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Scrutiny about all security standards in cloud computing and

present new novel standard for security of such networks



Mohammad Abedi
1*
, Mehdi Darbandi
1
, Mohsen Kariman Khorasani
2
1
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Iran University of Science and
Technology (IUST); Tehran, Iran
2
Department of Communication Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Gonabad Branch, Gonabad, Iran
(
*
Corresponding author: Mohammad Abedi)


Abstract Cloud computing is set of resources and
services offered through the Internet. Cloud services are delivered
from data centers located throughout the world. Cloud computing
facilitates its consumers by providing virtual resources via
internet. General example of cloud services is Google apps,
provided by Google and Microsoft SharePoint. The rapid growth
in field of cloud computing also increases severe security
concerns. Security has remained a constant issue for Open
Systems and internet, when we are talking about security cloud
really suffers. Lack of security is the only hurdle in wide adoption
of cloud computing. In giving a definition to cloud computing, the
highest hits on Google scholar are used, in particular the ones
with the most references regarding cloud computing. Some
scientific papers show up a lot such as (Vaquero 2009) and
(Armbrust et al 2010). In total Google scholar shows about 100 to
120 relevant hits regarding cloud computing. Of course there are
a lot more hits, but they go out of the scope of this research.
Cloud computing is surrounded by many security issues like
securing data, and examining the utilization of cloud by the cloud
computing vendors. The wide acceptance www has raised security
risks along with the uncountable benefits, so is the case with
cloud computing. The boom in cloud computing has brought lots
of security challenges for the consumers and service providers.
How the end users of cloud computing know that their
information is not having any availability and security issues?
Every one poses, Is their information secure? Although the cloud
computing model is considered to be a very promising internet-
based computing platform, it results in a loss of security control
over the cloud-hosted assets. This is due to the outsourcing of
enterprise IT assets hosted on third-party cloud computing
platforms. Moreover, the lack of security constraints in the
Service Level Agreements between the cloud providers and
consumers results in a loss of trust as well. Obtaining a security
certificate such as ISO 27000 or NIST-FISMA would help cloud
providers improve consumers trust in their cloud platforms'
security. However, such standards are still far from covering the
full complexity of the cloud computing model. In this paper, at
first we consider significant influences of this technology
on some of the biggest companies and organizations all
over the world, after that we present performance
comparison of two stage Kalman filtering technique for
surveillance permeating tracking in social networks such
as cloud computing, we demonstrate mathematically all the
equations and formula of this filter and also by the means
of some MATLAB simulations we can use this technique
for avoiding the entrance and existence of hacker and
crackers [17].
Keywords- Cloud resources, Security enhancement,
privacy and licensing, Intelligence and smart firewalls.
I. INTRODUCTION
Cloud computing is fairly new and has thus no long
history. In general it originates from the late nineties
and has been further developed in the next millennium,
the name was created because the data send couldnt
be tracked anymore when moving towards it
destination. The term cloud was created because you
could not determine the path a certain data package
followed. The term cloud computing changed over time
(Well 2009). In the early years of cloud computing, the
organization Amazon was active in the area of cloud
computing. They were already a large organization
investing in cloud computing. They had huge data
centers which normally only use about 8 to 12% of
their computing power. The rest was reserved for
whenever peak usage was necessary. They started to
use cloud computing in order to save costs in these
huge datacenters. After this they were the first to
provide cloud computing to the outside world (the
customers). This happened in the year of 2006
according to Computer Weekly (2009). Not much later
IBM and Google showed interest into cloud computing
and started to invest. It seemed that cloud computing
showed potential.
As a recapitulation, cloud computing is stated into
different definitions. There are definitions that define a
cloud as a some what updated version of utility
computing (Buyya et al 2009). The other, and broader,
side states that anything you can access outside your
firewall is cloud computing, even outsourcing (Knorr
2008). The cloud computing is a new computing model
which comes from grid computing, distributed
computing, parallel computing, virtualization
technology, utility computing and other computer
technologies and it has more advantage characters
such as large scale computation and data storage,
virtualization, high expansibility, high reliability and
low price service. The security problem of cloud
