This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Techno-economic Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Conversion: Anaerobic Digestion for Solid Waste Management in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC)
By Anirudh Prasad Sah (064 MSREE 502)
A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN RENEWAL ENERGY ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LALITPUR, NEPAL MARCH, 2010
The author has agreed that the library, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering may make this thesis freely available for readers. Moreover, the author has agreed that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purpose may be granted by the professor(s) who supervised the project work recorded herein or, in their absence, by the Head of the Department wherein the thesis was done. It is understood that due recognition will be given to the author of this thesis and to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering in any use of the material of this thesis. Copying or publication or other uses of this thesis for financial gain without approval of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering and author’s written permission is prohibited.
Request for permission to copy or to make any other use of the material in this report in whole or in part should be addressed to:
The Head Department of Mechanical Engineering Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering Lalitpur, Kathmandu Nepal
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING PULCHOWK CAMPUS DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING The undersigned certify that they have read, and recommended to the Institute of Engineering for acceptance, a thesis report entitled " Techno-economic Assessment of Waste-to-Energy Conversion: Anaerobic Digestion for Solid Waste Management in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) " submitted by Anirudh Prasad Sah in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Renewable Energy Engineering. _____________________________________________ Supervisor, Dr. Tri Ratna Bajracharya Associate Professor Institute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus __________________________________________ ___ Supervisor, Mr. Ram Chandra Sapkota Associate Professor Institute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus __________________________________________ ___ External Examiner, Mr. Surendra Bhakta Mathema Executive Director PowerTech Pvt. Ltd. Lalitpur
_____________________________________________ Committee Chairperson, Dr. Rajendra Shrestha Head of Department Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pulchowk Campus _________________ Date 3
Moreover. this thesis has envisaged performing a techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion technologies. This thesis thus studied two AD based technologies: Valorga and Kompogas. the mass and energy balance for the KMC plant were estimated and hence analyzed technically and economically. the high moisture content (62%-82%) and very low calorific values make thermal conversion infeasible and Anaerobic Digestion feasible technically. Hence. the KMC plant would not be economically feasible without the levy from KMC and this plant based on Kompogas technology was found to be more economical in comparison to Valorga technology each having 20 years of project life when internal rate of return and net present value for each technology was analysed under different scenarios. 4 . Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) generates 112. the utilization of MSW as electricity generation source provides the better waste management solution than the traditional.566 ton per year comprising 70% of the organic components (80. Based on these technologies.41GWh per year energy thermally. and environmental concerns. However. The lab experiments shows that organic fraction of wastes has 65. energy. have ignited new interest in municipal solid waste (MSW) as an energy source with the potential to provide renewable energy while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the need for landfill space.500 kWh per year energy content with the lower calorific value of 3MJ/kg at 69% moisture content and has a potential of extracting 16.663.ABSTRACT Growing climate. The results shows that though both the technologies are feasible technically.000 tons/year). coupled with technological developments and regulatory changes.
Energy for Development-Nepal (EDEN) for supporting financially. Pulchowk campus and am very much thankful to Dr.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to my thesis supervisors Asso. and efforts are very much embedded into this thesis. I would like to express my deep gratitude to Department of Mechanical Engineering. PowerTech Pvt. Dr. whose remarkable suggestions helped me to carry out the economical analysis based on real scenario. Ganesh Shrestha and the staffs Mr. whose ideas. Ltd for providing encourageable support. Rajendra Shrestha. Mr. 5 . for his suggestions and all the faculty members for their concerns and encouragements. Ram Hari Puri. Mr. At last but not least I would also acknowledge to Deputy Administrative Head. Ram Chandra Sapkota. Nirajan Thapaliya. Director of Center for Energy Studies and Asso. Mr. for his support and encouragement. Mr. Teku Transter Station for assisting to collect samples needed. Alok Dhungana. Prof. Anil Kumar Gupta. I would also acknowledge to Center for Energy Studies (CES) for providing all the facilities needed. Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering. documents and assistance whenever needed. Amrit Man Nakarmi. whose suggestions during the thesis helped me to analyse the technologies and Prof. Dr. Mr. Mr. advice and their bright thoughts helped me to shape up my ideas. Mr. my colleagues Mr. BE students Amir Tiwari. Mr. MSREE Co-ordinator. Manish Shrestha. Mukesh Ghimire. Prof. Babu Raja Maharjan for providing different journals. Anil Prajapati. Tri Ratna Bajracharya. Deputy Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering. Their encouragement. Similarly I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Ashok Poudel for assisting while carrying out experiments to for this thesis and Senior Divisional Engineer Hare Ram Acharya for his suggestions and co-operations. Shubhrajeet Bhattacharya. Saroj Maharjan and my family for their cooperation in making this complete. Nawraj Bhattarai. Bhakta Bahadur Ale. knowledge.
........................................................................55 Chapter seven..........................................................................................................................71 APPENDIX b: .....................................................................................................................65 Conclusion and Recommendations.........................................30 Chapter Four ....................................30 Results and discussions.............................................................................3 Abstract..........................................................27 Research methodology.........................................27 Chapter Three............................................................................................................................................................................................................7 List of Figures..............................................7 Chapter One........................................................49 Technological Assessment for KMC plant...........................................49 Chapter six...77 eCONOMIC aNALYIS sHEETS.....................................................................................................................................................................................................5 List of Tables.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................67 APPENDIX A: ............................................................10 Chaptere Two.......61 Chapter Eight..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS COPYRIGHT...................................................................55 Economical Analysis of KMC plant..............................................................................................................65 References....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................36 Chapter five.............................77 6 .........4 Acknowledgement...............36 Case Studies of AD Based Technology...................................................................................................................................................................................2 TRIBHUVAN UNIVERSITY...........................................................................................................................................................................................................10 Introduction.........................................................................................61 Risk Analysis............................................................................................
..............................3: Moisture Content and Calorific Value of the Waste Samples..........................15: The parameters considered and assumptions defined for performing risk analysis using Crystal Ball...........................................................................................61 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1................59 Table 6......34 Table 3........2: Overall Waste Compositions and the total amount of generated composition wise in KMC in 2004.............. ..................................................................................................................... products and quality standards involved in an anaerobic digestion plant for organics solids..........1 Total amount of Waste Generated in Kathmandu Metropolitan City .............4: Moisture Content and the Raw Calorific Value of MSW components.....7: Fertilizer cost survey in a village of Sarlahi District in 2010...........9: Possible unit processes....................................................................................................10: Characteristics of acceptable feedstock (mix).........38 Figure 4...48 Table 6.............60 Table 7.............................6: Budget allocated for Environment management of KMC during different fiscal years............LIST OF TABLES Table 3........................................32 Table 3.35 Table 3......3: The Flow diagram of Valorga Process.13: Summary of Net Present Worth and Internal Rate of Return under different scenarios for KMC plant based on Kompogas Technology..33 Table 3..................................................11: Mass Balance Estimate by Kompogas..............................................5: Electricity generation from and thermal plant capacity needed for waste of KMC........................... ...........................................................36 Table 3.........33 Table 3.............................................................................................................................40 7 .....................14: Summary of Net Present Worth and Internal Rate of Return under different scenarios for KMC plant based on Kompogas Technology.....36 Table 4............8: Fertilizer cost survey in Hetuada in 2010.2: Examples of unit processes commonly used in conjunction with anaerobic digesters of solid wastes..............................................................................1: A scheme of anaerobic digestion pathways...............38 Table 4..........................31 Table 3...........17 Figure 4............45 Table 4...........48 Table 4....................................12: Energy balance estimated by Kompogas..
..............................................................................................................52 Figure 5....................6: An estimated production and consumption of energy based on the Valorga Technology...............11: Frequency distribution chart under real scenario for Kompogas based KMC Plant................................................................................................................................53 Figure 5...............................................................7: An estimated mass balance for KMC plant based on the Kompogas Technology...............................................................................................Figure 4..............................................4: Kompogas Flow Sheet.....64 LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AD ASTM BAT BT CDRI CADDET CES CHP Anaerobic Digestion American Standard for Test and Measurement Best Available Technology Biomethanation Technology Central Drug Research Institute Center for Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies Center for Energy Studies Combined Heat pOWER 8 ....................................................62 Figure 7.......10: Frequency distribution chart when KMC provides levy to the Valorga based KMC plant......5: An estimated mass balance for the KMC Plant based on the Valorga Technology...........12: Frequency distribution chart when KMC provides levy to the Kompogas based KMC plant.....................................................................45 Figure 5..64 Figure 7..................................................................9: Frequency distribution chart under real scenario for Valorga based KMC Plant...51 Figure 5....................................................................................................63 Figure 7..............................................................54 Figure 7................................8: An estimated energy balance based on the Kompogas Technology.........................................
CKV CV CVgross CVraw EIA ENVICO EPA g g/t VGF GTZ HHV HRT IOE IUCN kWh/t KMC KV kW kWh/d kWh/y LFS MBI MC MJ/kg MSW Clean Kathmandu Valley Calorific Value Gross Calorific Value (Higher Heating Value) Raw Calorific Value (Lower Heating Value) Environment Impact Assessment Environmental and Resources Corporation Environmental Protection Agency gram gram per ton Garden and Fruit w\Waste German Technical Cooperation Agency Higher Heating Value Hydraulic Retention Time Institute of Engineering International Union for Conversion of Nature kilowatt-hours per ton Kathmandu Metropolitan City Kathmandu Valley kilowatt kilowatt-hours per day kilowatt-hours per year Landfill Site Mass Burn Incinerator Moisture Content Mega Joule per kilogram Municipal Solid Waste 9 .
literature review. and hypothesis and research objectives for this thesis.1. Environment Protection Agency Unit Generation Rate United Nations Environment Program Volatile Fatty Acids Weight Basis Waste-to-energy CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION This chapter deals with the background. need for this thesis and its scope and issues left that have to be addressed or find studied.S. EPA UGR UNEP VFA WB WTE Mega Watt MegaWatt-hour Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilization Committee Short Term.Landfill Site Total Solid United States. which necessarily demand additional energy inputs at every stage of improvement. The Nepalese economy mostly relies on expensive imports of 10 . energy and ecology are interrelated and must go hand in hand to ensure a sustainable prosperity of human beings. Technological innovations are continuously improving the quality of human life. 1.1 The origin of ideas Economy.1 Background This sub chapter mainly deals with the origin of ideas. 1. problem statement.MW MWh SWMRMC ST/ LFS TS U. This ever-increasing energy demand is mostly met through consumption of non-renewable commercial fuels resulting in irreversible adverse impacts on the environment coupled with depletion of natural reserves of commercial fuels.
At the same time the situation of solid waste management of Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC). Hence to turn the solid waste of KMC into liability. Regarding final disposal in 11 . the concept of landfill site (LFS) started from 1976. People in the Kathmandu Valley had their own method to get rid of their household waste. This study hence has envisaged making a techno-economic assessment of commercial AD technologies available. Ltd and Yachiyo Engineering Co. SWM (Solid Waste Management) has been increasingly recognized as one of the major environmental issues in the Valley as a result of the increasing amount of waste generated and the change of waste compositions.commercial fuels for industrial and urban needs.1. This necessitates development of innovative technologies for exploitation of renewable energy sources to compensate the energy balance. In line with increasing population in the Valley and changing life style and consumption habits. wind. including a kind of circulation of organic waste between city and rural areas nearby. and forestry biomass for rural communities. 1. it is very important that the waste generated here has the potential of generating positive energy and is economical as well as technically feasible. A number of attempts are being made to harness the renewable sources of energy such as solar. the study area for this thesis. biomass etcs.2 Attempts so far made by others to address the issues Solid waste was not such a big problem in the old days in the Kathmandu Valley. has been pathetic and unmanaged due to different seen and unseen problems and in principle due to understanding of the waste as unproductive and uneconomic resources. Anaerobic Digestion (AD) also called as Biomethanation technology (BT) has been perceived as a potential alternative as it not only provides renewable source of energy but also utilizes recycling potential of degradable organic portion of solid waste generated by a numerous activities sorting out the management problem faced by KMC. According to the report “The study on the solid waste management for the Kathmandu valley” (prepared by Nippon Co. Ltd in September 2005).
