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# 1

## Hidayat Jamal & Zulhilmi

ismail
Hydraulics & Hydrology
Department, FKA, UTM
2
Non-Uniform flow
Non-uniform flow, S
o
= S
w
= S
i
Uniform flow, S
o
= S
w
= S
i
y
1
= y
2
Water depth must be specified at selected section
2g
V
2
1
1
o
2g
V
2
2
2
o
o
S
2
y
1
y
w
S
i
S
1
z
1
H
1
E
Section 1 Section 2
Energy in Open Channel
g
v
y z
2
2
o + + = Total Energy, H (m)
g
v
y z H
2
2
1
1 1 1
+ + =
z = potential energy or potential head
y = hydrostatic energy or hydrostatic head
= kinetic energy or kinetic head
= Coriolis coefficient (value between 1.0 to 1.36)
Normally use = 1.0
g
v
2
2
o
o
o
Energy at section 1 is thus
Specific Energy
The sum of the depth of flow and the velocity head is the
specific energy:
As know, v = Q/A
g
v
y E
2
2
+ =
y - hydrostatic energy
g
v
2
2
- kinetic energy
2
2
2gA
Q
y E + =

Curve for
different, higher
Q.
(A = By) and Q = qB
2
2
2gy
q
y E + =
A
B
y
q is the discharge per unit width of channel
SPECIAL CASE: Rectangular channel,
2 2
2 2
2 y gB
q B
y E + =