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computing is very important and it can prevent the
rapid development of cloud computing.
As the new computing service pattern of cloud
computing develops rapidly, the security problem of
cloud computing has become a hot research topic.
Before the user passes important data or computing
task to the cloud, the user of the cloud may want to
verify the trusted status of the platform which actually
carries out the computing task in the cloud. And the
remote attestation mechanism in Trusted Computing is
suited for the cloud user's verification need. Cloud
computing provides people the way to share distributed
resources and services that belong to different
organizations or sites. Since cloud computing share
distributed resources via the network in the open
environment, thus it makes security problems
important for us to develop the cloud computing
application. It is a great idea to make many normal
computers together to get a super computer, and this
computer can do a lot of things. This is the concept of
cloud computing. Cloud computing is an emerging
model of business computing. And it is becoming a
development trend.
As it becomes clear, there is no uniform definition yet
for cloud computing, though they all point into the
same direction. It is also made clear that there is
definitely a prosperous future for cloud computing
(Hayes 2008). He mentions that software is moving
towards the cloud in the future whereas it currently
comes from the local pcs. It is expected that users and
developers will follow this trend. Often people do not
know that they are using cloud computing. A simple
example is Gmail or Google docs
(http://docs.google.com/support/). It is a very good
example as this is a free service and is explains
perfectly what cloud computing is. Google doc makes it
possible for you, and other users, to work online with a
word processer with multiple users logged on. The
complete document and service are stored online. Any
changes made to a document appear real-time to the
other users.
Implementing cloud computing into the current system
of an organisation is not easy; it needs a complete
revision of current IT. More important is to implement
and use it in such a way that it provides benefits for the
organization compared with their current way of
working. In theory it should provide a performance
increase in the organizations which would result in
monetary improvements. However, it is also important
to take a look from the other perspective as cloud
computing could also cause damage to an IT
organisation. We dont have such problems in Cloud
Computing, because every time you log out from your
account and logging to it next time, you'll see the latest
update of the software, without need to developing the
hardware of your system, because the required
hardware is provided by cloud resources. Also you
dont pay additional costs for this software developing
buying licenses or pay for updating the software.
There is also a distinction made between different
clouds according to Armbrust et al (2010), a public
cloud, utility computing and private cloud. The public
cloud refers to the pay-as you-go setup of a cloud, so
you pay for what you need and the time you need it.
Utility computing refers to when a service is actually
being sold, whereas the private cloud refers to a cloud
that is only accessible for the organization where it is
positioned and not to the outside public. In the last
case it is important that the organization is of such a
large form that they can benefit from having cloud
computing.
Most general clients are regular desktop PCs or
laptops. Other clients nowadays are also mobile
phones (PDA), Shih et al (2002). The mobile devices
are of big importance for cloud computing. They
provide the high mobility to those who are trying to
access the cloud. In general there are three sorts of
clients to distinguish. These are mobile, thin and thick
clients. Mobile clients are those with mobile phones
(Velte et al 2009). Thin clients are using remote
hardware and software. What a user sees is visualized
by the server and not by an own hard disk with
operating system. On the contrary, thick clients use
own hard disks and usually access the cloud trough a
web browser. These are just part of the great
performance of new technology, known as Cloud
computing that is named also as "the next big thing"
[1-9].
II. CONSIDERING HIGH IMPACTS OF
CLOUD COMPUTING ON DIFFERENT
INDUSTRIES ASE OF USE
In two past sections of the paper, we define some of the
basic and fundamental principles of cloud and also we
tell about some of its advantageous. Now we want
imply into, the major applications of this technology.
After that when we understand the importance of this
technology, we tell about some techniques and
algorithms which can be uses for improving the
security aspect of such network; for example, we can
used Kalman Filter for prediction and estimation the
amount of users that can be allowed to logging into
special organization account.
It is easy to say that cloud computing provides benefits
to those who use it. The idea is to find out what these
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benefits actually are. In general the benefits we focus
on are for the group of end users. As mentioned before,
