You are on page 1of 100

Mc lc

MC LC
MC LC.....................................................................................................I DANH MC HNH V V BNG.........................................................IV CHNG 1. ................................................................................................1 CNG NGH WIMAX...............................................................................1 1.1 Khi nim chung v WiMAX .......................................................................1 1.1.1 Khi nim WiMAX......................................................................................1 1.1.2 Cc c im ca WiMAX...........................................................................1 1.1.3 Hot ng ca WiMAX ..............................................................................2 1.2 Cu hnh mng...............................................................................................4 1.2.1 Cu hnh mng im a im (PMP)........................................................4 1.2.2 Cu hnh mng mt li (MESH).................................................................5 1.3 Cc dch v ca WiMAX...............................................................................7 1.3.1 Cc tham s QoS cho lung dch v.............................................................7 1.3.2 Dch v cp pht khng theo yu cu (UGS)...............................................8 1.3.3 Dch v kim tra vng theo thi gian thc (rtPS) ........................................8 1.3.4 Dch v kim tra vng khng theo thi gian thc (nrtPS) ...........................9 1.3.5 Dch v c gng ti a (Best Effort - BE) ...................................................9 1.4 Chun WiMAX ...........................................................................................10 1.4.1 H thng chun IEEE 802.16.....................................................................10 1.4.2 Chun WiMAX c inh (IEEE 802.16d) ...................................................12 1.4.3 Chun WiMAX di ng (IEEE 802.16e)....................................................12 1.4.4 Kin trc giao thc WiMAX......................................................................13 1.5 Truy nhp v tuyn......................................................................................16 1.5.1 Mi trng truyn sng LOS v NLOS.....................................................16 1.5.2 Cng ngh OFDM cho truyn dn v tuyn...............................................17 1.5.3 a truy nhp v knh con ha....................................................................17 1.5.4 K thut song cng TDD v FDD .............................................................19 1.6 iu ch v m ha......................................................................................20 1.6.1 M ha knh...............................................................................................20 1.6.2 iu ch......................................................................................................21 1.7 Bo mt.........................................................................................................24 1.7.1 Kin trc bo mt trong WiMAX ..............................................................24

Mc lc 1.7.2 Bo mt qua giao din v tuyn.................................................................26 1.7.3 Mt m ha d liu.....................................................................................28 1.8 Cc m hnh ng dng WiMAX.................................................................29 1.9 Cc u im ca mng WiMAX ................................................................30 Tng kt chng 1.............................................................................................32 CHNG 2. ..............................................................................................34 BI TON THIT K MNG WIMAX ...............................................34 C NH & DI TR CHO THNH PH H NI...............................34 2.1 Mc ch thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr ..................................34 2.2 Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr ....................................34 2.2.1 Cc tham s h thng ca mng WiMAX c inh & di tr .......................34 2.2.2 Cc tham s dch v cho WiMAX c inh & di tr...................................37 2.2.3 Phng php tnh ton lu lng ..............................................................38 2.2.4 nh gi kh nng trin khai mng WiMAX c inh & di tr .................39 2.2.5 Cc bc thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr ....................................40 2.3 Cc yu cu thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni.......................................................................................................................41 2.3.1 Ch tiu cht lng cho mng WiMAX c inh & di tr ..........................41 2.3.2 Cc yu cu thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni .............................................................................................................................44 2.3.3 La chn thit b theo yu cu thit k.......................................................52 2.4 Tnh ton suy hao ........................................................................................56 2.4.1 Tnh ton suy hao ng truyn (path loss)...............................................56 2.4.2 D tr suy hao ph.....................................................................................66 2.5 Tnh ton phm vi ph sng........................................................................69 2.5.1 Tnh ton qu ng truyn.......................................................................69 2.5.2 Tnh ton phm vi ph sng.......................................................................71 2.6 nh c mng v quy hoch vng ph sng ..............................................73 2.6.1 nh c mng.............................................................................................73 2.6.2 Quy hoch vng ph sng..........................................................................75 Tng kt chng 2.............................................................................................77 CHNG 3. ..............................................................................................79 M HNH HA MNG WiMAX C NH..........................................79 3.1 Cc tham s u vo....................................................................................79

II

Mc lc 3.2 M hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn bn .......................80 3.2.1 M hnh mng trn bn a l................................................................80 3.2.2 M hnh mng trn bn kin trc...........................................................83 3.3 M hnh chi tit cho mt cell ......................................................................85 3.4 Xc nh v tr t trm gc.......................................................................86 Tng kt chng 3.............................................................................................87 CHNG 4. ..............................................................................................88 CC CHNG TRNH M PHNG....................................................88 4.1 Chng trnh tnh ton suy hao..................................................................88 4.1.1 Tnh ton suy hao theo m hnh COST 231 Hata ......................................88 4.1.2 Tnh ton suy hao theo m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami ..................89 4.2 Chng trnh tnh ton phm vi ph sng.................................................91 4.3 Chng trnh tnh ton nh c v m phng mng.................................92 KT LUN................................................................................................94 TI LIU THAM KHO.........................................................................95

III

Danh mc hnh v v bng

DANH MC HNH V V BNG


Hnh 1.1 Mng WiMAX .............................................................................4 Hnh 1.2 Cu hnh mng PMP ...................................................................5 Hnh 1.3 Cu hnh mng MESH ................................................................6 Hnh 1.4 B tiu chun IEEE802.16.........................................................10 Hnh 1.5 M hnh kin trc giao thc WiMAX.......................................13 Hnh 1.6 Cu trc khung OFDM vi k thut song cng TDD.............19 Hnh 1.7 B to m gi ngu nhin...........................................................20 Hnh 1.8 Chm sao BPSK, QPSK, 16 QAM v 64 QAM.......................22 Hnh 1.10 Lc iu ch thch ng......................................................23 Hnh 1.11 M hnh bo mt......................................................................25 Hnh 1.12 Qu trnh nhn thc thu bao................................................26 Hnh 1.13 Qu trnh trao i kha d liu..............................................27 Hnh 1.14 Mt m ha d liu.................................................................28 Hnh 1.15 Kh nng m rng dung lng ca mt trm gc BS...........31 Bng 2.1 Bng cc tham s h thng tham kho cho WiMAX c inh & di tr...........................................................................................................36 Bng 2.2 Bng cc tham s dch v tham kho cho WiMAX c inh & di tr ..........................................................................................................38 Hnh 2.1 S cc bc thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr.........40 Hnh 2.2 Ch tiu cht lng cho mng Internet.....................................42 Bng 2.3 Bng tiu chun cht lng cho mng WiMAX c inh & di tr................................................................................................................43 Hnh 2.3 Khu vc cn ph sng chp t v tinh.....................................45 Hnh 2.4 Khu vc cn ph sng trn bn a l.................................46 Hnh 2.5 Bn kin trc H Ni chp t v tinh..................................49 Bng 2.4 T l thu bao trn tng ng dng............................................51 Bng 2.5 Tng hp thng s thit b la chn.........................................55 Hnh 2.6 Bn knh cell vi suy hao ng truyn...................................56 Hnh 2.7 th suy hao s dng m hnh COST 231 Hata....................58 Hnh 2.8 M hnh COST 231 Walfisch-Ikegami mi trng NLOS......60 Hnh 2.9 th suy hao s dng m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami .....................................................................................................................63

IV

Danh mc hnh v v bng

Bng 2.6 Cc tham s a hnh..................................................................65 Hnh 2.10 th suy hao m hnh SUI ....................................................65 Bng 2.7 Mc suy hao thm nhp mt s loi vt cn............................68 Bng 2.8 Tng hp cc mc d tr suy hao ph.....................................69 Bng 2.9 Qu ng truyn cho ng xung........................................70 Bng 2.10 Qu ng truyn cho ng ln...........................................71 Hnh 2.11 Kt qu tnh ton phm vi ph sng ......................................72 Hnh 2.12 Vng ph sng ti a ca mt sector 120o ............................73 Bng 2.11 Kt qu nh c mng..............................................................75 Hnh 2.13 Vng ph sng ca mt sector 120o .......................................76 Hnh 2.14 M hnh mng li cell lc gic ..............................................77 Bng 2.12 Tng hp kt qu tnh ton thit k mng.............................78 Hnh 3.1 M hnh mng trn bn a l (cha hiu chnh)...............80 Hnh 3.2 M hnh mng trn bn a l ( hiu chnh)....................82 Hnh 3.3 M hnh mng WiMAX trn bn kin trc ........................83 Hnh 3.4 M hnh mng ng trc (backhaul) .....................................84 Hnh 3.5 Chi tit vng ph sng cell 10...................................................85 Hnh 3.6 V tr t trm gc cell 10..........................................................86 Hnh 4.1 Chng trnh tnh ton suy hao theo m hnh COST 231 Hata .....................................................................................................................88 Hnh 4.2 Chng trnh tnh ton suy hao theo m hnh COST 231 W-I .....................................................................................................................89 Hnh 4.3 Chng trnh tnh ton suy hao theo m hnh SUI ................90 Hnh 4.4 Chng trnh tnh ton phm vi ph sng ..............................91 Hnh 4.5 Chng trnh tnh ton nh c v m phng .........................92

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX

CHNG 1. CNG NGH WIMAX


________________________________________________________________________

Trc khi xy dng mt mng WiMAX c inh & di tr chng ta cn tm hiu v cng ngh WiMAX, v cc c im v nhng ng dng ca cng ngh WiMAX. Vic hiu r v cng ngh cng nh cc ng dng ca WiMAX c inh & di tr l c s cho vic xy dng, thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trong thc t. Chng 1 s trnh by cc khi nim c bn v cc c trng ca cng ngh WiMAX, b chun WiMAX, cc dch v v m hnh ng dng WiMAX.

1.1 Khi nim chung v WiMAX


1.1.1 Khi nim WiMAX
WiMax (vit tt t Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) l mt cng ngh truy cp khng dy bng thng rng (Broadband Wireless Access - BWA) vi kh nng cung cp ng truyn s liu vi tc ln n 70Mb/s v vi bn knh ph sng ca mt trm anten pht ln n 50 km. Cng ngh WiMAX da trn c s tng thch ton cu c kt hp bi b chun IEEE 802.16 v ETSI HiperMAN. y l cc tiu chun cho mng WirelessMAN (mng th khng dy). WiMAX c inh & di tr da theo chun 802.16d, WiMAX di ng theo chun 802.16e. Chun WiMAX c inh h tr tc d liu nh 70Mb/s, m bo tc tiu chun ln hn 30Mb/s. Chun WiMAX di ng cho thu bao di chuyn tc cao h tr truy nhp tc d liu nh 30Mb/s, m bo tc tiu chun ln hn 5Mb/s. WiMAX c th hot ng trong tm nhn thng (Light of Sight LOS) hay khng trong tm nhn thng (None Light of Sight NLOS). Cng ngh ny c th c s dng thay th cc ng truyn DSL, ADSL, ng cp hu tuyn bng truy nhp khng dy, lm trm chuyn tip (backhaul) cho mng Wifi, h tr v b sung cho cc dch v in thoi di ng, cung cp cc kt ni bng thng rng di ng vi rt nhiu cc cp dch v khc nhau.

1.1.2 Cc c im ca WiMAX
- Phm vi ph sng ca mt BS trn l thuyt c th ln ti 50km.

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX - Tc truyn d liu c th thay i, ti a 70Mb/s. - Hot ng trong c hai mi trng truyn dn: ng truyn tm nhn thng LOS v ng truyn khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS. - Di tn lm vic 2-11GHz cho ng truyn khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS v t 10-66GHz cho ng truyn trong tm nhn thng LOS. - Bng thng mm do, c th cho php thay i t 1,75MHz n 20MHz. - K thut QoS (cht lng dch v) trong WiMAX cho php h tr nhiu loi dch v, m bo cht lng dch v ti u nht. - Giao din v tuyn s dng cng ngh OFDM (ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao). OFDM trong WiMax s dng tng cng 2048 sng mang, trong c 1536 sng mang dnh cho thng tin c chia thnh 32 knh con mi knh con tng ng vi 48 sng mang, cho php nhiu thu bao c th truy cp ng thi mt hay nhiu knh mt cch linh hot m bo ti u hiu qu s dng bng tn. - Trn mi sng mang ph s dng phng thc iu ch nhiu mc thch ng t BPSK, QPSK n 64-QAM kt hp cc phng php sa li d liu nh ngu nhin ho, vi m ho sa li Reed Solomon, m xon t l m t 1/2 n 7/8 m bo cht lng thng tin. - a truy nhp OFDMA, ch song cng cho php s dng c hai cng ngh song cng phn chia theo thi gian TDD (time division duplex) v song cng phn chia theo tn s FDD (frequency division duplex) cho vic phn chia truyn dn ca ng ln (uplink) v ng xung (downlink). - Tnh bo mt cao, h tr chun m mt d liu DES (Data Encryption Standard) v chun m mt tin tin AES (Advance Encryption Standard) cho qu trnh bo mt bo mt.

1.1.3 Hot ng ca WiMAX


Mt mng WiMax gm 2 thnh phn: + Trm gc (BS-Base Station): ging nh cc trm BTS trong mng thng tin di ng s t bo, s dng h thng anten thng minh AAS (Adaptive Antenna System) v k thut a thu a pht MIMO (Multi input multi output) vi bn knh ph sng c th t 50km vi ng truyn LOS (trn iu kin thc t t khong 10km).

