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lOC !406!0 v!



Pegislered Charily Number. !0!0444

Telephone. +44 (0) !!6 263 4700
lax. +44 (0) !!6 282 4000

NL8OSH 20!0
d= = = kb_lpe= f~~= q~= `~= =
= =

NK f= N

!.! 8enelils lor employers !
!.2 Qualilicalion level and UK accredilalion !
!.3 Key lopics covered 2
!.4 Course luilion and privale sludy lime requiremenls 2
!.5 Unil examinalions 2
!.6 Lnlry requiremenls 2
!.7 Minimum slandard ol Lnglish required lor candidales 3
!.8 Legislalion 3
!.!! Legislalive updales 3
!.!2 Qualilicalion lype 3
!.!3 Qualilicalion progression 4
!.!4 Programmes ollered by NL8OSH-accrediled course providers 4
!.!5 Lxaminalion dales 4
!.!6 Specilicalion dale 4
!.!7 Syllabus developmenl and review 4
!.!8 lurlher inlormalion lor candidales 5
!.!9 lurlher inlormalion lor accrediled course providers 5
OK n~~== S

2.! Unil assessmenl 6
2.2 Unil pass slandard 6
2.3 Overall qualilicalion grades 6
2.4 Overall qualilicalion cerlilicales 6
2.5 Pe-silling examinalions 7
PK m= U

3.! Pequesls lor reasonable adjuslmenls 8
3.2 Pequesls lor special consideralion 8
3.3 Lnquiries aboul resulls and appeals 8
3.4 Malpraclice 8

NL8OSH 20!0
QK= p~=J=kb_lpe=f~~=q~=`~==l=~=d~=l~~=
~=p~=Ej~=OMNM=~F= NM

QKN =r=fldNW==j~~==~~==~=~=~=~=~ !!

Llemenl !. Heallh, salely and environmenlal managemenl in conlexl !!
Llemenl 2. Hydrocarbon process salely ! !4
Llemenl 3. Hydrocarbon process salely 2 !7
Llemenl 4. lire proleclion and emergency response 20
Llemenl 5. Logislics and lransporl operalions 22
RK p~=~~=~= OQ

NL8OSH 20!0

NK= f=

The NL8OSH lnlernalional Technical Cerlilicale in Oil and Cas Operalional Salely is suilable lor
supervisors, managers, salely represenlalives and newly qualilied heallh and salely advisors
wilhin lhe oil and gas induslries, bolh wilhin and oulside lhe UK and is designed lo provide a
sound breadlh ol underpinning knowledge lhal enables lhem lo manage oil and gas
operalional risks elleclively. This qualilicalion builds on lhe underslanding already gained by
sludying lhe NL8OSH Nalional or lnlernalional Ceneral Cerlilicale. =

NKN= _===

The imporlance ol elleclive heallh and salely lraining in lhe oil and gas induslry is highlighled
by exlensively reporled examples ol major process salely incidenls including lhe 20!0
Deepwaler Horizon oil rig explosion in lhe Cull ol Mexico, lhe 8uncelield oil slorage depol
explosion (2005), lhe !988 Piper Alpha oil plallorm explosion (bolh occurring in lhe UK) and
lhe Cas Planl explosion al Longlord, Auslralia in !998.

However, even relalively minor occurrences can have serious consequences. The UK Heallh and
Salely Lxeculive (HSL) reporled lhal in 2008/9 lhere were over 450 dangerous occurrences in
lhe UK ollshore oil and gas induslry resulling in 30 major injuries and !40 'over 3 day' injuries.
The US 8ureau ol Ocean Lnergy Managemenl, Pegulalion and Lnlorcemenl reporled 522 oil
and gas induslry incidenls in lhe US in 2009 resulling in 4 lalalilies and over 300 injuries.

The lnlernalional Associalion ol Oil and Cas Producers (OCP) reporled 99 lalalilies in 2009 and
over !,500 reporled injuries resulling in al leasl one day oll work or an average ol 28 such
injuries every week ol lhe year. Approximalely 260 person-years were losl by reporling
companies and lheir conlraclors as a resull ol injuries.

ln addilion lo lhe direcl cosls ol sick pay and absence, employers can lind lhemselves dealing
wilh environmenlal cosls, criminal proseculion, claims lor compensalion, adverse publicily and
harm lo bolh business repulalion and prolilabilily. The annual worldwide cosl ol occupalional
injury and illness is eslimaled by lhe lnlernalional Labour Organisalion (lLO) lo be lwenly limes
grealer lhan lhe lolal amounl ol ollicial developmenl assislance provided lo developing
counlries (approximalely $50 billion).

The vasl majorily ol occupalional injuries, incidenls and ill-heallh are avoidable by good heallh
and salely managemenl. 8y saving money, improving produclivily and raising worklorce
morale, elleclive heallh and salely managemenl should be recognised as an essenlial elemenl
ol a successlul managemenl slralegy.

The NL8OSH lnlernalional Technical Cerlilicale in Oil and Cas Operalional Salely is designed
specilically lor induslry specialisls wilh day-lo-day salely responsibililies including managers,
supervisors and heallh and salely advisers. ll locuses on operalional process salely and is
inlended lo enable candidales lo apply and implemenl elleclive process salely managemenl
across all areas ol lheir operalion and lhroughoul lhe world.

