# Set-Theoretic Foundations for Logic Author(s): W. V.

Quine Reviewed work(s): Source: The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Jun., 1936), pp. 45-57 Published by: Association for Symbolic Logic Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2268548 . Accessed: 10/10/2012 01:32
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and wahlprinzip) the axiomof infinity the of In the expression Zermelo'spostulatesand the proofof his theorems as sublogic are presupposed an implicit notionsand techniqueof elementary are The onlylogicalnotionswhichare hererequired the truthfuncstructure. theclass whose axiom (Ausare sole members any two giventhings. providing tions(or an adequate selection these)as further of with rules of inference such kind as to provide all the deductive system and functions quantification. der Grundlagen Mengenlehre Mathematische Annalen. and the of primitives. 261-281. vol. pp.Finallythe multiplicative are adopted.withany thing-variables of as simply expressions theform are describable of are "x" "tx".There are further of class. as I shall say henceforth. ''z''.vol.theunitclassofanygiventhing. Number 2. the only logical tions and quantification and To functions quantification. as system a deductive the frame Zermelo to to extendits foundations includethispartoflogic. 15 (1930).65 (1908). supplanting and "y". I.eY(y)W) in about y whichis definite a ceras where"e(y)" is understood any statement for informally the purpose.pp. of technique truth of It is usual. 2 Zermelo.Einige Bemerkungen der Abhandlung vonE.the so-called Aussonderungsaxiom. 1936. derAxiomatik". his set theory Amongthese thingshe includes of forthe representation "things" generally. of thus the elementary as bership his sole special primitive. the class of all members and of members anygivenclass. June 1936 SET-THEORETIC FOUNDATIONS FOR LOGIC W.in application theelemenfuncand This can be done by adoptingquantification the truth taryformulae. Zermdo: "Ober die Definitheit zu Fundamenta mathematicae. 45 .T Hz JOURNAL OF SyYBouc LOcIC Volume 1. V. the class of all subclassesof any givenclass. of i. Zermelo2 In 1. in the fullpresentation a deductivesystem.Harvard University. The postulates his system so use of as fashioned to avoid the logicalparadoxeswithout of the theory types.''y''. be stated in logicalnotationas familiar "( x) (yM((ye) ((y(-z). etc. inclusiveclasses are identical. "e" classes. l Societyof Fellows. Introduction. may One of the postulates.to begin metaReceivedJuly17. formulae his system "xey". Skolem has tain sense whichZermelointroduces as statements empointedout that it is adequate here to construe"definite" by and all formulae thenceconstructible formulae bracingjust the elementary A with respectto thing-variables. QUINE' uses the variables"x". and with respectto thing-variables. or. 337-341.He adopts theconnective of memsets. etc. the is required thatgoverning truth technique in then.3 and by quantification the truthfunctions this asserts second of Zermelo'spostulatesis the principleof extensionality. in 3 See Skolem. "y".we must system its ownright. are members just the same that mutually of postulateswhichprovideforthe existence the null classes.e.

vol. we can express the Aussonderungsaxiom which we may call the Aussonderungsitselfas another ordinaryrule of inference.(Strictly. in suppressing these as postulates and requiring their statement rather as explicit hypotheses wherevernecessary. By way of formalpostulates. p. r has the same rules of inferenceas the above system. Moreover.Principia mathematica. 481. In the present case. edition. In particular the multiplicative axiom and the axiom of infinity are as requisite to r as they are to Zermelo's system.46 W.. QUINE mathematically by specifyingwhat expressionsare to be formulaeof the system. latter. as measured e. since the primitivesare just memberof ship. 183.P) is a theorem. I follow P. The null class presupposes a distinction between classes and individuals (non-classes) which is inexpressiblein terms of membership.is modithe fied to the extent of supplanting "yez" by the inclusion "y cz". quantification. it means that r is adequate to the derivation of as many consequences of Zermelo's postulates as are needed for standard logic in the adopted sense.4 This does not mean that r. since a "definite" statement is now simply any formula of the system. we should add explicitly that "x" must not he a free variable of the substituted formula.M.M. is adequate to the derivation of all Zermelo's postulates. so constituted.and the truthfunctions.however. Zermelo's system is thus transformedinto a formal deductive system containing rules of inferenceand postulates.2nd.classes and otherwise." however. by P. then to use this notion of formulain a metamathematical account of the rules of inference the system. which we may suppose definedin the familiarfashion.clearly the formulae of the system will embrace just the "definite" statements as construed by Skolem. As to the one will be the familiarlogical rule which allows the inference rules of inference.including the Aussonderungsregel. of familiar kind. regel: Each resultof puttingaformulafor "P" in "( Bx) (y) ((yCx) -z). and there will be other such rules.and then to defineclasses simply as objects y such that ( 3x) (xey). Repudiation of the null class enables us to explain the variables of r as representing objects generally. providing in the aggregate for the whole technique of truth functions and quantification. F contains only the extensionality principle. 4 Whitehead and Russell. p. 1. 2. There is a furtherrespect in which r is to be contrasted with Zermelo's system and others: it contains no null class. of a formula f as a theorem whenever the result of substituting f for "Q" and some theorem for "P" in "Pm Q" is a theorem. V. 'Vol. the described modificationof the Aussonderenables us to abandon all the other postulates and still derive the whole ungsregel of standard mathematical logic. The purpose of this paper is the presentation of a system r which resembles the above system but is more economical. Finally the rest of Zermelo's postulates can be translated into the primitive notation and retained as formal postulates.g. . since the null class is like an individual in lacking members.) The Aussonderungsaxiomthus ceases to depend on the notion of "definiteness" and acquires the same formal status as the logical rules of inference.