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX + Trm thu bao (SS-Subscriber Station): c th l cc anten nh ni vi thit b thu t ti nh thu bao hoc cc thit b truyn thng c nhn h tr WiMAX (CPE) hoc cc card PCMCIA gn bn trong cc thit b di ng. Cc trm gc BS c kt ni ti mng Internet thng qua cc ng truyn hu tuyn tc cao (cp quang) hoc s dng mng ng trc backhaul vi mt trm gc lm trm chuyn tip lu lng. Nh vic s dng cc trm chuyn tip, phm vi ph sng rng v chi ph r nn WiMAX c kh nng ph sng n nhng vng ho lnh ni m cc ng cp hu tuyn khng th trin khai c. Cc anten thu/pht c th trao i thng tin vi nhau qua cc ng truyn trong tm nhn thng LOS hoc ng truyn khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS. Trong trng hp ng truyn trong tm nhn thng LOS, cc anten c t c inh & di tr trn cc im cao, tn hiu trong trng hp ny n nh v tc truyn c th t ti a. Bng tn s dng c th dng tn s cao n 66GHz v tn s ny tn hiu t b giao thoa vi cc knh tn hiu khc v bng thng s dng cng ln hn. i vi trng hp ng truyn khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS, WiMax s dng bng tn thp hn khong 2-11GHz, tn s thp tn hiu d dng vt qua cc vt cn, c th phn x, nhiu x, un cong, vng qua cc vt th n ch. WiMAX c inh & di tr c th s dng cung cp dch v cho cc h gia nh hoc cc doanh nghip, c quan t chc, trng hc, bnh vin hoc lm ng trc cho mng di ng, lm backhaul cho cc hotspost ca Wifi thay cho cc mng cp hu tuyn t tin. Mng nomadic cho php ngi dng u cui c th di chuyn v tr trong vng ph sng, khi kt ni vn phi c inh tng t Wifi. WiMAX di ng l trin vng ln nht ca WiMAX vi kh nng cung cp ng truyn tc cao tc di chuyn ln, c kh nng b sung cc di v di ng mi ngoi cc dch v c cung cp bi mng di ng truyn thng. Hnh 1.1 m t cc m hnh ng dng mng WiMAX bao gm mng WiMAX c inh, mng WiMAX di tr (nomadic) v mng WiMAX di ng. Ring WiMAX di ng c th tng thch vi WiMAX c inh v di tr, iu ny c ngha l mt mng WiMAX di ng vi lu lng mng ln c th cung cp cho c nhu cu mng c inh, di tr v di ng.

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX

Hnh 1.1 Mng WiMAX

1.2 Cu hnh mng


WiMAX h tr hai cu hnh mng l cu hnh mng im a im (PMP point to multipoint) v mng mt li (MESH).

1.2.1 Cu hnh mng im a im (PMP)


Cu hnh mng im a im PMP tng t mng thng tin di ng t bo. Mng im a im PMP bao gm mt trm gc BS kt ni vi mng cng cng v mt s lng ln cc trm thu bao SS xung quanh. Trm gc BS s dng h thng cc anten chia theo cung (sectoral antennas) l cc anten cho c nh hng cao, c hng theo tng cung v c sp xp xung quanh ct anten. Trong mng im a im PMP cc trm thu bao SS ch trao i thng tin trc tip vi trm gc BS. ng xung (Down link) l qung b v a im. Cc trm thu bao SS chia s ng ln (up link) ti trm gc BS trn c s yu cu bng thng. Kt ni t trm thu bao SS n trm gc BS thng qua nhn dng kt ni CID (connection ID), trm thu bao SS s kim tra CID trong cc PDU nhn c v ch gi cc PDU c a ch ti chng. Ty thuc loi dch v s dng m trm thu

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX bao SS c php tin hnh truyn d liu ngay hoc ch s cho php ca trm gc BS sau khi chp nhn mt yu cu t trm thu bao SS. Mng im a im PMP c thit k cho php s lng ngi s dng ln vi chi ph thp, lp t n gin v gii hn c s lng router, switch cn thit. Tn s s dng di tn thp di 6GHz c phm vi ph sng ln. Cu hnh mng im a im PMP l cu hnh mng c bn cho mng WiMAX.

Hnh 1.2 Cu hnh mng PMP

1.2.2 Cu hnh mng mt li (MESH)


Cu hnh mng mt li MESH gm cc trm gc MESH BS l cc trm gc BS c kt ni vi mng bn ngoi v cc MESH SS l cc thnh phn cn li trong mng m ch c cc kt ni bn trong mng MESH (c th l cc trm thu bao SS hoc trm gc BS). Mng MESH thng c gi l mng mt li, mi mt li l mt node m trong cc node u c th lin lc c vi nhau trc tip hoc gin tip bn trong mng. ng ln v ng xung trong mng MESH l theo hng d liu ti v ra khi MESH BS. Kt ni trong mng MESH cng thng qua nhn

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX dng kt ni CID, MESH SS s kim tra CID trong cc PDU nhn c v ch gi cc PDU c a ch ti chng Trong mng MESH mi node c mt router do lu lng c th c nh tuyn qua cc MESH SS. Nh c im ny cc MESH SS c th trao i d liu vi nhau ngoi trao i d liu trc tip vi MESH BS, y l khc bit c bn so vi cu hnh PMP. Do mi node u c lin kt a ng n cc node khc nn mi node c kh nng la chn lin kt tt nht t node khc v trnh c node n (node khng nhn c tn hiu. Ngoi ra kh nng m rng ca mng mt li MESH cho php ln hn nhiu so vi mng im a im PMP nn chi ph bao ph mng trn mt n v din tch l thp hn im a im PMP. Ngoi ra cht lng kt ni cng c m bo hn mng im a im PMP. Cu hnh mng mt li MESH l ty chn cho WiMAX do chi ph cho thit b u cui ln v qun l mng phc tp. Mng mt li MESH ch thch hp cho cc dch v c inh & di tr.

Hnh 1.3 Cu hnh mng MESH

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX

1.3 Cc dch v ca WiMAX


WiMAX h tr cht lng dch v QoS (Quality of Service) cho cc dch v c cung cp, ch yu h tr cc dch v thi gian thc. Mi loi dch v c mt tp cc tham s QoS v k thut qun l cht lng dch v cho php m bo cht lng cho tng kt ni (connection). i vi mng Internet truyn thng th dch v ph bin l Best Effort v khng h tr QoS do khng p ng c cc dch v i hi tr thp, yu cu v thi gian thc. h tr cc dch v ny cn phi xy dng thm cc b giao thc mi cng nh cn nng cp mng. Vi k thut qun l cht lng dch v QoS, WiMAX h tr c nhiu loi dch v khc nhau v c kh nng m bo cht lng cho cc ng dng trn tng loi dch v. WiMAX h tr 4 loi hnh dch v l dch v cp pht khng theo yu cu (Unsolicited Grant Service - UGS), dch v kim tra vng theo thi gian thc (RealTime Polling Service - rtPS), dch v kim tra vng khng theo thi gian thc (NonReal-Time Polling Service - nrtPS), dch v c gng ti a (Best Effort - BE).

1.3.1 Cc tham s QoS cho lung dch v


Tc lu lng d tr ti thiu L gii hn di ca tc truyn d liu. Tc d liu c m bo lun ln hn gii hn di ny. Tc lu lng cho php ti a L gii hn trn cho php ca tc truyn d liu. Tc d liu khng c ln hn gii hn trn ny. tr ti a L tr ton trnh trong qu trnh truyn dn. Tham s ny c yu cu i vi cc dch v c h tr thi gian thc. tr ti a khng c php vt qu mc ngng cho trc m bo cht lng dch v. tr pha Jitter L tr ca tng gi khi n ch khin cho d liu b t qung (khng lin tc). Tham s ny c yu cu vi dch v cp pht khng theo yu cu (Unsolicited Grant Service) dng cho ng dng thoi VoIP hoc T1/E1 v nu Jitter ln cht lng m thoi s b gim nghim trng.

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX Mc u tin ca ti lu lng Xc nh ti lu lng no c u tin phc v trc. Tham s ny c s dng cho dch v phi thi gian thc (none-realtime Polling Service) v dch v c gng ti a (Best Effort) trong bng thng c yu cu trn c s tranh chp. Cch thc yu cu / truyn dn Ch ra cch thc a cc bn tin yu cu (request) v cch thc truyn dn d liu. Tham s ny c mt tt c cc loi dch v.

1.3.2 Dch v cp pht khng theo yu cu (UGS)


i vi dch v cp pht khng theo yu cu, ti nguyn v tuyn c cp pht bi trm gc BS theo mt khong thi gian nh k, bng thng c inh & di tr ng thi loi b yu cu bng thng t trm thu bao SS (cc trm thu bao SS s dng dch v cp pht khng theo yu cu s khng c trm gc BS kim tra yu cu bng thng). UGS c thit k h tr cho cc ng dng yu cu thi gian thc, gi c kch thc c inh & di tr, pht nh k. Ch yu l cc ng dng cho thoi nh T1/E1 v VoIP (Voice over IP). Cc tham s QoS cho lung dch v ny l tc lu lng cho php ti a, tr ti a, tr pha (Jitter), cch thc yu cu / truyn dn. Bng thng c cp pht ph thuc tham s tc lu lng cho php ti a v c m bo lun c inh & di tr. tr ti a, tr pha (Jitter) l hai tham s quan trng c nh hng trc tip n cht lng thoi, hai tham s ny ch ra mc gii hn cho php ca tr ton trnh v Jitter.

1.3.3 Dch v kim tra vng theo thi gian thc (rtPS)
i vi dch v kim tra vng theo thi gian thc, bng thng c cung cp da trn s cp pht cc c hi yu cu bng thng t trm gc BS v kim tra vng cc yu cu bng thng t cc trm thu bao SS. Trm BS pht nh k cc bn tin n im unicast cp pht c hi yu cu n tng trm thu bao SS, cc trm thu bao s s dng cc bn tin unicast cp pht c hi yu cu yu cu c cp pht bng thng ng ln. Trm gc BS s kim tra ln lt tng trm thu bao xem trm thu bao no c yu cu bng thng ng ln. Cc trm thu bao khng c php yu cu bng thng trn c s tranh chp (khng c tranh chp bng thng

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX ng ln). iu m bo bng thng cho cc trm thu bao l n nh, trnh xung t, cho php h tr cc ng dng thi gian thc. Dch v kim tra vng theo thi gian thc rtPS c thit k h tr cc ng dng yu cu thi gian thc, gi c di thay i, pht nh k nh MPEG video. Ni chung l cho cc ng dng video trc tuyn nh xem phim trc tuyn, hi ngh t xa, truyn hnh ... Cc tham s QoS cho lung dch v ny l tc lu lng d tr ti thiu, tc lu lng cho php ti a, tr ti a, cch thc yu cu / truyn dn. Trong tc d liu lun c m bo mc ln hn tc lu lng d tr ti thiu v tr nh hn tr ti a h tr tt cc ng dng thi gian thc.

1.3.4 Dch v kim tra vng khng theo thi gian thc (nrtPS)
i vi dch v kim tra vng khng theo thi gian thc, bng thng c cung cp da trn s cp pht cc c hi yu cu bng thng t trm gc BS v kim tra vng cc yu cu bng thng t cc trm thu bao SS. Trm BS pht cc bn tin n im unicast cp pht c hi yu cu mt cch bnh thng, khng nht thit theo chu k (nh k). Khi cc trm SS c th s dng cc bn tin unicast cp pht c hi yu cu bng thng hoc trn c s tranh chp c cp pht bng thng ng ln. iu c ngha l bng thng s c m bo mc tt nht c th v vn c tranh chp trong yu cu bng thng ng ln do s c tr ng k. Dch v kim tra vng khng theo thi gian thc nrtPS c thit k h tr cc ng dng chp nhn tr (khng yu cu thi gian thc), c di gi thay i v c yu cu v tc d liu ti thiu nh FTP (giao thc truyn file). Cc tham s QoS cho lung dch v ny l tc lu lng d tr ti thiu, tc lu lng cho php ti a, mc u tin ca ti lu lng, cch thc yu cu / truyn dn. Dch v ny vn m bo tc d liu ti thiu nhng khng m bo v tr nh dch v kim tra vng theo thi gian thc (rtPS). Tuy nhin thay vo c thm tham s mc u tin ca ti lu lng cho php phc v trc ti lu lng c mc u tin ln hn.

1.3.5 Dch v c gng ti a (Best Effort - BE)


Dch v c gng ti a l dch v ph bin nht trn mng Internet, cung cp kh nng p ng cho lu lng best effort. Lu lng best effort da trn nguyn tc gi thng tin n trc c phc v trc, cc lung best effort s phi tranh

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX chp bng thng chia s m khng c s m bo v bng thng ti thiu. Cc trm thu bao SS a yu cu bng thng trn c s tranh chp hoc cng c th s dng cc bn tin n im unicast cung cp c hi yu cu bng thng t trm gc BS.Dch v BE c thit k h tr cc ng dng m khng yu cu mc cht lng dch v ti thiu. Dng cho cc ng dng ph bin trn mng Internet nh HTTP, SMTP, Web. Cc tham s QoS cho lung dch v ny l tc lu lng cho php ti a, mc u tin ca ti lu lng, cch thc yu cu / truyn dn. Dch v c gng ti a khng c s m bo v tc lu lng ti thiu tuy nhin vn c h tr mc u tin ca ti lu lng.

1.4 Chun WiMAX


1.4.1 H thng chun IEEE 802.16
Chun WiMAX da trn b chun 802.16 ca IEEE kt hp vi chun HiperMAN ca ETSI (chun cho mng MAN khng dy ca Chu u). V c bn m hnh 256-OFDM PHY trong chun IEEE 802.16 so vi chun ETSI HiperMAN l ging nhau v lp vt l v lp MAC. M hnh 256-OFDM PHY trong chun IEEE 802.16 c la chn cho WiMAX. H thng chun IEEE 802.16 c xy dng cho cc mng truy nhp v tuyn bng thng rng BWA (Broadband Wireless Access). Bao gm cc chun IEEE 802.162001 (chun c bn), 802.16a, 802.16b, 802.16c, 802.16d, 802.16e.

Hnh 1.4 B tiu chun IEEE802.16 Chun IEEE 802.162001 l b chun c bn, m t s chun ha cc lp PHY v MAC cho truy nhp v tuyn bng rng.