the major benefit for any end user is of course that
cloud computing can be used simply whenever you
need it (Kunze et al 2008). It is a pay-as-you-go
system. The question then is: why is this actually a
benefit? To begin with the user organization, there is
no physical room necessary for all the hardware to
install. Furthermore there are no maintenance costs
for all the hardware (Velte 2009). Besides the
hardware it is the applications that provide benefits.
The cloud is filled with applications that are ready to
use, and more important the data used in this
application is always accessible from anywhere in the
world (Vecchiola 2009). Not a direct benefit, but also
important, is that the datacenters are usually placed at
strategic chosen places that lower the costs of
maintenance. Think of low wages countries (Vecchiola
2009). Focusing more on the users of the cloud the
benefits become more concrete. As has become very
clear now, scalability is one of the major benefits.
When an organization is expecting a peak in its IT use,
they simply acquire more IT services from the cloud.
This is also the beauty of it, it is very simple. Because
huge organizations have invested in Cloud computing,
the users can also expect a certain degree of security
(Velte 2010). Cloud computing provides thus a
combination of economic and performance benefits.
The economic benefit lies in the costs that have to be
made whenever an organization needs additional IT
services, and this relates to the performance benefits.
The extra performance can be acquired whenever
necessary and improves the performance of an
organization directly.
Organizations are expected to benefit from cloud
computing as they will gain higher flexibility in using
hard and software. This can be when using it for
temporarily extra computation power, but also for
starting or expanding organizations. They are able to
purchase additional services for just a fraction of the
price they would have to pay when they want to buy it
themselves. Though possible issues with this are that
the core business of IT intensive organizations are
shifted toward the cloud computing providers and thus
also exposed to their risks and issues. The organization
gets very dependent on the service the providers give.
The organizations are therefore exposed to a risk that
cannot be handled directly by themselves but needs to
be handled by the provider. The provider must be able
to provide a certain amount of security in order to keep
the organizations data and processes safe. It is
expected that they have security software running in
their clouds, protecting data and processes from any
hazard. Also the physical location of the cloud has
some form of protection. All together the infrastructure
of the modern IT organization as we know it now will
change in a more mobile and flexible organization. The
IT infrastructure will completely be revised causing
this higher form of flexibility. Hard and software will
be a service to them instead of having this internally.
In general the data centres contain the services that
clients want to obtain whenever they need it. This
centre is often a large space which contains all servers
providing these services and keeping them up and
running. It is also possible to have virtual servers
which reduce the amount of actual servers and space
(Wood et al 2007). Distributed servers are a name for
those servers that are not all in one location. It doesnt
matter where these servers are, as a user you wont
notice anything different. These kinds of servers
provide high flexibility because it doesnt matter where
they stand as long as they are connected to the
internet. It is easy for making a back up of other
servers. Besides this, there is no limitation in
expanding the cloud (Velte et al 2009).
Cloud computing is not only a theoretical technology
anymore. It is currently being used by a lot of people
without even knowing that they do. Think of social
media; Facebook being one of the largest and most
widely used social media platform, also uses cloud
computing (Pandey 2009). In this case it is Software as
a service. All users of Facebook can use the
Facebook application for their personal data, but in
essence they are not able to change anything to this
application. The application is in complete
control of the service provider, in this case Facebook.
An even better example is Google (Apps) (Pandey
2009). In this case we will discuss Google docs in
particular in order to point out how convenient cloud
computing can be. In Google docs it is possible to
create an own word, excel or PowerPoint document
online. This document is then stored on the server. Any
changes made are also stored on this server. The word
processor provided by Google is free from any charges
and does not need to be purchased whatsoever. Google
hosts the word processor for anyone who decides to
use it. Besides the convenience of having your
documents in the word processer online and being
accessible from anywhere, it is also possible to share
these documents with other people accessing the cloud.
Within the cloud another person is able to change your
document if he has the rights to do so. He can also
access the word processor in the cloud together with
the document you have uploaded and you can both
change anything in real-time.