KMC and LSMC commenced disposal of part of their waste at Sisdol short-term Landfill (S/T-LF). Because of the low availability of LFSs in the Valley. final disposal could not be other than river side dumping as a temporary solution since there were no options in the form of LFSs. the central government and IUCN jointly conducted preliminary alternative analysis as per the request of KMC. Then the related infrastructure development including access road construction started based on the announcement by the local government for Okharpauwa development. Following Dhobi Khola River dumping which was discontinued due its contributing bird strike problem at Tribhuvan International Airport. including EIA and land acquisition. However. With respect to Waste-to-energy conversion technologies. 2005. SWMRMC after conducting the necessary site preparation for Sisdol S/T-LFS. The LFS was the only official sanitary LFS at that time. Bagmati River dumping by KMC and LSMC began and has been continuing for almost five years so far and also whenever there is restriction and strong oppositions from the locals. 12 . the sites identified by the studies could not be developed due to strong public opposition as well as due to technical reasons in some cases. However. Looking ahead to the necessity of a new LFS before the closure of Gokarna LFS. So. Due to the expected difficulty of LFS development within the Valley. Gokarna located a distance of 13 km from Kathmandu city core area was selected as a landfill site in 1976. the necessity of a new short-term (S/T) LFS was recognized for receiving the waste from KMC and LSMC instead of Bagmati River dumping. no proper study or evidence has been observed till now. After GTZ’s studies. and Okharpauwa (Banchare Danda) as a long-term LFS.the Kathmandu Valley. these are the new concepts in case of KMC as well as Nepal as an option for waste management and energy extraction in the municipalities. Gokarna LFS commenced its service in 1986 and was being supervised by SWMRMC and KMC together. and KMC and LSMC dumped almost all of their waste there. Sisdol in Okharpauwa was identified by the central government as the short-term (S/T) LFS to have an immediate solution against the Bagmati River dumping. After closure of Gokarna LFS in 2000. after the closure of Gokarna LFS in 2000 due to the opposition of the surrounding local people. on June 5. SWMRMC has conducted various studies from early 1990s to develop a new LFS within the Kathmandu Valley.
proximate and ultimate analysis need to be done to know the carbon.1. The environmental impact.1. Two case studies of best available commercial technology based on Anaerobic Digestion Systems.5 The techno-economic assessment would provide an understanding of the viability of AD technology which in turn would provide a waste management option diverting wastes from landfill and at the same time it would save a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions. ash content for approximate energy assessment and to find the theoretical energy that can be obtained and hence the technology that can be used for conversion. moisture content. it is very important that the calorific value of the wastes is determined. hydrogen. Determination of the Calorific Value and moisture content of waste. Rationale in brief 1. Neither detailed assessment and availability of AD technology nor its economics in context of KMC has been studied. Characterization and quantification of solid waste of KMC.3 Issues left As the waste characterization and quantification has been done in general. social impact and regarding the abatement of greenhouse gas emission are few issues that has not also been observed or studied. How much of energy can be exploited from this conversion technologies and whether this technology is feasible technically and economically has still been a question? For estimating the preliminary amount of energy. 1.1. Technical and technological analysis based mainly on the results of laboratory values and mass and energy balance and its feasibility in KMC and • The economical analysis based on the available and current parameters.1. since these recovers energy from waste which usually 13 . the eligible components for AD (Anaerobic Digestion) have not been analyzed till now. Moreover.4 • • • • • Scope of the work Study area within KMC.
which could be a major problem in near future which has been considered trifling problem till now though. Moreover. 18% of the total (according to the Rabin Man Shrestha. insignificant.e. The improved municipal management and environment as a result can accelerate economic growth in view of the expanding role of the urban sector of the economy. Though large chunks of KMC budget i. Chief Environment Management Department Kathmandu Metropolitan City Office.2 Problem statement Rapid urbanization of municipalities has resulted into increased urban wastes and they are also making water polluted. these renewable energy technologies would help to manage the current problem of waste disposal at KMC which in turn improve environment of city and also enhance power supply. the earlier perception of the stakeholders and the public about the waste will be changed to as a valuable source for economic generation and energy. Nepal) are expended on SWM. This study is justified on the following grounds: • The lack of study about the waste as a resource for the electricity and hence economic generation would not motivate stakeholders and investors for its utilization. uneconomic and unproductive waste. 1. If implemented successfully. • Lack of study on technical and economical study will never motivate the stakeholders to adopt new technology.replaces an equivalent amount of energy generated from fossil fuels. 14 . When the country has been suffering from a chronic shortage of electricity load shedding and power outage are common phenomena experienced by the electricity consumers of KMC as well as rest of the country which has been the detriment of economic activities and growth. sustainable management is not achieved yet. Moreover waste management is the most problematic and expensive responsibility of Municipality. the outcomes of the study would encourage the stakeholders to adopt these technologies for MSW management and generation of electricity.
The U. composting. 2002). the term biomass often includes one manmade good that is the byproduct of industrialization: waste. it is important to know whether these technologies are suitable for processing the waste generated in KMC. In that case. However. 1. Kathmandu. intense competition over natural resources has rendered waste as one of the economic resource for electricity generation. At the current situation. plasma gasifier which are seen technically and economically feasible (Yang and Li. 1. and anaerobic digestion all the others are thermal conversion technologies.1 Waste as a Source of Energy In the traditional sense. such as wind. mass burn incinerator. Although it is desirable to minimize the amount of waste during production and distribution of goods.3 Literature review This topic mainly deals with the literature surveyed while conducting this study. fluidized bed incinerator. such as wood. crops. Except landfill. Because it is believed that the global community will continue to produce industrial products. there will be a continuous stream of new waste. renewable sources of energy are those that nature can regrow. After KMC’s problematic landfill use and unsuccessful composting tried at Teku Transfer Station. EPA repeatedly called MSW renewable. or other plants (biomass). anaerobic digestion. it is almost certain that a minimum quantity of waste will be generated. suitability of anaerobic digestion technology. A choice of appropriate technology for generating electric energy from MSW of KMC should have to be based on examination of all available and relevant technologies on the field. that are available through the Earth’s unique physical set-up. and solar radiation. gasifier. land availability for installation and economical viability of this technology.The major cause behind all these problems is due to lack of understanding of waste at principle. Many WTE conversion options such as landfill. For that it becomes necessary to know the physical properties and the energy content of the generated waste. 15 . composting. can the anaerobic digestion technology be technically and economically feasible. water.3.S. which therefore could be considered to replenish the previously generated garbage.
16 . hydrogen and acetate are converted into CH4 and CO2. Lau and Wang. As a result. bacteria and surrounding conditions. However. 1.3. for some materials. methanogenesis tends to be the rate-limiting step. the term normally describes an artificially accelerated operation in closed vessels. In general. Biogas is generated during anaerobic digestion (AD) mostly methane and carbon dioxide . such as meat and cooked food. Table 1.3 Reactions of Anaerobic Digestion AD is a collection of many biological reactions occurring in the absence of oxygen.1. Anaerobic digestion can treat many biodegradable wastes. and Wang. 2009). the biological pathways of the process depend on the concentration and nature of the substrate. these intermediates are converted into acetate (acetic acid) with CO2 and hydrogen as by-products. which contain more recalcitrant celluloses.1. As shown schematically in Figure 1. Although this takes place naturally within a landfill.this gas can be used as a chemical feedstock or as a fuel. AD takes place in three stages: hydrolysis. Finally in the methanogenesis stage.2 Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion is the breakdown of organic material by micro-organisms in the absence of oxygen. such as grasses and newsprint. In reality. including wastes that are unsuitable for composting. 2009). the microorganisms involved in hydrolysis and acetogenesis grow more rapidly than the microorganisms involved in methanogenesis. During the hydrolysis stage. During acetogenesis. acidogenesis/acetogenesis and methanogenesis (Baldwin. complex organic polymers are broken down into their monomer intermediates: sugars. hydrolysis may be very slow and become rate-limiting (Baldwin.1 is a brief summary of the main reactants and products during each phase.3. Lau. resulting in a relatively stable solid residue. amino acids and volatile fatty acids (VFA).
amino acids. H2 CH3COOH VFAs Methanogenesis CH3COOH CH4. CO2.3. alcohols. Some are loaded in batches while others have continuous feed. either at 350C (mesophilic) or 550C (thermophilic). H2 CH4 Source: Development of a Calculator for the Techno-economic Assessment of Anaerobic Digestion Systems 1.Figure 1. amino acids.1: Reactants and products involved in the three phases of anaerobic digestion Reactants Products Organic materials Sugars. H2 CO2. CO2 CO2.4 Digesters Phase Hydrolysis Acetogenesis Digesters can be categorised by dry or wet systems – below 15 percent dry solids is termed wet. On completion of the process digesters are emptied leaving 10-15 percent behind as a seed culture for the next batch.1: A scheme of anaerobic digestion pathways Source: Development of a Calculator for the Techno-economic Assessment of Anaerobic Digestion Systems Table 1. volatile fatty acids (VFAs) Sugars. Also digesters can operate within two temperature ranges. CH3COOH (acetic acid). Various AD processes have been 17 .
Glass and stones must be removed to prevent them accumulating in the bottom of the reactor. This method can be used for co-digestion of biodegradable waste with sewage sludge. Others are designed to optimise gas collection for energy production and a soil conditioner may not be their main objective. These are then converted to gas in a specialised high-rate industrial digester. All of the processes share a common approach where shredded materials and water are held in a reactor for 6-25 days at a constant temperature between 35 and 550C. Some plants are designed to remove as many other materials as possible (for example. Dry batch digestion Waste is fed into the reactor with digested material from another reactor and then the digester is sealed. Leach-bed process Similar to the dry batch method. The mixture is fermented by micro-organisms to release volatile fatty acids. Leachate is collected from the bottom and is re-circulated to distribute nutrients and micro organisms and maintain even moisture levels. The purity of material fed into the AD process determines the quality of the end product. operating at different temperatures. regarding energy of secondary importance. Wet continuous digestion Waste is slurried with a large proportion of water to give a feedstock of 10 percent dry solids. Others might optimise the horticultural product.developed. Dry continuous digestion 18 . Multi-stage wet digestion There are a range of multi-stage wet digestion processes which take municipal solid waste and add to recycled liquor. moisture levels and speeds. ferrous metals) before digestion. but once the third stage of methanogenesis is reached the reactor is connected to a fresh batch of waste in a second reactor.
The efficiency of the source-separation systems is important as the contamination of the biowaste with potentially toxic chemicals and too many non-biodegradable inclusions will be apparent in the final product. Depending on the quality of the original feedstock. This is composed largely of methane (55-70%) and carbon dioxide (30-45%). Methane is a greenhouse gas thirty times more damaging than the equivalent amount of carbon dioxide. End-use ranges from landfill cover. The digestate produced by most operational plants is destined for use as a soil conditioner and most have a useful level of nutrients resulting in less demand for inorganic fertilisers. The presence of heavy metals severely limits its eventual use.3.Waste is fed continuously into a digestion reactor with 20-40 percent dry matter. landspread for agriculture or the production of a high quality soil conditioner after an additional maturation process. 19 . Hydrogen sulphide can rapidly corrode the gas-handling and electricity generating equipment in the plant. digester residue can be used for landfill cover or further matured into a compost product. 1. The quality of the original input biowaste determines the quality of the digestate at the end of the process. The process of anaerobic digestion in a digester takes about 35 days.6 Biogas During the process of anaerobic digestion the organic wastes produce biogas. There is also evidence that using digestate on land has the benefit of suppressing normal pathogen and parasite levels.3. 1. The quality of the biogas produced from AD affects its final usefulness.5 Digestate use Digestate is the residual fibrous material left at the end of processing. which compares favourably with a landfill site which may remain active for 35 years producing methane and leachates which can harm the environment. The main concern in this context is the presence of hydrogen sulphide which occurs as a metabolic bi-product of sulphur-reducing bacteria in the digester.