10

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX - S dng k thut iu ch dn sng mang SC (Single Carrier) trong di tn 10-66 GHz - ng truyn trong tm nhn thng LOS - H tr song cng phn chia theo thi gian TDD (Time Division Duplex) v song cng phn chia theo tn s FDD (Frequecy Division Duplex) - Cu hinh mng im-im hoc im-a im - H tr truy nhp khng dy c inh & di tr - H tr QoS (Quality of Service) m bo cht lng dch v - S dng k thut iu ch thch ng - Kin trc bo mt c xy dng trong lp con MAC-PS Chun IEEE 802.16a c sa i, b sung t chun 802.16-2001 h tr ng truyn khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS. - B sung k thut ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDM v a truy nhp OFDMA - M rng thm di tn 2-11 Ghz - H tr ng truyn khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS - H tr thm cu hnh mng mt li MESH - K thut anten thng minh v iu khin cng sut tin tin Chun IEEE 802.16b c sa i, b sung t chun 802.16-2001 - B sung lp vt l v tuyn HUMAN-OFDM256 - Di tn cng tc 5-6GHz - Cung cp QoS h tr cc dch v thi gian thc (voice v video) Chun IEEE 802.16c m t chi tit h thng trong di tn 10-66 GHz Chun IEEE 802.16d (802.16-2004) kt hp cc chun 802.16-2001, 802.16a, 802.16b v 802.16c, ci thin cc chun c bn v m t chi tit cho h thng truy nhp bng thng rng khng dy c inh & di tr. Chun 802.16d c s dng cho chun WiMAX c inh.

11

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX Chun IEEE 802.16e (802.16-2005) b sung tnh di ng cho cc chun hin ti, s dng k thut OFDM theo t l S-OFDM (Scalabe-OFDM) thay OFDM, h tr chuyn giao tc di chuyn cao. Chun 802.16e c s dng cho chun WiMAX di ng.

1.4.2 Chun WiMAX c inh (IEEE 802.16d)


Chun WiMAX c inh da trn chun IEEE 802.16d c chng nhn vo thng 6-2004. Cc c im c bn ca WiMAX c inh: - K thut a truy nhp OFDM-TDMA hoc s dng k thut a truy nhp OFDMA, lp vt l v tuyn MAN-OFDM - Di tn di 11GHz. Cc bng tn ang c xem xt cho WiMAX c inh: bng tn cp php 5,8GHz v khng cp php 2,5GHz, 3,5GHz. - ng truyn khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS - K thut song cng TDD v FDD - H tr truy nhp khng dy c inh v nomadic (thit b u cui nh laptop, PDA c th di chuyn v tr nhng c inh khi kt ni). - rng bng tn c th la chn t 1,25 n 20 MHz - Tc d liu ti a 75Mb/s vi rng bng tn 20 MHz - K thut iu ch thch ng t BPSK/QPSK n 64QAM - K thut iu ch a sng mang FFT 256-OFDM (256 sng mang ph) - Cu hnh mng im-a im PMP v mng mt li MESH - H tr QoS

1.4.3 Chun WiMAX di ng (IEEE 802.16e)


Chun WiMAX di ng da trn chun IEEE 802.16e c chng nhn vo thng 12-2005. Chun WiMAX di ng c thay i v b sung so vi chun c inh h tr tnh di ng v chuyn giao. Cc c im c bn ca WiMAX di ng: - K thut a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao theo t l S-OFDMA, lp vt l v tuyn MAN-OFDMA - Di tn di 11GHz. Cc bng tn ang c xem xt cho WiMAX di ng: bng tn khng cp php 2,5GHz, 3,5GHz.

12

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX - ng truyn khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS - K thut song cng TDD v FDD - H tr truy nhp di ng, chuyn giao tc di chuyn cao - rng bng tn c th la chn t 1,25 n 20 MHz - Tc d liu ti a 15Mb/s vi rng bng tn 5 MHz (khi di chuyn) v ti a 75Mb/s vi rng bng tn 20 MHz (khi ng yn) - K thut iu ch thch ng t BPSK/QPSK n 64QAM - K thut iu ch a sng mang theo t l FFT S-OFDMA - Cu hnh mng im-a im PMP - H tr QoS

1.4.4 Kin trc giao thc WiMAX

Hnh 1.5 M hnh kin trc giao thc WiMAX M hnh kin trc giao thc WiMAX m t cho lp vt l PHY v lp lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng MAC (Media Access Control ). Trong lp MAC c chia thnh 3 lp con bao gm lp con bo mt (Privacy Sublayer PS), lp con phn chung iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC Common Part Sublayer MAC

13

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX CPS), lp con hi t dch v c trng (Service Specific Convergence Sublayer CS). a. Lp PHY Lp vt l v tuyn MAN-OFDM - S dng cng ngh OFDM thit k cho ng truyn khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS trong di tn di 11GHz. - K thut iu ch thch ng - S dng h thng anten nh hng - K thut knh con ha - K thut song cng TDD v FDD WiMAX di ng s dng cng ngh S-OFDMA nhm mc ch: - B sung kh nng di ng - Cho php chuyn giao tc di chuyn cao K thut lp vt l - K thut ng b - K thut iu khin cng sut - K thut la chn tn s ng b. Lp MAC Lp MAC c chia thnh 3 lp con Lp con hi t dch v c trng MAC-CS - Chc nng ca lp con hi t CS: + Nhn d liu t cc lp cao hn + Phn loi d liu ra cc t bo ATM (ATM cell) hoc gi d liu (packet) + Chuyn cc khung n lp con phn chung CPS - Phn chia lp con hi t CS cho cc giao thc ca ATM v gi d liu + Lp con hi t gi d liu (Packet CS): h tr Ethernet, VLAN, IPv4 v IPv6; chn ly tiu ti d liu (payload header); h tr QoS y .

14

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX + Lp con hi t ATM (ATM CS): h tr kt ni chuyn mch ng o knh o VP/VC (Virtual Path/Virtual Channel); h tr bo hiu u cui ti u cui (end to end) ca kt ni ng; chn ly tiu ATM (ATM header); h tr QoS y . Lp con phn chung iu khin truy nhp mi trng MAC-CPS - Thc hin cc chc nng iu khin truy nhp mi trng in hnh nh nh a ch + Mi trm thu bao SS c ch nh mt a ch MAC 48 bt + Xc nhn kt ni c s dng nh l a ch s cp sau khi khi to - Cch thc truy nhp mi trng c xc nh theo hng truyn d liu + Hng ln l a truy nhp ch nh theo yu cu ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian DAMA-TDM (Demand Assigned Multiple Access Time Division Multiplexing) + Hng xung l ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian TDM - D liu c ng gi theo nh dng chung Lp con bo mt MAC-PS - Chc nng chnh ca lp con bo mt: + Cung cp s bo mt kt ni bng cch mt m ha d liu vi chun m mt d liu DES trong m hnh chui lin kt khi mt m CBC (Cipher Block Chaining). + Chng n cp dch v bng cch s dng giao thc qun l kha bo mt xc nhn trm thu bao SS. nh a ch MAC - Trm thu bao SS c a ch MAC 48 bit - Trm gc BS c s hiu trm gc 48 bit - Nhn dng kt ni CID 16 bit, s dng trong n v d liu giao thc MAC PDU, dch v kt ni nh hng. n v d liu giao thc MAC PDU - Khung d liu MAC PDU c nh dng

15

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX

Tiu MAC (6 byte)

Ti trng (ty chn)

CRC (ty chn)

+ Tiu MAC 6 byte cha thng tin iu khin khung + Ti trng (payload) c di ty bin cha thng tin c trng theo loi khung MAC PDU. C 3 loi MAC PDU. + Phn kim tra th t khung cha m kim tra d vng CRC (ty chn) - Cc loi MAC PDU + MAC PDU d liu: ti trng l cc n v d liu dch v MAC SDU (Service Data Unit), c truyn trong kt ni d liu (data connection). + MAC PDU qun l: ti trng l cc bn tin qun l MAC, c truyn trong kt ni qun l (management connection). + MAC PDU yu cu bng thng: khng c ti trng m ch c tin

1.5 Truy nhp v tuyn


1.5.1 Mi trng truyn sng LOS v NLOS
WiMAX cho php truyn tn hiu trong mi trng trong tm nhn thng LOS (Light of Sight) vi di tn 10-66GHz v khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS (None Light of Sight) vi di tn 2-11GHz. Truyn sng trong tm nhn thng LOS yu cu anten pht v thu phi nhn thy nhau, ng thi khong h phi ln hn 0,6F1 (F1 l bn knh min Fresnel th nht). Gi tr F1 ph thuc vo tn s s dng v khong cch truyn sng. Nu khong h nh hn 0,6F1 do c vt cn trn ng truyn th tn hiu s b suy gim nghim trng. ng truyn trong tm nhn thng c s dng cho cc trm chuyn tip vi phm vi ph sng ti a 50km. Truyn sng khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS khng yu cu anten thu v pht phi nhn thy nhau. Tn hiu c truyn n thng qua phn x, tn x v nhiu x. Tn hiu ti u thu l cc tn hiu a ng, khc nhau v tr, cng tn hiu, n nh u im ca truyn sng khng trong tm nhn thng NLOS l p ng c cc iu kin khc nhau v ng truyn, quy hoch mng, gim c chiu cao anten, cho php t cc thit b WiMAX trong nh tn dng u th ca truyn sng khng trong tm nhn thng v khc phc cc hn ch ca n, WiMAX

16

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX s dng cng ngh OFDM, knh con ha, k thut iu ch thch ng, h thng anten thng minh, thu pht a u vo a u ra (MIMO-multi input multi output).

1.5.2 Cng ngh OFDM cho truyn dn v tuyn


WiMAX s dng cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDM giao din v tuyn. Cng ngh OFDM c nhiu u im so vi FDM, CDM v tc truyn d liu, t l li bit, hiu qu s dng ph tn. + K thut iu ch OFDM l mt k thut iu ch a sng mang trong cc sng mang ph trc giao vi nhau. Bng tn ca h thng c chia thnh nhiu bng con vi cc sng mang ph cho mi bng con. Cc sng mang con tha mn iu kin trc giao cho php chng gi c khong cch rt gn nhau m khng cn di chn nh trong FDMA, khng cn ghp knh theo thi gian nh TDMA, iu ny lm tng hiu qu s dng ph tn. + D liu s c chia thnh nhiu lung song song v c a vo tng sng mang ph truyn i. Mi sng mang trong cc tn hiu OFDM c mt bng thng rt hp, do tc k t thp nn thi gian truyn k t di. Ngoi ra gia cc k t OFDM cn c chn mt khong thi gian bo v ln hn thi gian tr ti a ca knh truyn. Nh vy h thng s dng OFDM c kh nng chng li nhiu xuyn k t ISI. + H thng s dng OFDM c kh nng khi phc hm truyn knh v tuyn thng qua bn tin dn ng pilot. + Cng ngh OFDM cho php s dng k thut iu ch thch ng m bo cht lng knh truyn.

1.5.3 a truy nhp v knh con ha


a truy nhp OFDM-TDMA K thut a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian trn c s ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao (OFDM-TDMA). K thut ny chia bng tn thnh cc bng con, mi bng con c mt sng mang ph. Mi thu cao c cp pht mt khe thi gian. Trm thu bao SS s s dng ton b khng gian sng mang con trong khe thi gian c cp pht. Ngoi ra cc khe thi gian c th co gin cho php ch truyn dn vn hot ng n nh ngay c khi mng qu ti (co hp khe thi gian cho mi trm thu bao).

17

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX a truy nhp OFDMA K thut a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDMA chia bng tn thnh cc bng con, mi bng con c mt sng mang ph. Khc vi OFDM-TDMA, trong OFDMA mi trm thu bao khng s dng ton b khng gian sng mang ph m khng gian sng mang ph c chia cho nhiu thu bao cng s dng mt lc. Mi trm thu bao s c cp mt hoc vi sng mang ph. K thut knh con ha cho php nh x cc sng mang ph cp cho mt trm thu bao vo mt knh con. Khi cc trm thu bao khng s dng ht khng gian sng mang ph th tt c cng sut pht ca trm gc s ch tp trung vo s sng mang con c s dng. Trong qu trnh truyn dn mi trm thu bao c cp pht mt knh con ring. a truy nhp S-OFDMA (k thut b sung cho WiMAX di ng) K thut a truy nhp OFDMA theo t l (S-OFDMA) c b sung cho WiMAX di ng h tr qu trnh chuyn giao. K thut OFDMA chia bng tn ra nhiu bng con vi s bng con c inh l 2048 bng con. Vi cc h thng (trm gc) c rng bng tn khc nhau, thay i t 5MHz n 20MHz th rng ph mi bng con ca cc h thng cng khc nhau gy kh khn cho vic chuyn giao gia cc h thng. K thut S-OFDMA cho php phn chia s bng con mt cch t l theo rng bng tn. V d rng bng tn 20MHz chia ra 2048 bng con th rng bng tn 5MHz chia ra 512 bng con. Nh vy rng ph ca cc bng con l nh nhau trong cc h thng khc nhau, gip qu trnh chuyn giao thun li hn. Ngoi ra vic tng thch gia cc h thng s lm gim chi ph thit k, xy dng mng. Knh con ha K thut knh con ha cho php nh x mt s sng mang ph vo mt knh con. Mi knh con s c cp cho mt trm thu bao. Cc sng mang ph ca mt knh con khng k nhau m c la chn nh thut ton lp lch trnh. V d cc sng mang ph s 1, 3, 5 gn cho knh con 1; cc sng mang ph 2, 4, 6 gn cho knh con 2. Thut ton lp lch trnh s cho php la chn cc sng mang ph tt nht cho tng trm thu bao thng qua vic o cht lng tn hiu trn tng sng mang ph ca knh con c cp cho trm thu bao.

18

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX Trong ng xung mt knh con c th c chia cho cc my thu khc nhau, trong ng ln cc trm thu bao c th c gn mt hoc vi knh con pht ln.