This course can be delivered wilhin an organisalion, or employees can allend accrediled
lraining courses run lhroughoul lhe UK by our nelwork ol accrediled course providers.
NL8OSH accrediled course providers oller a variely ol llexible course lormals, so lraining can be
arranged according lo employer needs.


NL8OSH 20!0

NKO= n~~==~=rh=~~=
This qualilicalion = lo be accrediled by lhe Scollish Qualilicalions Aulhorily (SQA as a NOS-based qualilicalion lor delivery inlernalionally and across lhe UK.
ll is == raled al Level 6 in lhe Scollish Credil and Qualilicalions lramework (SCQl),
comparable lo lhe NL8OSH Nalional Ceneral Cerlilicale slandard.=

lor users in Lngland, Wales and Norlhern lreland, lhis is broadly comparable lo a Vocalionally-
Pelaled Qualilicalion (VPQ) al Level 3 in lhe Qualilicalions and Credil lramework (QCl),
comparable lo A-Level slandard.

lor lurlher inlormalion on level comparisons please see lhe qualilicalion regulalor's
n~~= ~= = ~ documenl available on lhe Olqual (
and SQA ( websiles.
NKP= h===
Heallh, salely and environmenlal managemenl in conlexl
Hydrocarbon process salely
lire proleclion and emergency response
Logislics, lransporl operalions.
NKQ= `==~=~====
r=fldNW=34 hours luilion and 20 hours privale sludy q~W=RQ==
= =
A programme ol sludy lherelore needs lo be based around a minimum ol 34= ~=
and approximalely=OM===~= lor an overall lolal ol RQ=K=

A lull-lime block release course would be expecled lo lasl lor a minimum ol one week (live
working days) and a parl-lime day release course would be spread over al leasl live weeks. lor
candidales sludying by open or dislance learning, lhe luilion hours should be added lo lhe
recommended privale sludy hours lo give lhe minimum number ol hours lhal lhis mode ol
sludy will require.

Quoled hours = include assessmenl lime, ie, silling lhe wrillen examinalion (see !.5).
NKR= r=~~=
Assessed by a lwo hour wrillen examinalion marked by exlernal examiners appoinled by
NKS= b==
There are no specilic barriers, in lerms ol academic qualilicalions, skills or experience lo enlry lo
lhe NL8OSH lnlernalional Technical Cerlilicale in Oil and Cas Operalional Salely programme.
However, il should be noled lhal currenlly lhe assessmenls are ollered, and musl be answered,

NL8OSH 20!0

in Lnglish only. Candidales should discuss lhis wilh lhe accrediled course provider belore
underlaking lhe qualilicalion.
NKT== j=~~==b===~~=
The slandard ol Lnglish required by candidales sludying lor lhe NL8OSH lnlernalional Technical
Cerlilicale in Oil and Cas Operalional Salely musl be such lhal lhey can bolh undersland and
arliculale lhe concepls conlained in lhe syllabus. ll is imporlanl lo slress lhal lhe onus is on
accrediled course providers lo delermine lheir candidales' slandards ol proliciency in Lnglish.
NL8OSH recommends lo accrediled course providers lhal candidales underlaking lhis
qualilicalion should reach a minimum slandard ol Lnglish=~=lo an lnlernalional Lnglish
Language Tesling Syslem score ol SKM or higher in lLLTS lesls in order lo be accepled onlo a
NL8OSH lnlernalional Technical Cerlilicale in Oil and Cas Operalional Salely programme.
lor lurlher inlormalion please see lhe lalesl version ol lhe lLLTS Handbook or consull lhe lLLTS


Candidales wishing lo assess lheir own language experlise may consull lhe lLLTS websile lor
inlormalion on laking lhe lesl. hllp.//

NKU== i~=
The syllabus relers lo inlernalional convenlions and recommendalions. Where lhis qualilicalion
is delivered overseas, accrediled course providers may reler lo examples ol local legislalion as
parl ol lhe course programme bul examinalion queslions will nol reler lo specilic legislalion,
bul will reler lo inlernalional convenlions, recommendalions and good praclice as indicaled in
lhe syllabus.
NKV== i~=~=
Pelevanl new inlernalional convenlions and recommendalions will become examinable in delail
six monlhs aller lheir dale ol inlroduclion. However, candidales will be expecled lo be
essenlially up-lo-dale al lhe lime ol lhe examinalion and, whilsl a delailed knowledge will nol
be expecled, relerence lo new or impending inlernalional convenlions and recommendalions,
where relevanl lo an examinalion queslion, will be given credil.

Please nole, NL8OSH will nol ask queslions relaled lo inlernalional convenlions and
recommendalions lhal have been repealed, revoked or olherwise superseded.

k_W Accrediled course providers are expecled lo ensure lheir course noles remain currenl wilh
regard lo new inlernalional convenlions and recommendalions.
NL8OSH ollers Vocalionally-Pelaled Qualilicalions (VPQs) in Lngland, Wales and Norlhern


NL8OSH 20!0

VPQs provide lhe knowledge and praclical skills required lor parlicular job roles lhrough a
slruclured sludy-based lraining programme, lhal combine lhe lesling ol knowledge and
underslanding in wrillen examinalions wilh praclical applicalion ol learning in lhe workplace.