AD process 20 . Some process liquor is used to re-wet incoming biowaste as it contains useful bacterial populations. landfill or landspreading. Between 20 . There are however environmental considerations and costs to be considered with the generation of contaminated water. If the gas is used in power generation gas clean-up is required to remove corrosive trace gases.3.50 percent of the energy produced will be used to run the plant. Discharge into the sewerage system is more likely to be permitted than to a water course. Limits on certain chemical components are likely to be in place.2: Typical Biogas composition Methane 55-70 % by volume Carbon dioxide 30-45 % by volume Hydrogen sulphide 200-4000 ppm by volume Energy content of AD gas product 20-25 MJ/m3 Energy content of CH4 per ton MSW 167-373MJ/ton MSW Source: Reference: Regional Information Service Centre for South East Asia on Appropriate Technology (RISE-AT) (Nov 1998). Discharge is the simplest but it may be expensive to achieve environmental standards required by regulators.7 Process liquor There has been a focus on the digestate and biogas production from AD but the process liquor is often overlooked. Biogas may be used directly or as a replacement fuel for kilns.Table 1. If all the liquor was recycled in this way however. the concentration of contaminants would become too high. but in practice is nearer to 100m3. This has an energy value of around 21-28 MJ/m3. boilers and furnaces located close to the AD site. This method can produce a faster reaction then the original start-up. the digester will convert approximately 75 percent of the solids to biogas. The maximum possible yield of biogas in is 400m3. If one tonne of putrescible food waste consists of 77 percent water and 23 percent solids. Review of current status of Anaerobic Digestion Technology for treatment of MSW. moisture and vapours. 1. Excess liquor can be disposed of in three ways: discharge.
fish processing. According to Birse (1999). Organic wastes from food processing. 2009).liquors can be very polluting and treatments may include aeration de-nitrification and reverse osmosis techniques. these values should only be used as indicative values. Lau and Wang. restaurants. 2009). Most commonly used feeds for AD are animal manures from cattle. sewage sludge (biosolids) and the organic fraction of municipal waste may also be used as feeds for AD. 1. Lau and Wang. Haulage charges for transporting contaminated water to disposal may be a third of the total transport and disposal fee. The biogas yields of food and yard wastes can be considerably higher than the biogas yields of animal wastes (Baldwin.8 Biogas Yields and Power Generation The biogas yield primarily depends on the type of feed. and also nitrogen and phosphorous content. hog and poultry. slaughterhouse. as compiled from Preusser (2006) and Electrigaz (2007). which are similar to the information provided in the Wisconsin Agricultural Biogas Casebook (Baldwin.3: Biogas yields (lab-scale and pilot-scale AD studies) 21 . Table 3 shows the biogas generation potential of substrates. Table 1. crop residues as well as corn and grass silage. A major area of concern is the heavy metal content particularly when considering application to land.3.
Source: Source: Development of a Calculator for the Techno-economic Assessment of Anaerobic Digestion Systems A large number of papers have been published in the past several decades dealing with the performance of different reactor configurations digesting and co-digesting organic solid wastes.3 for lab-scale and pilot-scale studies and in Table 1. kitchen waste (TS 30%) and yard waste (TS 22 . This information is not meant to be exhaustive. Biogas yield data based on actual observations or monitoring records have been compiled and shown in Table 1. According to Jerger and Tsao (1987). with a value of about 0. the theoretical CH4 yields (about 60% of biogas yields) due to the action of most microbial species are similar.4 for full-scale systems.5 m3 CH4/kg VS added. though these may be considered as representative values. Kelleher (2007) cited results obtained from studies by various researchers on the biodegradation of MSW components in lab-scale landfills.
provide higher yields. (1999) reported that at the time in Denmark.4: Biogas yield full-scale AD studies Source: Development of a Calculator for the Techno-economic Assessment of Anaerobic Digestion Systems Gregerson et al. especially fats oil and grease. approximately 75% of the biomass resource was manure mostly in the form of slurry.40%) have biogas yield of 113 m3/ton and 34 m3/ton. Table 1. In these biogas plants. whereas the remaining biomass was waste that mainly originated from food processing industries. it is quite clear that animal manures provide lower yields while food processing wastes. respectively. Regardless of the scale of study. (2008) conducted a review of the AD of agricultural resources and compiled the CH4 producing potential of a wide range of substrates. Ward et al. manure and organic waste were mixed and digested in AD tanks for a 23 .
4. requiring 50-75 kilowatt-hours per tonne (kWh/t) MSW input. AD is a net energy-producing process (75-150 kWh/t MSW). safe gas handling and internal environmental controls and monitoring techniques. The amount of energy required to run a digester is directly related to the moisture content of the feedstock. such as the detection of very low levels of concentrations of hydrogen (an intermediate product).10 Odour Several aerobic plants have been closed or put under constant review due to odour complaints. Experience in Europe suggests that a plant which can handle up to 15-20.hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 .3.9 Energy use Whereas composting is an energy-consuming process. High costs are imposed by the superior technical requirements to provide adequate gas seals to prevent air ingress.3. When the digestion process is complete the digester is emptied and 10 – 15 percent may be left behind as a starter for the next batch.3. The biogas yields from some of the 20 systems installed between 1984 and 1998 are shown in Table 1. 1. In anaerobic systems most volatile components are broken down by bacteria in the digester. A study has shown that whereas 588g/t of volatile organics were produced in aerobic composting. 1. The biogas produced was cleaned and normally utilized in CHP plants. 1. 24 . only 3g/t were produced in an anaerobic system.000 tpa is the smallest scale which will be financially viable.11 Economics of AD The capital investment required for a modern AD plant are less than those of an energy from waste plant but similar to those of a materials reclamation facility (MRF).25 days. High-moisture systems use more heat but require less electricity to circulate the fluid digestate. The biogas yield ranged from 23 to 92 m3/ton biomass (wet mass basis). Anaerobic digestion requires an additional 15kWh/ton of energy in comparison to aerobic composting plants.
Under constant pressure conditions.13 Approaches to determine Calorific Value There are several experimental and empirical approaches available for determining the calorifc value (CV) of materials such as MSW. digesters have a higher risk of breakdown and may be difficult to control. volatile combustible matter. One method of determining the CV of a given material is by means of an open calorimeter in which pressure is maintained at 1 atmosphere. oxygen. while the proximate analysis includes an assessment of the levels of moisture.1. fixed carbon and ash.3. there are three types of models that are used to predict CV values based on the following analyses: • • • Physical composition Ultimate analysis Proximate analysis The physical composition analysis is based on the levels of different components of the solid waste matrix. the heat released is equal to the enthalpy change for the reaction. 1. Because of the complex association of different types of bacteria. Waste water from the process may contain a high concentration of metals. In summer households produce more organic kitchen wastes and grass clippings. Another type of calorimeter is the bomb calorimeter in which combustion is conducted under conditions of constant volume. while in autumn prunings and woody materials predominate.3. paper and garbage. Because MSW is a heterogeneous material 25 . The ultimate analysis of waste typically involves determination of the carbon. The variable nature of the waste may be a problem for AD plants. Regarding the empirical approaches. such as plastics.12 Problems Anaerobic digestion is relatively expensive and requires a major capital investment. nitrogen and sulfur contents. nitrogen and organic materials. Calorimetric measurement is the common method for determining the energy content of MSW.
5. et al).1 Main Objective: To perform a techno-economic assessment of Anaerobic Digestion Technology 1.and its production rate and physical composition vary from place to place as they are a function of socio-economic level and climatic conditions (Abu-Qadis. But according to “The study on the solid waste management for the Kathmandu valley” (prepared by Nippon Co. 1. To determine calorific value and moisture content of the MSW To estimate the amount of green energy from MSW 26 . the energy content of one country will be different from that of another.5 Research objective This topic deals with the objectives has been set for the study after the literature survey and the need for this thesis. 1. of the two technologies. 1987 prohibits the use of incinerator except the incineration of hazardous waste. Ltd and Yachiyo Engineering Co.5. AD which has been successful in a smaller scale for Nepal could be an option for energy recovery and hence waste management.4 Hypothesis There are two municipal solid waste-to-energy schemes that could be adopted in Nepal depending upon the initial literature review of the waste characteristics: incineration with electricity recovery and anaerobic digestion in which electricity and fertilizer are produced. 1. This thesis hypothesizes with the available commercial AD technologies. the waste-to-energy (WTE) conversion using this technology will be technically and economically feasible. Ltd in September 2005) the moisture content is in the high range of 60-75% and the SWMRMC Act. Hence. To be promoted as effective methods of solid waste management in terms of environmental soundness and energy saving.2 • • • Specific Objectives: To quantify and characterize the eligible components of the Municipal Solid Waste of Kathmandu Metropolitan City. a techno-economic assessment needs to be performed.
27 . To do economic analysis of KMC plant based on AD technology that would be implemented in Kathmandu.• • • To perform two case studies of AD based technologies. CHAPTERE TWO RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter deals with the methodology used. To estimate mass and energy balance for KMC plant based on the case studies and hence technical feasibility of it. research tools needed and assumptions and limitations considered while carrying out this research.
1. energy recovery.7 Research tools This study is conducted by using research tools: literature survey.1 Literature Survey The secondary data is used for the estimation of the volume of waste and characterization by literature survey and also the relevant Journals and other available documents have been reviewed and assessed for Anaerobic Digestion technologies. Ltd and Yachiyo Engineering Co. based on ASTM D487-95-2006.3 Sampling for Determination of Calorific Value and Moisture Content of MSW Analysis done during this study based on the report “The study on the solid waste management for the Kathmandu valley” depicts that the major portion of the waste constitutes organic and other constituents are minimal with respect to the organic portion. and economic analysis whereas experimental method is used to determine the calorific value.7. Mainly “The study on the solid waste management for the Kathmandu valley” (prepared by Nippon Co. quantification. 1.6 Research methods This thesis is mainly based on quantitative and partly experimental analysis. Ltd in September 2005) has been followed throughout the study for this purpose. 1. experiments.2 Quantification and Characterization of Wastes of KMC The study is carried out for Kathmandu Metropolitan City.7. 1. and statistical techniques using Microsoft excel 2007 and Crystal Ball. ash percentage and moisture content in the lab. Judgment Sampling. Hence. The data relevant to this study for characterization and quantification of eligible components of MSW was collected from different sources such as Kathmandu Municipal Corporation (KMC). Quantitative method is used to carry out waste characterization. 1. mass and energy balance. was used to collect samples for determining the calorific value and moisture content of the MSW. In 28 . and Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilization Committee (SWMRMC).7.
Martin and Eric et al). The ground samples were then used in Parr Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter to determine the calorific value of each sample.7. revenue generation.7.5 Determination of Calorific value Same samples were ground using electrical mixer separately. 29 . CV determined from this calorimeter was gross or upper value embedded in it. effective waste to energy conversion. 1.7. The raw or lower CV was obtained using the following empirical formula Where. The calorific value of each samples found in the sampled waste was obtained with the help of Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter in accordance with the ASTM D 468-02-2007. Five samples collected were brought immediately with proper care to the lab where these were used to obtain moisture content in accordance with the procedures of ASTM 949.total five commingle samples of organic portion of MSW were obtained from the Teku Transfer Station. financial analysis. All the samples were mixed to get one more sample which was also used to determine the CV of the mixed samples.4 Proximate analysis Proximate analysis is mainly used for determining moisture content in the samples. CV MC H = calorific value (“raw” is real “as delivered” value. 1. social impact analysis.6 Techno-economic Assessment The technologies for Anaerobic Digestion are assessed. 1. ASTM D468-02-2007 procedures were used for determining the CV of MSW. “gross” is value for dried material) in MJ/kg = % moisture content (by weight) = % Hydrogen content (Shaine. These technologies are assessed on the basis of different parameters: availability of technology.
