EFENSE INSTALLATIO

ON IWO JIMA

Classification ch*ng*d to

I

ED

Maj., Inf. Custodian

CINCPAC-GINCPOA
BULLETIN NQ. 136-45
10 JUNE 1945

8 JUN1945

Defense Installations
on

I WO JIMA

flaintly

CINCPAC-CINCPOA
FLEET MARINE FORCE
V AMPHIBIOUS CORPS

3rd, 4th & 5th MARINE DIVISIONS

JICPOA L" 5 0 6 0 7 - 23 THRU 144

MCH/cc

UNITED STATES PACIFIC FLEET
AND PACIFIC OCEAN AREAS
HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF

10 June 1945 - Serial DIS-1OO93O
From:
To:
Subject:
Enclosure:
Commander in Chief, U. S. Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas.
Distribution List.
CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN No. 136-45.
Defense Installations on Iwo Jima.
(A) Subject bulletin.

Enclosure (A), forwarded herewith, need not be reported and when no
1.
. . _
longer of value should be destroyed. No report of destruction is necessary.
M. LBpENDRE,
By direction.
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Table of Contents

JAPANESE DEFENSIVE PLAN AT IWO JIMA . . . . . ILLUSTRATIONS .. General Terrain Features Beaches ......... Terrain Inland * Obstacles and Mines Mines Trip Wire Anti-Tank Ditches • Caves Coast Defense - Artillery 15 cm CD Guns 14 cm CD Guns 12 cm CD Guns 12 cm (Short) Naval Guns 8 cm CD Guns Antiaircraft and Dual Purpose Batteries 12 cm DP Guns 10 cm DP Guns 7 cm AA Guns 25 mm AA MG 13 mm MG Searchlights . . . . . . . . Blockhouses Covered Artillery Emplacements 120 mm Howitzers 75 mm (Type 38) Field Guns 75 mm (Type 90) Field Guns • 47 mm Ant i-Tank Guns 37 mm Anti-Tank Guns Open Artillery Emplacements 47 mm Anti-Tank Guns 37 am Anti-Tank Guns Mortars 320 mm Spigot Mortars . ­ 150 mm Mortars 81 mm Mortars Grenade Launchers . Rockets 200 mm Rocket Launcher 250 kg Rocket Launcher 63 kg Rocket Launcher Pillboxes Rifle Pits Tanks Dummies Radar and Radio Station Revetted Vehicles Air Raid Shelters Ammunition Storage Miscellaneous . . . 2-6
7-119
7-16
7-10
, 11-16
17-20
17-18
19
20
21-25
26-39
26-26
29-31
32-33
34-37
38-39
39-64
39-42
43-45
46-48
49-58
59-60
61-64
65-70
71-86
71-74
75-78
78-80
8I-85
86
87-88
87
88
89-95
89
90-92
93-94
95
96-IOO
96-98
99
100
101-103
104-105
106-108
109-111
112
113
. . . . . . . 114-115
' 116-117
. . . . . 118-119

MAP APPENDIX
Enemy Defense Installations as observed from ground study.
Arcs of Fire for Casemated Coastal Defense Guns on Iwo Jima.
Anti-Aircraft Defenses.
Blockhouses with principal directions of fire indicated.
Covered Artillery with principal directions of fire indicated.

Japanese Defensive Plan At Iwo Jima

The strategic importance of IWO JIMA. need hardly be emphasized. Its value as
an airbase midway between the MARIANAS and the heart of JAPAN has already been
proved. After the occupation of SAIPAN, the Japs must have known that IWO would be
attacked* The only question was VHEH. The story of their haste in constructing
defenses is told in aerial photographs from 15 June 1944 until D-Day, 19 February
1945.
INCREASE OF FORTIFICATIONS
At the time SAIPAN was invaded, only AA defenses, hasty fire trenches, and pre­
liminary beach defenses had been prepared at IWO JIMA, By September 1944* positions
had been constructed in depth behind the beaches. Company and platoon positions
were then in evidence, and concrete pillboxes and covered artillery emplacements
were under construction. By December, most beach positions were completed and had
been strengthened by the construction of heavy concrete blockhouses. A cross-island
defense line in depth protecting the northern part of the island was springing up
along the high ground north of Airfield No. 1. Additional AA defenses, increased
numbers of covered artillery and coast defense guns, and more and more concrete
positions and minefields on the beaches were noted on each succeeding photographio
softie. By D-Day, key positions had been connected with pillboxes and were protected
by covering fire from artillery, anti-tank guns, and mortars, previously sighted in.
Intelligence prior to the invasion of IWO indicated a formidable garrison force
with many major caliber weapons and extensive tank and personnel obstacles; however,
aerial photographs and maps gave only a limited picture of one of the enemy*s best
defensive weapons, the terrain. An amphibious assault in force was limited to the
east and west beaches of the narrow southern part of the island. These conditions
gave the Japs an advantage in preparing defensive positions for all-around security.
Only small groups were needed to cover very narrow beaches with steep exits along
the northern coast.
COVER AND DISPERSAL
, Captured documents, confirmed by ground study, indicate the enemy's battle
strength was conserved by countermeasures against shelling and bombing. The terrain
was well suited for cover, and caves were so numerous in some sections of the island
that it was impossible to plot them all on a 1:10,000 map. The coarse, loose, vol­
canic ash kept damage from shell fragmentation to a minimum. Ammunition, stores,
and personnel were dispersed in caves and behind protective terrain where naval
gunfire and artillery could not reach them.
CAMOUFLAGE
Camouflage encountered and camouflage discipline during construction, as evalu­
ated from aerial photographs, was excellent. Positions were at all times covered
with materials which blended into the surrounding terrain and vegetation. Spoil
from excavations was planted with grass to obliterate traces of military activity.
Natural vegetation was used to a large extent to conceal well-built positions from
aerial attack. While such practices could not always elude photographic interpre­
tation, nevertheless many positions were not detected until gun fire had blown away
the concealing vegetation. Maximum use was made of IW0*s sparse growth for con­
cealing trenches, rifle pits, machine gun and artillery emplacements. Positions as
large as those housing 120 mm Howitzers were undetected under the protective covering
of trees in their natural state.
COAST DEFENSE
Coast defense artillery ranging from 4.7" (120 mm) to 6M (I55 mm) guns was
initially effective against our ships. All CD guns were casemated in four to six
feet of reinforced concrete. Each emplacement was so positioned in the terrain that