## In understanding Non-uniform flow phenomena

(1) A plot of flow depth (y) vs. specific Energy (E)
- Constant discharge (Q or q)
- Call Specific Energy Diagram
(2) A plot of flow depth (y) vs. discharge (Q or q)
- Constant specific energy
- Call Discharge Diagram
Why Specific Energy
Equation is important???
8
y
sub
and y
super
are alternate depths (same specific energy)
Relationship y-E
(constant Q or q)
y
c
= critical depth
Subcritical flow, y
sub
Supercritical flow, y
super
c
y y >
c
y y <
Specific Energy Diagram
9
Relationship y-q
(constant E )
For rectangular channel only
y
c
= critical depth
y
sub
& y
super
= alternate depth
Discharge Diagram
10
State of Flow Characteristics
Critical Flow, y
c
Fr = 1 or y = y
c
Subcritical (y
1
or y
sub
) Fr < 1 or y
1
> y
c
Supercritical (y
2
or y
super
) Fr > 1 or y
2
< y
c
So Remember!!
Critical Depth
Critical Flow
Characteristics
Unstable surface
Series of standing waves
Occurrence
Broad crested weir (and other weirs)
Channel Constriction (rapid changes in cross-section)
Over falls
Changes in channel slope from mild to steep
Used for flow measurements
________________________________________________
Unique relationship between depth and discharge
Difficult to measure depth
Critical Flow
Find critical depth, y
c
;
2
2
2gA
Q
y E + =
0 =
dy
dE
Froude number, Fr = 1
Specific energy is minimum for a given discharge
0
1
2
3
4
0 1 2 3 4
E
y
dy
dA
gA
Q
dy
dE
3
2
1 =
dy
dA
gA
v
2
1 =
P
A
Critical Flow
T
dy
y
T = surface width
dy T dA . =
Arbitrary cross-section
dA
The differential water area near the surface
(see Figure)
T
A
D =
gA
T v
dy
dE
2
1 =
and
gD
v
dy
dE
2
1 =
Critical Flow
0 =
dy
dE
At critical state of flow,
1
2
=
gD
v
2 2
2
D
g
v
=
Well known as , means at critical flow Fr = 1
1 =
gD
v
Critical Flow
A
Q
v =
By substituting and
T
A
A
Q
g 2
1
2
1
2
2
=
T
A
D =
Therefore, general equation for critical flow:
1
3
2
=
c
c
gA
T Q
(any cross-section channel)
Critical Flow:
Rectangular channel
y
c
T
c
A
c
3
2
1
c
c
gA
T Q
=
c c
By A =
1
3
2
=
c
gBy
B Q
3 / 1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
q
y
c
for rectangular
channel
c
T T =
From general equation,
;
Then,
;
So, or
B
B
Q
q =
3
2
g
q
y
c
=
Critical Flow Relationships:
Rectangular Channels
3 2
c
gy q =
When E = E
min
, critical depth, y = y
c
differentiating
When E = E
min
,
or
2
2
2gy
q
y E + =
3
2
1
gy
q
dy
dE
=
c
y y
dy
dE
= = , 0
3
2
g
q
y
c
= Specific Energy Diagram
Critical Flow Relationships:
Rectangular Channels
3 2
c
gy q =
Sub. Into the energy eqn. at the point of critical flow:
; ;
2
2
min
2
c
c
gy
q
y E + =
c
y E 5 . 1
min
=
c
y y =
min
E E =
2
3
min
2
c
c
c
gy
gy
y E + =
c c
y y E 5 . 0
min
+ =
c
y E
2
3
min
=
or
Critical Flow Relationships:
Rectangular Channels
Discharge diagram y vs. q for constant E
For constant E, q maximum at critical flow
i.e
at q = q
max
2
2
2gy
q
y E + =
) ( 2
2 2
y E gy q =
Discharge Diagram
) ( 2
2
y E gy q =
0 =
dy
dq
c
y E 5 . 1 =
3
max c
gy q = and
21
Summary of Critical Flow in Open Channels
(1) General equation during critical condition
- ALL channel cross-section shapes;
- For rectangular channel;
1
3
2
=
c
c
gA
T Q
;
3
2
g
q
y
c
= ;
3
2
min
E y
c
=
3
2
max
g
q
y
c
=
22
Summary
cont
(2) Specific Energy during critical condition
(constant Q or q)
- ALL channel cross-section shapes;
- For RECTANGULAR channel;
3
2
g
q
y
c
=
c
y E E 5 . 1
min
= =
2
2 2
min
2 2
c
c
c
c
gA
Q
y
g
v
y E + = + =
where
23
Summary
cont
(3) Flow rate per unit width, q (constant E) is
maximum during critical flow condition
- For RECTANGULAR channel only;
E y
c
3
2
=
where
and
3
max c
gy q =
24
Summary
cont
(4) Froude Number is 1 during critical flow
2 2
2
D
g
v
=
gD
v
Fr =
Analysis of Flow across a
Weir in a Rectangular Channel
What is a Weir?
Structure placed across the channel to obstruct the
uniform flow and still allows water to flow over it
Propose mainly to control flow in the open channel
By ensuring a control section is formed over the weir for
all ranges of discharges in the channel.
Effectiveness of weir depends on the channel discharge
(Q or q) range and it height.
Analysis of Flow across a
Weir in a Rectangular Channel
This section will look into the analysis of weir in
RECTANGULAR channel
The weir will raise the bed level by its height (Z)
Specific energy defined as the energy measured from the
channel bed
Over the weir structure, the specific energy (E) is
reduced by the amount Z without any change to the flow
rate (q constant)
Analysis of Flow across a
Weir in a Rectangular Channel
Effect of a weir on the water level as explained using the
specific energy diagram
Analysis of Flow across a
Weir in a Rectangular Channel
For analysis purpose, consider:
- Rectangular channel of constant width (B m)
- Carrying a constant discharge (Q m
3
/s) giving q = Q/B
- Flowing at a normal depth (y
o
m)
- Weir height (Z m) is placed across the channel
- Four representative channel cross-sections are defined
as marked as:
0 --- very far upstream of the weir
1 --- just behind (upstream) of the weir
2 --- above the weir
3 --- just after (downstream) of the weir
WITHOUT WEIR
29
Uniform flow condition- WITHOUT WEIR and channel is
prismatic
30
WEIR CASE 1
31
WEIR CASE 2
32
WEIR CASE 3
33