The thesis assumes that whatever wastes gets generated is used by the KMC plant. covers about 53 sq.9 Site Visit (Teku Transfer Station in KMC) Katmandu Metropolitan City (KMC).8 Assumptions and limitations The study will be conducted within Kathmandu Metropolitan City. The 2001 National Census has estimated the 30 .1. the capital of Nepal. km area and politically divided into 35 wards. The samples have been taken at Teku transfer station. 1. Technical and economical analyses are based on the two case studies. CHAPTER THREE RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter deals with all the results obtained during this study and the discussions on the results. Ltd in September 2005) team will be the basis for the quantification and characterization of the wastes of KMC. The study on the solid waste management for the Kathmandu valley conducted by “The study on the solid waste management for the Kathmandu valley” (prepared by Nippon Co. Ltd and Yachiyo Engineering Co.
790 75.476 117. Without measures for source reduction.591 308.10 Waste Quantities and Characteristics A prerequisite for the successful implementation of any solid waste management plan is the availability of information on the composition and quantities of solid waste generated. life-style and patterns of production and consumption (Oliga and Katica. the annual increase in unit waste generation is 2.6% (Nippon Koei Co. 2002) with the annual average growth rate of 4. 2005).416 kg/day-capita in KMC.857 434.571. 2008).67%.4 Source: Nippon Koei Co. demographic changes.3 27.6 18.158 1.1 135. technological innovations.5 46. such as economic activity. The total amount of waste quantity generated in KMC is as shown in Table 3. Table 3.4 BKM 80.1.1 Total amount of Waste Generated in Kathmandu Metropolitan City Average generated quantity Municipalities Population Year 2004 2015 2004 (tons/day) 2015 KMC 741.2 MTM 53. 2005 Waste generation trends are driven by several factors. Ltd.9 775.008 1.853 83. Municipal unit generation rate has been taken as the product of household unit generation rate and additional index.397 260.population of the KMC to be 741. 1. and two administrative officers are employed at this location. The unit generation rate of solid waste is estimated at 0. Ltd and Yachiyo Engineering Co.1 Total 5 municipalities 1. four guards.The KMC is responsible to collect the waste from the street and containers and transfer to the Teku Transfer Station (TTS) before transferring to the final dumping site.008 (CBS.380 25. Ltd and Yachiyo Engineering Co. Increase in the household increases the population of the city and hence waste generation.424 54. Two loaders.9 LSMC 180.4 547. Ltd. The Teku Transfer Station covers an area of 150mx100m and receives 308 tons of waste per day.696 14.8 KRM 43.099.400 11. 31 .055.
commercial etc.4 tons/day of the total waste generated. Ltd. this value is relatively uninteresting for incineration. If the waste is generated in future with an annual increasing rate higher than 2%. The other significant constituents are plastic and paper with equal percentage of 9%.08 Textile 3 9. say as much as 5%. the total daily generation quantity from KMC is estimated to be more than 700 tons in 2015. 2005 Table 3. 308. garbage. The lower heating value is 32 . Table 3.9 tons/day of which KMC is the dominant waste generator with approximately 71% i. In practice.In 2004.2 shows the physical composition and the typical percentage distribution of MSW components in KMC. paper and plastics.25 Metals 1 3. the total amount of waste generated in five municipalities is 434. gasification or pyrolysis. The annual waste generation rate of KMC is estimated to be 112.11 Calorific Value of the MSW The upper calorific value is the gross energy content including the energy that is necessary to evaporate the moist content.2: Overall Waste Compositions and the total amount of generated composition wise in KMC in 2004.3 Total 100 308 Source: Nippon Koei Co. The amount of organic component constituted the majority with generation of 216 kg/day in year 2004. 1.25 Rubber/leather 1 3.08 Others 4 12. Ltd and Yachiyo Engineering Co.8 Glass 3 9.8 Plastic 9 27. Waste Components KMC % by weight Waste Generated (tons/day) Organic 70 216 Paper 9 27. Organic wastes (70% of the total waste generated in KMC) include all kitchen waste. It can be noted that the major fraction of the solid waste generated is organic.566 tons.e.
. MJ/kg 3 14. 2000). Table 3.29 71.3 shows MC and CV of the samples of the waste.16 15.02 18.11 4. The CVgross of the samples ranges from 11.36 1. These conditions are typical in many developing countries (Savage et al.29%. which can be utilized for the production of thermal and electrical power.9 32.important.22 61. The relatively high moisture content of the MSW may lead to a reduction in the calorific value of the MSW (Abu-Qudais and Abu Qdais. because this is the energy content.19 MJ/kg respectively.26 17.2009 The Table 3. the CV obtained from the lab also represents for the same.40 to 18.8 Remarks for CV Estimated Literature* . Waste components Organic Paper Plastic Moisture content (%WB) 68 7 10 33 CVraw.29% and CVgross and CVraw to be 15. 1998).14 69.48 MJ/kg (dry basis) whereas the CVraw ranges from 0. In average.41 66.4 shows the components of MSW and their corresponding CV which can be utilized for the generation of energy in the thermal facility.4: Moisture Content and the Raw Calorific Value of MSW components.18 MJ/kg.29 CVgross (MJ/kg) 13.48 11.97 71.19 Source: Lab Results.71 76. Table 3.71 1. Similarly.89 13. the moisture content is found to be 71. Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6(mixed) Average Moisture content (% WB) 82. Table 3. The maximum and minimum moisture content is estimated to be 82.13 3. The CVs of the other components of MSW being similar have been taken from the literatures.13 to 4.04 MJ/kg (dry basis) and 2.3: Moisture Content and Calorific Value of the Waste Samples.40 16.14% and 61. The estimated CVraw of the organic portion at 68% MC is found to be 3MJ/kg.04 CVraw (MJ/kg) 0. As the major portion of MSW is organic.66 2.71% by wet basis but in average it is estimated to be around 71.18 2.
875 kWh per year 10. 1. Waste components Organic Paper Textile Rubber/leather Total Energy Content. kWh/y 65663500 41930835 12663675 12820017 133078027 Electricity generation.5: Electricity generation from and thermal plant capacity needed for waste of KMC.663.269.500 and 41. metal.269.507 kWh per day of thermal energy is available and from it in total 33. others. In total 33. plastic and metal. Plant Capacity.6 Rubber/leather <1 41 Others NA NA NA Source: Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan.Glass NA 0 Metals NA 0 Textile 26.709 kWh per year respectively. The calculation doesn’t include plastic. the plant capacity of 3798 kW will be needed for exploiting the generated municipal solid waste.415. As shown in Table 3.835 kWh per year of energy can be extracted respectively of which 16.5 organic and the paper are the main two waste combustible parts from which 65.482. As the table shows.4 t/d) are generated from KMC which is sorted and utilized in a thermal treatment facility.12 Theoretical Energy Calculations derived from MSW These calculations are based on the assumption that 112566 tons of MSW per annum (308.507 kWh per year electricity can be production assuming the overall efficiency to be 25%. kWh/y kW 16415875 1874 10482709 1197 3165919 361 3205004 366 33269507 3798 Source: Author's calculation based on lab results.930. glass. 34 . The study has not taken into consideration the non combustible parts of MSW like glass. volume-1’ published by United Nation Environment Programme. Table 3.8 10.
However.98% 12. However 35 . Table 3.13 Budget Allocation for SWM of KMC The budget allocation for all types of waste and environment management comes under the heading of Environment Management.79% 29. there has been an increment by almost 13%.61 16. So. According to the KMC annual report.14 Preliminary Survey for Cost of Fertilizers (Compost) The selling price of compost. While in the survey done in different places indicate that the compost can be sold in better price if it is well proved. in a sense the budget has been allocated for SWM. the average budget increment has been estimated to be 12. Hence.np/uploads/bud-66-67. has been Rs 10 per kg since 2003. Table 3.6: Budget allocated for Environment management of KMC during different fiscal years Fiscal year 2006/2007 2007/2008 2008/2009 2009/2010 KMC Budget for Environment Management Expenditure.1. Kathmandu Metropolitan City Office.63% 24.70 20.69 17. The current selling price of fertilizer as shown in Table 3. The increment in budget during fiscal year 08/09 and 09/10 is similar whereas between fiscal year 06/07 and 07/08. Rabin Man Singh in 2009.6 provides summary of budget allocated during different fiscal year for EM. Rs (in crores) Increment percentages Average 19.1 and 3.2 in Sarlahi district and Hetauda are approximately Rs 2 and Rs 4. The slaughter house composting unit at Marutol in Kathmandu situated at the bank of Bishnumati despite producing compost since long time (date couldn’t be figured out due to unavailability of authorized person) hasn’t sold any amount of compost.pdf. Chief Environment Management Department. The increment in EM budget shows the stakeholders concerns over the waste management issue.63%.gov.kathmandu. 2009 most of the budget allocated under this heading is expended for solid waste management. any documented evidence couldn’t be found regarding its selling price. 2010 1.11% Source: http://www.48 3. according to the presentation by Mr.
it is precisely the appropriateness of a given reactor design for the 36 . Table 3. kg 500 cost per kg. 2010 Table 3.5 Rs/kg (average) 4 Source: Based on author Survey. In fact. kg 32. 2010 CHAPTER FOUR CASE STUDIES OF AD BASED TECHNOLOGY The literature on anaerobic digestion of MSW appears confusing and difficult to summarize.8: Fertilizer cost survey in Hetuada in 2010 Types of compost Gothe mal Compost Cost of a Bora (Sack) in Rs 120-140 Approximate weight of compost in a bora (Sack). The reason is that it is hard to find papers with similar experimental setups. Rs 2 Source: Based on author Survey.according to the sellers at Hetuada.7: Fertilizer cost survey in a village of Sarlahi District in 2010 Type of compost Gothe Mal called Gowa locally Cost for a bullock cart of Gowa (Compost) Rs 1000 Weight of Gowa per bullock cart. the demand of proven compost or such fertilizer is higher and can be sold in better price than estimated. kg 25-40 Average weight.
etc) (details in Appendix A). Hence while designing the reactor. inoculation. And hence there exists only empirical knowhow for the optimal reactor design to treat municipal solids and it is also due to the complexity of biochemical pathways. Necessary pre-treatment steps may include magnetic separation. number of stages. As post-treatment steps. aerobic maturation. These considerations are often decisive factors for the election of a technology for an actual project. For designing the reactor (digester) for AD. Appropriate rating of given reactor designs should therefore also address the quantity and quality of these products (Table 10) as well as the need for additional pre. the novelty and varieties in the technologies. the typical sequence involves mechanical dewatering.and post-treatments. solids content. and water treatment but possible alternatives exist such as biological dewatering or wet mechanical separation schemes wherein various products may be recovered as shown in Figure 4. screening. the feedstock should be mainly organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) sorted mechanically in central plants or organics separated at the source. temperature. gravity separation or pasteurization.or post-treatment unit processes becomes very important. the need for specific pre. recirculation. 37 . comminution in a rotating drum or shredder. mixing. A plant treating municipal solids anaerobically is therefore best seen as a complex train of unit processes whereby wastes are transformed into a dozen products. The comparison of research data and drawing of conclusions is difficult because the reactor designs differ largely on variability of waste composition and choice of operational parameters (retention time.1. pulping.treatment of particular organic wastes which forms the focus of most research papers. referred to here as the organic components in MSW of KMC.
Figure 4. products and quality standards involved in an anaerobic digestion plant for organics solids.2: Examples of unit processes commonly used in conjunction with anaerobic digesters of solid wastes. Source: Biomethanization of OFMSW Table 4.9: Possible unit processes. Unit Processes PRETREATMENT Reusable Products 38 Standards or Criteria .