it was normally protected from naval gunfire. A ship taking a CD gun under direct
fire necessarily exposed itself to the gun at which it was firing. Many guns were
so camouflaged that their location was unknown, until they opened fire.
ANTIAIRCRAFT
Antiaircraft batteries were numerous, including 120 mm DP, 100 mm, 75 mm, and
25 mm in triple, twin, and single mounts. The Japs could not satisfactorily conceal
these weapons, but their continued use against aircraft and our personnel ashore
testifies to the sound construction of their emplacements.
EAST BEACH POSITION
The elaborate trench system facing the eastern beaches had been entirely
abandoned. The loose nature of the sand suggests their presence as dummies, al­
though they may have been prepared originally as hasty beach defenses before adequate
concrete positions were built. Well-constructed blockhouses encasing 25 mm machine
cannons to 120 mm short naval guns were the first defenses encountered on and near
the beach. Some concrete pillboxes and sandstone revetted rifle pits gave infantry
protection to the heavier weapons. The ground at the base of Airfield No. 1 was
more suitable for dug in positions, and most of the infantry positions protecting
the east beach were here. The positions were not so much the target for naval gun­
fire, and excellent observation and good fields of fire were afforded here. The
position of Airfield No. 1 limited the depth of these positions to approximately
500 to 700 yards. Supporting fires were delivered from the flanks using the ob­
servation provided by Mt. SUHIBACHI and the high ground over the East Boat Basin
and around Airfield No. 2. The area between the beach and Airfield No. 1 was steep
and impossible for wheeled vehicles* to traverse. Movement of infantrymen and tanks
was impeded by the loose soil with the result that they offered excellent targets
to anti-tank and anti-personnel guns and tactics.
WEST BEACH POSITIONS.
The defenses of the West Beaches were probably more extensive and elaborate
than East Beach defenses.' Airfield No. 1 permitted these defenses to be 700 to 1400
yards deep giving considerably longer fields of fire and permitting a more elaborate
system of dummy positions fronting the actual main positions and designed to draw
our preliminary bombardment. The terrain was much more substantial for caves and
underground shelters, and positions were better protected from our naval gunfire.
SURIBACHI POSITIONS
In the south a cross-island defense line was constructed on the terraced slopes
which guarded the approaches to Mt. SURIBACHI. It consisted of a maze of concrete
pillboxes, bunkers, shelters, and blockhouses which were capable of all-around de­
fense and were mutually supporting. In addition to this elaborate surface organ­
ization, there was an equally elaborate subsurface organization of shelter, passage­
way, living quarters, storage areas, and cave-type firing positions which provided
adequate protection against the heaviest of bombs and shells. The excellent ob­
servation from the heights of SURIBACHI and the high ground around Airfield No. 2
were the feey to controlled artillery and mortar fire,
MAIN DEFENSE BELT
Since landings in strength were limited to the east and west beaches near the
southern end of the island, the enemy prepared his main defense in depth in a cross-
island belt. Beginning in the west at the rocky cliffs to the north of the western
beaches, it stretched east across the island to skirt the southern end of Airfield
No. 2, and terminated in the cliffs which form at the northern end of the eastern
beaches. The center of this belt was 2600 yards deep. It gained its strength from
its depth and its concrete and steel structures, positioned so as to obtain long
fields of fire which were carefully calculated and tied into the overall defense
system. Reliance on caves as a shelter and a fighting position was increas'ed here.

Most of the positions showed excellent engineering and terrain appreciation. Com­
munications were maintained by trenched wire, radios, and a labyrinth of underground
tunnels connecting all areas. One of these tunnels was explored for 800 yards,
and 14 entrances were found; it housed two battalion command posts and was equipped
with lights and telephones. Artillery, including heavy mortars and rockets in and
behind this defense belt, could cover most of the beach area. Positions were pro­
vided with complete preregistration data.
Strong points were established around commanding ground, Conorete-faced caves
and infantry positions in the erosion-made crevices were frequently so close to­
gether that an equally strong defensive position existed only a few yards to the
rear or flank. Contact became so close that safety of our own troops prevented use
of artillery, naval gunfire, or air support in reducing these positions. One bluff,
forming something similar to an amphitheatre, contained two terraces and three tiers
of concrete pillboxes and oaves*
FINAL DEFENSIVE AREA ' • •

North of this cross-island defensive sector, the extremely rough terrain from
the coast to 2000 yards inland created a natural defensive area. The number of
caves and terrain characteristics somewhat compensated for the reduced amounts of
concrete and steel. These features, coupled with the masses of men employed, tended
to make this final defensive area equally as strong as the main defensive positions.
In attacking these positions no Japs were to be seen, all being in caves or crevices
in the rocks and so dispersed as to give an all-around interlocking defense to each
small compartment. Attacking troops frequently were subjected to fire from flanks
and rear more than from their front. It was always very difficult and frequently
impossible to locate exactly where defensive fires originated.
In defending IW0 JIMA, the Japs employed one basic tactic which in a sense was
a departure from the Japanese defensive operations hitherto generally encountered.
This tactic was simply to occupy previously determined D-Day positions and maintain
them, without recourse either to costly rtmain effort" counterattacks or organized
withdrawals. This plan was not only simple in conception but in general was skill­
fully executed and well adapted to the terrain of IW0 JIMA. There were no organized
attempts made to counterattack our beachhead, no large scale night counterattacks,
no "all-out" banzai charge. Instead, the enemy committed a minimum number of troops
to the southern beach area and defended it by delivering heavy volumes of fire from
both SUHIBACHI and the north so that even when the southern area was finally taken,
the bulk of the enemy's forces remained intact and were well entrenched in the most
heavily fortified part of the island. The enemy, by continuing to follow his simple
but basic defensive tactic of occupying a position and refusing to yield until dug
out and killed without counterattacking and without withdrawing, was able to main­
tain organized resistance for over twenty days. There were no tactical withdrawals,
no retrograde or delaying actions in the military sense, though in some instances
isolated withdrawals were made to preserve units and individuals threatened with
inevitable destruction. It is now known that this defense of holding to the end
without counterattack or withdrawal was the express plan conceived by the Commanding
General. It was this simple tactic, coupled with the incredible rocky terrain and
the maximum use the enemy had made of this terrain in constructing fortified posi­
tions which made the capture of IW0 JIMA so difficult*
ANTI-TANK TACTICS
Captured battle plans indicate the enemy's fear of our tanks. Mine fields,
magnetic mines, and explosives carried by hand were employed at the beach where the
loose sand seriously impeded the movement of even full-tracked vehicles. Anti-tank
guns, mainly the high velocity 75 mm and 47 mm, were the principal weapons employed
inland. Many anti-tank guns had one or more supplementary or alternate positions*
These weapons were sited in terrain affording fields of fire covering possible tank
routes from the beach; however, considerable emphasis appears to have been placed on
locating an emplacement where it was protected by an abutting bluff or terrace, which
shielded it from frontal flat trajectory fire.

BLOCKHOUSES AND PILLBOXES
Blockhouses and pillboxes near the beaches on the more open terrain were almost
invariably sited for flanking fire. Wherever possible, a pillbox was behind a natural
mound of sand. It often had only a small fire port which allowed approximately 30°
of traverse; however, there was a sufficient number of mutually supporting pillboxes
to offset the restricted field of fire of each weapon.
Many blockhouses near the beach had sand piled as high as 50 feet in front of
them. A narrow fire lane through the sand revealed the direction of fire, but many
positions were so well protected that they were still firing until reduced by in­
fantry. Pillboxes were protected similarly; infantry commanders often found it
necessary to request main battery fire from naval vessels when secondary battery
fire could not blast the sand from in front of well built positions.
OF TANKS
Relatively few tanks, medium and light, were present on IWO JIMA. The rough
terrain, size of the island, and fixed nature of defenses probably account for the
limited number. Their manner of employment was as an anti-tank weapon. They were
used in support of the main cross-island defense belt either in a revetment or be­
hind protective terrain, camouflaged and stationary. Their 37 mm, 47 mm, and 57 mm
guns fired anti-tank and personnel missions like the many 47 mm guns. Reports in­
dicate small tank units were to be employed to support local counterattacks. There
is little evidence they were so used. The torn up condition of roads and constant
artillery fire may well have prevented any movement.
ARTILLERY
Artillery tactics were characterized by good observation and careful preplanning
of fires. Range stakes were found in the vicinity of landing beaches. The elaborate
casemated structures in which artillery pieces were housed, the cave positions from
which mortars and rockets were fired, operated to limit the number of pieces which
could be brought to bear on a single area. Despite perfect observation, artillery,
rocket, and mortar fires were never massed against us in the same manner in which
we mass artillery fires. Dual purpose guns were used to fire time fire over our
troops*
An artillery group gave coordination to all field artillery and mortar employ­
ment; coast defense and AA artillery were not included in this command. Mortars
had the primary mission of filling in the gaps between the fires of the other guns,
but after the land fighting stage was reached they shifted to control of sector
infantry commanders.
The principal locations of mobile artillery were in the higher ground north of
Airfield No. 2 with forward OPs in prominent elevations along the main defensive
belt. There definitely were more weapons at the disposal of commanders than were
organically assigned to the units. The fixed nature of the defenses permitted
personnel normally used for ammunition carriers and for the movement of mobile
weapons to be employed to man additional weapons added to basic tables of organ­
ization.
MORTARS AND ROCKETS
Although approximately twelve 320 mm spigot mortars were encountered on the
island, their effectiveness is doubtful. Emplacements were well constructed and
concealed but only a few rounds were fired. IWO's terrain was suited for the use
of the many 150 mm, 81 mm and smaller mortars found there. Ammunition was stored
throughout the northern half of the island in caves and hasty firing positions
were utilized at the entrances. The 150 mm mortars were used to fire on landing
beaches. These weapons and the smaller mortars were withdrawn as the situation
demanded.