and "x" by a r-variable. supplanting so resultsof putting any r-formulae "P" and "Q" and any r-variablefor"x" for in ' P)P". ifXhas a free occurrence p. or to be a freeP-variable p. . 34 (reprint 6). (P -Q) D4. Q)" and "(P. Formal construction r.(X) . Q)". r r3. of or of 2. The result putting for"Q" and somer-theorem "P" in "(P Q)" f is a -theorem.(PD-~Q)(aX)P =df . vol. fiber See Lukasiewiczand Tarski. Satz 6.P- D 2. are r-formulae. one way is to declarethata r-formula is a r-theorem f conditions: ofthefollowing for Fl.Untersuchungen den Aussagenkalkid. (X Cy) -. de Varsovie. "z". are describof able recursively thus: expressions the form"(xey)". techniqueof the propothe Amongvarious ways of compressing familiar of of sitionalcalculusand theory quantifiers a fewrulesforthe generation into in underany theorems r. "y". in r-formulae abbreviated are the familiar definitions. fis formed putting by r-formulae thecapitalsin one oftheschemata (a) "((PD Q)n ((Qn R): (Pn R)))".SET-THEORETIC FOUNDATIONS FOR LOGIC 47 of Thoughr lacks two chieffeatures the standardlogic. formed respectively "Q" by q.Q) =df . formed respectively "Q" by q. and "(x)P". There are F-formulae and q and a P-theorem such that f and r are p from"(P.we shallsee thatwithin we can construct r A into stratification types theory in whichboth the null class and the familiar of are ostensibly restored and all theorems the standardlogicare forthcoming. Sci. Q))". of is formedfroma r-theorem replacingall freeoccurrences a r5. Comptes rendus Soc. through following D 1. for of r2. with any r-variables "x" and "y". typesand the a definitionallyderivative nullclass. Classe III.viz. of systematizations thepropor1-2 are an adaptationofone ofLukasiewicz's which instances are all calculus. Xis said to be freein p. r r4. and "x" by a r-variablewhichis not freein P. "(P. A r-variableXis said to be boundat a given q point(say at thekthsign) of a r-formula ifthatpointlies witha P-formula p of occurrence X (as uniwhichforms part of p and beginswitha parenthesized of versalquantifier). etc. formulae r. by r-variableS therein a r-variable whichis not boundat any of thoseoccurby p rencesofX. D3.df((P 3 Q) -(Q3 P)) = d f(Z) ((ZL'X) D (2UY)) are Definitions viewed as conventions extraneousto the formalsystem. (P. (c "( P 3P) 3P)" (b) "(P D (- P. occurrence Xis freein p ifx is not boundat thatoccurAn of rencein p. The r-formulae.For formal of abbreviations expandedalways as purposeswe may think definitional intofullprimitive expression.6 sitional Theyprovideas r-theorems r-formulae 6 p. (x)Q)" by replacing"P" by I. et Let. 23 (1930). There are r-formulae and q and a r-theorem such that fand r are p from"(P n (x)Q)" and "(Pm Q)" by replacing"P" by p. also are the "x". p.