Load on water treatment .Coarse fraction.Organic impurities .Organic impurities .Water treatment .Compost .Biogas valorization POST-TREATMENT .Pasteurization DIGESTION . for most organic wastes. multi-stage or batch systems as on one-stage systems. 1999).Biological dewatering ..Norm s soil amendments .Organic impurities Norms potting media Calorific value Source: Biomethanization of OFMSW About 90 % of the full-scale plants currently in use in Europe for anaerobic digestion of OFMSW and biowastes rely on one-stage systems and these are approximately evenly split between 'wet' and 'dry' operating conditions (De Baere.Electricity Heat (steam) . A likely reason for this difference is that two. cardboard and bags . plastics .Aerobic stabilization or Biological dewatering .Hydrolysis .Methanogenesis .Water .Comminution of paper. which reports as many investigations on two-.Pulping withngravity separation .500 kWhheat/ton . Biological performance of one-stage systems is.Compost .Size reduction (drum or shredder) .Drum screening . as high as that 39 .Magnetic separation .Disposal norms .Norm s soil amendments .150 .and multi-stage systems afford more possibilities to the researcher to control and investigate the intermediate steps of the digestion process.Ferrous metals . on the other hand. prefer one-stage systems because simpler designs suffer less frequent technical failures and have smaller investment costs.Heavy inerts reused as construction material . sulfur .Germs kill off . Fibres (peat) Sludge . Industrialists.Norms nitrogen.Sand.Mechanical dewatering .Calorific value .Biogas . But this industrial trend has not been followed by the scientific literature.Wet separation .300 kWhe/ton 250 .
a German company. was initially designed to treat organic MSW and was later adapted to the treatment of mixed MSW.3: The Flow diagram of Valorga Process Air Treatment Source: The Anaerobic Digestion and the Valorga Process. 1992). biowaste (source separated household waste). Using this study.of two-stage systems. biogas utilization. and grey waste (organic residual fraction after biowaste collection). This thesis therefore has performed two case studies but focussed mainly on the commercial based KOMPOGAS AD technology available in the market. The processes used in Valorga technology (VT). provided the reactor is well designed and operating conditions carefully chosen (Weiland. air treatment. 1.15 Valorga Technology Water Treatment Waste Reception & Pre-treatment Anaerobic Digestion Biogas Utilization Compost Curing Figure 4. Jan 1999. compost curing. the techno-economic assessment of Hypothetical KMC plant has been performed. Literature and brochures of the company. and 40 .2) consists of essentially six units: waste reception. preparation unit. AD. The basic Valorga process plant (Figure 4.
an optional water treatment unit (when effluent is not treated in municipal wastewater treatment plant). The reception unit has a scale for weighing the trucks bringing in the organic materials. The waste is unloaded in a closed pit equipped with a foul air collection system. The feed material passes through an electromechanical system, designed according to the waste to be treated, that includes plastic bag opening and size reduction equipment. The waste is then conveyed and fed continuously to the AD unit. In the AD unit, the waste is mixed with re-circulated leachate into a thick sludge of about 20-35% solids content, depending on the type of waste. Therefore, the water requirement is minimal. The digester operates either in the mesophilic range or the thermophilic range. The Valorga digesters are concrete vertical cylinders of about 20 meters height and 10 meters internal diameter. They are designed so as to maintain plug flow through the reactor. They are equipped with a vertical partition in the center that extends over 2/3 of the diameter and over the full height of the reactor. This inner partition minimizes shortcircuiting of the sludge and ensures plug flow through the entire volume of the reactor. The orifices for introducing feed and removing digestate are located on either side of the inner wall. Mixing of the fermenting material is provided by a pneumatic system i.e. biogas at high pressure is injected through orifices at the bottom of the reactor and the energy of the rising bubbles serves to mix the sludge. There are no mechanical parts and maintenance consists of periodic cleaning of the nozzles at the bottom of the digester. The digested material exiting the reactor goes through a filter press that separates the compost material from the leachate solution. The leachate is reused for diluting incoming waste and any excess is transferred to the water treatment unit or the municipal sewage network. The filter cake is transferred to composting piles where it is subjected to curing in a closed building for about two weeks. Stones and other inert materials are removed. The compost product is considered to be of high quality and is sold as soil conditioner.
The biogas produced is used to generate electricity and steam or is fed to the city gas network. The biofilters and the water treatment facilities ensure that the Valorga plants control all air and water emissions and meet local regulations. 1.15.1 The Valorga plant at Tilburg, Netherlands The Tilburg plant began its operation in 1994 and treats primarily vegetable, garden and fruit waste (VGF). The plant capacity is rated at 52000 tons/year of VGF, or 40000 tons VGF plus 6000 tons of non-reusable paper and cardboard. A central refuse treatment company collects and separates municipal waste from the participating 20 municipalities. The feed consists of 75% kitchen and garden waste and 25% paper, cardboard. The annual rate of MSW generation in the Netherlands is nearly 450 kg per capita. Thus, the estimated amount of VGF generated by the Tiburg population of 380,000 is 64,000 tons of VGF per year. The plant consists of two digesters, each of 3300m3 capacity, and produces 2.8 million m3 of methane per year (70m3/ton). The waste is sheared to less than 10cm particles before being fed to digestion unit. The retention time in this plant is 20 days at a mesophilic temperature of 380C. The biogas production can be up to 106 m3 per ton of waste, some of which is pressurized and pumped back into the reactor to improve mixing. The biogas product is piped to an upgrading plant, where it is refined to natural gas quality and then supplied to the municipal network. The biogas contains 56% CH4 and has a calorific value of about 20 MJ/m3 while the refined gas contains 31.7 MJ/m3 (Verma, 2002). Gas refining consists of compressing, cooling, scrubbing, and drying. The methane gas after undergoing refining is fed to the municipal grid. The Tilburg facility highlights the technical and economic feasibility of using energy from waste in the form of biogas to generate electricity. The compost product amounts to 28000 tons/year and is reported to be of high quality for agricultural use. A technical report produced by the Center for Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies (CADDET) analyzed the economic and environmental performance of the Tilburg facility between 1994 and 1999. CADDET reported that the natural gas yield was about 50m3/ton. The net yield of natural gas, i.e. after providing for heating 42
and electrical energy for the plant, was 1,360,000 m3 of methane per year, i.e. about 34 m3 of methane per ton of organic material processed. The economic analysis by CADDET reported that the capital investment for the Tilburg plant was equivalent to $17,500,000. This corresponds to $440 per yearly ton processed currently or $146,000 per daily ton of capacity. For comparison, the capital cost of a large size Waste-to-Energy plant (combustion of MSW) amounts to about $120,000 per daily ton of MSW processed (Verma, 2002). The main sources of revenue of this plant are the “tipping” fees paid by the municipalities for waste treatment and the sale of natural gas. Between 1994 and1999, the average fee for waste treatment was $90/ton resulting in the average annual revenue of $3,600,000 per year. Assuming an average gas price of $0.06/m3 (CADDET, 1998), the gas revenues were $81,600 per year. Assuming administrative and operating personnel of twenty and an average wage and benefits cost of $40,000 per person, the labor cost is estimated at $800,000. Assuming an equal amount for all other costs (maintenance, supplies and materials, etc.), adds another $800,000. For an assumed 20-year life of the plant and at 10% required return on investment, the annual capital charge for repayment of the $17.5 million principal is calculated to be $920,000. Subtracting these three cost items from the annual revenues of $3.68 million, results in a net annual income of $1.16 million. It can be seen that under the above assumptions the Tilburg operation is profitable. The environmental performance of the Tilburg indicates that 1.36 million m3 of methane per year are recovered and used for electricity generation. This corresponds to 728 tons of carbon in the form of CH4. Considering that one ton of C as methane is equivalent to 21 tons of C as carbon dioxide the Tilburg operation avoids landfill emissions of about 15,000 tons of carbon equivalent.
1 Product Output The technology has been designed to yield a range of products. Key features of the Facility include: • • • • Modular capacity from 10. and Waste processing and resource recovery via three unit processes: Conditioning: Includes receival. Since then.3. The proposed process is shown in Figure 4. A nominal capacity of 20. The technology is an example of an anaerobic digester facility for processing of source separated organic materials. 44 . 20 year operating contract life. 1.000 t/yr.16.000 t/yr to over 100. the KOMPOGAS technology was developed in Switzerland for the conversion of organic waste materials such as garden and kitchen wastes into electricity and compost. Fermentation: Intensive fermentation with gas production and energy generation. nuisance separation.000 t/yr has been assumed for this report. Kompogas has established over 25 plants in different parts of the world. including: • • • Electricity Compost. Maturation: Prepares compost products suitable for beneficial use.16 Kompogas Technology In the late eighties.1. screening. intermediate storage and moisture adjustment. and Liquid fertiliser.
1. mixed wastes. other organics such as Grease trap wastes. stones. algae where as Street sweepings. The types of organic waste materials suitable for kompogas process are : garden waste. key feedstock characteristics and bandwidths are given in Table 11. parks and garden waste. mineral oil. biosolids. However. glass. textiles. 45 .10: Characteristics of acceptable feedstock (mix).16.2 Waste Characterisation The Kompogas technology developed for the processing of source separated organic waste now can also process mixed (residual) waste using mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) facilities. plastics are not suitable for it. The actual performance of the plant in terms of compost and electricity generation depends on the final composition of the feedstock which may vary for individual projects.Figure 4.4: Kompogas Flow Sheet. metals. kitchen waste commercial food wastes. Table 4. rubber.
low speed agitator. Dewatering of the residues takes place in screw presses (straining screws). Depending on expected detailed feedstock characteristics. The heat exchangers use off heat from the generator sets to pre-heat the substrate. The agitator is in continuous operation and enables optimal degassing and temperature distribution. the substrate is pumped by a reciprocating pump though the heat exchangers into the horizontal fermenter. mixing) to achieve the parameters indicated above. rootlets and pathogenic organisms. This happens predominantly though the high pressure pumps between the mixer and the fermenter and is assisted through a central.Vegetable matter (% solids) < 30% Food waste (% solids) > 30% Proportion of non-processables <2mm < 3% Average particle size 40mm Longest particles <200mm C/N ratio 15-25 Source: Independent review of Kompogas Technology. screening. The retention time in the fermenter is between 15 and 20 days. The fermenter is fully enclosed and heated. 1. The substrate moves through the fermenter in a ‘plug flow’.3 Anaerobic Digestion (Fermentation) From the mixer. The process in the fermenter is an anaerobic thermophilic ‘dry’ fermentation process that takes place at a temperature of approximately 550C. 2005 These characteristics are relevant for the fermentation operation and hence accepted feedstock outside these specifications are consequently conditioned (by shredding. 46 .16. The constant high temperature sterilises undesirable plant seeds. water prices and markets for liquid fertiliser. more solids can be removed from the press water through a decanter (centrifuge). The fermentation residues are discharged from the fermenter by a reciprocating pump and transferred to the dewatering section.
Several brands can be used as generators however. particularly during ramp up and later for generator maintenance and emergencies.4 Composting and Refining After passing through the dewatering unit(s). 47 . Depending on the market situation. The piles are turned once a week. Including space for the discharge of the fermenter residues and room to operate the front end loader. Unless there are any close users for the generated heat it is usually taken to the aeration system to assist in the speedy composting of the fermenter residues. As the feedstock consists of ‘clean’ source separated organics. this process is usually conducted over two to three weeks during which the fermenter residues are turned into ‘compost’.Some of the process water is then recirculated to the feeder/mixer to reach the optimal substrate moisture prior to entering the fermenter. Remaining process water contains nutrients and is commonly used as liquid fertiliser.16. Kompogas recommends the compost hall be a minimum of 750m2. 1. the spent organics from the fermenter need to be treated aerobically to eliminate any remaining odour generating potential. for a plant with a capacity of 20. Although several enclosed composting systems are available. An area of approximately 450 m2 is required for the aerated compost piles. Kompogas favours the GE Jenbacher engines which are being used worldwide for such plants as well as for landfill gas-to-energy operations. the system features a gas flare for combustion of any excess gas. the process water and the liquid fertiliser do not contain any toxic substances. Additionally. This composting (‘maturing’) takes place in an enclosed composting hall where the material is piled up to three meters high on a slotted floor to enable forced aeration. Efficiency of these cogeneration units has reached an impressive 40-42% for electricity and up to 45% for heat.000 t/y this is usually done by a front end loader. Gas from the fermenter is directed firstly to a gas cleaning device and then to a generator set (combustion engine) for electricity generation.