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Larger providers of services are represented by cloud
computing providers such as Amazon or IBM. They
provide more complete solutions and go further than
only software as a service. They also provide
infrastructure and Platform as a service. The two
providers mentioned before were mainly focused on
free cloud providing services whereas IBM and
Amazon provide more complete solutions. Their clients
have more interest in security because they will be
processing their core business for example through
cloud computing.
From now on, we wants to do a behavioral comparison
of two stage Kalman filtering technique for
surveillance permeating tracking in cloud computing,
with such a technique we can predict and update our
information about the interest of our users in using
different parts of cloud resources so that we able to
predict accidental phenomenas such as hanging our
crashing of such resources; or even when we detect
hacker existence on such networks we be able to track
and finally wipe out the surveillance actions.

III. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF TWO
STAGE KALMAN FILTERING TECHNIQUE FOR
SURVEILLANCE PERMEATING TRACKING IN
CLOUD COMPUTING [17]:
1. Statement of the Problem:
The problem of interest is described by the discretized
equation set [17]:
x
k k k k k k
W U B X A X + + =
+1

(1)
u
k k k k
W U C U + =
+1

(2)
k k k k
V X H Z + =

(3)
Where
n
k
R X e
is the system state,
m
k
R U e
and
p
k
R Z e
are the input and the measurement vectors,
respectively. Matrices
k
A
,
k
B
,
k
C
and
k
H
are assumed
to be known functions of the time interval
k
and are of
appropriate dimensions. Matrix
k
C
is assumed
nonsingular. The process noises
x
k
W
,
u
k
W
and the
measurement noise
k
V
are zero-mean white Gaussian
sequences with the following covariances:
kl
x
k
x
l
x
k
Q W W E o = ] ) ( [
'
,
kl
xu
k
u
l
x
k
Q W W E o = ] ) ( [
'
,
kl
u
k
u
l
u
k
Q W W E o = ] ) ( [
'
kl k l k
R V V E o = ] [
'
,
0 ] [
'
=
l
x
k
V W E
and
0 ] [
'
=
l
u
k
V W E
, where
'
denotes transpose and
kl
o

denotes the Kronecker delta function. The initial states
0
X
and
0
U
are assumed to be uncorrelated with the
sequences
x
k
W
,
u
k
W
and
k
V
. The initial conditions are
assumed to be Gaussian random variables
with
0 0

] [ X X E =
,
x
P X X E
0
'
0 0
] [ =
,
0 0

] [ U U E =
,
u
P U U E
0
'
0 0
] [ =
,
xu
P U X E
0
'
0 0
] [ =
.
Treating
k
X
and
k
U
as the augmented system state,
the AUSKE is described by
) (
| 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 | 1
Aug
k k
Aug
k k
Aug
k
Aug
k k
Aug
k k
X H Z K X X
+ + + + + + +
+ =

(4)
Aug
k k
Aug
k
Aug
k k
X A X
| | 1
=
+

(5)
1 '
1 | 1 1
'
1 | 1 1
] ) ( [ ) (

+ + + + + +
+ =
k
Aug
k k k
Aug
k
Aug
k k k
Aug
k
R H P H H P K
(6)
k
Aug
k k k
Aug
k k k
Q A P A P + =
+
'
| | 1
) (

(7)
k k
Aug
k
Aug
k k k
P H K I P
| 1 1 1 1 | 1
) (
+ + + + +
=

(8)
Where
(

=
k
k Aug
k
U
X
X
,
(

=
u
k
x
k Aug
k
K
K
K
,
(

=
u
k
xu
k
xu
k
x
k
k
P P
P P
P
'
) (
,
(

=
k n m
k k Aug
k
C
B A
A
0
,
'
0
(

=
m p
k Aug
k
H
H
,
(

=
u
k
xu
k
xu
k
x
k
k
Q Q
Q Q
Q
'
) (

Where the superscript Aug denotes the augmented
system state,
I
denotes the identity matrix of any
dimension and
n m
0
is a
n m
zero matrix. It is clear
from (4)-(8) that the computational cost of the AUSKE
increases with the augmented state dimension. The
OPSKE formulation is based on the following
equations:
)

(

| 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 | 1 k k k k k k k k k
X H Z K X X
+ + + + + + +
+ =

(9)
k k k k k
X A X
| | 1

=
+

(10)
1 '
1 | 1 1
'
1 | 1 1
] ) ( [

+ + + + + +
+ =
k k
x
k k k k
x
k k k
R H P H H P K

(11)
x
k k
x
k k k
x
k k
Q A P A P + =
+
'
| | 1
) (

(12)
x
k k k k
x
k k
P H K I P
| 1 1 1 1 | 1
) (
+ + + + +
=

(13)
1 1 1 1 + + + +
=
k k k k
M ] H K I [ N

(14)
]

~
[

| 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 | 1 k k k k k
u
k k k k k
U M H Z K U U
+ + + + + + + +
+ =

(15)
k k k k k
U C U

1
=
+

(16)
1
| 1
'
1
'
1 | 1 1 1
'
1
'
1 | 1 1
] 3 [ 2

+ + + + + + + + + +
+ =
z
k k k k
u
k k k k k k
u
k k
u
k
P H M P M H H M P K

(17)
u
k k k k
u
k
u
k k k
u
k k
u
k
z
k k
u
k
u
k k k
u
k k k k
u
k
u
k k
u
k k
P M H K K H M P K P K
K H M P M H K P P
| 1 1 1 1 1
'
1
'
1 | 1 1 | 1 1
1
'
1
'
1 | 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 | 1
2 ) ( 2 ) (
) ( 3
+ + + + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + +
' ' +
' + =