A distinctive 7 See Quine. quantifiAs framed above. 1936). . vol.material we as Actuallydenial is superfluous.p. notational. pp.esp. vol. vol. 1 Op. in in by-a r-formula r7. A.7 r2-5 answerto Tarski's definition of valid forms the propositional of calculus as Given the machinery the propositional of logical consequence.xvi. New York.M.. cit.EinigeBetrachtungen die Begriffe c. Satz 30. 1. xiii. Def. Uwagio aksyomacie uog6lniajqcej. which "x" is notfree. V. 2-7. unliker. 107-112. The systemA. xvi. provided rl-2. r involvesdenial. pp. undderw-Vollstandiguber der 8 Tarski.pp. countenances kindofvariablesis of the classesand imports simpletheory types. is [a transcription. Lee. for hereis a misprint "Fr(r)"..Throughout of to which answers Lukasiewicz'sreduced it to thispaper. H. < ((x C y) D ((y cz x):D *fX) D ((xew) D (yew)))))' underD4. 103. 40 (1933).. 9 See Lukasiewiczand Tarski. p. p. 9..'0r2 wouldthenbe refashioned matchNicod's rule of inferencesand (a)-(c) wouldbe supplantedin rl by "'((PI(QIR))I((SI (SIS))I ((SIQ)I((PIS)I (PIS)))))". If on theotherhand it is The resulting system demonstrably of indethoughtdesirableto providefor the properties the truthfunctions as an of pendently thoseof membership. QUINE of calculus. thereremains alternative of stroke function instead namelytheadoptionof Sheffer's reduction primitives. r3-5 provide thefamiliar by in of As intimated ?1. tor.' whichanswersto Wajsberg'spostulateforthecalculusof material is equivalentto r. result [a transcription.M. could cation.P))" the is underD1-3.-Widerspruchsfrcikeit Monatsheftefur Mathematik und Physik. u See P. 1. in (a)-(c) could thenbe supplanted rl by "(((Pm Q) D ((Rn S) n T)) n ((Un ((Rn S) z T)) n ((P m U) m(S 3 T))))". edibyconvention. of] a r-theorem. define thus: it P = d f(PD (X) (y) (Xey)) . 1931). universal implication. If "P" is supplanted "(ax)(y)((yex)-((ycz). note 18. Note that"Fr(e)" keit. A system due to Tarski" willbe identified "standard of nullity logic" and shownto be derivablefromr. will be convenient retainr in its originalredundant form. pp.op. Truth Philosophical essays for A.8 of all technique quantification. r6 to principle is inserted restrict The clause "(zex)" in the extensionality of theprinciple classesand thusleave roomforthe existence morethan one to individual. Nicod'a i o "dedukcyi 12 See Lukasiewicz. A with 3. is done in r. 10 See P. of] a r-theorem.however. My formulation largely departs fromTarski in inessentialrespects." Ksirga pamiqtkowa Polskiego TowarzystwaFilozowicznego we Lwowie (Lw6w.48 W. p. cit.and membership primitive. form" Nicod's postulate. 97-103. the generaltheory deductionas embodiedin ri-5 in is supplemented r by one special postulateand one special rule as follows: r6. implication. 42 (reprint 14). N. Whitehead (0. and to of implication denial.

A ruleof substitution undera different from be rS could similarly eliminated Note that becomessuperfluous. as thenabbreviated in D1-2. by the truth are elaboratedintofurther it of later matters willbe demandedthat no A-formula tion. any A A-formula describable general.to phraseA5-6 without volved. jedes the Despite its simplicity."e" occursonly betweenr-variablesbearingconsecutive are A-formulae all f of dices.For simplification does no withlike bases and unlikeindices. paralleling He needsthis In Tarski'sformulation inof the because in his formulation A5-6 he specifies bases of the A-variables here.op. des de Sur vol. like -variables fbear like as willalwaysbe understood ascendinginindices. classes. the systemA admits of reduction ways parallel to those sketchedfor P in ?2. It has been convenient no sets of variables.in termsof the r-formulae.and so on. but with"A" supplanting rS. For purposesofA1-6 the words"bound" and "free"are of courseexplained "rP.'s conunderany of the following A A-formulais declaredto be a A-theorem f ditions: A1-4. simplification thelogicofrelations.Since thereis consequently such referto reference specific of in ence anywhere Al-6.. the letters in "((z)((zex) (zey)) n ((xew) 3 (yew)))".this restriction containA-variables choiceofletters. to r6-7 as to avoid reference specific so rephrasing r. 97.g.) for A-variables by underD1-2. dans la thdorie ensembles. as is in then. and integral. 11 Tarski.p.These formulae by A-variables and functions quantificaones. the substitution one freevariable foranotherin a of the can by theorem be accomplished repeating wholederivation thattheorem parallelto rS initialchoiceof variables. p.as in r.and the result deleting indicesfrom is a r-formula. integral thosewith"3" take classes of such thosewith"2" take classes of individuals. 2 (1920).on the otherhand. 17 (1914). just as in ?2. of] f is formed putting AS.Conversely. "x" and "y" in "(xey)" by are A-formulae formed replacing The elementary whose indicesare consecutiveand ascending. [A transcription. (Same as rl-4."'4 Relations.e. The P-variableto whichthe indexis attachedwillbe called the base of the A-variable. by in also. la notion l'ordre Fundamenta mathematical. 171.. therefore variables. All the A-variablesare r-variableswith positive as indicesattached: those withthe index "1" take individuals values. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophiof A cit. sinceit touchesonlythearbitrary violenceto Tarski'sscheme. cal Society. [A transcription f is formed putting X in "F" by a A-formula which and "y" in "-(x)-(y)((yex) -P)" and supplanting Xis notfree. pp. 16Kuratowski. vol. is there a further A-rule. can be formulierbaren in Principia Mathematica or of of in introduced terms classesby themethod Wiener'5 Kuratowski. A-variables and p for"x" by of] A6. (positive in expressionsuchthateveryP-variable fbearsa numeral f in as all hereafter) index. languageof A is adequate "zum Ausdrucke Gedankens. 16Wiener. but with"A" put for"P' throughout. . 387-390.SET-THEORETIC FOUNDATIONS FOR LOGIC 49 to appropriated each type.