2009 1. the refining step also includes a windsifter (air classifier) to remove any plastic film that may not have been eliminated at the front end of the facility.5 kWh/m3.700 .5 Mass Balance For a plant with the capacity of fermenter input 20. t/yr 20. t/yr 7.12: Energy balance estimated by Kompogas.200 Liquid Fertiliser. Table 4. Prior to sale. MWh/yr Electricity generation.000 Ferment Input per day. The coarse fraction can also be used as a bulking agent to provide additional structure to the feedstock if needed.1M Nm3/year with an average energy value of 5. Nm3/yr Total energy content of biogas. Biogas production.7 Facility input per day (5d/week).3. these are estimates which may change slightly depending on the actual feedstock composition. a set of technical data sheets provided by Kompogas form the basis for the mass balance estimate given in Table 4. mix of garden and food waste from residential premises) KOMPOGAS calculates a gas production of 2. Refining is done though screening to produce higher value fine compost.16. As with all other calculations. t/d 80 Fresh compost (45% DS).000 Mature compost (65% DS). Ferment Input.16.After three weeks.11: Mass Balance Estimate by Kompogas. the compost is mature and can be stored outdoors without causing any odour problems. t/d 54. Table 4.000 Source: Technical Data sheet provided by Kompogas.000 ton/year. MWh/yr 48 2100000 11. and lower value coarse compost. Occasionally.6 Energy Balance For an assumed ‘average’ feedstock comprising mainly ‘biowaste’ (i. t/yr 9. t/yr 9.550 4. 1.e. the compost is usually refined.
330 Capacity of generator set (gas engine). MWh/yr 5. MWh/yr 370 Heat generation.2009 CHAPTER FIVE TECHNOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT FOR KMC PLANT Based on above case studies. MWh/yr 4.Internal electricity consumption. this section tries to perform a techno-economic assessment of a Hypothetical KMC plant that would process all the waste generated 49 . MWh 0.54 Source: Technical Data sheet provided by Kompogas. MWh/yr 1.900 Net electricity export.000 Internal heat consumption.
000 tons it is assumed that only 80. 1. KMC can implement a facility based on the Valorga process described earlier.1 Mass Balance of the processes based on Valorga Technology Rejects/Recyclables Figure 5.09% would be Digestate Dewatering processed to get approximately 6871 tons of biogas (density of biogas has been taken as 1.000 tons per year of waste to be (5. Of 100%. (1. 6871 tons/year) tons per year of organic input would require four digesters each of volume 3300m3 and the generation of methane from this plant would amount to 5.729 tons/year) Steam processed in the hypothetical KMC plant based on the Valorga Technology.5%.8 million m3. 11.227 kg/m3) and 56. The organic content includes garbage.000 m3 per year (70m3 yearly per ton of feed).000 tons of waste per year. The feedstock should be sheared to less than 10cm particles and Mechanical Pretreatment Valorga's Dry oC. Organic Fraction of MSW Biogas to Gas Engines On the basis of the data from the Tilburg plant. yard waste and miscellaneous organics.600. the total waste to be treated amounts to 244 tons per day and 89. kitchen waste.000 tons/year) .000 (100%. 56. Waste Water (some recirculated as process water) (14%.throughout the year.91%. Hence to treat 80.200 tons/year) 50 Tunnel Composting Fertilzer (compost) (70%. 1200 tons/year) approximately 5. If the paper also a degradable component is mixed with the organic fraction of the MSW. Of 90. withhold in reactor for at least 20 days at a mesophilic temperature of 38AD The other (Including Hand picking) processes in this plant would be similar to the Tilburg plant as stated earlier.59%.000 tons will be available for waste treatment annually.91% of waste would be recycled and the rest 94. Mixer 1.2).000 tons per year. that consists of two reactors with digester volume 2*3300 m3 of the type used at Tilburg (Netherlands) treating 40.000 tons/year) (8.000 tons of mixed MSW per year and producing 2. All the estimations have been done on the basis of the specifications provided by the companies.840 tons per year (Table 3. 4. the hypothetical KMC plant for 80.17.17 Based on Valorga Technology The organic content as stated earlier constitutes about 70% of 308 tons of waste generated per day in KMC and is estimated to be 216 tons per day and 78.000 tons of compost annually. 80.1 shows an estimated mass balance for 80.
2 Energy Balance of the KMC Plant based on Valorga Technology As stated earlier per ton of waste processed will produce 70 m 3 of methane (54%) and the calorific value of methane is 20 MJ/m3. 51 .Figure 5. The total energy content of biogas produced from this plant would amount to 31.000 MWh/y out of which 3000 MWh/y will be the internal consumption for the processes. Assuming overall efficiency of 35% of a gas genset. Then the net amount of electricity available annually will be 7000 MWh/y as shown in Table 5. the amount of electricity that would be generated is estimated to be 10.5: An estimated mass balance for the KMC Plant based on the Valorga Technology Source: Author calculation based on the Valorga technology specifications 1.17.000 MWh/y.
100. Mixer Hence to process organic wastes (OFMSW) of 80. 216 tons is organic portion which is 78.000 t/y) simplicity.400.000 m3 of biogas.000 tons per year.566 t/y (13%.000 tons per year capacity fermenter producing 2. 36. For OFMSW (100%. four fermenters Rejects/Recyclables (32.1 Mass Balance 52 Composting System Compost (36%.800 tons/year) .18.000 tons/year) of the processes based on Kompogas Technology 1. out of 308 sorts out the organic portion of the waste.6: An estimated production and consumption of energy based on the Valorga Technology Source: Author calculation based on the Valorga technology specifications 1. the total biogas coming out Some waste water is of the plant will be amounted to 8.000 m3 per year (assuming the a ton of organic recirculated wastes produces 105 m3).000 tons per year and all the estimations are based on the technical sheets provided Kompogas Fermenter by the Kompogas Technology and few literatures. Dewatering System Liquid Fertilizer (45%. the amount of waste that will be processed in fermenter has been taken Mechanical Treatment 80. 28.080 t/y) tons generated per day.Energy needed for Processes (3000MWh/y) KMC Plant Process based on Valorga's Technology Pretreatment (Including Hand picking) Net Energy Output (7000 MWh/y) Figure 5.18 Based on Kompogas Technology As the AD of Kompogas Technology uses only organic portion of the total wastes generated.Total technology as stated earlier uses mechanical Biogas to Gas Engines this Waste Generated treatment processes which 112. 80.566 t/y) each of capacity 20. With each of the 20. In context on KMC. 10.000 tons per year are selected.840 tons per year.
8 tons per day.Figure 5.800 tons of compost annually.7: An estimated mass balance for KMC plant based on the Kompogas Technology. 53 . The input to the fermenters according to the technical specifications provided by the Kompogas Technology for the KMC plant will be 208. Figure 5.566 of inorganic wastes will be sorted out by mechanical treatment which is approximately 30% and will be recycled and the rest 70%. 32.000 tons per year of only organic fraction of solid waste (OFMSW) waste to be processed in the hypothetical KMC plant based on the Kompogas Technology. Source: Author’s calculation based on technical sheets provided by Kompogas.080 tons of biogas. assuming now this 70% of the waste as 100% input to the fermenter. will be processed to get approximately 10.566 tons per year.3 shows an estimated mass balance for 80. Of 112.000 tons of liquid fertilizer and 28. 36.
3 Requirement of space The space required for this plant is 12.320 MWh/y) Figure 5.18. 1.000 m2 for installing full facilitated plant. The actual generation rates though will depend on the final composition of the feedstock.5 kWh/t of input. The space available at Teku Transfer Station as stated earlier (15. However.400 MWh/y) Heat Generation (20.480 MWh/y) Internal Heat Consumption (7.600 MWh/y) Heat losses (12.18. The internal power consumption is estimated to be 18. Similarly as shown in figure the heat generated during the processes much higher and no use in context of KMC except for the purpose of internal consumption. The estimated electricity generation provided by Kompogas is based on an average gas production rate of 105 m3/t of input with energy content of 5.000 MWh/y) Electricity Generation (18.1.2 Energy Balance of the KMC Plant based on the Kompogas Technology KMC Plant Process based on the Kompogas Technology Internal Electricity Consumption (1. 54 .000m2) is sufficient enough to establish this plant. the consumption may increase if the mechanical treatment plant becomes complex.5 kWh/Nm3.800 MWh/y) Net Electricity Output (17.8: An estimated energy balance based on the Kompogas Technology Source: Author’s calculation based on technical sheets provided by Kompogas.
e.CHAPTER SIX ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF KMC PLANT An economical analysis is usually undertaken in order to evaluate whether the project that need to be implemented will be economically feasible i. the cost and benefit brought about by a project to a person or the stakeholders. On the basis of cash flow generated during this analysis for the hypothetical waste processing plant in KMC. The economic analysis has been done for both 55 . some financial parameters and their variability are computed. The benefits are given by the revenue receipts from the sale of the project outputs and the inputs are given by the costs (expenditures) of production.
2 Quantum of Expenses Expenses for the KMC plant will be operation and maintenance cost (O&M). compost.php?tp=special_publication&&vw=15). 1. 1.16 crores rupees (3.php) with annual inflation of 7% (http://red.19.com/html/ad_plant_cost_estimates.19. Considering O&M cost at 5% (http://www. depreciation rate.nrb. 1. income tax etc have been taken from the different current literatures and documents available for economical evaluation of this plant. As the investment is huge the KMC plant has to be public limited and hence of the total initial investment.000 t/y capacity plant is scaled up for 80.1 Quantum of Investment According to the technical sheet of the Kompogas.000 t/y KMC plant which is estimated to be 373. debt interest at 13% (Standard Chartered Bank) quarterly compounding and one year payment period and depreciation at 20% (http://www. the ratio of debt and equity will be 70% and 30% respectively.org. the initial investment of 20.pdf) the total expenses has been estimated which varies as the inflation gets varied.3 Quantum of Revenue Generation The revenue source for the KMC plant is from the sale of electricity generated. 56 . liquid fertilizer and annual tipping fees collected from the households. debt interest and depreciation. Except debt interest all the other expenses are subjected to variation.Volrago and Kompogas technologies so as to select the more feasible one considering the project life of 20 years from installment.73 billion rupees) for all the infrastructure needed for the plant (from machine purchase to installation and commissioning) except land lease cost.fncci. All the details related to the economic analysis are in Appendix B. 1.np/publica.19.anaerobicdigestion.org/text/trade_industry_tax.19 Based on Kompogas Technology All the costs and expenditures for installing the Kompogas technology based KMC plant has been taken from the technical sheets provided by Kompogas whereas the other costs such as operating and maintenance costs and values such as inflation rate.
3. an important product of this technology.3 Tipping Fees In case of tipping fees. Rs 150 and Rs 200 per HH depending upon the sizes of houses in an average Rs 150 per HH (by triangular calculation method).3. This net cash flow was then analyzed to get internal rate of return and net present value using minimum attractive 57 .19. the service charge can reach up to 20000 NRs per month (Alam. R et all. using operating.3. Rs 2694 per ton has been considered.4 Return on Investment and Net Present Value in Different Scenarios Income statement which includes revenues. For the calculation of the revenues. such as large hotels.1 Electricity According to the NEA steering committee (meeting number 427.19.80 per unit of electricity supplied and with the rate will be escalated at 6% per year for five years and will be constant afterwards. 2061 BS). the locales used to sell the liquid sludge in ‘Kharpan’. Every organization has its own rate.1.19. before the use of chemical fertilizer in Bhaktapur for farmig. But the survey done by author shows that the current service charges are Rs 100. couldn’t be made estimated as there is no any commercial or small scale production of this product in the country. Amrit Man Nakarmi. for biomass the power purchase agreement (PPA) will be done at Rs 3. The tipping fee per household for collecting wastes from the source has been determined on the basis of survey. The service charges levied by the organizations range from 20 NRs to 500 NRs per month per household (HH).19. But according to Prof. Rs 150 per HH i.org/text/trade_industry_tax. For some prominent waste generators. the non-government solid waste management organizations (NGSWMOs) in KMC collect service charges from their customers for solid waste related services. Similarly. 1. 1. 1.2 Mature Compost and Liquid Fertilizer The selling price of liquid fertilizer. investment and financing activities.e. expenses and income tax at 20% (http://www. IOE. cash flow was prepared producing net cash flow.fncci.pdf) produced net income/loss per year for 20 years of project life. Pulchowk. 2007).