(18)
u
k k
u
k k k
u
k k
Q C P C P + =
+
'
| | 1

(19)
1
'
1 | 1 1 | 1 + + + + +
+ =
k k
x
k k k
z
k k
R H P H P

(20)
u
k k k k
zu
k k
P M H P
| 1 1 1 | 1 + + + +
=


(21)
1 1 | 1 | 1

+ + + +
+ =
k k k k k k
U M X X

1 1 1 | 1 1 | 1

+ + + + + +
+ =
k k k k k k
U N X X

(22)
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1
0 0 1
1
1
,.... 3 , 2 , ] [

+
=
= + =
C B M
k C B M A M
k k k k k

(23)
1 1 1 1
] [
+ + + +
=
k k k k
M H K I N
(24)
2. Performance Evaluations:
To demonstrate the computational advantage of the
OPSKE over the AUSKE, the number of arithmetic
operations are considered, i.e., multiplications and
summations. The arithmetic operations of a standard
Kalman estimator with state dimension
n
and
measurement dimension
p
, are listed in Table 1. It is
clear from the equations (4)-(8) and Table 1, that the
arithmetic operations required for the AUSKE which
has state dimension
m n+
and measurement dimension
p
, are
) , ( p m n M +
for multiplications and
) , ( p m n S +

for summations. Table 2 shows the arithmetic
operations of the input estimation and the auxiliary
matrices needed by the OPSKE which has state
dimension
n
, measurement dimension
p
and input
vector dimension
m
. Note that the number of the
arithmetic operations of the AUSKE increases with the
augmented state dimension, which makes the algorithm
computationally inefficient. In contrast, the OPSKE
based on the two-stage decoupling technique required
fewer computations. The efficiency of the OPSKE is
due to order reduction, i.e., implementing two less
order
n
and
m
partitioned filters. This enables the
proposed algorithm to have much better computational
efficiency than the AUSKE. So, the arithmetic
operations required (AOR) for the AUSKE are:
)] ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 [
] ) ( 2 ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 2 ) ( 3 [
) , ( ) , ( ) (
2 3 2 2 3
2 3 2 2 3
m n m n p p m n p m n m n
p m n m n p p m n p m n m n
p m n S p m n M AUSKE AOR
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + + + + + + + + =
+ + + =

(25)
The arithmetic operations required for the input
estimation and auxiliary matrices, by the OPSKE as
shown in Table 2 and using equations (15)-(24) are
] 2 2 2
4 2 2 [
] 2 2 4
2 2 2 3 [
] 2 2 3 [
] 2 2 2 3 [
) , , ( ) , , ( ) , ( ) , (
) (
2 2 2 2
3 3 2 2 2
2 2 2 3
2 3 2 2 2
2 3 2 2 3
2 3 2 2 3
nmp nm m n n p np p n
m p mp p m m m mp
nmp nm m n nm p n m
p p mp p m m mp
n n p np p n n
np n p np p n n
p m n S p m n M p n S p n M
OPSKE AOR
OP OP
+ + + + +
+ + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + + + +
+ + + +
+ + + + + =
+ + + =


(26)
Using (25) and (26), the operational savings, denoted
by
OPSKE
AUSKE
OS
, of the OPSKE as compared to the AUSKE
are [17]:
nm p m n np p
nmp p n nm m n m
p m n S p m n M p n S
p n M p m n S p m n M
OPSKE AOR AUSKE AOR OS
OP OP
OPSKE
AUSKE
2 2 2 2
6 4 17 15 2
) , , ( ) , , ( ) , (
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
) ( ) (
2 2 3
2 2 2 3
+ +
+ + + =

+ + +
= =


(27)
And the operational savings of the OTSKE over the
AUSKE are:
nm p m m nmp nm m n
m OTSKE AOR AUSKE AOR OS
OTSKE
AUSKE
2 2 4 12 12
4 ) ( ) (
3 2 2 2
3
+ + +
+ = =

(28)
Therefore, using (27) and (28) the operational savings
of the OPSKE over the OTSKE are:
2 2 3 2 2
2 3
2 2 2 4 5
3 2 ) ( ) (
p m m n np p nmp p n nm
m n m OPSKE AOR OTSKE AOR OS
OPSKE
OTSKE
+ + + + +
+ = =