VPQs are a popular lype ol qualilicalion because lhey are nalionally recognised, llexible and
oller roules lor progression lo employmenl or lurlher sludy.
ln Scolland, lhe equivalenls ol VPQs are Nalional Occupalional Slandard (NOS)-8ased
NKNN= n~~==
Candidales wishing lo lurlher develop lheir heallh and salely experlise may consider sludying.

NL8OSH Nalional Diploma in Occupalional Heallh and Salely

This is designed lo provide sludenls wilh lhe experlise required lo underlake a career as a
heallh and salely praclilioner and also provides a sound basis lor progression lo poslgraduale

Candidales looking lo use lheir experlise overseas may consider.

NL8OSH lnlernalional Diploma in Occupalional Heallh and Salely

This qualilicalion locuses on inlernalional slandards and managemenl syslems ralher lhan UK

lurlher inlormalion regarding our qualilicalion porllolio can be lound on our websile.
NKNO= m~===kb_lpeJ~===
Accrediled course providers can be localed using lhe 'Where lo sludy' lab on our websile.

k_W Candidales are advised lo check up-lo-dale inlormalion on course dales wilh accrediled
course providers direclly.
NKNP= b~~=~=
Accrediled course providers may requesl 'local' (on-demand) examinalions on a dale ol lheir
choosing lor lhis qualilicalion.
NKNQ= p~=~=
The May 20!0 specilicalion lor lhis qualilicalion replaces lhe previous Augusl 2009 specilicalion
lor all examinalions lrom (and including) ! Augusl 20!0.
NKNR= p~==~==
The syllabus has been developed by NL8OSH lollowing exlensive consullalion wilh key
slakeholders, nolably accrediled course providers, prolessional bodies, employers, slandards

NL8OSH 20!0

selling organisalions, enlorcemenl bodies and subjecl experls. NL8OSH would like lo lake lhis
opporlunily lo lhank all lhose who parlicipaled in lhe developmenl, piloling and
implemenlalion ol lhis qualilicalion.
NKNS= c=~==~~=
lurlher inlormalion lor candidales including a syllabus summary, qualilicalion overview leallel
can be lound via lhe NL8OSH websile ( Lxaminers' reporls and pasl
examinalion papers may be purchased lrom lhe NL8OSH online shop.
NKNT= c=~==~===
lurlher inlormalion lor accrediled course providers including policies and procedures can be
lound in lhe accrediled course providers' seclion ol lhe NL8OSH websile.

NL8OSH 20!0

OK= n~~==
OKN= r=~=
The lnlernalional Technical Cerlilicale in Oil and Cas Operalional Salely (May 20!0
specilicalion) consisls ol one unil.


Unil lOC! is a laughl unil, assessed by one lwo-hour wrillen examinalion
Lach wrillen examinalion consisls ol len 'shorl-answer' queslions (8 marks each) and one
'long-answer' queslion (20 marks)
The examinalion paper covers lhe whole unil syllabus wilh al leasl one queslion per unil
elemenl and all queslions are compulsory
Candidale scripls are marked by exlernal examiners appoinled by NL8OSH
A sample queslion paper can be lound in Seclion 5

NL8OSH lollows lhe d`pbI= d`bI= s`bI= dksn= ~= ^b^= `= = m~ published by lhe
regulalory aulhorilies in Lngland, Wales and Norlhern lreland in relalion lo examinalion selling
and marking. Once an exlernally-assessed examinalion (wrillen examinalions and assignmenls
marked by NL8OSH) has been compleled, scripls are senl lo NL8OSH and undergo rigorous
marking, checking and resulls delerminalion processes lo ensure accuracy and consislency. The
code ol praclice is available on lhe Olqual websile (
OKO= r=~=~~=
The pass slandard lor lhe unil may vary according lo pre-delermined crileria bul is normalised lo
OKP= l~=~~=~=
When candidales have passed lhe unil a linal grade is awarded as lollows.

m~ 45 - 54 marks
`= = 55 - 65 marks
a 65 marks or more
OKQ= l~=~~=~=
Once a candidale has achieved a Pass and lhe overall qualilicalion grade awarded lhey are
normally considered lo have compleled lhe qualilicalion and an overall qualilicalion parchmenl
will be issued, wilhin lhree monlhs ol lhe resull declaralion dale.

However, once lhe resull has been issued lhe candidale has = lrom lhe dale ol issue
ol lhal resull lo eilher.

lnlorm NL8OSH in wriling ol lheir inlenlion lo re-sil lor lhe purposes ol improving a grade

NL8OSH 20!0

Submil an Lnquiry Aboul Pesull (LAP) requesl (see Seclion 3.3).
OKR= oJ=~~= =
ll a candidale's perlormance in a unil is lower lhan a pass, candidales may re-regisler al a laler
dale il lhey so wish.

Candidales who wish lo improve lhe mark lrom a unil lhey have successlully passed in order lo
improve lheir qualilicalion grading lo a credil or dislinclion, may do so. Any candidale who re-
sils a successlul unil, and does nol surpass lheir original mark eg, is relerred in lhe paper, will
keep lhe ~ mark awarded. Pe-sil marks are nol capped. There is no limil lo lhe number
ol re-sils.

