantesdelos10dasposterioresalacelebracindel eventoprovincial.

Exposicin: Enestaedicinnoserealizarferiaexpositiva.Losexponentesy/oinstituciones interesadasenrealizaralgunamuestradetrabajosotecnologadeavanzada debencoordinarelespacioconelComitOrganizadorNacionalalmenosconun mesdeantelacinalevento.

Temticaparalapresentacindetrabajos: 1TecnologasInformticasdeAvanzada: Productosinformticosmultimedia, InteligenciaArtificial. Robtica. Trabajogrficoporcomputadoras. Diseos.

2.RedesySeguridadInformtica:

Aplicacionespararedeslocales. Serviciosdeinformacinelectrnicayeducacinadistancia. Proteccindelainformacin.

3. InformticaAplicada: Aplicacionesdelainformticaen: Economa(Administracin,contabilidad,finanzas,yplanificacin). Gestinempresarialymarketing. Productosinformticosparalamanipulaciny/omodelacindebasesde datos. Automatizacindelainformacinjurdica. AutomatizacindelagestindelJovenClub. Otrasramas. Softwareeducativo: Aplicacionesinformticasparalainstruccin. Juegosinstructivosydidcticos.

AppendixD:ProjectOutcomes

RegionalICTLinkagesarisingfromthisproject

Msc.FlorencioBuenoMesa CoordinadordeInformticaEducativayComunitaria FundacinJatunSacha Email:fbuenom@yahoo.es

12agosto2004

EltrabajorealizadoprelLic.MarkRushtonhasidosignifictivoparaJovenClub deComputacinyElectrnicayaquepermitilainsercindelProgramaJovenClubala red regional de Telecentros de Amrica Latina y el Caribe, facilitando nuestra particpacinenelIyIIencuentrodeTelecentrosdelaRegin. Unacontinuidaddeestoeslapresentacinenelao2001deunaponenciaenla 11naConferenciadeCTCnetenAustin,EEUU.(LosJovenClub:unentidaddenuevo tipoenlascomunidadescubanas)Losaportes,sugereciasyresultadsdeltrabajo investigativodelespecialistaMarkRushtonsondeimportanciaparaelmejoramientodel trabajodeJovenClub. FlorencioBuenoMesa

Authorsadditionalnotes: ThislinkagebetweentheJovenClubnationaloffice(andinsubsequentyears,

variousdirectorsofcommunitylevelindividualClubs)andtheTelecentros networkissignificantinthatitrepresentsaconnectiontoanotherCanadianled initiative.RedTelecentros(TelecentreNetwork)receivedsupportfromthe InternationalDevelopmentResearchCentre,linkingregionalICTprofessionals withtheirpeersaswellasCanadianICTresearchers.TheTelecentrosconnection providedanavenueforSr.BuenoMesatopursuecommunityICTopportunities withChasquiNet(Quito,Ecuador)duringamultiyearoverseasposting,and subsequentlywiththeFundacinJatunSachaintheAmazonregion.

PartnershipwithaCanadiansoftwarecooperative. TheresearchinitiativeandafollowupvisittotheInformtica2000conferencein Havana,Cuba,endedwithhighhopesforapartnershipbetweentheJCCEand theCSuiteCommunityNetworkingCooperativebasedinHalifax,NovaScotia. Duringthe1999/2000project,CSuiteinformationpackagesandsoftware wereprovidedtotheJCCEfortheirconsiderationasamodelforlocally implementedcommunitynetworks,essentiallyaturnkeysystemwhichwould requirelittlelocalinputtobeusefulwithonlyalanguagebarriertoovercome, asthetechnicalknowledge(UNIXfamiliarity)wasalreadypresentinCuba.The partnershipwastobenefitbothparties:theJCCEwouldtranslatetheEnglish languagesoftwareandthereafterhavecompleterights(underanopensource license)todistributethematerialthroughoutLatinAmerica,aswellasforits ownlocalimplementation.CubansemployedthroughtheJCCEwouldhave accesstotraininginCanada,establishinganongoingprofessionaldevelopment endeavour.ThebenefitstoCSuiteincludedagrowingpresenceofitsunique technologyandpotentialfuturerevenuesfromtechnicalsupportagreements withimplementingcommunitynetworks. Fouryearslater,theprojecthasproducednoverifiableoutcomes.The