Three types of rockets were used as artillery weapons. Several positions were
sighted for firing at ships approaching close to shore. The V-trough launcher was
used for 63 kg and 250 kg aerial bombs with rocket motors providing the propelling
force. A 200 mm rocket was used from a mobile-type launcher and a launcher which is
mounted on a mortar-type bipod. Rockets were dispersed in deep draws over the north­
ern portion of the island and the launchers could be moved to the site of the am­
munition.

* * * * * * * * *
It is evident that little was left undone by the Japs in constructing as for­
midable ground defenses as possible on an island with the size and particular terrain
of IWO JIMA. A study of Japanese defense installations encountered in the field is
presented with photographs and drawings on the following pages.

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MAP APPENDIX CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO. 136-45

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ENEMY DEFENSE INSTALLATIONS
AS OBSERVED FROM GROUND STUDY 19 FEBRUARY —19 MARCH 1945

THE SPECIAL GRID SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN PURPLE COLOR. THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR PIN POINT DESIGNATIONS. THE ARBITRARY TARGET SQUARE SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN SALMON WITH BLUE LETTERS AND NUMBERS. THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR AREA DESIGNATIONS. THE NUMBERING OF THE IOOO-YARD TARGET AREAS AND LETTERING OF THE EOO-YARD TARGET SQUARES HAS NO RELATION TO THE NUMBERING USED IN THE GRID SYSTEM.

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R J I 0 6 IS IN TARGET SQUARE 132 A

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CASEMATE OR BLOCKHOUSE EMPLACEMENT, UNOCCUPIED FIRE CONTROL CENTER FIRE CONTROL VISUAL OBSERVATION POST OBSERVATION TOWER PILLBOX PERSONNEL SHELTERS-BELOW GROUND DIRECTION FINDER SEARCHLIGHT SIGNAL TOWER AMMUNITION COMMAND POST BURIED BUILDING AIRCRAFT REVETMENT

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THOUSANDS OF CAVES USED FOR DEFENSIVE POSITIONS, PERSONNEL , AND STORAGE HAVE NOT BEEN PLOTTED.

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SCALE IN YARDS

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MAP APPENDIX CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO 136-45

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1

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D

A

B

C

D

E
LJ

MAP APPENDIX CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO 136-45

P U A B C

Q ! R V W X V W X U
A B

p V
C

: Q

R W X Y U V W

W

X ' D

Y

u Jtr w x

U

V

W

X

U

V

W

X

Y
A B C

U
A B

V
C

W

F

G

H

Y'M

/V

W B C

B I C I D

TACHIIWA PT

J "

F

ASTs-BOAT BASIN

WO

JIMA

THE SPECIAL GRID SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN PURPLE COLOR. THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR PIN POINT DESIGNATIONS. THE ARBITRARY TARGET SQUARE SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN SALMON WITH BLUE LETTERS AND NUMBERS. THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE

R

S : T

THE NUMBERING OF THE IOOO-YARD TARGET AREAS AND LETTERING OF THE 200-YARO TARGET SQUARES HAS NO RELATION TO THE NUMBERING USED IN THE GRID SYSTEM. PIN-POINT DESIGNATION OF RJIO6 IS BC 7 5 0 - 7 0 9 R J I 0 6 IS IN TARGET SQUARE 132 A

ANTI-AIRCRAFT DEFENSES

U

V

W

X

Y

H

«

OBIISHI PT

'20,000

Wl

X

Y

X

Y -

U

SCALE

IN

YARDS

JICPOA L-50608-54

I—»——t—I—I—I—I—I—I

A

B

C D

A

B[ Cj D E

MAP APPENDIX CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO. 136-45

* W X

U

V

WX
A
F

B

C
G H

ROCK

W

n

X; Y

W

X Y A !, M C

U

V W

RAIWA BAY

R W

S T X Y

F

G H

WO

JIMA

THE SPECIAL GRID SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN PURPLE COLOR. THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR PIN POINT DESIGNATIONS. THE ARBITRARY TARGET SQUARE SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN SALMON WITH BLUE LETTERS AND NUMBERS THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR AREA DESIGNATIONS. THE NUMBERING OF THE IOOO-YARD TARGET AREAS AND LETTERING OF THE 200-YARD TARGET SQUARES HAS NO RELATION TO THE NUMBERING USED IN THE GRID SYSTEM.

U ! V
B C D

W ;X C D

PIN-POINT DESIGNATION OF RJIO6 IS BC 7 5 0 - 7 0 9 R J I 0 6 IS IN TARGET SQUARE I32A

A

B

COVERED ARTILLERY
WITH PRINCIPAL DIRECTIONS OF FIRE INDICATED

Q

R S
LEGEND

V
E ­A B

W
C D

X

U

V

W X

ALTERNATE HT

POSITION POSITION

SUPPLEMENTARY

J ­F

Q77K
Q ! R S W I Xi Y
i—i—i

—-» — * "
R :S
20,000
SCALE IN YARDS

X
I JICPOA L-50608-54

r

17'

'T­ IS1

I4I°2O'

21'

CONFIDENTIAL
MAP APPENDIX CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO 136-45

ARCS OF FIRE FOR CASEMATED COASTAL DEFENSE GUNS
-49' ON 49'

IWO JIMA
PLOTTED FROM GROUND STUDY AND CAPTURED MAP

24° 48'

-47'

47'­

46'

195

45'

45'­

17'

18'

19'

141 20"

21'
JICPOA L-50608-5 5

Cleared of mines, . t theshoulders of road is still mined Extent of field flints are. 3•"•*"'tf6 ' s//Us iv/ vc/sficM r)

and not >

nown 6 mines

removed

Single nbrn nemispnencai arid bombs reported in area. 3-/0-45

Underermine stick mines

mines Box, <f others

252

253
mortar grenod (-5!Magnetic mints (H Cosi of flares. d caps / ammo (3) Toot-measure

This area of rood) and 53 armed

(qpproK 100 yds square w onrained 6 Herr, icol mines. 27-45 See In&drt £

1 nest Tieiqs conrained a i and (21) Taoe- Measure ape-neat vre See Insert '/f- B~- C area (-9B) bombs

.^r

baHe lit p. fuzes

ry of mined area

(4! BOA /nines remove c i3>Shape charge (I) STjck qrenade tz) s' Duds, (i) &UA mines // were removed

HIRAIWA BUY

id £0 on each side

uop bomb disper \al area (65 to 70) 250 Kg dispersei 1 in groups of S. groups IS ft. opa

easur&4 ydstich. mines 250 kg bombs iv ydstick mines « rows removed. ? This field consisted of 4 ro or mines running approxu s parallel to the beach for i distance of over 1000 yar nd The mines were 63 kg < 250 kg bombs with no 1 d 'ardsrick mines were lashi length-wise TO the bombs ur/ed near the surface . The aerial; bombs were place an overage of 35' Qgarf There were approximately j^7rd^m9a'5 mines in the field. This area i See Insert 0' ed ines 6 J (i7j Conical <f AntiInsert F mines Scotterec Pattern of Anti- Tank This oreo conrained 57 Co/, Trench and 19 Hemispherical mines 2"Terrace wen si I raws ... to the beach on Terrace. The rows ZSaparT, Double and si horned mines were fovn Some irunm Mfrnp-Hind son contdbieci scrfetf-pi Tbe\ Conicalmin?S-w 3 rowi(f'f&rrace) onk £ ro (2 terracer),' stoy$t*4di it rt beach and 25'apart ' Hoi were present for additionc mines One Depth charge found- (See insert f'J.3/ This area contained in series of 2 with connecfing. a//

(I) ROW 2 /7( rn mines !3) Rows / Hi rn /nrnes /orf. her we en rows 411 removed.

minat, road bl was also Clean go of t 6­ Z horn min&s)

ynK
field located approt red pattern not Removedjs) loolb Sombs

I- imr

>e measure mines mines e)Tonh mines Magnetic 2) $o kg bomb a charoe arena cm Horn rninee, ydst cM mines, Tape measure mines \yAnfi-p sonnet, a.