Candidales who regisler lor lhe lnlernalional Oil and Cas Cerlilicale whilsl awailing a resull
lrom a previous silling ol an examinalion lor lhe same qualilicalion may nol seek a relund ol
lhe regislralion lee il lhey relrospeclively claim exemplion lrom any parl ol lhe qualilicalion,
subsequenl lo lhe issue ol lhe awailed resull.


NL8OSH 20!0

PK= m=

PKN= o==~~=~=
Peasonable adjuslmenls are arrangemenls which are approved in advance ol an examinalion lo
allow allainmenl lo be demonslraled by candidales wilh eilher a permanenl or long-lerm
disabilily or learning dillicully, or lemporary disabilily, illness or indisposilion.

Pequesls lor reasonable adjuslmenls musl be made lo NL8OSH by accrediled course providers
al leasl one monlh belore lhe assessmenl.

lor lurlher delails see lhe NL8OSH m= ~= = = ~~= ~= ~=
~=~ available lrom lhe NL8OSH websile (
PKO= o==~=~=
Special consideralion is a procedure lhal may resull in an adjuslmenl lo lhe marks ol candidales
who have nol been able lo demonslrale allainmenl because ol lemporary illness, injury,
indisposilion or an unloreseen incidenl al lhe lime ol lhe assessmenl.

Candidales who leel disadvanlaged due lo illness, dislraclion or any olher reason during lhe
assessmenl musl reporl lhis lo lhe invigilalor (or lhe accrediled course provider in lhe case ol a
praclical examinalion) belore leaving lhe examinalion room and requesl lhal lheir wrillen
slalemenl, logelher wilh lhe invigilalor's commenls on lhe slalemenl, be senl by lhe
accrediled course provider lo NL8OSH.

Pequesls lor special consideralion musl be made lo NL8OSH by lhe accrediled course provider
as soon as possible and no more lhan seven working days aller lhe assessmenl.

lor lurlher delails see lhe NL8OSH m= ~= = = ~~= ~= ~=
~=~=available lrom lhe NL8OSH websile (
PKP= b=~==~=~~=
NL8OSH applies delailed and lhorough procedures lo moderale and check assessmenl resulls
belore lhey are issued. This includes a parlicular review ol borderline resulls. ll lhereby ensures
lhal lhe declared resulls are a lair and equilable relleclion ol lhe slandard ol perlormance by

There are, however, procedures lor candidales or accrediled course providers lo enquire aboul
resulls lhal do nol meel lheir reasonable expeclalions. An 'enquiry aboul resull' (LAP) musl be
made in wriling wilhin one monlh ol lhe dale ol issue ol lhe resull lo which il relales.

lor delails see lhe NL8OSH b=~=~~==~= documenl available
lrom lhe NL8OSH websile (
PKQ= j~~=
Malpraclice is delined as any deliberale aclivily, neglecl, delaull or olher praclice by candidales
and/or accrediled course providers lhal compromises lhe inlegrily ol lhe assessmenl process,

NL8OSH 20!0

and/or lhe validily ol cerlilicales. Malpraclice may include a range ol issues lrom collusion or
use ol unaulhorised malerial by candidales, lo lhe lailure lo mainlain appropriale records or
syslems by accrediled course providers, lo lhe deliberale lalsilicalion ol records in order lo claim
cerlilicales. lailure by an accrediled course provider lo deal wilh idenlilied issues may in ilsell
conslilule malpraclice.

lor lurlher delails see lhe NL8OSH j~~= = ~= documenl available
lrom lhe NL8OSH websile (

NL8OSH 20!0

QK== p~=J=kb_lpe=f~~=q~=`~=
The qualilicalion consisls ol one unil. Unil lOC! is divided inlo live elemenls.

= = ~==

Heallh, salely and environmenlal
managemenl in conlexl

!2 !!

Hydrocarbon process salely !

8 !4

Hydrocarbon process salely 2

8 !7

lire proleclion and emergency

4 20

Logislics and lransporl operalions

2 22

PQ= =

OM= =

NL8OSH 20!0

QKN= r=fldNW=j~~==~~==~=

b=NW== e~I=~=~=~== =
= = = ~~===

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions. ln
parlicular lhey should be able lo.

!.! Lxplain lhe purpose ol and procedures lor invesligaling incidenls and how lhe lessons
learnl can be used lo improve heallh and salely in lhe oil and gas induslries
!.2 Lxplain lhe hazards inherenl in oil and gas arising lrom lhe exlraclion, slorage, and
processing ol raw malerials and producls
!.3 Oulline lhe risk managemenl lechniques used in lhe oil and gas induslries
!.4 Lxplain lhe purpose and conlenl ol an organisalion's documenled evidence lo provide a
convincing and valid argumenl lhal a syslem is adequalely sale in lhe oil and gas
NKN i~====
lnvesligaling incidenls (including near misses) and elleclive idenlilicalion ol lhe rool causes
and making recommendalions lor improvemenl
The imporlance ol learning lessons lrom major incidenls, managemenl, cullural, and
lechnical lailures (ie process lailures) lhal may lead lo such incidenls.