CSuiteNetworkingCooperativehassincedissolvedasanentity.Noofficial partnershipagreementwasstruckfollowingthevisittoInformtica2000.CSuite softwaremaybeimplementedsomewherewithinCuba,butnotwithanyofficial supervision,norconnectiontoCSuitemembers. AsthedevelopmentofthepartnershipwasleftinthehandsoftheJCCEand CSuitetopursue,theauthorcanonlyspeculateastothereasonsforitsfailure. OnemaybereluctancebytheJCCEheadofficetoengageintheproject,as opposedtobuildingonindigenouscapacity.Cubasdevelopmentalpathhas alwaysbeeninsularandverymuchselfsufficient.Relyingonanexternal partnerforsomethingasimportantastheemergingICTsectormayhaveproven toopotentiallyunworkable.Thisapparentlywasawisechoice,giventhe eventualdissolutionoftheCSuitecooperative.AlthoughlocalJovenClub personnelwereinitiallyenthusiastictopursuetheinitiative,ultimatelythat supportcouldnotbemaintainedwithoutbuyinfromtheupperlevelsofthe JCCEstructure.

Bibliography

_______.(1996).InternetConnectionsatLast,inAmericanLibraries,December. P.25. Acosta,Dalia.(1996).Governmenthasbighopesforinformationsector,IPS NewsService.6July.URL:http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/devell/Jul1996/0025.html AUNA.(1999).LosJovenClubUnaEntidaddeNuevoTipoenla Comunidad,inAnlisisdeCoyuntura.Havana:AsociacinparalaUnidadde NuestraAmerica(AUNACuba),No.7.July. Boas,Taylor. BuenoMesa,Florencio,MayraLiceaMarreoandRossanaMsLobaina.(2000). Clubessinespacionitiempo,inmetnica:RevistadelaIndustriaCubana Siderurgicaymecanica.Vol.6,No.1.JanuaryApril. CENSAI(CentroNacionaldeSuperacinyAdiestramientoenInformtica). (2000).ManualdeInformticaBsica:Windows,Word,Excel,Access,PowerPoint. Havana:JovenClubdeComputacinyElectrnicaandCENSAI. Cisler,Steve.(1994).OurLANinHavana:NetworkingwithPeopleand ComputersinCuba.Reportarisingfromtheauthorsparticipationinthe60th annualconferencefortheInternationalFederationofLibraryAssociations, August1828.URL:http://www.geo.unipr.it/~davide/cuba/computer/LANtrip.html Coleman,F.(1997,).Agreatlostcause:Francevs.theInternet,USnews& WorldReport,Vol.122,No.15.P.57.April24. Daz,Yissel.(2001).EmailCorrespondence.11January. FieldNotes.(19992000).Compiledbytheauthorduringaresearchvisitto30

communitiesacrossthelengthandbreadthofCubafrom04October1999to16 January2000.Unpublished. GobiernodelaRepublicadeCuba.(1994).AcuerdoNo.3736.Executive CommitteeoftheCouncilofMinisters.Havana.URL:

http://www.cubagob.cu/des_eco/mic/mic_regulaciones/decretos/general/acuerdo_3736%20. htm