1.5.4 K thut song cng TDD v FDD


WiMAX h tr hai phng thc song cng TDD v FDD. Trong bng tn c cp php, phng thc song cng c th l TDD hoc FDD. Trong bng tn khng cp php phng thc song cng l TDD. Song cng phn chia theo thi gian TDD (Time Division Duplex) Cc khung d liu ng ln v ng xung chia s cng mt knh tn s v c ghp lun phin theo thi gian. Cc khung TDD c di c inh, cha mt khung ng ln v mt khung ng xung. Vic chia khung TDD c tnh cht thch nghi, cc khong thi gian cho mt khung TDD c th l 0,5ms, 1ms hoc 2ms. Khung ng ln li c chia thnh nhiu khe thi gian con nh cng ngh OFDM, mi khe dnh cho mt trm thu bao SS gi cc khung PHY PDU ca mnh, mi khung PHY PDU c mt burst d liu ng ln. Khung d liu ng xung ch c mt khung PHY PDU, trong bao gm nhiu burst d liu ng xung.

Hnh 1.6 Cu trc khung OFDM vi k thut song cng TDD Cc tham s trong cu trc khung OFDM + Preamble: tin ng b, c dng thit lp tnh ng b. + FCH (Frame Control Header): tiu iu khin khung + PDU: n v d liu giao thc
19

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX + Ranging: thit lp cc thng s truyn dn chnh trong di cho php gia SS v BS c th lin lc c vi BS, v d nh lch thi gian, mc cng sut pht. Song cng phn chia theo tn s FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) ng xung v ng ln s dng hai tn s khc nhau. ng xung cho php song cng hon ton, ng ln c th l song cng hon ton (SS thu pht ng thi) hoc bn song cng (SS thu hoc pht ti mt thi im).

1.6 iu ch v m ha
Lp vt l v tuyn ca WiMAX da theo lp vt l v tuyn MAN-OFDM m t trong chun 802.16, trn c s k thut ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDM.

1.6.1 M ha knh
M ha knh bao gm 3 qu trnh: ngu nhin ha, m ha FEC, ci xen a. Ngu nhin ha Ngu nhin ha d liu c thc hin trn mi burst d liu c ng ln v ng xung. Ngu nhin ha c thc hin trn tng ng ln hoc xung, ngha l vi mt khi d liu (c xc nh bi cc knh con trn min tn s v cc k hiu OFDM trn min thi gian) ca mi ng s c dng mt cch c lp. M gi ngu nhin c a thc sinh 1 + x14 + x15. Mi byte d liu c pht s i vo b to m gi ngu nhin mt cch tun t t bit gi nht MSB. Ngu nhin ha ch p dng cho cc bit thng tin, khng dng cho bit tiu . Cc bit sau ngu nhin ha s c a vo b m ha sa li trc FEC (Forward Error Correction).

Hnh 1.7 B to m gi ngu nhin b. M ha sa li trc FEC (Forward error correction)

20

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX M ha sa li trc FEC bao gm vic kt hp m Reed-Solomon (RS) bn ngoi v m xon Convolutional code vi t l ph hp bn trong, h tr trn c ng ln v ng xung. Ngoi ra c th h tr m ha Turbo khi BTC (Block Turbo Coding) v m Turbo xon CTC (Convolutional Turbo Codes) nh cc ty chn. M Reed-Solomon Convolutional coding t l lun c dng lm ch m ha khi yu cu truy nhp mng (ngoi tr trong cc ch to knh con ch s dng m xon t l ) v trong burst tiu iu khin khung FCH (Frame Control Header). M ha c thc hin bng cch bin i d liu theo nh dng khi thng qua m ha RS v sau a qua mt m xon tn cng 0 (zero-terminating). c. Ci xen Tt c cc bit d liu sau khi m ha s c ci xen bi mt b ci xen khi vi kch thc tng ng vi s bit m ha trn cc knh con c cung cp trn mi k t OFDM. Hm ci xen c nh ngha bi mt php hon v 2 bc. Bc u tin m bo cc bit m ha gn nhau c nh x vo mt sng mang ph khng k nhau. Php hon v th hai m bo cc bit m ha gn nhau c nh x lun phin vo cc bit t hay nhiu ngha hn ca chm k hiu, do trnh c vic xy ra cc bit c tin cy thp trong thi gian di.

1.6.2 iu ch
a. iu ch s Sau qu trnh an xen bit, cc bit d liu c a vo theo th t ti b to nh x chm. Cc k thut iu ch c h tr bao gm BPSK, QPSK nh x Gray, 16 QAM v 64 QAM. Cc chm nh x s c khi phc li bng cch ghp chm im vi h s ch th c t c cng sut trung bnh l nh nhau.

21

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX

Hnh 1.8 Chm sao BPSK, QPSK, 16 QAM v 64 QAM b. iu ch pilot Sng mang ph cha pilot (mu tin dn ng) s c chn vo mi burst (nhm bit) d liu cu thnh k t v c iu ch theo sng mang xc nh bn trong k t OFDM. Pilot c s dng khi phc hm truyn knh v tuyn v c ly ra sau khi gii iu ch OFDM. c. M ha ch th tc Ch th tc (Rate_ID) c dng ch th loi iu ch. Ch th tc c m ha burts u tin ng xung ngay sau tiu iu khin khung (Frame Control Header FCH). Ch th tc c m ha c inh v khng th thay i. d. K thut iu ch thch ng Mt trong nhng c im ni bt trong cng ngh WiMAX l vic s dng k thut iu ch thch ng t BPSK, QPSK n 64-QAM ti u ha qu trnh truyn dn. Mc iu ch ph thuc vo cht lng tn hiu thng qua t s t hiu trn nhiu SNR. Vi knh truyn tt (c SNR cao) c th iu ch 64 QAM, khi SNR gim th gim mc iu ch xung duy tr cht lng kt ni v n nh ca lin kt. Mc iu ch cng cao th hiu sut s dng bng thng (tnh theo s bit/s/Hz) cng ln nhng i hi t s cng sut sng mang trn cng sut tp m CNR ln hn do i hi t s SNR cao hn, nu khng s lm tng t l li bit

22

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX BER. Vi mc iu ch thp cho php vi t s SNR thp m vn c th m bo BER< 10-3 (gii hn trn cho t l li bit). quyt nh la chn mc iu ch h thng s da trn kt qu o SNR ti u cui thu v trn c s m bo mt t l li bit BER cho trc. C th h thng s s dng lc iu ch thch ng v m bo BER thp hn 10 -3 s cho hiu sut ph l cao nht. Vi SNR<10dB th phi s phng php iu ch BPSK. Vi SNR trong khong 10dB<SNR<17dB s dng phng php iu ch BPSK hoc QPSK, 17dB<SNR<23dB s dng iu ch 16 QAM, vi SNR>23dB c th s dng mc iu ch 64 QAM.

Hnh 1.10 Lc iu ch thch ng Cc im gn trm gc BS (trong phm vi 5km) c t s SNR>23dB nn s s dng loi iu ch 64QAM. Nhn chung cng ra xa trm gc t s SNR cng gim do mc iu ch gim. Ti ra vng ph sng khi SNR xung thp (khong 10dB) s phi s dng iu ch BPSK. Ngoi ra vi cc im gn trm gc nhng b che khut bi nhiu vt cn lm t s SNR gim cng c th s dng phng php iu ch mc thp.

23

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX

1.7 Bo mt
1.7.1 Kin trc bo mt trong WiMAX
Bo mt trong trong WiMAX bao gm: - Bo mt d liu ngi dng qua ng truyn khng dy. - Chng cc truy nhp khng cho php (unauthorized) vo lung dch v (chng nh cp dch v) bng cch mt m ha trn cc lung dch v. - Mt m ha kt ni gia trm gc BS v trm thu bao SS. - C cu bo mt + Nhn thc + iu khin truy nhp + Mt m ha bn tin + Pht hin s thay i trong bn tin (m bo tnh ton vn d liu) + Qun l kha bo mt: to kha, vn chuyn kha, bo v kha, s dng kha. Trong kin trc giao thc WiMAX, kin trc bo mt c nh ngha trong lp con bo mt MAC-PS. Kin trc bo mt trong WiMAX gm c hai giao thc thnh phn l: - Giao thc m mt ha d liu s dng chun m mt d liu DES (Data Encryption Standard) v c th s dng thm chun m mt tin tin AES (Advance Encryption Standard). - Giao thc qun l kha bo mt PKM (Privacy Key Management) Giao thc bo mt ca WiMAX da trn cc lin kt bo mt SA (security association). Mt lin kt bo mt bao gm cc thng s bo mt ca mt kt ni l cc kha v cc thut ton mt m ha c la chn. Cc lin kt bo mt c chia thnh cc lin kt bo mt d liu v cc lin kt bo mt nhn thc. - Lin kt bo mt d liu (Data SA) bao gm: + B nhn dng SA 16 bit. + Mt m bo v d liu s dng chun DES.

24

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX + Hai kha m mt lu lng TEK (Traffic Encryption Key). + B nhn dng kha TEK. + Thi gian sng ca TEK. + Vector khi to 64bit (vector khi to cho mi TEK) - Lin kt bo mt nhn thc (Authorization SA) bao gm: + Chng nhn X.509 ca tng trm thu bao SS. + Kha nhn thc AK (authorization key) 160 bit. + Nhn nhn dng AK 4 bit. + Thi gian sng ca AK. + Kha m mt kha KEK (Key Encryption Key). + Kha m xc nhn bn tin HMAC (Hashed Message Authentication Code) ng xung v ng ln. + Danh sch cc lin kt bo mt d liu nhn thc.

Hnh 1.11 M hnh bo mt

25

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX C 3 loi lin kt bo mt SA l SA c bn, SA tnh, SA ng. Mi SS c qun l s c thit lp mt SA s cp trong qu trnh khi to lin kt, SA tnh c cp trong BS, SA ng c to ra v hy i theo p ng vi qu trnh khi to v kt thc mt lung dch v c th. SA tnh v SA ng c th chia s vi nhiu SS. Cc SA c xc nh bi nhn dng lin kt bo mt SAID (Security Association Identifier). Cc kt ni vn chuyn lu lng u phi nh x n mt SA. Cc kt ni qun l th cp phi nh x n SA c bn. Cc kt ni qun l c bn khng cn nh x n SA. Qu trnh bo mt bao gm 3 qu trnh - Nhn thc - Trao i kha d liu - Mt m ha d liu

1.7.2 Bo mt qua giao din v tuyn


a. Nhn thc

Hnh 1.12 Qu trnh nhn thc thu bao Trm thu bao SS a yu cu nhn thc ti trm gc BS. Trm gc BS s tin hnh xc nhn thu bao v tr li nhn thc. Trm thu bao SS nhn c kha nhn

26

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX thc AK. Ton b qu trnh nhn thc c bo mt bi cc lin kt bo mt nhn thc. iu ny nhm chng n cp dch v. b. Trao i kha d liu

Hnh 1.13 Qu trnh trao i kha d liu Trao i kha d liu nhm ngn chn vic nh cp thng tin qua giao din v tuyn. c thc hin thng qua vic trao i kha m mt lu lng TEK. Trm thu bao SS a yu cu kha TEK n trm gc BS. Trm gc BS s to kha TEK v tr li li trm thu bao SS. bo mt cho qu trnh trao i kha TEK, BS s to kha TEK mt cch ngu nhin v mt m ha kha TEK vi m DES gp 3 (Triple-DES) hoc m AES, u s dng kha m mt kha KEK 128 bit. Bn tin trao i kha c xc nhn bi kha m xc nhn bn tin HMAC-SHA1. c. Qun l kha Bn tin 1: BS SS: S th t | SAID | HMAC(1) Bn tin 2: SS BS: S th t | SAID | HMAC(2) Bn tin 3: BS SS: S th t | SAID | kha TEK c | kha TEK mi | HMAC(3) Bn tin 1 dng trong qu trnh to mt lin kt bo mt SA mi

27

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX Bn tin 3 dng trong qu trnh to kha m mt lu lng TEK mi Kha TEK c m mt ha vi m DES-ECB gp ba (Triple-DES-ECB)

1.7.3 Mt m ha d liu

Hnh 1.14 Mt m ha d liu Trm thu bao SS yu cu kha m mt lu lng TEK t trm gc BS. Trm gc BS s to kha TEK v tr li li SS. Kha m mt lu lng TEK cho php gii m c d liu c m ha. Mt m ha d liu s dng tiu chun m mt d liu DES ch chui lin kt khi m mt CBC (Cipher Block Chaining): - Kha DES 56 bit - Khng c s pht hin s ton vn bn tin Ngoi ra c th s dng tiu chun m mt tin tin AES cho qu trnh mt m ha d liu. S mt m ha ch thc hin vi cc bn tin d liu (mt m ha d liu ti lu lng), khng thc hin vi cc bn tin mang thng tin qun l.

28

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX

1.8 Cc m hnh ng dng WiMAX


Cc m hnh ng dng WiMAX c chia thnh hai loi: mng ring v mng cng cng. Cc mng ring c s dng cho cc c quan, t chc, doanh nghip. Cu hnh mng c s dng l im im hoc im a im. u th ca cc mng ny l trin khai nhanh, n gin v chi ph thp. + Mng ng trc cho cc nh cung cp dch v di ng thay th ng cp hu tuyn. + Mng ng trc cho mng truy nhp v tuyn bng rng BWA, v d cc nh cung cp dch v Wifi, WiMAX ng thi cho php ph sng n nhng vng ho lnh m ng truyn Internet khng th lp t. + Mng ngn hng: phc v vic kt ni cc chi nhnh ngn hng v cc im t my rt tin t ng ti tr s chnh. u im khi s dng WiMAX l kh nng bo mt cao v c tnh linh hot cho php ti lp mng nhanh chng khi c s thay i v tr ca cc im kt ni. + Mng gio dc: kt ni cc trng hc, tng cng c cng tc qun l + Mng an ton cng cng c thit lp v qun l bi cc ngnh cng an, an ninh, giao thng, cu ha, cp cu, tm kim cu nn. Mng an ton cng cng cung cp cc thng tin v cc vn khn cp. WiMAX cho php thit lp cc mng v tuyn tm thi ngay c ni ang xy ra thm ha (ni m mng hu tuyn khng th trin khai c), cho php cung cp nhng thng tin cp nht nht. + Mng thng tin xa b kt ni cc trung tm trn b vi cc trm ngoi bin, s dng ng truyn LOS vi khong cch ln ti 50km. Cc mng cng cng c cung cp cho cc i tng ngi dng ring l nh cc h gia nh, trung tm dch v internet, vn phng, doanh nghip, trng hc. Cc dch v c cung cp phc v ch yu cho truy nhp internet bng rng, VoIP, nghe nhc, xem phim trc tuyn Khc vi mng ring, ti nguyn v tuyn trong mng cng cng c chia s gia nhng ngi s dng. Mng WiMAX cho php cung cp cc mng cng cng cho nhiu ngi s dng tha mn c cc iu kin v bo mt d liu ngi dng, chi ph thp v vng ph sng rng.