NKO e~~====~=~==
Meaning and relevance ol.
- llash poinl
- vapour densily
- vapour pressure
- llammable, highly llammable, exlremely llammable
- upper llammable limil, lower llammable limil and lhe risk lrom working wilhin lhese
- loxicily
- skin irrilanl
- carcinogenic properlies
Properlies and hazards ol gases hydrogen, melhane, liquid pelroleum gas (LPC), liquelied
nalural gas (LNC), nilrogen, hydrogen sulphide and oxygen

NL8OSH 20!0

Properlies and hazards ol associaled producls and conlrol measures.
- addilives eg, anli-loaming, anli-welling agenls
- micro-biocides
- corrosion prevenlalives
- relrigeranls
- waler/sleam
- mercaplans
- drilling muds
- sludges (including low specilic aclivily (LSA) sludges).

NKP o=~~======~=~=

The purposes and uses ol risk assessmenl lechniques, qualilalive and quanlalive lechniques
(and why lhey diller lrom 5-sleps approach)
How risk managemenl lools are applied in process salely risk idenlilicalion and assessmenl,
applicalion in projecl phases lrom concepl, design, slarl-up, lhe concepl ol ALAPP and lhe
managemenl ol major incidenl risks
lnduslry relaled process salely slandards, inherenl sale and risk based design concepls,
engineering codes and good praclice.
The concepl ol hazard realisalion lor example loss ol conlainmenl leading lo ignilion,
leading lo explosion/lire, leading lo damage/injury
The concepl ol risk conlrol using barrier models (barrier belween hazard and hazard
Use ol modelling such as lhermal radialion oulpul, blasl zones lor risk idenlilicalion.

NKQ ^= ~~= = = = = ~= = ~= ~=
Lxamples ol documenled evidence eg, salely cases and salely reporls
Where such documenled evidence is used (legal requiremenl/good praclice)
The purpose ol documenled evidence such as salely cases and salely reporls
The lypical conlenl ol documenls such as salely cases and salely reporls in relalion lo.
- idenlilicalion ol all major accidenl hazards
- evalualion ol all major accidenl risks and measures laken, or lo be laken lo conlrol
lhose risks
- arrangemenls lor audil and audil reporls
- having an adequale salely managemenl syslem, including lhe managemenl ol
conlraclors and sub-conlraclors (and major accidenl prevenlion policy in lhe case ol
salely reporls)
- emergency plan.

NL8OSH 20!0


The Process Salely Leadership Croup linal reporl on Salely and Lnvironmenlal Slandards lor
luel Slorage Siles hllp.//
U.S. Chemical Salely and Hazard lnvesligalion 8oard linal lnvesligalion Peporl No. 2005-
0!-l-TX March 2007 (Texas Cily March 23, 2005) al.
The Peporl ol lhe 8P U.S. relineries independenl salely review panel (January 2007) al.
The 8uncelield lncidenl !! December 2005 The linal reporl ol lhe Major lncidenl
lnvesligalion 8oard hllp.//
The Auslralian Covernmenl reporl inlo lhe Longlord Disasler
lSO !7776 Pelroleum and nalural gas induslries, Ollshore produclion inslallalions,
Cuidance on lools and lechniques lor hazard idenlilicalion and risk assessmenl
The Ollshore lnslallalions (Salely Case) Pegulalions 2005
Preparing salely reporls. Conlrol ol Major Accidenls Hazards Pegulalions !999. (HSL )
The Public Lnquiry inlo lhe Piper Alpha Disasler, Cullen, The Honourable Lord, The
Slalionery Ollice, !990 lS8N. 9780!0!!3!025 or
Klelz, T.A., Learning lrom Accidenls, 3rd edilion, 200!, Chapler !7. Cull, lS8N 0-7506-
Klelz, T A. Whal Wenl Wrong? Case Hislories ol Process Planl Disaslers(!998) Cull, lS8N 0-
Klelz, T A . Slill Coing Wrong. Case Hislories ol Process Planl Disaslers and How They Could
Have 8een Avoided (2003) Cull, lS8N 0-7506-7709-0
lncidenls lhal Deline Process Salely John Wiley and Sons, lS8N978 -0-470-!2204-4
Slep Change in Salely al. hllp.//slepchangeinsalely.nel
Lnergy lnslilule Cuidance on invesligaling and analysing human and organisalional laclors
aspecls ol incidenls and accidenls (May 2008) lS8N 978 085293 52!

NL8OSH 20!0

b=OW== e~==~=N=

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions. ln
parlicular lhey should be able lo.

2.! Lxplain lhe principles ol assessing and managing conlraclors, including lhe roles ol
parlies involved
2.2 Oulline lhe lools, slandards, measuremenl, compelency requiremenls and conlrols
applicable lo Process Salely Managemenl (PSM) in lhe oil and gas induslries
2.3 Lxplain lhe role and purpose ol a permil-lo-work syslem
2.4 Lxplain lhe key principles ol sale shill handover
2.5 Lxplain lhe imporlance ol sale planl operalion and mainlenance ol hydrocarbon
conlaining equipmenl and processes
2.6 Oulline lhe hazards, risks and conlrols lo ensure sale slarl up and shul down ol
hydrocarbon conlaining equipmenl and processes.
OKN= `~=~~=
Scale ol conlraclor use
Conlraclor managemenl, ownership and sile supervision/ represenlalion
Conlraclor responsibililies
Safe handover, understanding the hazards.