Removed (2*) Ant, nvasioni Horned) mine

63'j kgbombs, \yydstic

Removed (eto box mine. 5 /tasty mine fie 4 yds tic A f 3 removed. 3 3 JLXtll), oito mines horn mines i row ac'ft off , a/so rape-measure,

nsert G" Pattern of mines Yard shek mines

do/ mines I claare This area contain charge p/aced / road with 2 yd either side This area has be&n found dps

60) Kg be •nbs remoireo' 3-i-fS C) Incendi ary re. voved. 3-3-45 ttap naz ard pattern of Tape -measvre mines le rot* of horn turned upside, down base as stick mines used.

rows Tort ap 20 ft apart.

25 Depth Charge Mine field c/eared z no data on pattern or (19)Smqle horn mines Ci)2 horn oeoch mine ((» US A'oyy gun firs (6OJ US mcrfor duds IS) VS. Novy rocket- </</, <2) USAircraft duds also srr?o//er duc/s stored am me

16 MARCH 45 D plus 25

Removaa mines on Red deo h If 2 On Green Sfemovcd

MINE

SITUATION
of

MAP

Mined area has bee neutra/jze d of f/'/ct/on qrenodes, a// are Scoftcrev md/scrim natelyt

IWO JIMA
Compiled by Corps Engineer Section from information received from 3 d , 4 t h , 5 t h 2d Sep. Engr. Bn. and Marine Divisions,

Appro* line (i every

f fi­ / / " on beech

2d Bomb Disposal Co.

(4) AP mines ItS . '3) Jnp flora

(/'/) fr mines 11 HI Florns

L1

0

500

wmmmm•1
1000

2000 yds

JICPOA L- 50608-56

CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO. 136-45 MAP APPENDIX

GENERAL TERRAIN FEATURES -Beoches

Amphibious tractor stuck In
loose sand on East Beach.

Deep footprints indicate
loose character of sand
on beaches.

Beaches

Marston matting on East
Beach essential to
vehicular movement over
the soft sand.

Bogged down Jeep with
chains on East Beach
subsequently damaged
by enemy fire.

8

Beaches

Wave-cut terrace on East
Beach.

Terrace on East Beach and
amphibious tractor.

Beaches

Steep gradient of beach com­
bined with looseness of sand
made movement difficult for"
vehicles and troops.

View of terrace Just inland
from Blue Beach #2.

1 0

Terrain Inland

Looking west. This Is a
typical area inland along
the West Beach. (TA-163J)

Clumps of vegetation in
the central areas con­
cealed trenches, rifle
pits and MG positions.

Terrain Inland

Covered artillery posi­
tion housing 47 mm AT
gun firing down runway
of #2 airfield. Type
of terrain in which gun
emplacements were least
vulnerable to naval gun
fire. (TA-183C)

Areas of this sort pro­
vided excellent cover to
the enemy in his attempts
to infiltrate our lines.
(TA-E33M)

1 2

Terrain Inland

Approaching Hill 362 show­
ing the natural rugged
terrain which confronted
troops. Since troops
could advance here only
with great difficulty,
this terrain was a decided
asset to the enemy.
(TA-216N)

Looking, west from thi:
area showing sparse
vegetation. (TA-216A)

1 3

Terrain Inland

m

Looking south showing the
rugged terrain approach­
ing Mt. Suribachi.
(TA-132R)

This picture is typical
of cave-infested north­
ern area terrain.
(TA-234D)

1 4

Terrain Inland

Rocky outcrops and scrub
vegetation characteristic
of the northern one-third
of the island making move­
ment of troops difficult.

Rocky terrain near north
coast provided the enemy
with natural positions
for MGs and riflemen.

15

Terrain Inland

- *

View of terrain typical
of that encountered In
vicinity of Hill 382.
(TA-200Y)

Trench cut through reck
leading to gun positions
near East Boat Basin.
(TA-166D)

1 6

OBSTACLES AND M I N E S - Mines

Close-up of taried oil
drum with the top cut
open and ready for land-
mine to be emplaced.
Due to the enemy's dis­
rupted schedule caused
by cur bombing prior to
D day, they did not have
time to set up the mine
field in conjunction
with the oil drums.
(TA-180X)

View of West Beach showing
55-gallon oil drums which
were to be used as land
mines. Electrically con­
trolled mines were to be
put into the drums to hin­
der our landing on this
beach

17

Mines

250 kg bomb burled in
sand as land mine.
These mines were fuzed
with yardstick mines
Placed on top of the
bomb and secured in
Place with fine wire.
Many such mines thus
employed were located
strategically, and
well covered with fire
from AT weapons.

(TA-165 0)

View of the West Beach
showing one-horned coni­
cal land mines. The
entire West Beach was
mined.

1 8

Trip Wire

Trip Wire. (TA-201S)

This was the only evidence
of trip wire or barbed wire
being used in this area.
It proved ineffective In
stopping troops from land­
ing or advancing.
(TA-148H)(looking east)

Anti-Tank Ditches

View of AT trench,
(TA-198H)

View of AT trench,
(TA-198H)

20

CAVES

Interior view of cave.
This cave had a series
of caves leading off
in different directions
and connecting with
other caves In the near
vicinity. Food, ammu­
nition and .clothing
were found In these
caves indicating troops
had been quartered
there. (TA-199U)

Interior view showing
steps leading out of the
cave which is about forty
feet under ground with
large rooms throughout
for the quartering of
troops. (TA-199U)

2 1

Caves

Typical entrance to ex­
tensive cave network,
extending from under­
neath the quarry near
the East Boat Basin
with tunnels leading as
far bs 800 yds. to
Minami Village.
(TA-183W)

Entrance to cave
(TA-198X)

22

Caves

Interior view of exten­
sive cave•network under
CD gun over East Boat
Basin. (TA-183X)

Entrance to cave.
(TA-216D)

23

Coves

One of many caves In for­
ward slopes of hills
guarding airfield No. 2.
MGs and small arms fire
was received from these
positions which provided
excellent observation of
the entire East Beach
area. (TA-183H)

Interior view of cave
showing steps leading
down and passageway
leading off to either
side where troops
were quartered.
(TA-198X)

»

Caves

Interior view of entrance leading down Into cave.

(TA-199UJ

Interior view of passageway In cave.

(TA-132C)

Entrance to two-story cave.

(TA-199U)

25

COAST DEFENSE - ARTILLERY- 15 cm CD GUNS

155 mm (15 cm) CD gun show-
Ing destruction caused by
naval gun fire. Reinforced
concrete 4 ft. thick. En­
trance to these casemates
Is In the rear connected b -
y cave networks which were
used as personnel shelters,
food storage and ammunition
storage. These guns were
set about 15 yds. apart and
had a field of fire cover-
Ing the entire West beaches
and areas out to sea.
(TA-216D)

Ruins of 155 mm (15 cm)
CD gun. (TA-216D)

26

1 cm CD GUNS
5

Front view of blockhouse
housing a 155 mm (15 cm)
CD gun. Destruction
caused by naval gun fire,
Entrance Is in rear of
blockhouse with adjoin­
ing caves throughout for
personnel shelter, food
storage and ammunition
storage. (TA-216D)

Rangefinder placed between
two CD guns in same area
used as part of fire con­
trol equipment.
(TA-216D)

27

15 cm CD GUNS

Rear view of 155 mm (15
cm) CD gun In blockhouse
showing destruction
caused by naval gun fire .
(TA-216D)(SW)

Ruins of casemate contain­
ing 155 mm (15 cm) CD gun,
Two such Installations,
built of reinforced con­
crete with walls over 4
ft. thick and connected
with rangefinder and OP,
were located on the edge
Of a cliff at TA-219A.