(29)
It is clear from (27) and (29) that for
n p m s and
, the
proposed scheme has computational advantage over
the AUSKE and it is comparable to the OTSKE. The
operational savings discussed here will be tested as an
example in the simulation results section. To measure
the relative operational savings of the OPSKE with
respect to the arithmetic operation required by the
AUSKE (
) (AUSKE AOR
), the percentage of the
operational savings defined as below:
100
) (
=
AUSKE AOR
OS
POS
OPSKE
AUSKE OPSKE
AUSKE

(30)
Using (27), (29) and (30), the operational savings and
the percentage of the operational savings, of the
OPSKE comparing to the OTSKE and the AUSKE for
different values of
n
,
m
and
p
are shown in Table 3.
It can be inferred from Table 3 that the OPSKE has
better overall performance than the AUSKE (averaged
32%) and the OTSKE (averaged 7.3%).

Table 1:Standard Kalman Estimator Arithmetic Operation Requirements
Variable
Number of Multiplications,
) p , n ( M
Number of summations,
) p , n ( S

1
1 1 + + k | k
X

np 2

np 2

2
k | K
X
1 +

2
n

n n
2

3
x
k
K
1 +

3 2 2
2 p np p n + +

np p np p n 2 2
3 2 2
+ +

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4
x
k | K
P
1 +

3
2n

2 3
2 n n

5
x
k | K
P
1 1 + +

p n n
2 3
+

2 2 3
n p n n +

Totals
np n p np p n n 2 2 2 3
2 3 2 2 3
+ + + + +

n n p np p n n + + +
2 3 2 2 3
2 2 3


Table 2:Input Estimation and Auxiliary Matrices Arithmetic Operation Requirements for the OPSKE
Variable
Number of Multiplications
) p , m , n ( M
OP
Number of summations
) p , m , n ( S
OP

1
1 1 + + k | k
U

mp 2

mp 2

2
k | K
U
1 +

2
m

m m
2

3
u
k
K
1 +

mp p p mp p m + + + +
2 3 2 2
2

mp p mp p m 2 2
3 2 2
+ +

4
u
k | K
P
1 +

3
2m

2 3
2 m m

5
u
k | K
P
1 1 + +

2 2 3
m p m m + +

2 2 3
m p m m +

6
z
k | k
P
1 +

p n
2
2

2 2
2 2 p np p n +

7
k | k
X

1 +

mn

mn

8
1 1 + + k | k
X


mn

n mn

9
1 + k
M

2 3 2
nm m m n + +

nm nm m m n + +
2 3 2

10
1 + k
N

m n
2

nm m n
2

11
1 1 + + k k
M H

nmp

mp nmp


Totals
nmp nm m n nm p n m
p p mp p m m mp
+ + + + + +
+ + + + +
2 2 2 3
2 3 2 2 2
2 2 4
2 2 2 3

nmp nm m n n p np p n
m p mp p m m m mp
+ + + + +
+ + + +
2 2 2 2
3 3 2 2 2
2 2 2
4 2 2



Table 3:the Operational Savings and the Percentage of the Operational Savings of the OPSKE
Compared to the AUSKE and the OTSKE
The state vector
dimensions
OPSKE
AUSKE
OS

OPSKE
AUSKE
POS
(%)
OPSKE
OTSKE
OS

OPSKE
OTSKE
POS
(%)
2 4 4 = = = p , m , n

1340 35.7 592 15.7
2 2 4 = = = p , m , n

578 33.7 102 5.9
1 2 4 = = = p , m , n

553 37.5 155 10.5
1 1 4 = = = p , m , n

242 27.5 23 2.6
3 3 4 = = = p , m , n

978 32.7 247 8.2
2 2 10 = = = p , m , n

2954 25.1 132 1.12
Average
~
1107 32.0
~
208 7.3
3. Simulation Results:
To evaluate the proposed algorithm, an example of
maneuvering target tracking problem which turns, in
two-dimensional space is simulated such as
permeating a hacker into a very important network or
databases. In this simulation example, the
performance of the OPSKE for the maneuvering
target tracking has been compared with the
traditional works that done in this concept, as an
example of the AUSKE method. As mentioned before
in the augmented state method the state vector
includes the input vector i.e., acceleration and jerk
parameter in maneuvering target tracking problem.
The sampling interval is T=0.01 (sec) and target
maneuver is applied at 9th second (900th sample).
The initial conditions are selected similar for the
AUSKE as well as the OPSKE. The state vectors are
| |'
y
k k
x
k k k
v y v x X =
,
| |'
y
k
y
k
x
k
x
k k
j u j u U =
,
| |'
y
k
y
k
x
k
x
k
y
k k
x
k k
Aug
k
j u j u v y v x X =