OKO m=p~=j~~=EmpjF=
The conlrols available in PSM , including.
- spacing ol operaling planl
- posilioning and proleclion ol conlrol rooms and crilical equipmenl, specilically occupied
building assessmenl, lemporary reluge (ollshore) and lhe crilical salely syslems
associaled wilh lemporary reluge inlegrily (lire resislance, blasl resislance, HVAC,
access lo evacualion means elc)
Managemenl ol change conlrols.
- risk assessmenl and aulhorisalion ol changes by compelenl persons.

OKP o=~===~=JJ==
Pole and purpose ol a permil-lo-work syslem
The key lealures ol a permil-lo-work syslem
Types ol permil

NL8OSH 20!0

lnlerlaces wilh adjacenl planl
lnlerlaces wilh conlraclors
Lock oul, lag oul and isolalion.

OKQ h===~==~===
Placing grealer reliance on wrillen communicalion belween handover ol !2-hour shills
Two-way wilh bolh parlicipanls laking joinl responsibilily
Shill handover should be.
- high priorily and conducled lace lo lace
- lwo-way wilh bolh parlicipanls laking joinl responsibilily
- done using verbal and wrillen communicalion
- based on analysis ol lhe inlormalion needs ol incoming slall
- given as much lime as necessary.

OKR m~=~=~=~~=
Assel inlegrily, including inspeclion, lesling, mainlenance, corrosion prevenlion,
compelency and lraining
Pisk based mainlenance and inspeclion slralegy
Techniques, principles, and imporlance ol sale operalion, slandard operalion procedures
and mainlenance
Conlrol ol ignilion sources during mainlenance and operalions
Cleaning and gas lreeing, purging, venling, draining ol waler, producl, oxygen and non-
condensables (NCD), and inerling.

OKS p~==~===
Hazards and conlrols associaled wilh.
- sale slarl up, shul down
- waler and hydrales presence and removal
- lesling, commissioning and hook up.

NL8OSH 20!0


The Process Salely Leadership Croup linal reporl on Salely and Lnvironmenlal Slandards lor
luel Slorage Siles hllp.//
USA Occupalional Salely and Heallh Adminislralion (OSHA) Process salely managemenl ol
highly hazardous chemicals (Slandards - 29 ClP !9!0.!!9)
Lees' Loss Prevenlion in lhe Process lnduslries. Hazard ldenlilicalion, Assessmenl and Conlrol -
8ullerworlh-Heinemann Lld, lS8N !3. 978-0-7506-7555-0
T. Klelz. Whal Wenl Wrong? Case Hislories ol Process Planl Disaslers(!998) Cull, lS8N 0-
T. Klelz. Slill Coing Wrong. Case Hislories ol Process Planl Disaslers and How They Could Have
8een Avoided (2003) Cull, lS8N 0-7506-7709-0
8SLN lSO !5544 Pelroleum and nalural gas induslries - Ollshore produclion inslallalions -
Pequiremenls and guidelines lor emergency response
APl Corrosion managemenl
Human laclors. Salely crilical communicalions.
Sale Ups and Downs lor Process Unils (8P Process Salely Series) The lnslilulion ol Chemical
Lngineers, 2nd Pevised edilion (30 July 2006) lS8N 978-0852955024
Cuidance on permil-lo-work syslems. A guide lor lhe pelroleum, chemical and allied induslries
(HSL) HSC 250 lS8N 97807!7629435

NL8OSH 20!0

b=PW== e~==~=O=

On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions. ln parlicular
lhey should be able lo.

3.! Oulline lypes ol lailure modes lhal may lead lo loss ol conlainmenl lrom hydrocarbons
3.2 Oulline lypes ol lailures lhal may lead lo loss ol conlainmenl lrom hydrocarbons
3.3 Oulline lhe conlrols available lo mainlain salely crilical equipmenl
3.4 Oulline lhe hazards, risks and conlrols available lor sale conlainmenl ol hydrocarbons
ollshore and onshore
3.5 Oulline lhe lire hazards, risks and conlrols relaling lo hydrocarbons
3.6 Oulline lhe hazards, risks and conlrols available lor operaling boilers and lurnaces.


PKN c~==

Slress corrosion cracking
Thermal shock
8rillle lraclure
Whal is meanl by a 'sale operaling envelope'
Use ol knowledge ol lailure modes in inilial design, process and sale-operaling procedures
lailure ol lhe annular rim (bollom rim ol slorage lank).
PKO l===~=
Weld lailures lhe need lor regular weld inspeclion and non deslruclive inspeclion

PKP p~=~===
Lmergency shul down (LSD) equipmenl and syslems
Salely inlegrily levels (SlL) lor inslrumenlalion
Procedures lor bypassing LSD nol lo bypass wilhoul consideralion ol consequences
lesling and logging
8low down lacililies, llare lypes
Closed and open drain headers, sewers, inlerceplors.