28

14 cm CD GUNS

View of cave entrance
leading from casemated
140 mm (14 cm) CD gun
back. Into the base of
the crater.
(TA-132L)

Breech-block view of one
of the 140 mm (14 cm)
guns at the foot of Suri­
bachl showing destruc­
tion. It is known that
"these guns were silenced
prior to our landing but
ruins of these installa­
tions provided cover for
the enemy and afforded
an opportunity to inflict
casualties on troops ad­
vancing toward Mt. Suri­
bachl. (TA-132K)

29

14 cm CD GUNS

Front view of one of the
140 mm (14 cm) CD guns
showing destruction
caused by naval gun fire
(TA-132K)

Front view of one of the
140 mm (14 cm) CD guns
casemated at the foot of
Mt. Suribachi. They were
constructed of reinforced
concrete about 4 ft.
thick with tunnels lead­
ing from the rear into
the base of the mountain
and connecting each in­
stallation. These tun­
nels also connected to
personnel shelters, food
storage and ammunition
storage. (TA-132K & L)

30

14 cm CD GUNS

STAIRS TO AA GUN ON ROOF

ENTRANCE

TO

ADJOINING ROOM

Plan view of 140 mm (14 cm) CD gun with 30-foot
fire port. This Is one of the four emplacements
found at the base of Mt. Surlbachi. (TA-132 K)

3 1

12 cm CD GUNS

y

m

°pm

•••

-£)

r
• • *

Close-up of 120 mm (12 cm) CD gun showing destruction of Installation by naval gun fire and construction of casemate. (TA-183W)

i

?) \/
1

i^^ftV.

;:••«&,"
.*•

:

.»»

^

^

^

^

'

'

^"HBL

^'

•* ^ * ^

i

V
I \

120 mm (12 cm) CD gun
casemated In 4 ft. re­
inforced concrete. All
four guns In this bat­
tery were destroyed by
naval gun fire.
(TA-183W)

32

12 cm CD GUNS

View showing field of fire
affonded 120 ram (12 cm)
gun emplaced in casemate
overlooking East anchor­
ages and beaches.
(TA-183Y)(SW) corner.

120 mm (12 cm) CD gun de­
stroyed by naval gun fire.
This 4-gun battery was
excellently camouflaged.
They were not observed in
aerial photos until the
blast effect of naval gun
fire removed protecting
camouflage. (TA-183W)

33

12 cm (Short) Novol Guns

The field of fire of 120
mm (12 cm) short naval
gun firing down West
Beach and areas out to
sea. Completely knocked
out by naval gun fire.
(TA-146Y)

Front view of 120 mm
(12 cm) short naval gun
firing down West Beach.
(TA-146Y)

34

12 cm (Short) Noval Guns

120 mm (12 cm) short
naval gun casemated In
six feet of reinforced
concrete. This Is one
of two such guns In
TA-183X.

l£0 mm (12 cm) short
naval gun sited to fire
on East Beaches.
(TA-183X)

12 cm (Short) Naval Guns

Rangeflnder for 120 mm
(12 cm) short naval gun
battery. (TA-183X)

120 mm (12 cm) short
naval gun not damaged by
naval gun fire, case-
mated In flve-feet-thlck
reinforced concrete with
two adjoining rooms for
living quarters and am­
munition storage. OP on
top of this Installation
had a ladder leading up
from the Inside to It.
This gun was put out of
action by flamethrowers
and small arms fire.
(TA-148L)

36

12 cm

Naval Guns

120 m (12 cm) short naval m gun emplaced as a coast defense gun.

' » • • >0 0 0. ? °

.'•. 0 . 0 ^ _
rt

O O o n ^ ^ O

o;«o"o?«,v

GUN ROOM

.

AMMO. ROOM

LIVING

SPACE

0,»

| FIRE-PORT

oSo.oo

h—4'- tf1—•

9"- 0"­

-6'- 6"

r- 9"

6'-0"

-O'U 3'-0"
,00 0° °

n° ° °
O O T>

o». o o
O

CP

e , , 0 „ &, -REINFORCED CONCRETE

o0o

Plan view of casemate for 120 mm (12 cm) short naval gun. (TA-146Y)

37

8 cm CD GUNS

Inside view of casemated
76 mm (8 cm) dual purpose
gun used as CD gun.
(TA-147V)

Front view of casemated
76 mm (8 cm) CD gun show­
ing construction of 3 ft,
reinforced concrete.
This gun was not damaged
by naval gun fire but be­
lieved to ha"e been put
out of action by flame­
thrower and small arms
fire. Field of fire
345° - 15°.
(TA-147V)

38

8 cm CD GUNS

•»>'••(• - " % , • •

'

1
'•* " • • * ' ' •

p. *:

5-0

AMMO. 8 LIVING 1 SPACE

'^:\^v-f
C

T

cl

I

r~i ' * ' • . *

^ -1

Plan view of casemate for
8 cm CD gun. (TA-147C)
>*ii" . .-."•• "..v.'» • ' v % ' • • ' • - »*•*; •v

ANTIAIRCRAFT AND DUAL PURPOSE BATTERIES - 1 2 0 mm DP

Four-meter rangefinder used in conjunction with 120 m (1£ cm) dual pur­ m pose b a t t e r y . (TA-202X)

39

12 cm DP GUNS

; • ; , ; . » / ; .
:

• .

. .

. ;

120 mm (12 cm) dual pur­
pose gun showing revetment
made of oil drums filled
with sand. Ammunition
ready boxes were placed
In the side of the revet­
ment • This Is one of the
guns In a battery of six,
and It Is known that all
personnel lived at their
guns In an adjoining
underground room which
was found at each em­
placement. (TA-147R)

Underground shelter for
personnel and ammunition
connected to 120 mm (12
cm) dual purpose emplace­
ment. The walls and roof
were constructed of re­
inforced concrete 2 ft.
thick, and the Installa­
tion was covered with
earth having natural
vegetation for camouflage•
(TA-182U)

"«lli:;:

40

12cm DP GUNS

Director for 120 mm (12 cm)
dual purpose battery loca­
ted In small cut stone
revetment. Rangefinder
was located on an adjacent
wooded knoll. (TA-182U)

One of thirty-one 120 mm
(12 (1 cm) dual purpose guns
she
showing excellent observa­
tion for firing ground
missions. (TA-182U)

4 1

12 cm DP GUNS

Side view of 120 mm (12 cm)
dual purpose gun showing-
attempted camouflage. This
proved very ineffective.
(TA-U7R)

Director for 120 mm (12 cm)
dual purpose battery. Al­
though no damage can be
observed In the photo, this
Installation was out of
action prior to our land­
ing. (TA-147R)

42

10 cm DP GUNS

Camouflage net Is noted
over 100 mm (10 cm)(65
cal.) twin-mount naval
dual purpose gun. The
emplacement was dug In­
to a depth of 8 ft. to
10 ft. with no retain­
ing walls. (TA-217G)

This Is one of two 100 mm
(10 cm) twin-mount dual
purpose naval guns found
at TA-217G. A third re­
vetment was under con­
struction. However, no
additional gun was found
on the Island.