Where
k
x
,
x
k
v
,
x
k
u
and
x
k
j
denote the position, velocity,
acceleration and jerk of the target along the
x
axis,
respectively. We consider the target initial conditions
for the state and the acceleration vectors as below:
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| |' s / m m s / m m X 25 1250 80 2165
0
=
,
| |' sec / g g sec / g g U 0 0 0 0
0
=

| |' sec / 0 0 sec / 0 0 / 25 1250 / 80 2165
0
g g g g s m m s m m X
Aug
=
The target begins to maneuver as
| |' sec / 4 . 0 0 sec / 7 . 0 0
900
g g g g U =
for
sec) ( 90 (sec) 9 s st
.
The system matrices are given by
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 1
T
T
A
k
,
(
(
(
(
(

=
2 / 0 0
6 / 2 / 0 0
0 0 2 /
0 0 6 / 2 /
2
3 2
2
3 2
T T
T T
T T
T T
B
k
,
(
(
(
(

=
1 0 0 0
1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 1
T
T
C
k
,
'
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 1

(
(
(
(

=
k
H

(
(
(
(
(

=
T T
T T
T T
T T
Q
j
u
k
2 / 0 0
2 / 3 / 0 0
0 0 2 /
0 0 2 / 3 /
2
2
2 3
2
2 3
oo
,
(
(
(
(
(

=
20 / 72 / 0 0
72 / 252 / 0 0
0 0 20 / 72 /
0 0 72 / 252 /
2
5 6
6 7
5 6
6 7
T T
T T
T T
T T
Q
j
x
k
oo

(
(
(
(
(

=
6 / 8 / 0 0
24 / 30 / 0 0
0 0 6 / 8 /
0 0 24 / 30 /
2
3 4
4 5
3 4
4 5
T T
T T
T T
T T
Q
j
xu
k
oo
,
4 4 0
10

= I P
x
,
4 4
1 . 0

= I P
u
o
,
4 4 0
= I P
xu
,
'
4 2
0
(

k Aug
k
H
H

(

=
k
k k Aug
k
C
B A
A
4 4
0
,
(

=
u
k
xu
k
xu
k
x
k
k
Q Q
Q Q
Q
'
) (
,
(

=
u
k
xu
k
xu
k
x
k
k
P P
P P
P
'
) (
.
Where
) ( 09 . 0
3
= ms
j
o
the variance of the target is jerk
and
) (s 0123 . 0
-1
= o
is the reciprocal of the jerk time
constant
o t / 1 =
. The measurement standard
deviations of
x
and
y
target positions are:
) ( 10 10 m
x
= o
,
) ( 20 m
y
= o
. Thus, the measurement
covariance matrix is
(

=
400 0
0 1000
k
R
for both methods.
The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) index is used
for the results evaluation.
Fig. 1 shows the actual value and the estimation of
x

and
y
and RMS errors of
x
and
y
positions
estimations by the proposed OPSKE and the AUSKE.
Fig. 2 shows the actual value and the estimations of
y x
v v ,
and the RMS errors of the
x
and
y
velocities
estimations by the proposed method compared with
the augmented method. The actual value and the
accelerations estimations in the
x
and
y
directions
and their corresponding averaged RMS errors can be
seen in Fig. 3.Fig. 4 displays the actual value and the
estimated jerk parameters are evaluated by the
OPSKE and the AUSKE methodologies.