29

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX

1.9 Cc u im ca mng WiMAX


So vi vic trin khai cc mng s liu c dy v khng dy khc, mng WiMAX c nhng u im ni bt sau Trin khai nhanh hn nhng u t t hn Thi gian lp t v trin khai h thng mng WiMAX ngn hn cc h thng khc. So snh vi mng cp, h thng ny s gip nh khai thc a dch v n khch hng nhanh hn rt nhiu. Ni cch khc, chi ph u t s thp hn mng cp hu tuyn. Ngoi ra mng WiMAX cho php trin khai c nhng vng m mng cp hu tuyn khng th trin khai c. Cn cc mng di ng yu cu qun l mng phc tp do qu trnh trin khai chm hn cng nh chi ph cao hn. Dung lng mng ln hn Tc d liu ca trm gc WiMAX c th t c 75Mbps trong mt sector v cho php ln n 300Mbps trong mt cell. Trong trng hp lm mng ng trc (backhaul) tc d liu c th ln ti vi Gbps (mng WiMAX c inh, ng truyn LOS). Mng WiMAX c th cung cp tc d liu cao nhiu hn cc h thng khc nh Dial-up, ADSL, DSL v 3G. Mng Wifi v l thuyt c th cung cp tc d liu 54 Mbps nhng tc d liu thc ph thuc kt ni gia hotpost vi ng ADSL hoc cp. Trm gc WiMAX c th kt ni thng qua ng cp quang hoc qua cc backhaul WiMAX, trong kh nng ln nht l s dng cc backhaul. bo mt cao H thng WiMAX c s dng b lc a ch IP/MAC, mt khu, trn cc giao din v tuyn s dng cc phng thc bo mt tin tin. Ton b cc qu trnh nhn thc, thit lp kt ni c qun l bi giao thc qun l kha bo mt v cc lin kt bo mt i km tng kt ni. D liu c m ha bo mt theo chun DES, AES. K thut OFDM K thut OFDM cho php gim nhiu ISI, tng hiu sut s dng ph, gim li ng truyn cho php m bo tt cht lng tn hiu thu. OFDM c bit hiu qu trong truyn dn a ng trong mi trng NLOS. K thut iu ch thch ng

30

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX K thut iu ch thch ng cho php h thng phn ng linh hot vi cht lng ng truyn, khi t s SNR gim th mc iu ch gim m bo t l li bit t mc tiu chun (t l li bit BER khng vt qu 10-3). Kh nng iu chnh dung lng d dng Cng ngh WiMAX cho php vic s dng bng thng mt cch mm do. Ty theo iu kin s dng m c th la chn cc bng thng t 3.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz v ti a 20 MHz. Khi c th tng dung lng mng theo yu cu. i vi Wifi th bng thng c inh l 20 MHz.

Hnh 1.15 Kh nng m rng dung lng ca mt trm gc BS


(ngun nh cung cp thit b WiMAX Alvarion)

Xt mt v d mt trm pht WiMAX s dng cc modun kt ni s liu, mi modun s dng bng thng 3.5 MHz. Trong giai on u tin, s lng thu bao t, dung lng mng yu cu thp ta c th s dng mt modun thu pht s dng bng

31

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX thng 3.5 MHz, mi modun cho php tc d liu 18 Mbps. Khi s thu bao tng ln, khi ch cn lp thm modun v tng bng thng ln tng dung lng mng. Vi 4 modun c th t c dung lng ti a 72 Mbps. Hin nay cng ngh WiMAX ang c h tr bi nhiu nh sn xut thit b vin thng. Vi phin bn thit b (Multiple vendors) s cho php gim ri ro cho cc cng ty kinh doanh dch v WiMAX nh kh nng la chn thit b v s cnh tranh gia cc nh cung cp. Ngoi ra h thng WiMAX c nhiu c s v cng ngh v k thut cho cc gii php hiu qu v cnh tranh. + Chipset theo tiu chun. + Cng ngh mi gip gim sn xut chi ph dn n gi thnh thit b gim + Kh nng tch hp chip tng thch WiMAX bn trong laptops v PDA cng nh cc thit b di ng khc (tng t Wifi) do chi ph thit b u cui CPE s gim rt nhiu (ngi dng khng cn mua cc anten hoc card chuyn dng). Dch v phong ph Mng WiMAX cho php cung cp nhiu loi hnh dch v khc nhau cho cc t chc, doanh nghip, h gia nh v c nhn. Tt c cc dch v u c m bo cht lng dch v QoS. + Dch v thoi truyn thng hoc thoi qua internet (VoIP) + Truy cp internet tc cao + Hi ngh truyn hnh + Mng ring o + Truyn hnh di ng + Gii tr trc tuyn v nhiu dch v gia tng khc Cc dich v phong ph v cht lng dch v cao vi mc cc khng qu ln l im hp dn ca cng ngh WiMAX.

Tng kt chng 1
Qua s tm hiu, phn tch cc khi nim v c im ca cng ngh WiMAX chng ta thy c WiMAX l mt cng ngh tin tin, l bc t ph trong cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn bng thng rng hin nay. Vic tm hiu cc cng ngh

32

Chng 1. Cng ngh WiMAX v kh nng ng dng ca mng WiMAX c inh l c s tin hnh vic xy dng thit k mt mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trong thc t. Thm vo nhu cu s dng cc dch v s liu khng dy ngy cng tng, cho php tin tng vo s thnh cng ca WiMAX.

33

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

CHNG 2. BI TON THIT K MNG WIMAX C NH & DI TR CHO THNH PH H NI


_________________________________________________________________________

Chng 2 s trnh by qu trnh thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr thng qua vic gii quyt bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr. Vic thit k mt mng WiMAX c inh & di tr c th cho thnh ph H Ni s da trn cc bc thit k c a ra trong mc 2.2 vi cc tham s v cc yu cu thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni trong mc 2.3.

2.1 Mc ch thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr


Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh nhm thc hin cc mc ch chnh p ng nhu cu s dng dch v s liu khng dy tc cao (truy nhp v tuyn bng thng rng) ngy cng tng Cung cp mt di rng cc ng dng a dch v, tc cao vi cht lng m bo, c bit l cc ng dng i hi thi gian thc. Tha mn tnh a dng trong cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn v h tr cc mng truy nhp v tuyn hin ti nh mng di ng, cc hotspot ca Wifi Theo xu hng pht trin v ng dng cng ngh mi Thnh ph H Ni lun l ni c trin khai sm cc cng ngh mi, gn y nht l truyn hnh di ng, dch v in thoi c inh & di tr khng dy

2.2 Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr


2.2.1 Cc tham s h thng ca mng WiMAX c inh & di tr
Trc khi thc hin bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr chng ta phi bit cc tham s h thng cho mt mng WiMAX c inh & di tr. Cc tham s h thng ny c xc nh theo yu cu thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr v ph thuc vo chnh sch ca tng quc gia. V d bng tn hot ng c th l 2.3

34

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni GHz, 2.5 GHz hoc 3.5 GHz. Cc tham s h thng theo yu cu l c s cho php la chn cc thng s thit b cn thit. Vi mi yu cu thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr khc nhau ta s c mt b tham s h thng mng WiMAX c inh & di tr khc nhau. Tham s quan trng nht chnh l bng tn hot ng v n c quan ti tt c cc qu trnh tnh ton thit k mng cng nh vic la chn m hnh d on suy hao thch hp. Hin nay WiMAX c inh & di tr ang c xem xt c cp bng tn hot ng 3.5 GHz v cc bng thp hn. Ti Vit Nam bng tn 3.5 GHz cng ang c ngh cp cho WiMAX c inh & di tr v nhiu kh nng WiMAX c inh & di tr ti Vit Nam s c cp php hot ng bng tn 3.5 GHz. Chnh v vy n thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni s la chn s dng bng tn 3.5 GHz cho mng WiMAX c inh & di tr. Chng ta c th tham kho bng tham s h thng cho WiMAX c inh & di tr c cho bi WiMAX Forum s dng bng tn 3.5 GHz trong bng 2.1 Tham s Tn s hot ng Song cng a truy nhp Bng thng knh Khong cch BS-BS Khong cch ti thiu t SS ti BS cao trm gc cao thit b c inh & di tr Tng ch anten BS Tng ch anten SS 3500 MHz TDD, FDD TDMA 10MHz 4 km 36 m 50 m 100 m 2 m 40 m 17 dBi C inh & di tr (trn nc 15 dBi nh) Di tr (gn trn thit b) Cng sut pht ca BS trn 1 anten 8 dBi 50 dBm Gi tr

35

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

Cng sut pht ca SS trn 1 anten S lng anten pht/thu ca BS S lng anten pht/thu ca SS Mu anten Tp m trm gc Tp m trm c inh & di tr

30 dBm Pht: 2 hoc 4, thu: 2 hoc 4 Pht: 1, thu: 2 70o (- 3dB) 4 dB 7 dB

Bng 2.1 Bng cc tham s h thng tham kho cho WiMAX c inh & di tr
(ngun WiMAX Forum)

Gii thch cc tham s h thng chnh ca WiMAX c inh & di tr Tham s tn s hot ng cho bit bng tn hot ng ca mng WiMAX c inh & di tr. Tham s ny c s dng trong qu trnh tnh ton suy hao. Tham s bng thng knh l gi tr rng bng thng ca knh tn s c cp. Bng thng ca knh cng ln th tc d liu ti a cho php cng cao. Tham s ny c s dng trong qu trnh tnh ton lu lng. Tham s cao trm gc cho bit di cao cho php ca trm gc. Tham s ny c s dng trong qu trnh tnh ton suy hao. Tham s cao thit b c inh & di tr cho bit di cao cho php ca trm c inh & di tr. Tham s ny c s dng trong qu trnh tnh ton suy hao. Tham s tng ch anten BS/SS cho bit kh nng khuch i tn hiu ca anten BS/SS. Tham s ny c s dng trong qu trnh tnh ton suy hao. Tham s cng sut ca BS/SS pht trn mt anten cho bit cng sut pht ti a trn 1 anten pht t tnh EIRP (cng sut bc x ng hng hiu qu). Tham s ny c s dng trong qu trnh tnh ton suy hao. Tham s khong cch BS-BS c xc nh c lng sao cho nh hng ca nhiu t cc trm ln cn trong gii hn chp php, kt qu ca qu trnh tnh ton s cho ra khong cch BS-BS c th.

36

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Tham s khong cch ti thiu t SS ti BS ph thuc gc pht ca anten trm gc BS. Tham s s lng anten pht/thu ty thuc tng thit b, s lng anten thu pht cng ln th hiu sut s dng ph cng tng dn n tc d liu ti a tng. Tham s tp m trm gc, trm c inh & di tr c tnh vo trong nhy thu ca trm gc v trm c inh & di tr.

2.2.2 Cc tham s dch v cho WiMAX c inh & di tr


phc v cho qu trnh nh c mng cn phi bit c tng nhu cu s dng. Tng nhu cu s dng s c xc nh thng qua cc tham s dch v v s lng thu bao trn tng dch v. Cc tham s dch v theo cc mc tiu chun dch v ca tng nh cung cp. Bng 2.2 a ra cc tham s dch v tham kho cho WiMAX c inh & di tr (ngun WiMAX Forum). STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 ng dng Tr chi tng tc trc tuyn VoIP Hi ngh truyn hnh Nhc, li (speech) on phim ngn phn gii thp (Video Clip) Lung phim phn gii cao phc v xem trc tuyn Duyt WEB, nhn tin, th in t c nh km file 8
1

Tc d liu 50 kbps ~ 85 kbps 4 kbps ~ 64 kbps 32 kbps ~ 384 kbps 5 kbps ~ 128 kbps 20 kbps ~ 384 kbps Cho php > 2 Mbps

tr < 25 SS <160 SS <160 SS N/A N/A N/A

tr pha N/A1 < 50 SS < 50 SS < 100 SS < 100 SS < 100 SS

5 kbps ~ >500 kbps

N/A

N/A

Ti d liu (download)

Cho php > 1 Mbps

N/A

N/A

N/A (Not applicable): khng c p dng. Ty thuc vo loi hnh dch v m s khng p dng mt vi tham s dch v, v d nh tham s tr ch c cc ng dng yu cu thi gian thc nh VoIP cn cc ng dng khng yu cu thi gian thc nh ti d liu th khng cn tham s tr.

37

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Bng 2.2 Bng cc tham s dch v tham kho cho WiMAX c inh & di tr
(ngun WiMAX Forum)

Bng cc tham s dch v cho WiMAX c inh & di tr a ra mt s dch v c bn vi 3 tham s dch v l tc d liu, tr (delay) v tr pha (jitter). Chng ta ch s dng tham s tc d liu cho qu trnh tnh ton nh c mng, cc tham s v tr c s dng trong k thut QoS nhm m bo cht lng dch v.