43

10 cm DP GUNS

Front view of 100 mm (10
cm) twin-mount naval DP
gun showing depth of
revetment as compared to
shield on gun. Camou­
flage net covers shield
and part of barrels.
(TA-E17G)

Rear view of 100 mm (10
cm) twin-mount naval DP
gun, 65 caliber.
(TA-217G)

44

10 cm DP GUNS

Plan view showing size of 100 mm (10 cm) DP gun revetment. This
revetment was dug Into the ground approximately 8 ft. to 12 ft.
with rock piled around the sides. (TA-217G)

I

100 mm (10 cm) DP gun with camouflage torn away.

45

7 cm AA GUNS

--:

75 mm (7 cm) type 88 AA
gun showing poorly con­
structed revetment which
easily crumpled from the
effects of our artillery
Note the camouflage
painted on the barrel of
the gun. (TA-235V)

& '

AA director in lava rock,
emplacement for six-gun
75 mm (7 cm) type 88 AA
battery. (TA-183D)

46

7 cm AA GUNS

Hastily emplaced 75 mm
(7 cm) type 88 mobile
AA gun. The beginning
of a revetment is noted
(TA-218C)

75 mm (7 cm) type 88 AA
gun. (TA-235V)

47

7 cm AA GUNS

Although the trail legs
of this 75 mm type 88
AA gun were spread, the
diameter of this em­
placement measured only
16 ft. (TA-183D)

ROCKS STACKED 1-6" THICK
FOR WALL

Plan view showing dimen­
sions of a typical 75 mm
(type 88) AA gun emplace­
ment found on Iwo Jlma.

48

Triple-mount 25 mm AA MG
in lava rock emplacement.
Several of these mounts,
believed to have been
taken from wrecked LSMs,
were found. (TA-166C)

Triple-mount 25 mm AA MG
emplaced with a battery
of twin-mount 25 mm AA
MGs. (TA-217L)

25 mm AA MG

25 mm twin-mount auto­
matic AA MG showing gun
in emplacement which
was constructed of lava
rock, blocks. Note
ammunition storage box­
es lying around sides
of revetment. There
was a passageway lead­
ing from revetment to
underground shelter.
(TA-148P)

"it

"**•*'

25 mm AA MG. This twin-
mount, along with two
other twin-mounts, was
emplaced in a battery
with three single-mount
25 mm AA MGs. (TA-148P)

50

25 mm AA MG

25 mm twin-mount auto­
matic AA gun in lava
rock emplacement.
(TA-182Q)

£5 mm twin-mount with one
gun removed. It is be­
lieved that some of these
positions had one gun re­
moved in order to reduce
vibration. (TA-201U)

51

25 mm AA MG

25 mm twin-mount auto­
matic AA position con­
nected to earth-covered
living quarters and
ammunition storage over­
looking airfield No. 1.
(TA-164E)

25 mm AA MG placed in
revetment using sand-
filled oil drums as
retaining walls, re­
inforced with blocks
of lava rock. Note
mount for two gunners,
one to elevate, the
other to traverse.
(TA-147T)

52

25 mm AA MG

25 mm AA MG emplacement.
This is a new type mount
modeled after the 25 mm
twin-mount MG. (TA-147T)

25 mm automatic AA in
small revetment measur­
ing ten feet In diameter.
Like many AA weapons on
Iwo Jlma, this gun Is
sited also for use
against ground forces..
Considerable armor-
piercing ammunition was
found In various AA
positions. (TA-219F)

25 mm AA MG

Three feet of concrete
protected this ammuni­
tion box at 25 mm auto­
matic AA position.
(TA-164E)

Entrance to earth-
covered partially
underground living
quarters at 25 mm
twin-mount auto­
matic AA position.
(TA-164E)

54

25 mm AA MG

Underground shelter having
food, water and first aid
supplies for personnel at
26 mm twin-mount automatic
AA position. (TA-182Q)

General view of earth-
covered structure con­
taining 26 mm twin-mount
automatic AA position,
living quarters for
personnel and ammunition
storage. Note the nat­
ural grass for camouflage
(TA-164E)

55

25 mm AA MG

25 mm AA single-mount MO
emplaced In revetment
using sand-filled oil
drums as retaining walls.
Ammunition was stored
around the sides of the
revetment as shown In
picture. (TA-147T)

AEMPTY

AMMO. BOXES

USED

FOR

WALLS

, LOG AND DIRT COVERED

SLEEPING

SPACE

Plan view of 25 mm AA gun position.

GUN BASE BOLTED TO WOODEN TIES 6" SQUARE SIDE VIEW OF BASE

25 mm AA MG

Plan view of casemated 25 m M position. m G

STEPS CUT INTO WALL

Plan view of a 25 m m A (triple-mount) gun A revetment. (TA-217I)

57

25 mm AA MG

ViV

2 5 mm AA g u n .

Triple-mount 25 mm AA gun.

58

1 mm MG
3

13 mm MG revetment show­
ing how natural vegetation
proved to be effective
camouflage. (TA-132H)

13 mm single-mount MG
emplaced on top of Mt.
Suribachl in very
hastily constructed
revetment. Nine of
these weapons were
found around the top
of Mt.. Suribachl.
(TA-132P)

59

1 mm MG
3

13 mm twin-mount with
single seat attached to
mount in rear of gun.
Previously encountered
twin-mount 13 mm MGs
have been equipped with
seats on each side of
the gun. (TA-183X)

« # # • •

13 mm single-mount MG
emplacement carved out
of lava rock. Note
ammunition storage
cave at left of gun.
(TA-183C)

60

Seorchlights

View of AA mobile search­
light showing cliffs and
ledges which were used as
protection against bomb-
Ing, strafing and artil­
lery fire. (TA-217D)

Trailer carrying 150 cm
searchlight from which
tarpaulin had not been
removed when located.
(TA-818H)

6 1

Searchlights

Revetment containing
truck with generator
for mobile search­
light. (TA-217Q)

Revetment showing search­
light comparator emplaced,
(TA-132A)

62

Searchlights

150 cm searchlight In
fixed position. A
revetment of loose rock,
has been partially blown
away. Attempts to
camouflage such posi­
tions with vegetation
were not effective.
(TA-218V)

\ 4

— " • '

Radar adaptation for
searchlight control.
(TA-217C)

63

Searchlights
ELECTRIC CONTROL BOX BUILT IN WALL

SANDSTONE ROCK STACKED 2'-O" THICK FOR WALL

SIZE OF LIGHT COMPARED TO BASE AND PIT

Plan view of revetment for 150 cm searchlight,
(TA-217C)

150 cm mobile searchlight protected by stone
revetment. A truck with generator .for the
searchlight was found In a revetment close by.
(TA-217Q)

Searchlight position for 150 cm searchlight.

64

BLOCKHOUSES

Inside view of blockhouse
showing intricate construc­
tion of various rooms. In
addition to housing a 25 mm
MG and a 7.7 mm HMG, It Is
believed that this block­
house was used as a CP for
the defense of the East
Beach. (TA-149A)

: i

\

Embrasure of blockhouse
housing a 47 mm AT gun
showing tube and carriage .
(TA-165J)

65

Blockhouses

Front view of fire port
for single-mount 25 ram
MG In blockhouse.
(TA-165N)

Cupola with four observa­
tion ports. The roof is
three feet of reinforced
concrete, and the cupola
can accommodate a man
five feet tall. (TA-165N)

66

Blockhouses

Rear entrance to block­
house. In addition to
a 25 mm MG, a model 92
7.7 mm HMG fired from
the opposite side.
(TA-165N)

Front view of blockhouse
showing fire port housing
a 25 mm machine cannon.
(TA-147C)

67

Blockhouses

Interior view of block­
house housing 120 mm
(12 cm) short naval gun
showing damage Inflicted
by naval gun fire.
(TA-146Y)(SE)

Front view of blockhousi
showing fire port and
revetted sides to fire
lane. (TA-147C)(E)

68

Blockhouses

Front view of blockhouse
housing a 120 mm (12 cm)
short naval gun firing
north along the beach.
It is constructed of
heavily reinforced con­
crete with the fire
port being protected by
revetments faced with
sand-filled oil drums.