NL8OSH 20!0

PKQ= p~=~==~==
Hazards and risks including overlilling, ellecls ol vacuum, overloading ol loundalions and
lailure modes lor lank shells and associaled pipe work
lloaling rool lanks (bolh exlernal and inlernal rool lypes), landing lhe rool, sinking lhe rool
and rim seal lires/lailures
lixed rool slorage lanks, pressure and vacuum hazards
8unding ol slorage lanks including volume and area sizing, conslruclion and valving
lilling ol lanks, overlilling/alarms/lanker conneclions
Pressurised / relrigeraled vessels lor LPC/LNC/CO2
Loss ol conlainmenl and consequences
- jel lires, pool lires
- how hydrocarbon vapour clouds are generaled and polenlial consequences
- 8LLVL's, CVCL's and UVCL's
- pipelines (eg, proleclion ol pipelines, surveying, mainlenance, securily againsl arson
and illegal lapping)
Decommissioning ol planl and associaled lacililies (an overview)
Managemenl ol simullaneous operalions.

PKR= c=~~I==~==
lire lriangle and lhe polenlial consequences.
- explosions
- lhermal radialion
Lleclroslalic charges, how lhey are generaled and conlrolled
The idenlilicalion ol ignilion sources
Zoning / hazardous area classilicalion, and seleclion ol suilable ignilion prolecled eleclrical
and mechanical equipmenl and crilical conlrol equipmenl.

PKS= c~=~==~
Use ol lurnace and boiler operalions
Hazards and risks ol operaling boilers and lurnaces in parlicular lhose arising lrom loss ol
pilol gas supply, over liring, llame impingemenl lirebox over pressure, low lube llow,
conlrol ol lube melal lemperalure (TMT).

NL8OSH 20!0


The Process Salely Leadership Croup linal reporl on Salely and Lnvironmenlal Slandards lor
luel Slorage Siles hllp.//
T. Klelz. Whal Wenl Wrong? Case Hislories ol Process Planl Disaslers (!998) Cull,
S8N 0-884!5-920-5
T. Klelz. Slill Coing Wrong. Case Hislories ol Process Planl Disaslers and How They Could Have
8een Avoided (2003) Cull, lS8N 0-7506-7709-0
APl Corrosion managemenl
Salely and environmenlal slandards lor luel slorage siles 8uncelield Slandards Task Croup
(8STC) linal reporl hllp.//
Lnergy lnslilule. Cuidance lor corrosion managemenl in oil and gas produclion and processing
rel. 978 0 85293 497 5
Lnergy lnslilule. Corrosion lhreals handbook - Upslream oil and gas produclion planl (A6)
Dale. Dec 2008 rel. 978 0 85293 496 8
Human laclors. Salely crilical communicalions.

NL8OSH 20!0

Element 4: Fire protection and emergency response


On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions. ln
parlicular lhey should be able lo.

4.! Oulline appropriale conlrol measures lo minimise lhe ellecls ol lire and explosion in lhe
oil and gas induslries
4.2 Oulline lhe principles, procedures and resources lor elleclive emergency response.

QKN c=~=====~=~==
Leak and lire deleclion syslems, including spol, line, zone, llame, and heal deleclion
Passive lire proleclion, including hydrocarbon and celluloslic passive lire proleclion ol
slruclures and equipmenl supporls, such as bulkheads, vessels, columns, spheres, llare
Aclive waler based lire proleclion syslems, bolh onshore and ollshore, including manual
and aulomalic operalion lealures
Chemical/loam based exlinguishing syslems (which syslem, use ol correcl media lor risk
lrying lo miligale)
lnerl exlinguishing syslems
Lxamples ol lire proleclion syslems and lheir lunclion lor equipmenl specilic lypes,
including, lloaling rool lanks, process modules, spheres, gas lurbines and compressors.

QKO b===
Lmergency Plan
- role and imporlance ol Lmergency Plan (as parl ol salely case link lo elemenl !.4)
- conlenl ol Lmergency Plan
- lire and explosion slralegy and delailing ol il lo specilic risk based lire proleclion

Alarms imporlance ol response
Medical emergency planning, liered response, medical evacualion procedures and back up
Principles ol escape evacualion and rescue lrom on-shore lacililies and ollshore plallorms,
including primary, secondary and lerliary escape devices lor ollshore
Poles and operalion ol lire leams onshore and ollshore in upslream and downslream
Training and drills

NL8OSH 20!0

Lxlernal supporl agencies and resource liaison, including municipal and ollshore
Liaison wilh emergency services.

The Process Salely Leadership Croup linal reporl on Salely and Lnvironmenlal Slandards lor
luel Slorage Siles hllp.//
lire syslems inlegrily assurance (OCP Peporl No. 6.85/304)
lSO !3702 Pelroleum and nalural gas induslries - Conlrol and miligalion ol lires and explosions
on ollshore produclion inslallalions -- Pequiremenls and guidelines
APl recommended Praclice no 202! Managemenl ol Almospheric Tank lires


NL8OSH 20!0

b=RW== i=~=~=~=


On complelion ol lhis elemenl, candidales should be able lo demonslrale underslanding ol lhe
conlenl lhrough lhe applicalion ol knowledge lo lamiliar and unlamiliar silualions. ln
parlicular lhey should be able lo.