Summary of Energy and Flow Depth Weir Case
Approaching flow is subcritical and uniform
Given Q, B and normal flow depth, y
o
(1) Energy of approaching flow
or (rectangular channel ONLY)
g
v
y
gA
Q
y E
o o o
2 2
2
2
2
+ = + =
2
2
2gy
q
y E
o o
+ =
34
Summary
cont
(2) Critical weir height, Z
c
- (a) Critical flow depth: y
c
using Chart or graphical
or for rectangular channel
- (b) Minimum specific energy: any cross-section
or for rectangular channel
- (c) Critical weir height:
g
v
y E
c
c
2
2
min
+ =
1
3
2
=
c
c
gA
T Q
;
3
2
g
q
y
c
=
min
E E Z
o c
= A
c
y E 5 . 1
min
=
35
Summary
cont
(3) Compared actual weir height, Z to critical weir height, Z
c
- (a) CASE 1: (Weir is drowned)
[calculate y
2
from E
2
=E
o
- Z (y
2
is still subcritical)]
- (b) CASE 2: (Weir is controlling)
[calculate y
3
from E
3
=E
o
(y
3
is still supercritical & alternate
depth of y
1
)]
- (c) CASE 3: (Weir is controlling
but backwater effect is formed)
c
o
o
o
y y
E Z E E
E E E
y y
=
= A =
= =
=
2
min 2
3 1
1
Z E E
E E E
y y y
o
o
o
A =
= =
= =
2
3 1
3 1
c
y y
E E
Z E E E
=
=
A + = =
2
min 2
min 3 1
[calculate y
1
& y
3
from E
1
=E
3
=E
min
+ Z (y
1
& y
3
is alternate depth]
c
Z Z A < A
c
Z Z A = A
c
Z Z A > A
Analysis of Flow across a
Channel Constriction in a
Rectangular Channel
What is a Channel Constriction?
Structure reduced width placed across the channel to
control the flow and still allows water to flow over it but at
an increased velocity and q.
Effectiveness of CC depends on the channel discharge
(Q or q) range and the width of the channel constriction
(B
f
).
Normally does not raise the bed level.
The discharge diagram (y vs. q with E constant) is relevant
37
Summary of Energy and Flow Depth Channel Constriction
Approaching flow is subcritical and uniform
Given Q, B and normal flow depth, y
o
Width at channel constriction = B
f
where B
f
< B
Critical depth at channel = y
c
Critical depth at channel constriction = y
cf
Analysis of Flow across a Channel
Constriction in Rectangular Channel
For analysis purpose, consider:
- Rectangular channel of constant width (B m)
- Carrying a constant discharge (Q m
3
/s) giving q = Q/B
m
3
/s.m
- Flowing at a normal depth (y
o
m) & subcritical
- Channel constriction width (B
f
m) is placed
- B
f
< B and therefore q
f
> q
- Four representative channel cross-sections is defined as
marked as:
0 --- very far upstream of the channel constriction
1 --- just behind (upstream) of the channel constriction
2 --- above the channel constriction
3 --- just after (downstream) of the channel constriction
Analysis of Flow across a
Channel Constriction in a
Rectangular Channel
Effect of a channel constriction on the water level as
explained using the discharge diagram
40
WITHOUT CHANNEL
CONSTRICTION
Uniform flow condition- WITHOUT CHANNEL
CONSTRICTION and channel is prismatic
41
CHANNEL CONSTRICTION
CASE 1
42
CHANNEL CONSTRICTION
CASE 2
43
CHANNEL CONSTRICTION
CASE 3
44
(1) Energy of approaching flow
or (rectangular channel ONLY)
g
v
y
gA
Q
y E
o o o
2 2
2
2
2
+ = + =
2
2
2gy
q
y E
o o
+ =
Summary
cont
45
Summary
cont
(2) Critical channel width, B
c
- (a) Minimum specific energy = E
min
= E
o
hence
- (b) Maximum flow rate at this energy,
- (c) Critical channel width,
cf
y E 5 . 1
min
=
max
q
Q
B
c
=
min
3
2
E y
cf
=
3
max cf
gy q =
46
Summary
cont
(3) Compared B
f
to critical channel width, B
c
- (a) CASE 1: (CC is not controlling)
[calculate y
f
from E
f
=E
o
and q=q
f
(y
f
is still subcritical)]
- (b) CASE 2: (CC is controlling)
[calculate y
3
from E
3
=E
o
and discharge=q (y
3
is still
supercritical & alternate depth of y
1
)]
- (c) CASE 3: (CC is controlling but
backwater effect is formed) calculate E
cf
f
o f
o
y y
E E
E E E E
y y
=
=
= = =
=
2
min
3 1
1
o f
o
E E E E
y y y
= = =
= =
3 1
3 1
min
E E
f
=
[calculate y
1
& y
3
from E
1
=E
3
=E and q (y
1
& y
3
is alternate depth]
c f
B B >
c f
B B <
c f
B B =
min
min
5 . 1
E E
y E
cf
=
'

=
A rectangular channel of width 3.5m wide and conveys water with
discharge of 17.5m
3
/s at a depth of 2.0m. A hydraulic structure is
constructed at the downstream of the channel and the channel width is
reduced to 2.5m. Assume the constriction to be horizontal and the flow to
be frictionless. Determine;
(i)state of flow,
(ii) water depths just before, just after and at the constriction,
(iii) sketch the flow profile along the channel. Show the important values
in your sketch.
47
Homework
Critical Section in Open
Channels
Critical section channel cross-section have
critical condition
If this condition exists throughout the channel
flow in channel is called critical flow.
If channel flow is uniformAND critical, y = y
o
= y
c
A channel critical flow has a bed slope (S
o
)
called critical bed slope (S
c
)
i.e S
o
= S
c
Cont
If S
o
<S
c
subcritical flow, y>y
c
, v<v
c
If S
o
=S
c
subcritical flow, y=y
c
, v=v
c
If S
o
>S
c
subcritical flow, y<y
c
, v>v
c
Flow Control
Defined as a channel cross-section where the
flow depth can be determined conclusively
At control section, the stage-discharge
relationship is established and easily determined
At critical section for example, by using critical
flow relationships, q can be calculated easily from
the depth
Examples of Control
Sections