Interior view of block­
house housing a 25 mm
machine cannon.
(TA-147C)

69

Blockhouses

4 WAY OBSERVATION TOWER 4 L 0" SQUARE, I4 L O"HIGH FROM DECK

Plan of blockhouse for 47 mm AT position at TA-181B. This position has
an adjoining room for a HMG, also space for ammunition storage, food
storage and living quarters.

SANDBAGS

CONCRETE FIRING TABLE (MACHINE GUN) 4-0" X 3-0" X
3 - 9 HIGH

1 4 WAY OBSERVATION TOWER |2'-O" HIGH PROTRUDING 3'"0" ABOVE'TOP OF BLOCKHOUSE WITH 3 L 0 " X ZLd' HIGH (INSIDE) OPENING AT BOTTOM

Plan of blockhouse for 3? .mm AT position at TA-215Y,

70

COVERED ARTILLERY EMPLACEMENTS —

120 mm Howitzers

120 mm (12 cm) type 38
Howitzer In covered
artillery emplacement.
This position was built
of cut-stone with a
roof of logs. Trees In
the area hid the posi­
tion frera the air.
(TA-219L)

120 mm (12 cm) type 38
Howitzer. (TA-201S)

7 1

120 mm Howitzers

Front view of 120 mm
(12 cm) Howitzer em­
placement showing fire
port and surrounding
areas. (TA-217A)

**f%$

120 mm (12 cm) Howitzer In hastily constructed
emplacement. (TA-201S)

!

72

120 mm Howitzers

120 m (12 cm) type 38 m Howitzer. (TA-219L)

Close-up of 120 mm
(12 cm) Howitzer posi­
tion. Note screen used
to camouflage opening.
(TA-201S)

73

120 mm Howitzers

LOG LAID ACROSS DECK CHOCK WHEELS OF GUN

Plan view of a 120 mm (12 cm) Howitzer position.

ROCK LINED PASSAGE LEADING TO AMMO. STORES

Interior view of a 120 mm (12 cm) Howitzer
emplacement showing gun in firing position.

74

75 mm (Type 38) Field Guns

Front view of casemated
75 mm (type 38) field
gun emplacement located
at the base of Suribachl
firing down East Beach.
(TA-132R)

Interior view of 75 mm
(type 38) fl-eld gun em­
placement snowing extent
of damage. (TA-132R)

1

75

75 mm (Type 38) Field Guns

Interior of.75 mm (type 38)
field gun position.
(TA-218A)

Inside view of 75 mm
(type 38) field gun
position destroyed.
(TA-201V)

76

75 mm (Type 38)

Field Gun

Ruins of casemated 75 mm
(type 38) field gun.
(TA-201V)

Casemated 75 mm (type 38)
field gun overlooking
East Boat Basin.
(TA-167A)

77

75 mm (Type 3$> Field Guns

A 75 mm (type 38) field
gun was located in this
well-concealed concrete
emplacement. A similar
position was located
nearby, and ammunition
was stored in caves at
the rear. (TA-218N)

75 mm (Type 90) (Field Guns)

Front view of a 75 mm (type 90) AT gun emplacement showing how emplacements
were constructed to blend in with the natural terrain.

78

75 mm (Type 90) Field Guns

Rear view of 75 mm (type
90) field gun In casemated
position. This position
fired down runway of air­
field No. 2. (TA-200Y)

Alternate position for
75 mm (type 90) field
gun hastily constructed,
(TA-200-0)

79

75 mm (Type 90) Field- Guns

Interior view of 75 mm
(type 90) field gun.
(TA-217H)

Front view of 75 mm
(type 90) field gun
showing construction
of emplacement and
how well the terrain
was utilized for
camouflage. (TA-217H)

80

4 7 mm Anti- Tank Guns

Interior view of 47 mm AT
emplacement showing damage
done to gun. (TA-132C)

Front view of emplacement
showing thickness of con­
crete and nature of ter­
rain of surrounding area.
Originally housed a 47 mm
AT gun. Field of fire
200° - 250°. (TA-215T)(NE)

It. V • *,­

8 1

47 mm Anti-Tank Guns

Front view showing the
emplacement for 47 mm
AT gun. Note rice-bag
revetted walls.
(TA-181B)

Artillery emplacement fo
47 mm AT gun built of lav
blocks with a log roof,
earth covered. The fire
port Is at the right. A
connecting MG position
built of lava blocks may
be seen at center.
(TA-182W)

82

4 7 mm Anti-Tank Guns

Front view of 47 mm AT
gun shelter showing
where gun was kept when
not In position.
(TA-132B)

47 mm AT gun emplacement
made of materials at hand
including logs and lava
rock. (TA-183N)

47 mm Anti-Tank Guns

Rear view of concrete
position for 47 mm AT
gun. The field of fire
covered the southern
part of airfield No. 2
seen in background.
(TA-199W)

Typical 47 mm AT gun
T:
shelter. At the far
end of this shelter
was an.entrance to a
cave and tunnel sys­
tem which was more
than 800 yds. long
and had 14 entrances.
It housed two Bn CPs.
(TA-183Q)

84

47 m m Anti-Tank Guns

DRUMS FILLED

WITH SAND

o
< o

oq oo
AMMO. STORAGE

[ 4 \ ' SMALL ROCKS CEMENTED TOGETHER

TRENCH TO
AMMO- DUMP

Plan view of a 47 mm AT position.

(TA-147I)

Rear view of a 47 mm emplacement showing trench
where the gun can be moved out when not in use.

85

3 7 mm Anti-Tank Guns

37 mm (type 94) AT gun In
emplacement constructed
of sand-filled fuel drums
with log roof. (TA-182W)

Front view of 37 mm AT
emplacement showing
destruction caused by
artillery fire.
(TA-98D)

86

OPEN ARTILLERY

EMPLACEMENTS — 4 7 mm Anti-Tank Guns

One of two supplementary
emplacements for 47 mm
AT gun In nearby covered
primary positions. Note,
logs placed over posi­
tion to support camou­
flage. (TA-183L)

47 mm AT gun covering
road at TA-201W.

87

37mm Anti-Tank Guns

37 mm AT gun In open
emplacement showing
how terrain aided In
protecting the posi­
tion. (TA-217G)

37 mm AT gun In open
emplacement. (TA-217G)

88

MORTARS— 320 mm Spigot Mortars

Photo of 320 mm (32 cm) spigot mortar projectile.

320 mm (32 cm) spigot mortar position showing
natural camouflage. Heavy screen garnished with brush was placed over the opening for
complete concealment. (TA-183L)

320 mm (32 cm) spigot mortar In firing posi­
tion. (TA-199K)

89

150 mm Mortars

View of 150 mm (15 cm;
mortar la firing posi­
tion located near an­
other 150 mm mortar
position under con­
struction. Note the
earth embankment used
in place of baseplate.
(TA-198X)

Entrance to a cave which
had a 150 mm (15 cm)
mortar set up in the en­
trance. When not actu­
ally firing, the mortar
was drawn back Into the
cave for protection and
concealment. (TA-216J)

90

150 mm Mortars

View of the fire port of
a 150 mm (15 cm) mortar
position. Adjoining
this emplacement were
personnel quarters, food
storage and ammunition
storage. (TA-198X)

150 mm (15 cm) mortar
position under con­
struction. (TA-198X)

9 1

150mm Mortars

One of a battery of four
150 mm (15 cm) mortar
positions. Note aiming
stakes on walls. These
emplacements are approxi­
mately 11 feet In dia­
meter and had ammunition
stored In a small covered
adjoining chamber. A fire
trench led to living quar­
ters for the mortar crew.
(TA-184I)

REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL

CONCRETE /TABLE 3 L 4" .HIGH

CAVE IN

BLAST WALL OF l"0" SANDSTONE BRICK 4 L 2" HIGH PROTECTED WITH EARTH

Plan view of a 150 m (15 cm) mortar position. m

(TA-198X)

92

81 m m Mortars

Type 3, 81 mm mortar used
in 120 mm (12 cm) dual
purpose gun emplacement.
(TA-182U)

Close-up of 81 mm mortar
in position at TA-182U.
Some antiaircraft 81 mm
mortar projectiles were
found on the island.