2.2.3 Phng php tnh ton lu lng


Cc tham s u vo cho tnh ton lu lng bao gm loi hnh dch v (tc d liu, cc tham s tnh ton cho tng loi hnh dch v) v s lng thu bao s dng dch v . T cc tham s u vo ny s dng phng php tnh ton lu lng xc nh lu lng d liu yu cu. Khi tnh ton lu lng dch v d liu phi s dng tham s t s tranh chp bng thng (contention ratio CR). T s tranh chp bng thng xc nh s lng thu bao s dng chung trn mt bng thng knh truyn. T s tranh chp bng thng c nh ngha CR = 1:N vi N l s thu bao s dng chung bng thng mt knh. V d CR = 1:10 ngha l c 10 thu bao s dng chung mt knh. Lu lng dch v s liu c tnh ton da trn t s tranh chp bng thng CR nh sau C = [M . (D + L)] . CR + Lu lng dch v C (kbps) + S lng thu bao trn tng loi dch v M + Tc tng loi dch v D/L (kbps) + T s tranh chp bng thng CR = 1:N Vi dch v yu cu thi gian thc nh VoIP s dng t s tranh chp bng thng thp CR = 1:4, vi dch v khng yu cu thi gian thc s dng t s tranh chp bng thng cao CR = 1:10 ~ 1:20. V d tnh ton lu lng dch v d liu 20 thu bao s dng dch v VoIP c tc d liu DL/UP 64/64 kbps + T s tranh chp bng thng CR = 1:4
38

(2.1)

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni 60 thu bao dch v d liu + 50 thu bao s dng dch v c tc d liu DL/UP 512/128 kbps + 10 thu bao s dng dch v c tc d liu DL/UP 1536/384 kbps + T s tranh chp bng thng CR = 1:10 Tng lu lng cn p ng cho nhu cu s dng C = (64 + 64).20. 1/4 + [(512 + 128).50 + (1536 + 384).10] . 1/10 = 5760 (kbps). c. Tng lu lng v thng lng (mt lu lng) Tng lu lng dch v C Mbps Thng lng hay mt lu lng l lu lng dch v xt trn mt n v din tch (thng dng km2) vi iu kin thu bao phn b u trn din tch ph sng. Thng lng d liu c s dng tnh ton lu lng v nh c mng. + Lu lng dch v C Mbps + Din tch ph sng S (km2) + Thng lng dch v T = C / S (Mbps/km2) (2.2)

2.2.4 nh gi kh nng trin khai mng WiMAX c inh & di tr


Hin nay mng WiMAX c inh & di tr ang c trin khai th nghim trn mt s quc gia do cc nh cung cp dch v vin thng hng u trn th gii tin hnh. Ti Vit Nam WiMAX c inh & di tr ang c s h tr ca tp on Alvarion, Alvarion hin h tr thit BreezeMAX cho th nghim mng WiMAX c inh & di tr ti Vit Nam v sn sng gip Vit Nam xy dng mng WiMAX c inh & di tr (ngun Vnmedia). Nhu cu s dng cc dch v s liu khng dy v VoIP ang tng mnh, ngoi ra cc mng c inh & di tr hin ti cha p ng nhu cu. Ngoi ra cc phin bn thit b WiMAX c inh & di tr ngy cng ph bin cho php cc nh cung cp dch v c nhiu s chn la hn. Tt c cc yu t trn cho php kh nng mng WiMAX c inh & di tr tr thnh hin thc ti Vit Nam.

39

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

2.2.5 Cc bc thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr

Hnh 2.1 S cc bc thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr Trc khi thit k mt mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cn xem xt cc yu cu thit k mng c th la chn cc bc tnh ton tnh ton hp l. Cc yu cu thit k mng l u vo cho cc qu trnh tnh ton thit k mng. Cc bc thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr gm cc qu trnh tnh ton suy hao, tnh ton qu ng truyn v nh c mng. Trc ht phi xem xt cc tham s yu cu thc t cho mng WiMAX c inh & di tr. Trong quan trng nht l bng tn c php s dng, cc yu t a hnh c lin quan ti vic tnh ton suy hao v bn vng a l xy dng m hnh mng, cc tham s dch v tnh ton dung lng mng. Cc tham s u vo cn l c s la chn s b thng s thit b yu cu. Sau qu trnh tnh ton nu thit b la chn khng p ng c cc yu cu th phi la chn cc thng s thit b khc, tt nhin khi qu trnh tnh ton s phi thc hin li cho n khi tha mn mi yu cu thit k mng.. Qu trnh tnh ton suy hao v tnh ton qu ng truyn nhm mc ch xc nh phm vi ph sng v cc yu t nh hng n cht lng ng truyn, l cc vn quan trng trong mng thng tin v tuyn. Kt qu tnh ton s cho ta bit phm vi ph sng ti a (bn knh cell ln nht) t tnh c din tch ph sng ln nht ca mt cell.

40

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Qu trnh nh c mng nhm xc nh s cell cn thit p ng c nhu cu s dng. Trc ht phi tnh ton thng lng mng yu cu thng qua vic xc nh s lng thu bao, loi hnh dch v, t s tranh chp bng thng cho dch v s liu. Kt qu ta tnh ton thng lng dch v s liu T (Mbps/km2). Sau da vo kt qu tnh ton din tch ph sng ln nht ca mt cell v lu lng trung bnh ca mt cell (tnh theo cc tham s thit b v bng thng s dng) s tnh c thng lng d liu trung bnh ca mt cell T2 Mbps/km2. Nu T2 T2 tc l thng lng d liu trung bnh ca mt cell p ng thng lng mng yu cu, khi thit b la chn tha mn. Nu T2 < T2 tc l thng lng trung bnh ca mt cell thp hn thng lng mng yu cu khi phi tng s cell hoc thay i thit b khc c dung lng ln hn v thc hin qu trnh nh c li. Cc kt qu t c sau khi tnh ton l s cell (s trm gc), bn knh cell, khong cch cc trm gc v v tr t trm gc trn bn a l. M hnh mng s c th hin trn bn a l di dng li lc gic vi trung tm lc gic l mt trm gc BS. V tr t trm c th s dao ng xung quanh v tr trm trn bn a l, ty theo iu kin c th. xc nh v tr t trm phi s dng bn kin trc h tng hay bn chp t v tinh.

2.3 Cc yu cu thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni


2.3.1 Ch tiu cht lng cho mng WiMAX c inh & di tr
Mi h thng mng u c nhng ch tiu cht lng c quy nh nhm a ra mc cht lng dch v cho cc nh cung cp. Cc yu cu thit k mng phi tha mn cc mc ch tiu cht lng mng tiu chun do qu trnh thit k mng phi m bo c cc ch tiu cht lng theo mc tiu chun. Ngoi ra ch tiu cht lng cn l c s kim nh cht lng mng trong qu trnh vn hnh. i vi mng WiMAX c inh & di tr do l mng cung cp cc dch v d liu nn cc ch tiu cht lng cho mng WiMAX c inh & di tr s bao gm cc ch tiu cht lng dch v s liu tng t mng Internet truyn thng (mng d liu c dy).

41

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

Hnh 2.2 Ch tiu cht lng cho mng Internet


(ngun fpt.com.vn)

Hnh 2.2 bao gm bng tiu chun cht lng dch v Internet theo tiu chun ngnh TCN 68-218-2003 v ng k ch tiu cht lng dch v truy nhp Internet gin tip qua mng in thoi cng cng ca cng ty c phn pht trin u t cng ngh FPT (ngun fpt.com.vn). Cc ch tiu ca mng Internet c s dng cho mng WiMAX c inh & di tr bao gm cc ch tiu v t l truy nhp mng thnh cng, t l kt ni khng gin on, thi gian thit lp kt ni trung bnh, tc ti d liu trung bnh, thi gian trung bnh truy nhp trang WEB, lu lng s dng

42

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni trung bnh. Ngoi cc ch tiu k thut c trng cho tng loi mng, WiMAX cng c cc ch tiu k thut chung cho mi loi mng bao gm + kh dng ca mng + Cc vn v khiu ni v gii quyt khiu ni + Dch v h tr khch hng STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Tn ch tiu kh dng ca mng T l truy nhp mng thnh cng T l kt ni khng gin on Thi gian thit lp kt ni trung bnh Tc ti d liu trung bnh Thi gian trung bnh truy nhp trang WEB Lu lng s dng trung bnh Ch s tha mn ca khch hng v cht lng dch v QoS Khiu ni v gii quyt khiu ni + T l khiu ni + Khiu ni v cc 10 + Tip nhn v hi m (trong 48 gi) Dch v h tr khch hng Mc tiu chun 99,5 % 95 % 97 % 35 s > 8 KB/s 35 s 70 % 90 %

0,5 % 0,25 % 100 % 24/24 gi

Bng 2.3 Bng tiu chun cht lng cho mng WiMAX c inh & di tr Bng 2.3 l bng tiu chun cht lng cho mng WiMAX c inh & di tr vi tt c cc tiu chun cht lng cho dch v s liu v thoi. Do cha c mt b tiu chun cht lng chnh thc cho WiMAX c inh & di tr nn trong n ny khng a ra cc mc ng k ch tiu m s dng cc mc tiu chun cho vic tnh ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni. Cc ch tiu cht lng cho mng WiMAX c inh & di tr c lin quan ti qu trnh thit k mng bao gm: + Lu lng s dng trung bnh A % xc nh lu lng s dng dch v trung bnh. Sau khi tnh c lu lng s dng dch v yu cu C Mbps, lu lng cn p ng c tnh C = C * A / 100.

43

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni + Cc ch tiu khc c m bo bi cc k thut v cng ngh s dng trong WiMAX c inh & di tr, c bit l k thut QoS m bo cht lng dch v, cng ngh anten thng minh m bo cht lng kt ni v kh dng ca mng (mng WiMAX c inh & di tr c kh dng ln ti > 99,9 %).

2.3.2 Cc yu cu thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni


Cc yu cu thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni l c s tin hnh cc bc tnh ton thit k mng, qua trnh tnh ton thit k mng s phi s dng cc thng s yu cu thit k mng. Mt vn na l trong iu kin Vit Nam hin nay, WiMAX c inh & di tr s c trin khai trc cc trung tm th ln. V l do ny nn n thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni s thc hin vic thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho khu vc trung tm H Ni ni c mt dn ng nht, bao gm cc qun Ba nh, Hon Kim, ng a, Hai B Trng v mt phn cc qun Thanh Xun, Hong Mai, Cu Giy. Cc yu cu thit k mng bao gm tn s c php s dng, rng bng thng knh ti a, cc iu kin a hnh, kin trc th, lu lng s dng (ph thuc dch v) v mt thu bao. a. Qu tn s c th cp pht Ti Vit Nam bng tn c th cp pht cho WiMAX l bng 3,5 GHz vi ph tng cng khong 200 MHz. Ph dnh cho mt knh c th l 3.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 20 MHz. Mt trm gc c th c cp tng cng 20 MHz, vi mu ti s dng tn s (1, 1, 3). b. Thng tin vng ph sng Hnh 2.3 l bn chp t v tinh nhm xc nh khu vc cn ph sng. Vng cn ph sng l khu vc c mt nh ln nht nm trong gii hn vng ph sng c ch ra trn hnh. Tng din tch khu vc cn ph sng l 42 km2, yu cu xc sut ph sng 95 % trn ton b din tch cell v 75 % ti l cell (xt vi macro cell, bn knh trn 1 km).

44

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

Hnh 2.3 Khu vc cn ph sng chp t v tinh


(Ngun Google Earth)

Xem xt nh chp t v tinh c th thy khu vc trung tm H Ni c mt nh dy c, cao hn hn tt c cc khu vc xung quanh v y cng l khu vc c mt dn c cao nht do s c mt thu bao WiMAX c inh & di tr ln nht. V l do trn nn mng WiMAX c inh & di tr bc u s c trin khai ti khu vc ny. Hnh 2.4 th hin khu vc cn ph sng trn bn a l tin cho vic quy hoch vng ph sng

45

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

Hnh 2.4 Khu vc cn ph sng trn bn a l


(Ngun Google Earth)

c. iu kin v mi trng truyn sng

46

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Xem xt bn kin trc H Ni chp t v tinh (ngun Google Earth2 ), Hnh 2.5 xc nh iu kin v mi trng truyn sng. Cc phn tch v iu kin v mi trng truyn sng quyt nh n vic la chn m hnh tnh ton suy hao v qu trnh tnh ton qu ng truyn. Hnh 2.5a l bn khu vc ni thnh H Ni chp t v tinh v chi tit mt s khu vc nh qun Hon Kim (Hnh 2.5b) v phng Bch Khoa (Hnh 2.5c). Qua bn chp t v tinh c th a ra cc nhn nh sau v kin trc th khu vc ni thnh H Ni nh sau: a hnh tng i bng phng, khng c ni i, nn a hnh thp Mt nh dy c v to thnh tng khi, chiu cao nh trung bnh 15 m, khong cch gia cc khi nh khong 15m, cc cng trnh cao tng phn b tha v s lng t. Cc ng ph chnh c rng trung bnh 20 m, ngoi ra c rt nhiu cc con ph nh vi rng t 5~12 m. C nhiu h v sng nh trong khu vc ni thnh d. Cc v tr c th t trm gc Qua cc nhn nh v kin trc khu vc ni thnh H Ni c th a ra cc yu cu thit k v cc v tr c th t trm gc + Do cc trong khu vc trung tm thnh ph mt thu bao cao, mt khc nh c cao thp nn s dng cc anten c cao t 30 ~ 40 m. Cc ct anten phi t trn nh cc cng trnh cao tng c cao khong 25 m tr ln hoc s dng ct anten cao 40 m. Cc mng thng tin c inh & di tr hin nay t ti trung tm thnh ph H Ni (khu vc ng thu bao) s dng cc ct anten BTS c cao tnh t mt t ln anten trong khong 30 ~ 40 m. + V tr cc trm gc khng c ri vo cc sng h, ng ph, bnh vin v cc khu vc dnh cho quc phng. Trong trng hp v tr trm gc (tm cell) ri vo cc khu vc ny cn dch v tr trm gc.

Google Earth l mt sn phm ca Google nhm cung cp hnh nh cc hnh nh v b mt tri t chp t v tinh. Cc hnh nh cung cp bi Google Earth cho php xem xt iu kin a hnh, kin trc cc thnh ph ln trn th gii
2

47

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni + V tr cc trm gc phi tha mn sao cho tng din tch ph sng ca cc cell che ph ton b din tch cn ph sng hoc t nht > 98 % din tch vng cn ph sng. + Cc v tr trm gc s c chnh th trn bn kin trc ton b khu vc trung tm H Ni chp t v tinh (Hnh 2.5a), cc v tr c th s c xc nh trn bn chi tit tng cell. Trong n ny bn chi tit khu vc qun Hon Kim s c s dng minh ha cho qu trnh xc nh v tr trm gc trn bn .