.reconstructionof the elements of A in terms of r. and construed as an individual. viz. A differs the theory of types but also in involving some extra elements.thus. I Ix = df(( Sy) (yeX) . in such fashion that the non-negative integers do not coincide with the natural numbers with which they are intuitively associated. below.e. turns out to belong at once to all P-types. given the nth P-type.'7 In effect.the null class of each type is reconstrued simply as the class of all individuals.ratherthe whole series of integers is developed anew. From of the described reinterpretation A it thus follows that if all A-elements of nth type are reconstruedas classes of nth r-type then all A-elementsof n+ 1st type are reconstrued as classes of n+1st r-type." is definedin P thus: D5. the n+lst is defined thus: D6. In the latter derivation the natural numbersare not directlysupplemented by the negative integers. as it formerly happens) of individuals. In particular the null class of any type n.'8 17 of in See thenextto thelast formula theproof Lemma 3. become classes of firstP-type. All A-elements are thus reconstruedas classes. then. The problem of derivingA fromr thus resembles the problem of deriving the system of rational numbers fromthat of integers. D6 obviously provides that if yex and y has members then nty.Thus a A-element of firsttype.- Thus 1 Ix if and only if x has members but none of them have members in turn. and it is then assigned all individuals as additional members. is reconstrued as a class (a unit class. V. Construction of A within r.. " This is the basis of theproof Lemma 5. n+ I I x =W~Y) (((YeX)- aw) (wey))n n ly). the n+ 1st r-type is definedas comprisingjust those classes x which have all individuals and in addition none but classes of nth r-type as members. (Y) ((yeX) D (W) (wy))). and the correspondentof a class x is the spondent class whose memberscomprise all individuals and in addition the correspondents A of the members (if any) of x.In particular. reconstrued as they are as certain "individuals" or first-type of individuals. and this in the strictsense of F. classes Next. the null class in each type. Hence the elements of A. A similar course is adopted in derivingA fromr. read "x is of firstr-type. of . i. classes with members. recursivelythus: the correFor each element of A let us definea correspondent of an individual is its unit class. QUINE from P not only in depending upon 4.it follows induction struedas of first type n are reconstruedas of nth r-type. viz. Now "1 Ix". formerlyconstrued as a class of A-elementsof nth type. is reconstrued in two respects: its members are reconstruedin the manner appropriate to the nth type. furtherD6 can be shown to provide that yex if y has no members. A A-element of n+ 1st type. the procedure is to present a general .or the system of integers from that of natural numbers. Now I incorporate A into P by reinterpreting to the extent of supposing all its elements replaced by theircorrespondents. Since all A-individuals are recon- of that the A-elements every by r-type. Where n+ lIx. the firstr-type comprises all and only the classes of individuals.50 W. reconstruedas it is as the class of all individuals. rather than directly supplementing P somehow with null classes. represented in A by a variable with "1" as index. below.