93

81 m m Mortars

View of 81 mm mortar
emplacement. Note
how foliage and ter­
rain were used for
concealment.
(TA-181D)

81 mm mortar position
made of rice bags.
The mortar Is con­
cealefl partially by
brush covering part
of the emplacement.
(TA-182M)

94

Grenade Launchers

Well built cut-stone and
log position for grenade
launcher. (TA-181T)

Grenade launcher posi­
tion. (TA-182M)

95

ROCKETS— 2 0 0 mnrTRocket Launcher

200 mm (20 cm) rocket projectiles in shelter adjoining launching site. (TA-183M)

Mortar-type 200 mm (20 cm) rocket launcher.

96

200 mm Rocket Launcher

t

v

200 mm (20 cm) mobile rocket launcher In camouflaged emplace­ ment. (TA-183M)

View of 200 mm (20 cm) rocket launcher from shelter for ammunition. (TA-183M)

97

200 mm Rocket Launcher

Close-up of 200 mm
(20 cm) mobile rocket
launcher. (TA-201I)

200 mm (20 cm) rocket
launcher in covered
position with a frame
built over it to sup­
port camouflage.
(TA-201I)

98

250 kg Rocket Launcher

This captured picture of the V-trough rocket launcher
for a 250 kg. aerial bomb is Identical to the rocket
launcher used on Iwo Jlma.

99

63 kg Rocket Launcher

Ruins of V-trough rocket
•launcher in deep draw
with rock dam for pro­
tection from seaward side
Rocket motor like one
noted in trough and 63 kg.
bomb were stored in cave
noted to left of picture.
(TA-184P)

V-trough rocket launcher
for 63 kg. bomb in natu­
ral emplacement formed
by deep draw. Ammuni­
tion was stored in ad­
joining cave. (TA-184P)

100

PILLBOXES

Heavily constructed pill­
box well camouflaged.
: Note limited field of
I fire. (TA-183U)

Pillbox sited down runway
of airfield No. 1. Camou­
flage net conceals the
fire lane. (TA-183X)

11 0

Pillboxes

Entrance to pillbox
(TA-147M)

View of entrances to two
Jap pillboxes firing to­
ward, airfield No. 1. It
was not unusual to find
pillboxes this close to­
gether. (TA-183L)

102

Pillboxes

Inside view of pillbox
for heavy machine gun.
(TA-165E)

Front view of pillbox showing fire port. This position can be seen only from the front because of nat­ ural concealment. (TA-198R)

Pillbox having a roof of concrete two feet thick covered with rock and earth. The natural camouflage makes detection difficult. (TA-182R)

103

RIFLE PITS

Rear view of rifle pit
constructed from a tank
turret affording excel­
lent observation of ter­
rain sloping south from
airfield No. 2. Sand
bags and camouflage were
blown away. (TA-182E)

Front view of one-man
rifle pit showing fire
ports. These positions
were not only excellent
rifle pits but also good
observation posts for
flanking AT positions.
(TA-181B)

104

Rifle Pits

Rifle pit carved out of
lava blocks. (TA-183R)

••k

,, ,.
,

Tank turret mounted in field, near beach used as rifle pit. (TA-165E)

Entrance to concrete rifle pit. These
positions were found scattered through­
out the Southern area. (TA-181B)

105

TANKS

Japanese medium tank em-
placed in a fixed posi­
tion to act as a pillbox.
Rugged terrain through­
out the area dictated
this use of tank. This
tank had a 57 mm gun
mounted in the turret.
(TA-21QS)

Rear view of Jap model 96
light tank revetted in
position to fire on ap­
proaches to airfield No.
2.

106

Tanks

g tank, mounting a
37 mm gun, in tank ser­
vicing area. (TA-EOOY)

Tank in fixed position
camouflaged with rocks
and vegetation which
have been largely blown
away. (TA-200E)

107

Tanks

Destroyed Jap 47 ram AT gun and revetted model 97
Jap medium tank mounting 47 mm gun on foot of
slope of Hill 382. (TA-200Y)

Revetted and camouflaged medium tank mounting 47 mm gun, model 97. (TA-201G)

Rear view of Jap medium tank model 97 revetted In foot of slope of Hill 382. (TA-200Y)

108

DUMMIES

Dummy pillbox showing fire
port. These positions were
numerous throughout the West
Beach area. (TA-180E)

Dummy covered artillery
position. This emplace­
ment consisted of a dum­
my gun with a wooden
frame supporting sand
mound. Rocks were placed
on either side of the
fire port to give the
effect of a fire lane.
(TA-180A)

109

Dummies

Dummy gun4 Before sand
was blasted by naval gun
fire from around gun,
this position appeared
In aerial photos to be a
covered artillery em­
placement. (TA-166A)

This dummy pillbox con­
sisted of no more than
a mound of sand with a
wooden box frame to
simulate a fire port
placed on one side to
give the appearance of
a pillbox. (TA-198F)

10 1

Dummies

Two dummy tanks made of
wood were found in this
area. They were lightly
constructed and could
be moved around easily.
The enemy hoped to con­
fuse interpreters of
aerial photos. (TA-216L)

Dummy tank. Note detail
of turret showing tank
gun. (TA-216L)

Ill

RADAR AND RADIO STATION

Radio station used as
blockhouse. Note thick­
ness of walls. ' Despite
the many direct hits,
this Installation had to
be cleaned out with flame­
throwers. (TA-184K)

Destroyed early warning radar on Hill 382. (TA-200Y)

Reinforced concrete radio station showing direct
hits from artillery and infantry weapons.
(TA-184K)

12 1

REVETTED VEHICLES

13 1

AIR RAID SHELTERS

Steps leading from air raid shelter.
At some time a heavy machine gun was
mounted In the opening. Note the
direction markers around the opening,
(TA-H8A)

Entrance to air raid shelter. This
air raid shelter was constructed
with walls of soft lava rock around
the entrance and leading down Into
the shelter. Vegetation was grow­
ing over the earth cover providing
excellent camouflage. This Installa­
tion was not harmed throughout the
operation. (TA-148A)

14 1

Air Raid Shelters

Interior view of well
constructed cut-stone
shelter with concrete
roof. Medical supplies
indicated that this was
used as a first aid
station. (TA-164E)

Interior view of air
raid shelter showing
how airplane fuselage
was used to form In­
terior of shelter.
(TA-148A)

15 1

AMMUNITION STORAGE

Underground ammunition
storage. (TA-234H)

This cave had many arms
that led off from main
passage. (TA-234H)

16 1

Ammunition Storage

A well camouflaged ammuni­
tion storage for 81 mm
mortar ammunition. This
position showed no effects
of our heavy gun fire or
artillery fire. It was
Just below the ground and
extended back approxi­
mately 30 feet and led to
a large room with connect­
ing tunnels leading to
adjoining rooms.
(TA-199K)

Anti-tank ammunition storage dug into a bluff. (TA-200Y)

Underground ammunition storage for 25 mm MG.
(T-181G)

17 1

MISCELLANEOUS

Gasoline motor to generate
power for communications.
(TA-164J)

Switchboard for public
address system at air­
field No. 1. (TA-164J)

18 1

Miscellaneous

General view of earth-
covered stone and con­
crete housing for public
address system at air­
field No. 1. (TA-164J)

Interior of communications
room In earth-covered con­
crete structure at air­
field No. 1. This posi­
tion was knocked out by
flamethrowers. (TA-164J)

19 1

COMBINED ARMS RESEARCH LIBRARY
FORT LEAVENWORTH, KS

3 1695 00535 5185

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