This indicates that the project cannot be profitable at all and has IRR much lesser proving the KMC plant not feasible economically under current scenario.rate of return (MARR) of 15.80. If the economic analysis is done using compost selling price of Rs 3/kg. The economic analysis has been done based on this parameter using different scenario and variables for this project. WACC was calculated using the following equations: Where. 1 respectively and tipping fee is Rs 150. the net present value at discount rate of 15. = cost of debt (13%) and = cost of equity (%) which was calculated using the following equation: Where.5%) (Nepal Rastra Bank.26 and 1% respectively. = amount of debt capital (in crore). The analysis has been summerised as below: Case I: Current Scenario When selling price of electricity per kWh.12 crores indicating huge loss in the project. NPV comes out to be Rs -189.6% and IRR are estimated to be -89. Rs 10 and Rs. 58 . 2010) and = beta value (considered 2 as the renewable energy project is riskier than the other energy project) WACC or MARR is the rate at which the common shareholder should get the return on the equity and hence the internal rate of return (IRR) must be greater than MARR. Ce Cd C i ke = amount of equity capital (in crore). = Ce + Cd = total amount of capital or investment (in crores). mature compost per kg and liquid fertilizer per kg are Rs 3. Rf β = risk free rate of return (6.6% which was calculated using weighted average cost of capital (WACC).
The table below depicts the summary of above scenarios Table 6. IRR in this case also is greater than MARR and hence under this condition also the project seems feasible economically. Rs.93 crores and 25% respectively when compost selling price considered Rs 10/kg. NPV and IRR come out to be Rs 192. IRR in this case is almost triple of MARR and hence under this condition the project will be feasible economically. Crores -89.Case II: Under current scenario KMC provides 100 % EM budget as levy without increment in annual budget Using the same selling price of the output entities used during case I. without any increment in annual budget. for paying levy to KMC plant.12** 59 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 1%* - . if KMC spends its all EM budget for paying levy to KMC plant. Case III: Under current scenario KMC provides 75 % EM budget as levy without increment in budget Using the same selling price of the output entities used during case I. NPV and IRR comes out to be Rs 49. But for Rs 3/kg of compost selling price.26* -189.94 crores and 18% respectively. IRR then is greater than MARR and hence under this condition the project seems feasible economically. NPV is negative indicating losses and hence under this condition the project will not be feasible economically. But again for Rs 3/kg of compost selling price.97 crores and 40% respectively.6%. NPV and IRR comes out to be Rs 14. NPV is negative indicating losses and hence under this condition the project will not be feasible economically. Case IV: Under current scenario KMC provides 100% EM budget as levy with 12% increment in annual budget If it is done so. if KMC spends its only 75% EM budget.13: Summary of Net Present Worth and Internal Rate of Return under different scenarios for KMC plant based on Kompogas Technology Cases I Scenario Current Scenario (without levy from KMC) Net Present Value at Discount Rate of 15.
According to Verma (2002).54** 40%* 25%** Source: Author estimation 1. Table 6.09* -79.14: Summary of Net Present Worth and Internal Rate of Return under different scenarios for KMC plant based on Kompogas Technology Cases I Scenario Current Scenario (without levy from KMC) Under current scenario KMC provides 100 % EM budget as levy without increment in budget Under current scenario KMC provides 75 % EM budget as levy without Net Present Value at Discount Rate of 15.42** 25%* 8%** 14.60** 60 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 11%* 31%* 3%** 18%* - II III .45** 18%* 3%** 192.000 t/y capacities will be Rs 435.Under current scenario KMC provides 100 % EM budget as levy without II increment in budget Under current scenario KMC provides 75 % EM budget as levy without III increment in budget Under current scenario KMC provides 100 % EM budget as levy with 12% IV increment in budget *Compost SP: Rs 10/kg **Compost SP: Rs 3/kg 49.20 Based on Valorga Technology The economical assessment of KMC plant based on Valorga Technology was done considering the same parameters as for KMC plant based on Kompogas.49* -223.6%.86 crores and the revenues will be generated by sale of electricity and compost. the total amount of investment needed for 80.94* -77.94* -116. Rs.49** 14.07** 110. Crores -33.2 which depicts that the economic feasibility of this plant is totally dependent upon the selling price of the fertilizers. The summary of economic assessment under different scenario is as in Table 6.93* -44. Only in case IV the plant based on Valorga Technology is economically feasible.67* 102.
28** 50%* 21%** Source: Author estimation CHAPTER SEVEN RISK ANALYSIS Considering the various parameters shown in Table 7.1.000 trials. risk analysis is performed using Crystal Ball 7.1 software for 1. Table 7.02* 68.3.increment in budget Under current scenario KMC provides 100 % EM budget as levy with 12% IV increment in budget *Compost SP: Rs 10/kg **Compost SP: Rs 3/kg 255.15: The parameters considered and assumptions defined for performing risk analysis using Crystal Ball 61 . The various results are described below.
25% during real scenario and when the levy is provided by KMC to the plant as shown in Figure 7.2 respectively. crores crores Debt @10% and 15%. Rs/ton Fertilizer.00 10 Assumptions Defined Triangulation distribution Log normal distribution Figure 7. Rs/unit Min 14. The results of risk analysis using software for Valorga based KMC plant shows that this plant will not be economically viable as the certainty of getting the net present value (NPV) zero are 13.18 15000 15000 200.Parameters Levy 50% and 112% of EM Budget OM cost @ 2. Rs/ton Tipping Fees.00 3.25 37.5% and 10%. Rs/HH-month Electricity Price. crores Compost.8 9.1 and 7.8 Max 33.33 26.9: Frequency distribution chart under real scenario for Valorga based KMC Plant. 62 .07 and 42.12 1000 1000 50.31 39.
4. the plant becomes feasible economically with 75.12% certainty of getting the net present value zero as shown in Figure 7.10: Frequency distribution chart when KMC provides levy to the Valorga based KMC plant The results of risk analysis using software for Kompogas based KMC plant shows that this plant will not be economically viable under the real scenario as the certainty of getting the net present value (NPV) zero is only 24. 63 .Figure 7.3 whereas if the levy is provided by KMC to the plant.92 % as shown in Figure 7.
64 .Figure 7.11: Frequency distribution chart under real scenario for Kompogas based KMC Plant. Figure 7.12: Frequency distribution chart when KMC provides levy to the Kompogas based KMC plant.
The electricity that can be generated from Kompogas based KMC Plant is 18.21 Conclusions With the growing technology there are many companies that provide technology for anaerobic digestion of the municipal solid waste among them Valorga and Kompogas are the two.CHAPTER EIGHT CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The electricity that can be generated from the energy content in the wastes thermally at overall efficiency of 25% is estimated to be 33.000 tons of liquid fertilizer per year. the studies shows that the KMC plant can be installed using these technologies and is technically feasible.800 tons of compost and 36. However the economic analysis shows that both of the technologies under current scenario is infeasible economically as their NPV are negative and IRR are much lesser than expected MARR.26 GWh per year. Based on these technologies. the Kompogas based KMC plant is superior however both of the technologies needs huge investment making difficult to install such plant in a developing countries like Nepal. study shows that technically and economically. The lower calorific value (Balance Energy) at 69% moisture content is estimated to be 3 MJ/kg. • The technical parameters show the technical viability of Anaerobic Digestion systems while thermal conversion technologies unviable.8 GWh per year which will also produce high quality 28. The KMC plant based on these technologies will only be economically feasible when KMC pays its budget under Environmental Management heading as levy. Moisture content is high ranging from 62-82%. Among the two technologies. The following key conclusions drawn from this study are: • • • • The major components of wastes generated from KMC is organic comprises 70% and 70% of which is kitchen waste. • 65 .
• The electricity that can be generated from Valorga based KMC Plant is 7 GWh per year which will also produce high quality 56. 1. 66 .22 • • • Recommendations This thesis presents the following recommendations: A thorough and new study should be done to know the characteristics of the solid wastes as KMC has urbanized rapidly with increment in population. After determining the key parameters affecting the biogas generation from waste. A lab based study should be done to determine the key parameters that enhance and suppress the biogas reaction. • • Market Survey of the compost and liquid fertilizer are must to make this kind of project economically viable. The private and social organizations that have been involved for the solid waste management should be taken into considerations to make this project viable. • As Socio-economic Analysis has totally been left during this study and hence need an assessment to know the aspects of society and how they can benefit with the launch of this project in the project area. a lab scale experiment should be done to know the effect of these parameters which can be helpful for a pilot scale plant.000 tons of compost per year. The Valorga based KMC Plant is riskier than the Kompogas based KMC plant. • • Economically Kompogas based KMC plant is evaluated as more feasible than the Valorga based KMC Plant though both are technically feasible.
British Columbia" Final report prepared for BC Innovation Council.430–438 67 . Eze. 2009.. Vancouver.Abu-Qdais. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture. Ayotamuno M. Factsheet Agdex. L. 2006. 1999. M. S. held in Barcelona. A. Wang. "Study of generation of biogas from cattle dung and grasses". C." University of British Columbia.Sc.. The Midwest Rural Energy Council. 1999 DeBruyn. Hilborn. Department of Environmental Engineering. "Biogas from Waste and Renewable Resources: An Introduction. Baldwin.A. Lau. KGaA.. Weinheim.. and D. Solid Waste. (1999). Volume 85.D. J. Symp. 2008. S. 2000). Economopoulos. Aryal.J. A. D. "Development of a Calculator for the Technoeconomic Assessment of Anaerobic Digestion Systems. A. "Anaerobic digestion basics". "Technoeconomic aspects of alternative municipal solid wastes treatment methods". Technical University of Crete. In II Int. Steinhauser. Deublein.. 2009. De Baere.T. Birse J. pp.O. 2008.. WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. S.. M. Department of Mechanical Engineering. June 15-17. S. Probert. "Anaerobic digestion of solid waste: state-of-the art". "Designs of anaerobic digesters for producing biogas from municipal solid-waste". Volume 41. M.. 2008.REFERENCES Abu-Qudais. "Feasibility Study – Biogas upgrading and grid injection in the Fraser Valley. 152 pp. BC. Hilkiah Igoni. 983-991. Thesis. Electrigaz Technologies Inc. Greece.L. Energy Conversion & Management. "Anaerobic Digestion of farm and food Processing residues"."Energy content of municipal solid waste in Jordan and its potential utilization" . A.A. H.... Nepal. 2007... Anaerobic Digestion. pp. Tribhuvan University. Applied Energy. P. Ogaji. Food and Rural Affairs.
Tribhuvan University Mehta. Municipal Solid Waste". New Delhi Karki. Thesis. A. 2004.. McKeogh. BioCycle Energy. Kathmandu Kelleher M. "An Introduction to Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes".. J. S.1043–1057 68 Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics Energy Analysis and Policy Program. Maharjan.. "Biogas as Renewable Source of Energy in Nepal : Theory and Development". Indian Institute of Technology.. TERI Information Monitor on Environmental Science 5(1): 1–11. 2007.. K. August 2007: 51-55.. C. J. University of Wisconsin – . A. " Waste as a Renewable Source of Energy: Current and Future Practices".and Middle-Income Countries" eawag. "Biogas scrubbing. economic and environmental analysis of energy production from municipal solid waste". F. Shrestha. 2005 (ed). Scotland Müller. Kumar. Madison. 2004. N. Chiang Mai. "Management of Solid Waste of KFVWM from Different Methods of Composting".... "The Economics and Feasibility of Electricity Generation using Manure Digesters on Small and Mid-size Dairy Farms". "Technology Options for Municipal Solid Waste-To-Energy Project". November 16-21. " Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Solid Waste in Low. Themelis. "European Trends Anaerobic Digestion Outlook for MSW Streams". S.D. BSP-Nepal.. D. 2004.Kapdi et el. "Technical..Sandec. 2007. and Bajgain. 2003. 2003 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition Washington.C. pp. E. Monnet. Murphy. J... Dübendorf. K. Chiang Mai University. Centre for Rural Development and Technology. Renewable Energy. Volume 29. Millrath. compression and storage: perspective and prospectus in Indian context". 2003.