all closed A-theoremsare thus translated into r. Proof that every c.) To show that the system A proceeds fromr. we need only show that every c.vol.(-' (((S - P 3 (R. Indeed. (closed generalization)of p. 365-366. All the familiar technique of the propositional calculus and theory of quantifierswill be taken for granted.g. will be called a c. the are LEMMA 1. 1. thus. Any result of putting P for "p" in "(xi(')) * * (Xk(k))P". Now D1-7 and of as C1 explain every closed A-formula a conventional transcription a F-formula. pp.g. Thus indexed quantifiersare introduced into P through this definition: D7. having say the nth numeral as index. vol. Strictly.291-299. ((S =_ Q) D R)) D ((R D (P -_S)) D ((P D S). Such clauses as the bracketed ones in r6-7 and A5-6 and at the end of ?4 will be suppressed entirely. An index which is attached to a P-variable within an indexed quantifier may be attached also at will to any recurrenceof that variable within the scope of that quantifier. as restricted in range to the nth r-type. etc. since there in is no essential difficulty showing that the technique accrues to P through r1-5. If P-formulae putforthecapitalsin the following schemata.19 (If a A-theoremis closed to begin with. )))) P) * R)-(R D (S -T))))))) in A 19 See P. of a A-theorem is a r-theorem The proof will only be sketched here. (S: (d) "((((P (e) "((Pa P)) Q) ((Rn '- P): ((R: Q) ((S (Q. in rigorousformit would involve elaborate metamathematical developments and run to greaterlength. 1 (1935). of] a P-theorem. The A-theorems each as a closed theorem in general may then be translated into r by interpreting in the familiar fashion. of a A-theorem is [a transcription. and putting the free A-variables of p in any order for itxl(l)'"to "Xk(k)".gs.. are results P-theorems: (a) "((P D Q) D (((RP) D (((R-P) D Q) D (R D Q)))" P) D Q) D (P D R)))" (b) "((Q: (c) "(((P. ations " lx". p. Studia phluosophica. Q) D S)))" _= Q) z R). by supposing each supplanted by one of its c.g.SET-THEORETIC FOUNDATIONS FOR LOGIC 51 Formally the incorporationof A into r will consist in regardingeach A-variable. Tarski has revised in just thisfashion Der Walvkeilsin Sprache. definitionaltranscriptions of r-formulae or of A-formulaewill be treated as -formulaeor A-formulae in theirown right. "21ix". 5.g. D7 then introduces a further A A-formulawill be called closed if it contains no freeA-variables. Now let 0 be a A-formulawith just k(>O) freeA-variables. xiii.under D1-7 and Cl. then. Q) D (R D S)) D ((P D R) D ((P. it is of course its own c. (X")P =df(X)(nIx D P). D5-6 should be regarded not as a definitionof the general case "In series of specificabbreviix" but as a convention forthe adoption of an infinite series of abbreviations. viz. begriff denformalisierlen .M.as in the title of ?5. This convention is added: Cl. in effect. In particular.

In viewof DS.(y c z))). (3x)(z)((y)((yCez) (ax)(z)(1I (w) . finally. Let the nth and n+1st numerals be representedas "n" and "n+1". Hence. Lemma 3 then followsby induction. 3. 3 ((((yEx) a(w)(wey))3 n 1y) ((w) -(wey) 3 (yex)))). (e) and (f). Again.propositional calculus.All these are valid formsof the. Lemma 1(b) and D3. (3) (b) proceeds from (1). (d). (2) are derivable follows. by (c). 3 (wey) (yex))). and D7.by D6. .' (1) (2) (wey))).The case of (a) is clear fromD4. V. (f) "( ax)(z')(z c x)" Proof.by (d). by (a). orem. (a) Proof. (n+1lx3 (ay)(yex)). In thisway.(w) ((w cz). ((((yex) (n+1Ix a(w)(wey)) 3 nly) ((w) (y)((w) 3 (wey) (yex))). and ( 3y)(w)((wey) (wcz)). ((y cz). (ax) (y)((yex)_ (ax)(y)((yex) ((y c Z).iftheresult putting nthnumeral "n" in (a) is a r-theof the for "1" for"n" in (a) is a r-theorem. D4. (c) from and (d) from and (a). QUINE Proof. (4) and (5) are (e) and (f). LEMMA 3 (wey) (yex)) -(y)((yex) 3 (W) (Wey))) ( 3x) (( y) (yeX)(Y)((yEX) 3 (W) '-' (wey))).52 W. Proof. Then we can deriveanotherr-theorem as follows. Thefollowing r-theorems: are (b) "(ax)(y)((yex) (d) "( 3x) ((yex) (y) (ycz))" (W) (Wey) " (Wey)) (a) " ((w) -(wey) 3(y cZ))" (c) "(By) (W) (e) "( 3x)l x" By r7. (b)-(d) are derivableas follows. be as and suppose (a) to be a r-theorem.Let the nth and n+1st numerals represented "n" and "n+1". is seen r-theorem.(wey)) 3 (y)((yez) 3 (yex))). as By ( ax) ((y) ((W) Hence. or LEMMA 2. Hence. results from putting numeral "n" in any for (a) "P(rtz)t(y")m(y CZ)r". (4) (5) z (y)((yez) 3 (yex))). ( aw) (wey)) ". A r-theorem results any for fromputting numeral "n" in " (n ly. Hence. (3).by Lemma 2(c).by DS. as can be checked thetruth-table by method otherwise. theresult putting But of as LEMMA A r-theorem 4. By ((n ly:3 ( aw) (wey)) Hence. the result of putting the n+ 1st numeral for "n" in (a) is derivable as a immediately fromDS.