(2.5a Khu vc ni thnh H Ni) (S dng thc t l 1km)

48

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

(2.5b Khu vc qun Hon Kim)

(2.5c Khu vc phng Bch Khoa) Hnh 2.5 Bn kin trc H Ni chp t v tinh e. Cc dch v c th trin khai
49

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Xt vi nhu cu s dng v iu kin kinh t hin nay ca ngi dn H Ni th cc ng dng WiMAX c inh & di tr c th trin khai trong giai on u l ng dng thoi VoIP c inh & di tr v truy nhp Internet tc cao (dch v Best Effort), cc dch v gii tr thi gian thc khc nh truyn hnh online, multimedia s c cung cp sau do gi dch v thi gian thc cn tng i cao v nhu cu khng qu ln. Trong cc mng c inh & di tr hin ti lu lng ln nht vn l voice, trong mng Internet tc cao ADSL cng ch cung cp dch v Best Effort do gi r. Ngoi ra dch v truy nhp Internet tc cao c cung cp bi WiMAX c inh & di tr cn c h tr cht lng dch v bi k thut QoS do vn c th p ng tt cc nhu cu ca ngi s dng vi gi cc hp l. Cc dch v WiMAX s c trin khai trong giai on u bao gm Thoi VoIP + Tc d liu UL/DL 64/64 kbps + T s tranh chp bng thng CR = 1:4 + Lu lng s dng trung bnh A % = 70 % Dch v d liu Best Effort + Tc DL/UL: 256/64 kbps, 512/128 kbps, 1024/256 kbps, 2048/512 kbps + T s tranh chp bng thng CR = 1:10 (dch v ADSL s dng CR = 1:20) + Lu lng s dng trung bnh A % = 70 % f. D on thu bao S lng v mt thu bao ph thuc tng s dn v phn b dn c trn vng ph sng. Trong iu kin phn b dn c khng u nhau s phi tnh ton chi tit cho tng khu vc xc nh lu lng yu cu. Xem xt trn bn chp t v tinh Hnh 2.5 a c th thy trong khu vc trung tm mt nh tng ng trn ton din tch ph sng do mt dn c gn nh l u nhau. Vy c th coi cc thu bao phn b u trn ton b din tch ph sng. Theo cc s liu thng k nm 2005 dn s khu vc trung tm H Ni xt trong phm vi vng ph sng khong 1 triu dn. Tng din tch vng cn ph sng 42 km2, mt dn c 1.106/42 = 23800 (ngi/km2).

50

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni T l thu bao ca mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn tng s dn (xt trong vng ph sng) trong giai on u khong 2 % tc l 20000 thu bao. Cc dch v c bn c trin khai l thoi VoIP v Internet tc cao vi cc yu cu dch v nh trong mc 2.2.2 e. T l phn trm thu bao trn tng ng dng c cho trong bng 2.4 STT 1 2 3 4 5 Dch v (DL/UL) VoIP D liu 256/64 Kbps D liu 512/128 Kbps D liu 1024/256 Kbps D liu 2048/512 Kbps Tng cng T l thu bao 20 % 60 % 18 % 1,5 % 0,5 % 100 % S lng thu bao 4000 12000 3600 300 100 19200

Bng 2.4 T l thu bao trn tng ng dng g. Tnh ton lu lng yu cu Lu lng dch v Tng lu lng dch v d liu Tng lu lng = tng thu bao*(tc d liu*t l thu bao)*CR*A/100 (2.4)

Tng lu lng = 4000 * (64 + 64) * 1 / 4 * 70 / 100 + 20000 * [(256 + 64) * 60 + (512 + 128)*18 + (1024 + 256)*1,5 + (2048 + 512)*0,5]/100 * 1/10 * 70/100 = 564475 (Kbps) = 551,24 (Mbps) Thng lng dch v d liu trung bnh 551,24 / 42 = 13,12 (Mbps/km2) Tng hp cc yu cu thit k Din tch vng ph 42 km2 Yu cu xc sut ph sng 95 % trn ton b din tch cell v 75 % ti l cell Yu cu lu lng 551,24 Mbps Tn s hot ng ca mng 3,5 GHz

51

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Tha mn cc yu cu v iu kin kin trc, a hnh p ng cc ch tiu cht lng dch v theo mc tiu chun.

2.3.3 La chn thit b theo yu cu thit k


Vn la chn thit b phi theo yu cu lu lng, nht l i vi cc khu vc trung tm th c mt thu bao ln. Trong khi qu trnh tnh ton suy hao v qu ng truyn nhm mc ch xc nh bn knh cell ti a v m bo c cht lng tn hiu thu. Bn knh cell cng ln mt lu lng p ng cng nh v ngc li, gi tr bn knh cell s c tnh ton sao cho tha mn qu ng truyn v p ng c thng lng d liu yu cu. a. Cc yu cu Yu cu thng lng + Thng lng trung bnh T = 13,12 Mbps/km2 Tn s hot ng ca mng 3,5 GHz b. La chn thit b Cc trm gc WiMAX c inh & di tr hin nay c kh nng cung cp lu lng d liu trung bnh 30 Mbps trn 1 sector, rng knh 10 MHz. Vi cu hnh 3 sector/cell kh nng cung cp trung bnh ca mt cell 90 Mbps lu lng d liu. Kh nng khi s dng cu hnh 6 sector/1 cell, mc iu ch d liu cao nht 64QAM, rng knh 20 MHz, khi c th cung cp ti a 540 Mbps lu lng d liu. Cc thit b WiMAX c inh & di tr bao gm trm gc v cc trm thu bao c inh & di tr. Quan trng nht l la chn trm gc sao cho tha mn cc yu cu thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr. i vi cc trm thu bao c inh & di tr do c rt nhiu hng sn xut v s la chn thuc v ngi s dng nn vic la chn thng s trm thu bao c inh & di tr ch ly cc thng s tiu chun. La chn trm gc Cc trm gc WiMAX c inh & di tr c th la chn sn phm trm gc c inh & di tr ca cc hng Alvarion, Axxcelera, Airspan, SR-Telecom, Telsima.

52

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Hng Alvarion c phin bn trm gc WiMAX c inh & di tr l BreezMAX BST + a truy nhp TDMA, song cng TDD + iu ch OFDM FFT 256 iu ch d liu BPSK ti 64QAM + rng knh cho php 1,75 / 3,5 / 5 / 10 MHz + H tr cc bng tn 3.5 / 5.8 GHz + Sector 60o / 90o / 120o / 180o / v hng + Tc d liu 30 Mbps trn mt sector ( rng knh 10 MHz) + Cng sut pht 40 dBm trn mt phn t anten3 + Tng ch anten 15 dBi + nhy thu 115 dBm (QPSK4) ti 108 dBm (QPSK) Hng Axxcelera vi phin bn trm gc ExcelMAX + a truy nhp TDMA, song cng TDD + iu ch OFDM FFT 256, iu ch d liu BPSK ti 64QAM + rng knh cho php 1,5 / 3 / 7 / 10 / 14 MHz + S dng cho bng tn 3.5 GHz + Sector 45o / 60o / 90o / 120o / 180o / v hng + Tc d liu 40 Mbps trn mt sector ( rng knh 7 MHz) + Cng sut pht 32 dBm trn mt phn t anten + Tng ch anten 15 dBi + nhy thu 101 dBm (BPSK) Hng Airspan c 2 phin bn trm gc WiMAX c inh & di tr l HiperMAX dnh cho macro cell v MicroMAX-SDR dnh cho micro cell. + a truy nhp TDMA
Vi k thut MIMO trm gc WiMAX c th s dng nhiu hn 1 phn t anten pht, khi s tng cng sut pht trong mt anten. 4 nhy thu cng ph thuc vo mc iu ch d liu, nhy thu vi mc iu ch cao yu cu ln hn vi khi iu ch mc thp
3

53

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni + Song cng TDD + iu ch OFDM FFT 256 , iu ch d liu BPSK ti 64QAM + rng knh cho php 1,75 / 3,5 / 5 / 10 MHz + H tr cc bng tn 2.5 / 3.5 / 5 GHz + Sector 60o / 90o / 120o / 180o / v hng + Tc d liu trung bnh 30 Mbps trn mt sector ( rng knh 10 MHz) + Cng sut pht 35 dBm trn mt phn t anten5 + Tng ch anten 15 dBi + nhy thu 117 dBm (BPSK6) ti 108 dBm (16QAM) Hng SR-Telecom vi phin bn trm gc CBS5000 h tr WiMAX c inh & di tr + a truy nhp TDMA, song cng TDD + iu ch OFDM FFT 256, iu ch d liu BPSK ti 64QAM + rng knh cho php 1,25 / 2,5 / 5 / 7 / 10 MHz + H tr cc bng tn 1.5 / 2.3 / 2.5 / 3.5 / 10 GHz + Sector 90o / 120o / 180o / v hng + Tc d liu trung bnh 28 Mbps trn mt sector ( rng knh 10 MHz) + Cng sut pht 32 dBm trn mt phn t anten + Tng ch anten 17,5 dBi + nhy thu 110.5 dBm (BPSK) ti 92 dBm (16QAM) Hng Telsima vi phin bn trm gc StarMAX 6400-2.5G dnh cho WiMAX c inh & di tr bng tn 3.5 GHz + a truy nhp TDMA, song cng TDD + iu ch OFDM FFT 256, iu ch d liu BPSK ti 64QAM
Cng ngh anten thng minh v k thut MIMO cho php trm gc WiMAX c inh & di tr c th s dng nhiu phn t anten trn mt anten thu hoc pht. 6 nhy thu cng ph thuc vo mc iu ch d liu, s dng mc iu ch cao yu cu nhy thu ln hn khi s dng mc iu ch thp
5

54

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni + rng knh cho php 1,5 / 3 / 7 / 10 / 14 MHz + S dng cho bng tn 3.5 GHz + Sector 45o / 60o / 90o / 120o / 180o / v hng + Tc d liu trung bnh 26 Mbps trn mt sector ( rng knh 10 MHz) + Cng sut pht 32 dBm trn mt phn t anten + Tng ch anten 15 dBi + nhy thu 110 dBm (BPSK) 91 dBm (16QAM) Qua s xem xt v so snh thng s trm gc cho WiMAX c inh v di tr , trm gc BreezMAX BST ca Alvarion thch hp nht vi mng WiMAX c inh v di tr do h tr y cc c tnh ca cng ngh WiMAX c inh v di tr . V vy c th la chn trm gc HiperMAX ca Airspan cho vic thit k mng WiMAX c inh v di tr ca thnh ph H Ni. Thng s trm thu bao c inh & di tr c th la chn cc thng s tiu chun sau (da trn s tham kho thng s trm thu bao c inh v i tr SSU5000 ca SR-Telecom v BreezeMAX-3500 ca hng Alvarion). + Cng sut pht 22 dBm trn mt phn t anten + 2 phn t anten thu, 1 phn t anten pht + Tng ch anten 5 dBi + nhy thu 100 dBm (BPSK) ti 90 dBm (64QAM ) Tng hp cc thng s thit b s dng trong tnh ton Thng s Tc d liu trung bnh Cng sut pht trn mt phn t anten S phn t anten pht S phn t anten thu Tng ch anten nhy thu Mc iu ch thp nht Mc iu ch cao nht Trm gc BreezMAX BST ca Alvarion 30 Mbps/sector 40 dBm 4 2 17 dBi - 117 dBm (BPSK) - 108 dBm (16QAM) Trm thu bao BreezeMAX-3500 22 dBm 1 2 8 dBi - 100 dBm (BPSK) - 90 dBm (64 QAM)

Bng 2.5 Tng hp thng s thit b la chn

55

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

2.4 Tnh ton suy hao


Tng suy hao tn hiu trn ng truyn t trm pht n trm thu bao gm suy hao ng truyn v tuyn (path loss) v cc suy hao ph. Suy hao ng truyn l suy hao c bn trong qu trnh truyn dn ph thuc tn s, khong cch truyn sng v mi trng truyn sng. Cc suy hao ph ty thuc vo cc iu kin truyn dn v kin trc th bao gm cc suy hao do fading, suy hao thm nhp hay m xuyn vt chn (do s hp th sng in t ca vt chn i vi khi xuyn qua), cc loi tp m v nhiu, suy hao trong cc ng dy v suy hao mi ni

2.4.1 Tnh ton suy hao ng truyn (path loss)


Suy hao ng truyn (path loss) l s suy gim cng sut tn hiu trn ng truyn v tuyn, suy hao ng truyn c tnh thng qua cc m hnh tnh ton suy hao. Yu t ln nht nh hng ti suy hao ng truyn l tn s hot ng ca mng. Vi mi di tn khc nhau nh hng ca suy hao ng truyn l khc nhau, tn s cng ln th suy hao cng ln v cng kh truyn trong mi trng NLOS. Hnh 2.6 th hin thy mi quan h gia bn knh cell vi suy hao ng truyn, c xem xt mt s di tn c th c s dng cho WiMAX trong c WiMAX c inh & di tr (bng 3,5 GHz).