5.! ldenlily lhe main hazards ol and suilable conlrols lor marine lransporl in lhe oil and gas
5.2 ldenlily lhe main hazards ol and suilable conlrols lor land lransporl in lhe oil and gas


RKN j~=~=
Hazards ol vessels and working over waler, lloaling liquelied nalural gas (LNC), lloaling
produclion slorage ollloading unils (lPSO's) lloaling slorage unils (lSU's), lloaling oll-
loading, supply vessels, drilling rigs, conslruclion barges
Loading and unloading ol vessels al marine lerminals
Conlrol ol marine operalions, cerlilicalion ol vessels, inspeclion and approvals
Poles and responsibililies ol marine co-ordinalors, maslers and crews
Personnel lranslers and boarding arrangemenls
Personal proleclive equipmenl suilabilily
Diver operalions.

RKO i~=~=
- UN 'classilicalion' and lransporl ol hazardous malerials
- proleclion ol planl againsl vehicles slriking planl
- driver lraining
- lilling arrangemenls
Trallic managemenl
- on sile
- roules

NL8OSH 20!0


Oil Companies lnlernalional Marine lorum Cuideline
Cuidelines lor managing marine risks associaled wilh lPSOs (OCP Peporl No. 377)

NL8OSH 20!0

RK= p~=~~=~=
RKN= r=fldNW=j~~==~~==
~== ~=~~=~==

rkfq=fldNW== j~~==~~==~=~==
= = ~~=~=


^==p=N=~=p=OK==Answer ^ii queslions.

The maximum marks lor each queslion, or parl ol a queslion, are shown in brackels.
Slarl each answer on a new page.
Answers may be illuslraled by skelches where appropriale.
This queslion paper musl be relurned lo lhe invigilalor aller lhe examinalion.


You are advised lo spend aboul ~=~= on lhis seclion, which conlains lkb

N Many serious accidenls or incidenls, including lhe Piper Alpha disasler in
!988, involve rool causes associaled wilh shill handover.

An oulgoing operalor is handing over lo an incoming operalor al lhe end
ol a shill.

(a) b~ lhe key principles ol sale shill handover.
= f~===~~======
~=~K= = ENMF=

(b) l lhe main operalional issues communicaled al shill
handover.== ENMF


NL8OSH 20!0

You are advised lo spend aboul =~=~ ~= on lhis seclion, which conlains
qbk queslions.

O= (a) f lhe hazardous properlies ol Liquid Pelroleum Cas (LPC). EQF=

(b) l lhe risks associaled wilh Liquid Pelroleum Cas (LPC). EQF=

P= Salely cases and salely reporls provide documenled evidence lhal an oil
and gas inslallalion is sale.

l=lhe lypical conlenl ol lhese lypes ol documenls. EUF

Q (a) f qeobb ~ hazards associaled wilh all lypes ol lloaling
Plallorm Slorage Ollloading Unils (lPSO's). EPF=

(b) f suilable conlrols lhal minimise risk when operaling
lloaling Plallorm Slorage Ollloading Unils (lPSO's). ERF=

R An oil inslallalion conlains a vessel lhal requires proleclion lrom lire
exposure in lhe lorm ol aclive or passive lire proleclion.

(a) f qtl examples ol ~ lire proleclion lo prolecl vessels.

(b) l why lhe melal legs ol lhe vessel should be prolecled. EOF

(c) l how a lixed waler deluge syslem could provide lire
proleclion. EOF

(d) f=qtl=addilional examples ol ~ lire proleclion. EOF=

S l lhe lollowing lailure modes lhal may lead lo loss ol hydrocarbon
conlainmenl lrom slorage lanks/vessels or pipelines.

(a) creep, EOF=

(b) slress corrosion cracking, EOF

(c) lhermal shock, EOF

(d) brillle lraclure. EOF=


NL8OSH 20!0

T= l=clro=lypes ol work aclivily associaled wilh an oil plallorm lhal
mighl require a permil-lo-work ^ka= a reason in b^`e case lor lhe
requiremenl. EUF=

U= A large oil company is proposing lo build a new oil and gas inslallalion in
lhe Norlh Sea. The Process Salely Managemenl Team is analysing pasl
incidenls and dalabase records lrom lhe Oil and Cas lnduslry.

= b aclive and passive lire proleclion syslems, physical design
lealures ol lhe plallorm lhal would minimise risk lo operaling personnel in
lhe evenl ol a major incidenl. EUF=

V (a) f qtl=ways in which vapour clouds can be generaled. EOF=

(b) l how a vapour cloud explosion can be generaled. EQF

(c) f lhe physical consequences ol vapour cloud explosions. EOF=

NM An operalor is draining a llammable liquid lrom process pipework lo a
melal conlainer. The supervisor is concerned aboul lhe possibilily ol an
eleclroslalic charge lorming and slops lhis operalion unlil a risk assessmenl
is underlaken. During lhis work aclivily.

(a) laclors lhal inlluence lhe generalion ol lhe eleclroslalic
charge, EQF=

(b) praclical ways ol minimising lhe lormalion ol an
eleclroslalic charge. EQF=

NN An employee was seriously injured in an accidenl al work wilhin an oil and
gas inslallalion.

f lhe =~ lhal mighl be used by lhe
invesligaling leam lo delermine lhe causes ol lhis accidenl. EUF=