(x) (y)(-((yEx) a x) (y)W(yex)- (wey)) 3 mIy).. are which allowedby thepropositional viceversabypermutations q and . A F-theorem from Proof. by Lemma 2(d). If g1 to Sk (O< of freeA-variables a A-formula k) are thebasesofthe "(((I) Ixi.**(yk)( [k ]Iyk Z Q) )" by putting I pI for "Q" and replacing 11(yl)( [I] y calculusand But. I. resultof putting n+1st numeral "n" in (a) is derivable by FromLemma 2(f).. and "yi" to "yk" replacedby the Xiin some permutation. Hence. and ni tonk "(1)" to "(k)" in LEMMA 6. Every c. ' (wey)D (y C z)) ((((yex) (aw)(wey)) * (yC z)) 3 ((yex)* (y C OM) S(w) (wey))3 (yC z)) D ((yex)* (y C z))). D7 and C1. q is the respective n. in the corresponding from wheret is formed if r will be a r-theorem and only if t is a r-theorem. we can derivethe r-theorem (((yex) (w) (wey)) D ('((yex) (w) . By follows. I. r-formula of the from freeA-variables p willbe called I the indices result puttingp| for"Q". If n is not "1". r of p has the form"(yi11) * and "[1]" to by p. t if i ofquantifiers. q k)P''. n representingas "m+ 1". ((((yx) ( Sz)(x)(n+ lIx D (y)((yex)D (yC z))).by (a).By rI(b). tonikarethe I in for for g1toXk "x1" to"Xk". "[k]" replacedby the n. ( at) (x) (n+ 1Ix ( at)(x"+')(x c t). D6-7. Hence. (w) . [k]IyA)D Q)" is a r-theorem. In this way. of and indices attached. as a r-theorem. Hence..e. if then is a r-theorem and onlyifevery ofp is a F-theorem. DEFINITION.Lemma 4 follows induction.. . by D7 and D4.(wey)) 3 mly).SET-THEORETIC FOUNDATIONS FOR LOGIC 53 as Then we can deriveanotherr-theorem and suppose (a) to be a r-theorem.. Hence. by D3 and D6..e. t is carried calculus.g. z . by (1).. 3 (k)IXk) Q)" I c. by Lemma 2(a). ILe.(wey)) D mly)). LEMMA nfor"n" in "( 3x)n Ix".g. is by which obtained dropping that If p is a A-formula. with "P" replaced (ykl Proof. by thepropositional "yi" to "yk" and "[1]" to "[k]" as before.by Lemma 2(b). (w) - Hence. willbe a r-theorem and onlyiftheresult of thesame theory into But in replacements "(([1] lyi . if the resultof puttingthe nth numeralfor"n" in (a) is a for the the r-theorem. thus. then. then. ((Y") (Y C Z) 3 (X) (n+ I Ix D (y) (((yex)aw) (Wey))D (y C z)))).Lemma 2(e) covers the case wheren is "1". (y) ((yex) * (yet))). any results putting numeral S. (((w) (Sz)(x)(n+ 1x D (y)(((yex) D (w)(wey)) D (yC Z))) (1) By Lemma 1(a) and D3. (ax)m+1Ix. By permutation.

and let thosewhichare freein q as but not in p be represented "X(*\$1)'' to iXm(m)) (kim). in q but not in p (Case 2).g.If j is a P-theorem.. let those which are free in both p and q Let whichare freein p but not in q be Representations. (((1) Ix1. and therefore willbe a r-theorem and onlyifq is a r-theorem. Hence q is a r-theorem and only if everyc. X)) to answerrespectively j " ( (XI .of9 are P-theorems. those A-variables "'/(xh.gs. I every c.ofr are P-theorems..e. 1. representedas "xi(l)) to "Ax-1)') (1 < h). in p but not in q (Case 3). * (m) X) D O(xh. so areall c. Xm)). V. ofq. of p. are all c. and LEMMA 7. or h according X is freein neither p norq (Case 1). I e. of p is a is a P-theorem. "(I(x1. D (((I) I X1. Let X be n A as as represented "X"W". (ii) ifXis not then (iii) if all c.everyc. so are all c. Consequently +O (X1.and all c. together (((1) Ixi. Xk) 3 (Xm(m))44(Xh. of is By Proofof (i).* X. If p.))) 2 D CAx* X. q for from p formed so "Q". (n<h. .(k) IXk) (m) Ixm) 1(Xl. * Xk) 3 k(Xh.gs.d.gs. .d. A r-theorem derivableas follows. then..of6. withLemma 6. Xh+1. or in both p and q (Case 4). 1) I Xh-1 D (((h) I Xh - (m) I Xn) D . (m) I X.gs. If p is a A-formula P-theorem.) Hence.g. -Xk)". . q. and r as .is a A-variable.Xk)D (xh(h))4ti(xh(h).)(1) Ix X.gs. q of Lemnma followsimmediately a q. (( 3 _)(k -. Hence t.g. QUINE But if r. then in free p. * * X(m)". then(i) if all c. (1) * Xm))).54 W. r. By r-theorem. and 6 are A-formulae.g.X(k)" and "41(Xh(h).Xm(m)))" -Xn))" * . LEMMA as be represented "Xh(h)"X to "xk(k) (h< k+ 1).gs. r and 6 are X respectively "(P v Q)" and "(Pm (x)Q)" by putting for "P". .e. (2) By Lemma 1(c). * Xm)". * Xk) 1{(Xh.** . and j6I is represented Xm))" Xm_1.ofp and ofr are P-theorems.. q. and I (((1)xi.* Xk) D (Xnf))#(xh. of p is a r-theorem. by (2) and (1). and "(4(x1. wheren is 0.) D((X1 1O(X1. ((((1) I XI-. if r was any c. X . (1(xI. m. and 8. (k) I Xk) D **Xk)) (m) I X. Cases 1 and 3) (Case 2) (Case 4). q |. the hypothesis (i). Let p and q be repreas sented accordingly "4(x1('). of p is a r-theorem. as 6 the Proof. or or "(4(x1. Lemma 6.)))) ((((I) Ixi. * Xk)) Xk) X D 1(Xh. (( x.ofr. and Xfor"x".