Sc.. "Evaluation of Solid Wastes of Kalimati Fruits and Vegetables Wholesale Markets". Promotion of Renewable Energy. L."Dhaka City Solid Waste to Electric Energy Project". Pun. and Katica. Golden. J. De Baere. Ortenblad. Denmark. A. 2008. W. Herning.A.. Future potential for MSW energy development Technology and Resource Assessment Branch. "Types of anaerobic digesters for Verma. Journal of Environmental Management Volume 90.. pp... "Techno-Economic Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Jordan". E. U. Waste Management. Tyson. P.. M. Thesis. Department of Earth & Environmental Engineering. 1998. 2005.. Shaine. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Pokhara University Qdais. H.R. " Anaerobic Digestion of MSW"..A. 2002 "Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Organics in Municipal Solid Wastes". Bangladesh. "Scenario for decreased greenhouse gases emission in Macedonia by successful municipal solid waste management".. CO 80401.A. 2003. 2007. S. LTD. 2005. A. Verstraete.NIPPON KOEI CO. "The Study on The solid Waste Management for the Kathmandu Valley". T. " Assessment of the greenhouse effect impact of technologies used for energy recovery from municipal waste: A case for England". 1666–1672. 2009. Barton. S. Regional Information Service Center for South East Asia on Appropriate Technology. 69 .... Analytic Studies Division. 2002. Volume 27. EnergiGruppen Jylland. 2999–3012. pp. Japan International Cooperation Agency Olgica. Papageorgiou. H. Karagiannidis. Biomethanization of OFMSW. "Review of Current Status of Anaerobic Digestion Technology for Treatment ofsolid wastes". Martin and Hammon. Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Abatement (PREGA). Vandevivere. Thesis.S. Columbia University. M. K.
NRAES-176: 301-312." The Potential of Electricity Generation from Poultry Waste in Bangladesh. 2005.htm http://www.omafra.pdf.org/biogas/adgpg.php 70 . Wilkie A. C. "Anaerobic Digestion: Biology and Benefits". 2007. Considerations.np/publica.analyticalmk.ird. C. N. Cornell University. "Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure: Design and Process".anaerobic-digestion. A Case Study of Gazipur District".gov. A. Zaman. S. University of Flensburg.com/html/ad_plant_cost_estimates. Handling. Websites http://www. 2005.org/text/trade_industry_tax. http://www.Wilkie A.org.pdf http://pdm. Dairy Manure Management: Treatment.ca/english/engineer/facts/07-057.pdf http://www. U.gov.np/overview.on. and Community Relations.nrb.php?c=Income%20Tax&sb=Handbook http://red.com/files/022008/Olgica_MICEVSKA_Katica_TASESKA.fncci. Dairy Manure Management: Treatment.mrec..np/bondnotices/Development%20Bond-2076%20Kha %20(Notice).php?tp=special_publication&&vw=15 http://www. Germany.Y. and Community Relations. Handling. Thesis.pdf http://www.org.nrb. Natural Resource. Cornell University.
APPENDIX A: AD KEY PARAMETERS 71 .
Mechanical Separation: This can be used to separate an organic fraction of the wasteif source separation is not available. food residue. (Opinions vary over the digestibility of paper. e. is considered for digestion). etc. some forms of paper are much more digestible than others – generally only paper that is too contaminated with organic waste to be recycled. Digester Material Anaerobic digestion occurs naturally wherever high concentrations of wet organic matter accumulate in the absence of dissolved oxygen. metal. As this makes up 30-60% of household waste there is a considerable benefit in diverting this waste from landfill. Joint treatment of municipal solid waste with animal manure/sewage slurry is apopular method in existi plants. sand. These are lignocellulosic materials which do not readily degrade under anaerobic conditions and are better suited to aerobic digestion. i.The following summarizes the information collected during the course of this study on the technical details of Anaerobic Digestion of MSW. The fraction obtained is more contaminated which will affect the heavy metal and plastic content of the final digestate composting 72 . The combustible fraction also consists of indigestible and 3) Inert Fraction – Stones. kitchen scraps. Separation Source Separation: Recyclable materials separated from organic waste at the source. 2) Combustible Fraction – Slowly digestible organic matter such as coarser wood. the remainder can be landfilled. Some of these products are suitable for recycling. grass cuttings etc. Municipal solid waste is composed of:1) Digestible Organic Fraction – Readily biodegradable organic matter. glass. Only waste of organic origin can be processed in an anaerobic digester.g. cardboard. paper. composting. which depends on the lignin content.e. the process tends to be simpler and is economically more viable than an MSW only treatment system.
If the C/N ratio is very low. i.product. As a result the gas production will be low. to clean water. such as cow dung. In some system ms an aerobic pre-treatment allows organic matter to be partly decomposed under aerobic conditions before undergoing anaerobic digestion. If C/N ratio is very high. t material must be chopped or shredded before it is fed into the digester. To maintain the C/N level of the digester material at acceptable levels.5 will start to show a toxic effect on the methanogenic bacterial population.e. Plant materials contain a high percentage of carbon and so the C/N ratio is high. Human excreta has a C/N ratio of about 8. materials with high C/N ratio can be mixed with those with a low C/N ratio. Pre-treatment Having separated any recyclable or unwanted materials from the waste. A C/N ratio of 20 3 is considered to be optimum for an anaerobic digester. C/N Ratio: The relationship between the amount of carbon and nitrogen present in organic materials is expressed in terms of the Carbon/Nitrogen ratio. In many countries compost derived from mechanical separation will not meet standards required for a soil conditioner product. Animal waste. to recycled water from the digestate. Dilution: Water or slurry can be added to the raw material to maintain the required consistency. sawdust >200). has an average C/N ratio of 24. The organic matter is also diluted with a liquid. the solid particles will settle down in the digester 73 organic . (rice straw = 70. which has been used successfully in biogas systems for many years. This will increase the pH value of the material. the nitrogen will be consumed rapidly by the methanogens to meet their protein requirement and will no longer react on the left over carbon content in the material. A pH value higher than 8. ranging from sewage slurry. organic solid waste can be mixed with sewage or animal manure. nitrogen will be liberated and accumulate in the form of ammonia. If material is too diluted.
temperature fluctuations and waste composition. This is often caused by inadequate mixing of the waste with slurry. In the initial period of fermentation. due to the digestion of nitrogen. The pH value will be affected by mixture retention time in the digester. Loading Rate: This is an important process control parameter in continuous systems. also stimulate the bacterial growth. the acetogenesis/fermentation stage is rapid. Many plants have reported system failures due to overloading. Different systems can handle different percentages of solid to liquid. the digestion and fermentation process. potassium. magnesium. the pH will remain between 7.2 and 8. Reduction in pH can usually be controlled by the addition of lime. but heavy concentrations will have a toxic effect.5. heavy metals and detergents are some of the toxic materials that inhibit the normal growth of bacteria in the digester. average ratios are 10-25%. The methanogenic bacteria are very sensitive to pH value and will not thrive below a value of 6. producing organic acids which reduce the pH and inhibits further digestion. but some systems can cope with solids up to 30% . Small quantities of minerals. the pH value can increase to above 8. 74 . Toxicity: Mineral ions. This will inhibit. Retention Time: Wastes remain in a digester that is operating in the mesophilic range for a varying period of 10 – 40 days. or even stop. large amounts of organic acids are produced and the pH value of the mixture can decrease to below 5.2. When plant material is fermented in a batch system. the duration being dictated by differing technologies. If there is a significant rise in volatile fatty acids this normally requires that the feedrate to the system be reduced. ammonium and sulphur).and if it is too thick the particles will impede the flow of gas to the upper part of the digester. (sodium. calcium. pH Value: Optimum biogas production is achieved when the pH value of the input mixture is between 6 and 7. As digestion continues and the concentration of ammonia increases. When the methane gas production has stabilised.
to stop the formation of scum and to avoid pronounced temperature gradients within the digester. The purity of the material fed into the system will dictate the quality of the slurry produced. This is used as a product to condition and improve soil. Health Issues: Bacteria and viruses present in municipal solid waste can be a risk to the workers handling the waste. lead are essential for bacterial growth in small quantities. (like glass shards. zinc. Mixing/Agitation: Results from existing systems tend to show that a level of mixing is required to maintain the process stability within the digester. Over frequent mixing can disrupt the bacterial community and it is generally considered that slow mixing is better than rapid mixing. Problems specific to MSW anaerobic digestion: 1) Nature of organic waste may vary according to location and time of year. Detergents such as soap. For a combination of sewage sludge and household waste. plastic pieces etc). In wet season horticultural plant cutting levels may be higher than in the dry season. before being used on the land. antibiotics.Heavy metals such as copper. Solid residue/Slurry: After the biological degradation is complete the solid residue or digestate is removed and can be cured aerobically and screened for any unwanted items. chromium. The objectives of mixing are to combine the fresh material with the bacteria. pretreatment processing at 700C for at least one hour is recommended by the Danish Energy Authority. nickel. which are regarded as having a higher infectivity risk than animal manure. but higher quantities will also have a toxic effect.organic solvents also inhibit the bacteria. 75 . This may lead to a variation in the C/N ratio and affect the rate of gas production. Recovery of digesters following toxic substances inhibiting the system can only be achieved by cessation of feeding and diluting the contents to below the toxic level. The amount of mixing required is also dependent on the content of the digestion mixture.
this causes problems. Advantages of MSW anaerobic digestion: 1) Makes landfills easier to manage by removing problematic organic waste material which is responsible for gaseous and liquid emissions. 2) Sampling: It is useful to design into the digester system the ability to take samples of the digester material so that a check on the content can be maintained. 3) An end product that can be used as a soil conditioner is produced.2) Inadequate mixing of refuse and sewage can affect efficiency of system. Mixing the refuse with animal dung improves the system efficiency and allows for a more simple process design. 2) Enclosed system allows all of the biogas to be collected. 1) Health Issues: Bacteria and viruses present in municipal solid waste and human sewage can be harmful to those handling the waste and can remain in the slurry following the digestion process. Methane is a greenhouse gas with twenty times the impact of carbon dioxide. improving the economic viability of the system. either before digestion or on slurry prior to use as a soil conditioner. This is due to the improved nitrogen content that is achieved by mixing with dung. which forms the top of the digester unit. In some cases leakage from cracks in the concrete has been found. 76 . Important points to be considered when designing a mixed MSW/animal dung or sewage Biogas system. 3) Blockage of pipes can be caused if large pieces of waste enter the system. 3) Gas Storage: Many existing animal dung biogas systems store the gas in a hemispherical concrete and brick structure. particularly in continuous systems. unlike on landfills where recovery only yields 30-40% of gas generated. This allows adjustments to be made to the content of the mixture if gas production reduces. Treatment of waste at 700C for 1 hour is recommended.
Ideally the refuse should be sorted at source. it could be sorted by hand on delivery to the site. 4) Agitation: Digestion rate is improved if a method of stirring is incorporated into the digester design. APPENDIX B: ECONOMIC ANALYIS SHEETS 77 .Attention should be paid to the construction of the concrete vessel or alternatively a steel vessel could be used for gas storage. if not. However. at this stage recyclable materials are more likely to be contaminated with organic material and this is not desired for recycling. 5) Waste Content: The waste must be sorted so that all inorganic products are removed from the refuse prior to entry into the digester.