GobiernodelaRepublicadeCuba.(1996).DecretoNo.209.inGacetaOficial, Havana:MinisteriodeJusticia.13September.No.27.Pg.421. Hildreth,Jeremy.(2001).YahoooMuerte!DotCommiesKeepsCubans Offline,inTheAmericanSpectator,September/October.Pp.9091 Proenza,FranciscoJ.,RobertoBastidasBuchandGuillermoMontero.(2001). TelecentersforSocioeconomicandRuralDevelopmentinLatinAmericaandthe Caribbean.InterAmericanBankforReconstructionandDevelopment(IADB). Washington,D.C.,May. IBRD(InternationalBankforReconstruction&Development).(1998/99).World DevelopmentReport:KnowledgeforDevelopment.Oxford:OxfordUniversity Press.(http://www.worldbank.org/wdr/wdr98/contents.htm) KuriGaitan,Armando.(1995).Technologicalchangeandstructuralistanalysis, inCepalReview,No.55.April.Pp.191198. Lanfranco,Sam.(1999).IssuesandProblemsinDistanceLearning,adiscussion paperpreparedforCIMAF99:Havana,Cuba,March2226.URL:
http://www.yorku.ca/dkproj/cuba/cubalearn.htm

Lazou,Chris.(1982).Computers,inCuba:theseconddecade.NewYork: WritersandReaders. Lipschultz,David.(1997).ThewebwashesoverCuba,butsurfersstillfew,in ChristianScienceMonitor,Vol.89,No.156.September. MacLuhan,MarshallandQuentinFiore.(1964).TheMediumistheMessage:An

InventoryofEffects.NewYork:Bantam. Patel,Surendra.(1995).DevelopmentDistanceBetweenNations. InternationalDevelopmentStudiesSeriesNo.1,St.Mary'sUniversity,Halifax, (N.S.)Canada.NewDelhi:AshishPublishingHouse. Peters,Philip.(2001).CubaGoesDigital,LexingtonInstitute,November. Press,Larry.(1997).TheInternetinCuba,inGlobalDiffusionoftheInternet. MosaicGroupReport.URL:(a)http://mosaic.unomaha.edu/GDI1998/4CUBA.PDF(b)


http://som.csudh.edu/cis/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/cubasy.htm

Press,Larry.(1998).AnInternetDiffusionFramework,inCommunicationsofthe AssociationofComputingMachinery.Vol.41,No.10,pp.2126.October.URL:
http://som.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/articles/acmfwk/acmfrwk.htm

Press,Larry.(2000).TheStateoftheInternet:GrowthandGaps,paper presentedatiNet2000,Japan,1821July.InternetSociety(www.isoc.org).URL:
http://www.isoc.org/inet2000/cdproceedings/8e/8e_4.htm

Press,LarryandCarlosArmas.(1996).CubaNetworkingUpdate,inOnThe Internet.InternetSociety(www.isoc.org)January/February.URL:
http://www.isoc.org/oti/articles/0196/press.html

Press,Larry,G.M.Meshner,R.O.Briggs,S.E.GoodmanandJ.M.Snyder.(1992). Cuba,CommunismandComputing,inCommunicationoftheAssociationof ComputingMachinery,Vol.35,No.11,November,pp.2729,112. Riera,Lilliam.(2001).ComputersforSchoolChildreninRuralMountainAreas. Havana:GranmaInternacional.6July.URL:


http://www.granma.cu/ingles/julio1/27compui.html

UNDP.(2000).DrivingInformationandCommunicationsTechnologyfor Development:AUNDPAgendaforAction20002001.October.URL:
www.undp.org/dpa/publications/ICT0211e.pdf

Valds,NelsonP.(1997).Cuba,theInternet,andU.S.Policy,BriefingPaper #13intheGeorgetownUniversityCubaBriefingPaperSeries.March.URL:

http://www.georgetown.edu/sfs/programs/clas/Caribe/cbps.htm

Valds,NelsonP.(1998).CubaandtheInternet,CUBASeminar.Queens CollegeandGraduateSchoolandUniversityCenter,CityUniversityofNew York.28May. Williamson,Andy.(2002).TheImpactoftheInternetonthePoliticsofCuba.First Monday,Vol.5,No.8.August2000.URL:


http://firstmonday.org/issues/issue5_8/williamson/index.html