d.. Case 2.everyc. (6) By Lemma 6. thenevery c. Cases 1 and 3.1) IxM-i) 3 (O (x1i .and IrI forthe capitals in (a). (6) is a r-theorem.(S) I. by D7 and C1. are Case 1. By hypothesis By then.SET-THEORETIC FOUNDATIONS FOR LOGIC X. (m) I Xm) 3 (qS(XI. q. D (ck(xi.e. * * * * (i) Im) A.e.so is (3). ofr are in r-theorems.g. Xk) ((I) lXh A 4(XhA. **S)) I. then.(m. Proof.0(xi. and "w" in "((z)((zex) (zey)) D ((xew) D (yew)))"..d. LEMMA 9. (((I) I X1 (m -1) I n.by Lemma 5. Case 2. X. x-k) 3 (Xfl. by D7 and CI. of 0 is a r-theorem.everyc.. or (c) of rP. and r forthe capitals in (a).g. 10. Xm))). *X m))))".))))* (3) ILe. Cases 3 and 4 are excluded. . of Proof (iii).g.() W(XA.e. By also.. then If I resultsfromputtingthe r-formulae IpI.. . q. "z". (2) is derivableas follows. Hence (((1) Ix1.e. together r-theorem.(Xh.* Xk) 3 (n) ((M) IlX. of q is a r-theorem. off is a r-theorem. q. X(1IX1 (m) I Xm) ZI (+(XI.all c. Iql. q.g. (b).In Cases 1 and 2. (2) above is a Proofof(ii). and Case 4.by rt. oft is a r-theorem.e. If the A-formulais formedby puttingA-formulae thecapitals in f for (a). and tt for "y". Xm(m)))).d. Lemma 5. By Lemma 6. By thehypothesis (iii).. of withLemma6. then. Lemma 7. hypothesis Lemma 6.g. By (2). * Xn-a)))). (4) is a r-theorem. I. of f .d. Hence so is By "(((I) I X1. r-theorems derivableas follows. hypothesis.g. and consequently. D 4(Xh.everyc. then. By thehypothesis (ii).If fresultsfrom puttingp. everyc.)) 55 Hence.(4) By Lemma 6. (((I) I xi. (((1) Ix1. D7 and C1. (((h) IXh. If a A-formulafis formedby puttingA-variablesX. offis a by The r-theorem. then.* Xk) D (Xh) A ZO 4t5(Xh. ***Xk) 3 (Xh( ))(Xh(^ Xh+1. (((1) Ix. By (2).1) D (10(Xi. j. X n (X. D7. Xm)))) .(5) is a r-theorem. everyc. J is a r-theorem.) ((n)l lX. cases of (b) and (c) are analogous.Xi) D (Xm(m))4. By Lemma 6. "x. (2) is thusa r-theorem all fourcases.by D7.. then.-1(m) Ixm. (m) IXm)D 4P(Xh.- (m) I Xm) D (4)(X12 * * Xk) D (( qXn)(n) lXn34'(Xh.* Xm-1. Then.. fJ Consequently.e. so is (2).):o (. by and Lemma 6.gs.* (m) lm) = ( I(X1. Hence so is (2). LEMMA is a P-theorem. D (Xh. By ((1 X1. Deletionof the repeatedpremise reducesthisto (2). q. together of withLemma6. * * Xm)))).

