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Komunikasi Data (TEU 611) Transmission Media

Dr. I Wayan Mustika, ST., M.Eng. Jurusan Teknik Elektro dan Teknologi Informasi FT UGM

Outline
Guided Media
Twisted-pair cable Coaxial cable Fiber-optic cable

Unguided Media: Wireless


Radio waves Microwaves Infrared

Transmission Medium and Physical Layer


qDefinition Anything that can carry information from source to destination

Classes of Transmission Media

Twisted-Pair Cable
Consists of two conductors (normally cooper), each with its own plastic insulation

UTP vs STP

Categories of UTP Cables


Category 1 2 3 4 5 5E 6 7 Bandwidth very low < 2 MHz 16 MHz 20 MHz 100 MHz 125 MHz 200 MHz 600 MHz Data Rate < 100 kbps 2 Mbps 10 Mbps 20 Mbps 100 Mbps 125 Mbps 200 Mbps 600 Mbps Digital/Analog Analog Analog/digital Digital Digital Digital Digital Digital Digital Use Telephone T-1 lines LANs LANs LANs LANs LANs LANs

UTP Connector

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category_6_cable

UTP Performance

Coaxial Cable
Can carries signals of higher frequency ranges than those in twisted-pair cable

Categories of Coaxial Cables

Category RG-59 RG-58 RG-11

Impedance 75
50
50

Use Cable TV Thin Ethernet Thick Ethernet

Coaxial Cable Connectors


BNC connectors

Performance of Coaxial Cable

Fiber-Optic Cable
Bending of light ray

Optical Fiber

Propagation Modes

Modes

Fibre Types
Type 50/125 62.5/125 100/125 7/125 Core (m) 50 62.5 100 7 Cladding (m) 125 125 125 125 Mode Multimode, graded-index Multimode, graded-index Multimode, graded-index Single-mode

Fibre Construction

Fibre-Optic Cable Connectors

Advantages and Disadvantages


Advantages
Higher bandwidth (data rates) Less signal attenuation Immunity to electromagnetic interference Resistance to corrosive materials Light Weight Greater immunity to tapping

Disadvantages
Installation and maintenance Unidirectional light propagation Cost

Unguided Media: Wireless


Electromagnetic spectrum for wireless communication

Propagation Methods

Band VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF

Range 330 KHz 30300 KHz 300 KHz3 MHz 330 MHz 30300 MHz 300 MHz3 GHz 330 GHz 30300 GHz

Propagation Ground Ground Sky Sky Sky and line-of-sight Line-of-sight Line-of-sight Line-of-sight

Application Long-range radio navigation Radio beacons and navigational locators AM radio Citizens band (CB), ship/aircraft communication VHF TV, FM radio UHF TV, cellular phones, paging, satellite Satellite communication Long-range radio navigation

Wireless Transmission Waves

Radio waves: 3 kHz 1 GHz Microwaves: 1 300 GHz Infrared: 300 GHz 400 THz

Radio Waves
Radio waves use omnidirectional antennas that send out signals in all directions

Microwaves
Microwaves need unidirectional antennas that send out signals in one direction Microwaves are used for unicast communication such as cellular telephones, satellite networks, and wireless LANs

Infrared
Infrared cannot penetrate walls Infrared signals can be used for short-range communication in a closed area using line-ofsight propagation

Assignment 2
1. Using Figure of performance of coaxial cable, tabulate the attenuation (in dB) of a 2.6/9.5 mm coaxial cable for the indicated frequencies and distances. Distance: 1 Km, 10 Km, 15 Km, and 20 Km. Right column: dB at 1 kHz, 10 kHz, and 100 kHz. If the power at the beginning of a 1 Km 2.6/9.5 mm coaxial cable is 200 mw, what is the power at the end for frequencies 1 KHz, 10KHz, and 100 KHz? 1. A light signal is travelling through a fiber. What is the delay in the signal if the length of the fiber-optic cable is 10 m, 100 m, and 1 Km (assume a propagation speed of 2 x 108 m)?