10 15 20 25
-3
-2
-1
0
x 10
4
Time (sec)
x

(
m
)


Atcual position
OPSKE method estimation
AUSKE method estimation
10 15 20 25
0
100
200
300
400
500
Time (sec)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

R
M
S
E

o
f

x

(
m
)


OPSKE
AUSKE
10 15 20 25
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
x 10
4
Time (sec)
y

(
m
)


Atcual position
OPSKE method estimation
AUSKE method estimation
10 15 20 25
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Time (sec)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

R
M
S
E

o
f

y

(
m
)


OPSKE
AUSKE

Fig. 1. The actual value and the estimation of the x, y positions and RMS errors estimations by the OPSKE and
the AUSKE methods.
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10 15 20 25
-5000
-4000
-3000
-2000
-1000
0
Time (sec)
v
x
(
m
/
s
e
c
)


Atcual velocity
OPSKE method estimation
AUSKE method estimation
10 15 20 25
0
100
200
300
Time (sec)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

R
M
S
E

o
f

v
x

(
m
/
s
e
c
)


OPSKE
AUSKE
10 15 20 25
0
1000
2000
3000
Time (sec)
v
y

(
m
/
s
e
c
)


Atcual velocity
OPSKE method estimation
AUSKE method estimation
10 15 20 25
0
50
100
150
200
250
Time (sec)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

R
M
S
E

o
f

v
y

(
m
/
s
e
c
)


OPSKE
AUSKE

Fig. 2. The actual value and the estimation of
y x
v , v
and RMS errors of x and y velocities estimations by the
OPSKE and the AUSKE methods.
10 15 20 25
-15
-10
-5
0
Time (sec)
u
x

(
m
/
s
e
c
2
)


Atcual acceleration
OPSKE method estimation
AUSKE method estimation
10 15 20 25
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Time (sec)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

R
M
S
E

o
f

u
x

(
m
/
s
e
c
2
)


OPSKE
AUSKE
10 15 20 25
0
2
4
6
Time (sec)
u
y

(
m
/
s
e
c
2
)


Atcual acceleration
OPSKE method estimation
AUSKE method estimation
10 15 20 25
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
Time (sec)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

R
M
S
E

o
f

u
y

(
m
/
s
e
c
2
)


OPSKE
AUSKE

Fig. 3. The actual value and the estimation of acceleration in x and y directions and corresponding RMS errors
by the proposed method compared with the augmented methods.
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10 15 20 25
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
time (sec)
j

x

(
m
/
s
e
c
3
)


Atcual jerk
OPSKE method estimation
AUSKE method estimation
10 15 20 25
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
time (sec)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

R
M
S
E

o
f

j
x

(
m
/
s
e
c
3
)


OPSKE
AUSKE
10 15 20 25
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
time (sec)
j

y

(
m
/
s
e
c
3
)


Atcual jerk
OPSKE method estimation
AUSKE method estimation
10 15 20 25
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
time (sec)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e
d

R
M
S
E

o
f

j
y

(
m
/
s
e
c
3
)


OPSKE
AUSKE

Fig. 4. The actual value and the estimation of jerk parameters and RMS errors by the OPSKE method compared
with the AUSKE method.

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It is clear that the performance of the proposed
OPSKE is as well as the results obtained by the
AUSKE in the maneuvering target tracking problem.
Note that in this example
4 = n
,
4 = m
and
2 = p
, and
the operation savings for the OPSKE over the AUSKE
and the OTSKE as shown in Table 3 are 1340 (or
35.7%) and 592 (or 15.7%), respectively.

IV. CONCLUSION
In this article, we introduce Cloud Computing and
perusal about influences of it on the processes of these
days. Although creating a Cloud Computing
architecture that is scalable and is usable for sharing
all kind of resources, has so many problem and
complexions, but it can be usable for optimization and
removing all IT requirements. These days lots of
technologies migrate from traditional systems into
cloud, and cloud computing has developed and used in
so many countries. These countries are using cloud
computing in many of industries with different
applications and also the range of using cloud
computing is increasing in different countries and with
different applications.
Although, there is some worry about security in cloud
computing, but the number of persons that save their
personal information in servers of third company for
example Google, is increasing. We presented some
solutions for improving its security. With regard to lots
of cloud computing advantages, specially, costs
reduction of implementation in large scale, investing
capital is increasing in this filed. Cloud Computing is
advancing with fast rate and also it will be complete
with little deficiencies rather than other technologies.
It is predict that Cloud computing is the basic platform
for IT in next 20 year [16].

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Mohammad Abedi: MSc student in
Iran University of Science and
Technology (IUST); Tehran, Iran.
Mehdi Darbandi: MSc student in
Iran University of Science and
Technology (IUST); Tehran, Iran.
Mohsen Kariman Khorasani:
Department of Communication
Engineering, Islamic Azad University,
Gonabad Branch, Gonabad, Iran.



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