by Lemma 4.e. (y C x)))). by r6. n+ I Ily) D ((zn) ((znex) _= 2^ey)) 3 ((x C y). Proof. offis a r-theorem. .1."y.since"((z1I)((zaex) (z"ey))2 ((xew)3 (yew)))" is | fI.- yh))))) be abbreviated "c1".. (ax)((k) (x)((k) + 1Ix #s (yk(k))((ykex) (x(M+1)-*' (yk(k))(yk(kex) -= (y..((k) IYkc ((ykeX) ..(Y1. t(yI. Hence c ((yk(k))(yk z) D (3x)((k) + 1I x. I.-(( aW) (Weyk) C ((k) O Iy. By Lemma 1(e) and D3. by Lemmas 2(a) and 3.. V. QUNE Proof. as By (M((((Zx)Sw) (we)) n n Iz).g. h=k. (yi. is Let ((YkeX) -((Yk C 2).by D6-7.by D6-7. as (((W) -( (weYk) 3 (yk C Z)) 3 (4) 3 ((((yk'EX) _ Yk3 ( W)(Weyk)) Cyk (y C z)) D (((k) I Y Z W 3 ((ykCX) ( W)(eyk)) 2 (k) I Y*)k) O(y1. ((n + I Ix.(zey))) n (((zex) 3 (zey)) z n ((zex) 3 ((zey) D (zex))))) - Hence. k If 0 is free in h=k. \$ D ((k) + 1 I x (yk()) ((ykex) ***yh)))))) . Hence. ( az) (zex)))). (zney)) Z ((xew) 3 (yew)))).) can We derivea r-theorem follows. it becomes Ifj when .d. n+ I ly) n ((zn) ((znex) =_(zney)) 3 ((x C y). j. and )o as "x"1+". and let the free as ()?" 0 of A-variables p be represented "y as (i)" to Ity&(h) (Oh? <h+1). ((n n nl2 )) n aw) (wez)) (((zey)-. LEMMA11. as sincefis a A-formula. If h= k. yh))). yh)). (y C x). (ax)(yk) \$. Hence. If a A-formula is formedbyputtingA-variablesr and qfor "x" and f "y" in CCs(x)#-(y)((yex) =P)" and supplanting "FP" by a A-formula in whichZ p is notfree. ((n + I Ix. C1. X. ((y(k)) (yk C Z) D ((yk) (Y.(yk (k))((yYkex) + 1Ix.e. yh)))). Lemma 1(d).let us represent as 94+(yi). otherwise p Now a r-theorem derivableas follows.+(yI. Y(k lyD (Yk C )) D (4+ ((((ykefx) - D 3 aw) (Weykc)) (k) I Yk). by r7.* The r-theorem thusderivedis IfI if h= k-1. and "w"+2'. . Then..thenevery c.g.itfollows from Lemma 6 that everyc.(yk(k))((ykex) - (yl.** QW) p. Hence ((n+2 ((n+ 1I x. Hence. of f is a r-theorem.I"Z". Finally. Hence. ***yet)))))))) IYk . Hence. and D4. . (The indicesmustbe consecutive indicated.n+ 1 Iy) n ((z")((znex) Iw. by D7 and Cl.Let 0 and F be represented "yk and CCx(k)+l. I. But.Let us represent t.n+ 1 Ix.+l".n+ 1 ly) n ((zn)((zREx) (zney)) 3 ((xew) 3 (yew)))). q. by Lemma 3. *Y))).e.56 W.

g. A5. c. since by Lemmas 9-11 every c.e. together with A1-6. such that r is the result of putting p for "P" and f for "Q" in "(P Q)". But it is clear from the above definitionof rank.g. A A-theoremf will be said to be of rank 0 if it satisfiesAl.g. of any A-theoremis a r-theorem. "Q" by q. is Proof.d. of f of is a r-theorem. or ifthereare A-formulae and q and a A-theorem of rank n such 6 p that f and * are formed respectively from "(PF Q)" and "(P n (x)Q)" by replacing "P" by p.it followsby induction that every c. or A6. of If we assume that every c. of any A-theoremof rank m is a r-theorem. that every A-theoremhas at least one natural numberas its rank. of and take f as a A-theorem rank n+ l. offis a r-theorem. of any A-theorem rank n or less is a r-theorem. one of rank n and the other of rank n or less.e. q. then. "Q" by q. and "x" by a A-variable which is not freein p.g. and "x" by a A-variable.it follows according CI as "Yk Ityh" rewritten Lemma 7 thateveryc. for every natural number m. Then.g. Thereforeevery c. of any A-theorem rank 0 is a r-theorem. A A-theoremfwill be said to be of rank n+ 1 if there are A-theoremsp and r. q. Every ofa A-theorema r-theorem.g.SET-THEORETIC FOUNDATIONS FOR LOGIC 57 is to (k)".d. then Lemma 8 shows that every c. THEOREM. HARVARD UNIVERSITY . or if there are A-formulaep and q and a A-theorem of rank n such that fand r are formedrespectivelyfrom"(P 3 (x)Q)" r and "(P n Q)" by replacing "P" by p.g. In either from case.