Hnh 2.6 Bn knh cell vi suy hao ng truyn tnh suy hao ng truyn cn phi s dng mt m hnh tnh ton suy hao ph hp. Cc m hnh tnh ton suy hao thng dng l m hnh khng gian t do, m hnh Hata, m hnh Okumura, m hnh COST 231 Hata, m hnh COST 231

56

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Walfisch-Ikegami, m hnh ITU, m hnh Young, m hnh Erceg-Greensteis, m hnh SUI v nhiu m hnh khc. M hnh tnh ton suy hao dng d on mc suy hao theo khong cch vi mt s iu kin nht nh. iu ny c ngha l vic la chn m hnh tnh ton suy hao phi da vo cc iu kin thit k mng nh a hnh, kin trc h tng, bng tn s dng, loi vng ( th, ngoi , nng thn). Vi mng WiMAX c inh v di tr s dng bng tn 3.5 GHz, mi trng truyn dn NLOS v iu kin truyn a ng c WiMAX ForumTM khuyn ngh s dng m hnh COST 231 Suburban (vng ngoi ) hoc m hnh SUI . M hnh SUI c s dng cho bng tn 3.5 GHz, m hnh ny c dng tnh ton cho WiMAX c inh v di tr. M hnh COST 231 l m hnh tnh ton suy hao c s dng ph bin cho mng di ng vi di tn t 1.5 GHz ti 2 GHz tuy nhin vn hon ton c kh nng d on suy hao bng tn 3.5 GHz. Hai m hnh COST 231 thng dng l COST 231 Hata v COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami. M hnh SUI l m hnh tnh ton suy hao thng c s dng cho bng tn 2.5 GHz v 3.5 GHz. M hnh COST 231 Hata M hnh COST 231 Hata l m hnh tnh ton suy hao c s dng ph bin trong cc mng di ng. M hnh ny thch hp khi s dng tnh ton suy hao trong thnh ph ln hoc trung bnh vi anten trm gc t cao. Cng thc tnh suy hao ca m hnh COST 231 Hata Lp = 46,3 + 33,9logf 13,82loghb a(hm) + (44,9 6,55loghb)logd + Cm (2.13) Trong Lp l gi tr suy hao, tnh theo dB f l tn s s dng, tnh theo MHz hb l chiu cao hiu dng ca anten trm gc, tnh theo m hm l chiu cao anten trm di ng, tnh theo m d l khong cch t trm di ng n trm gc, tnh theo km a(hm ) l h s hiu chnh anten MS, tnh theo dB a(hm ) = (1,1.log f 0,7).hm (1,56.log f 0,8)
57

(2.14)

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Cm l h s iu chnh loi vng Cm = 0 dB vi thnh ph c trung bnh hoc trung tm ngoi Cm = 3 dB vi trung tm th Cc khong gi tr c s dng cho m hnh COST 231 Hata + Di tn 1500 ~ 2000 MHz, tuy nhin c th s dng cho bng tn 2500 MHz + cao anten trm gc 30 m < hb < 100 m + cao anten trm di ng 1 m < hm < 10 m + Khong cch truyn sng cho php 100 m < d < 20 km.

Hnh 2.7 th suy hao s dng m hnh COST 231 Hata Hnh 2.7 l kt qu m phng tnh ton suy hao s dng m hnh COST 231 Hata Suburban vi cc thng s la chn + Tn s hot ng 2500 MHz + cao anten trm gc 60 m ( th Lp-1) + cao anten trm gc 40 m ( th Lp-2) + cao anten trm di ng 1,5 m

58

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni + Khong cch truyn sng 100 m <d < 3 km M hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami M hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami l m hnh tnh ton suy hao c xem xt n nh hng ca cc ta nh bao gm cao cc to nh, khong cch gia cc ton nh v nh hng rng ng ph ti suy hao ng truyn. M hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami c chia ra tnh trong hai mi trng truyn sng LOS (c tn ti ng truyn trong tm nhn thng) v NLOS. M hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami thch hp vi cc thnh ph c mt cc cng trnh cao tng ln, anten trm gc c cao trung bnh. M hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami trong mi trng truyn sng LOS iu kin tn ti ng truyn thng LOS (Line of sight) thng ch c vng nng thn hoc cc khu vc c t nh ca. Trong cc thnh ph ch ti cc qung trng rng, trn cc ng ph ln v ng truyn khng b chn bi mt ta nh cao tng mi tn ti ng truyn LOS. Trong mi trng truyn sng LOS m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami khng c cc tham s v kin trc h tng. Tuy nhin so vi m hnh khng gian t do, mc suy hao theo m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami trong mi trng truyn sng LOS ln hn 10 dB do tnh ti cc yu t nh hng ti suy hao c lin quan ti kin trc th (nh hng ca tn x khi khng tha mn iu kin khong h ca min Fresnel th nht). Cng thc tnh suy hao (2.5) Lp = 42,6 + 26logd + 20logf Trong Lp l gi tr suy hao, tnh theo dB d l khong cch t trm pht ti trm thu, tnh theo km f l tn s hot ng, tnh theo Mhz (2.7)

M hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami trong mi trng truyn sng NLOS


Trong cc thnh ph mi trng truyn sng ch yu l NLOS. Trong iu kin truyn dn NLOS m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami c tnh n nh hng ca nhng ta nh dc theo ng truyn t trm pht n trm thu, rng ng
59

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni ph v nh hng ca tn x, nhiu x qua vt chn. Theo m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami tn hiu t trm pht ti trm thu thng qua s phn x, khc x, nhiu x qua cc vt chn m y ch yu l cc ta nh. M hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami cho ng truyn NLOS tnh ton tng suy hao bao gm suy hao trong ng truyn khng gian t do, suy hao tn x a vt chn, suy hao do nhiu x qua vt chn (ch yu l cc mi nh). Theo m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami tia sng t anten pht ti anten thu phi truyn qua khng gian t do, tn x v nhiu x khi qua vt chn (mi nh) sau ti anten thng qua s phn x t ta nh bn cnh. Cc yu t c tnh n trong qu trnh truyn dn trn bao gm khong cch truyn sng qua khng gian t do, cao vt chn ( cao ta nh tnh n mi), khong cch cc ta nh v rng ng ph. Hnh 2.8 minh ha m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami trong iu kin truyn dn NLOS.

Hnh 2.8 M hnh COST 231 Walfisch-Ikegami mi trng NLOS Cc tham s c s dng trong m hnh ny bao gm: - Tn s cng tc f (MHz) - Chiu cao anten trm pht hb (m)

60

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni - Chiu cao anten trm thu hm (m) - Khong cch gia trm pht v trm thu d (m) - Chiu cao trung bnh ca cc to nh hr (m) - rng ng ph w (m) - Khong cch trung bnh gia cc to nh b (m) - Gc ti ca tia sng so vi chiu di chuyn ( o) Cng thc tnh suy hao trong mi trng truyn dn NLOS LP = Lf + Lrts + Lms LP = Lf nu Lrts + Lms 0 Trong Lp l tng suy hao, tnh theo dB Lf l suy hao khng gian t do, tnh theo dB (Lf : free space loss) Lrts l suy hao do tn x v nhiu x bi vt chn, tnh theo dB (Lrts: rooftop to street diffraction and scatter-loss) Lms suy hao tn x a vt chn, tnh theo dB (Lms: multiscreen diffraction loss) Ch cng thc 2.9 suy t cng thc 2.8 trong iu kin Lrts + Lms 0, khi coi nh khng c suy hao Lrts v Lms. Nu tnh c Lrts + Lms 0 m vn s dng cng thc 2.8 khi gi tr suy hao Lrts + Lms s tr thnh tng ch, y l iu phi thc t. Do nu Lrts + Lms 0 th phi s dng cng thc 2.9 + Suy hao trong khng gian t do c tnh theo cng thc (2.10) Lf = 32,4 + 20.logd + 20.logf Trong Lf l gi tr suy hao trong khng gian t do, tnh theo dB d l khong cch t trm pht n trm thu, tnh theo km f l tn s hot ng, tnh theo MHz + Suy hao do tn x v nhiu x bi vt chn tnh theo cng thc (2.11) (2.10) (2.8) (2.9)

61

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Lrts = -16,9 10.logW + 10.logf + 20.log(hr hm) + L0 Trong Lf l gi tr suy hao do tn x v nhiu x bi vt chn, tnh theo dB W l rng ng ph, tnh theo m hr l chiu cao trung bnh ca cc to nh, tnh theo m hm l chiu cao anten trm thu, tnh theo m L0 l sai s do suy hao tn x v nhiu x, tnh theo dB L0 = -10 + 0,354. L0 = 4,0 - 0,114.( - 55) vi 0 35 L0 = 2,5 + 0,075.( - 35) vi 35 55 vi 55 90 (2.12) + Suy hao tn x a vt chn tnh theo cng thc (2.12) Lms = Lbsh + Ka + Kd .logd + Kf. logf 9.logb Trong Lf l gi tr suy hao tn x a vt chn, tnh theo dB b l khong cch gia cc to nh dc theo ng truyn, tnh theo m hb l chiu cao trm pht hr l chiu cao ta nh d l khong cch t trm pht n trm thu Gi tr Lbsh tnh trong cc trng hp Lbsh = -18log(1 + hb hr) Lbsh = 0 Gi tr Ka tnh trong cc trng hp Ka = 54 Ka = 54 - 0,8hb Ka = 54 - 1,6(hb hr).d Gi tr Kd tnh trong cc trng hp Kd = 18 Kd = 18 15(hb hr)/hr Gi tr Kf tnh trong cc trng hp khi khi hb > hr hb < hr khi khi khi hb> hr hb hr v d 500m hb hr v d 500m khi khi hb > hr hb < hr (2.11)

62

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Kf = -4 + 0,7(f/925 - 1) Kf = -4 + 1,5(f/925 - 1) cao ta nh tnh n mi nh hr = 3(s tng) + nc nh. nc nh 3 m cho nc nh c mi nc nh 0 m cho nc nh phng i vi thnh ph trung bnh v vng ngoi c mt cy trung bnh i vi trung tm thnh ph

Hnh 2.9 th suy hao s dng m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami Vi cc gi tr tham s cho trc ta c th tnh c gi tr suy hao Lp theo khong cch d v v c th suy hao. Hnh 2.9 th hin kt qu m phng tnh ton suy hao s dng m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami vi hai b thng s khc nhau. Xt tn s hot ng 2500 Mhz, khong cch 20 m < d < 3 km. > B thng s th nht (trung tm thnh ph): cao anten trm pht 60 m, cao anten trm thu 1,5 m, s tng nh 15, nc nh chn 0 m, khong cch gia cc ta nh b = 30 m, rng ng ph w = 30 m, ly mc nh. Th hin trn ng th (Lp-1)

63

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni > B thng s th hai (thnh ph trung bnh): cao anten pht 40 m, cao anten trm thu 1,5 m, s tng nh 4, nc nh 3 m, khong cch gia cc ta nh b = 15 m, rng ng ph w = 20 m, ly mc nh. Th hin trn ng th (Lp-2) Cc khong gi tr c s dng cho m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami + Khong cch to nh 10 m < b < 50 m + rng ng ph 10m < w < 40 m + Khi khng xc nh ly mc nh = 30o hoc = 90o khi Lo = 0.5 dB + cao anten trm gc 32 m < hb < 50 m + cao anten trm di ng 1 m < hm < 3 m + Khong cch truyn sng cho php 20 m < d < 5 km. M hnh SUI M hnh SUI l m hnh suy hao tnh ton da trn yu t a hnh ca vng ph sng. M hnh SUI c p dng cho 3 loi a hnh t tn l A, B v C. Loi a hnh A l a hnh i ni, mt cy ci t va n rm rp, tng ng vi mc suy hao cc i. Loi a hnh C a hnh bng phng vi mt cy ci tha, tng ng vi mc suy hao ti thiu. Loi B c m t vi c im a th phn ln phng c mt cy ci rm rp hoc l a hnh i ni vi mt cy ci tha. Phng trnh suy hao c bn vi nhng h s chnh theo cng thc (2.1) PL = A + 10..log10(d/d0) + Xf + Xh + s Trong : + PL l gi tr suy hao (dB) + d l khong cch gia anten trm gc v anten ca trm di ng (m) + do = 100 m + s l h s fading chun loga, c dng d tr fading chm do cc vt cn nh cy ci v nhng vt cn khc gy ra, c gi tr trong khong t 8dB n 10dB Cc tham s A v c tnh nh sau: A = 20log10(4..d0/) = a b.hb + c/hb + hb l cao ca trm gc tnh t mt t (m) Cc tham s a, b, c ly cc gi tr theo loi a hnh nh trong bng 2.6 Tham s a hnh loi A a hnh loi B a hnh loi C (2.2) (2.3) (2.1)

64

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni a b (m-1) c (m) 4.6 0.0075 12.6 4.0 0.0065 17.7 3.6 0.005 20

Bng 2.6 Cc tham s a hnh Cc h s hiu chnh cho tn s lm vic v chiu cao anten trm di ng Xf = 6.0 log10(f /2000) Xh = -10.8 log10 (hr /2) cho a hnh loi A v B = -20.0 log10 (hr /2) cho a hnh loi C Trong + f l tn s hot ng (MHz) + hr l chiu cao ca anten trm di ng tnh t mt t (m). (2.4) (2.5 a) (2.5 b)

Hnh 2.10 th suy hao m hnh SUI Hnh 2.10 l kt qu m phng suy hao s dng m hnh SUI vi 3 loi a hnh A, B v C Cc tham s u vo + Tn s 3500 MHz + cao anten trm gc 60 m

65

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni + cao anten trm thu bao 2 m + H s fading chun loga 8 dB Xem xt iu kin thnh ph H Ni l vng ng bng, a hnh bng phng do s dng m hnh SUI vi loi a hnh C. th suy hao tng ng loi a hnh C c ch ra trn Hnh 2.10

2.4.2 D tr suy hao ph


Cc suy hao ph gp phn lm tng tng suy hao tn hiu cng nh lm gim t s tn hiu trn nhiu SNR ti im thu (lm tng cng sut nhiu). m bo cht lng tn hiu v m bo thng tin lin lc gia trm pht v trm thu cn c d tr suy hao ph. Mc d tr suy hao ph thuc vo cc loi suy hao gp phi trong qu trnh truyn tn hiu. Cc suy hao ph c chia ra hai loi bao gm suy hao h thng v suy hao do mi trng truyn sng. a. Suy hao h thng Suy hao h thng bao gm cc yu t gy suy hao c lin quan ti h thng nh tp m trm gc, tp m trm thu bao, suy hao cp, suy hao mi ni Tt c cc yu t suy hao h thng ph thuc thit b s dng v khng lin quan ti qu trnh truyn sng trong khng gian. Tp m trm gc, tp m trm thu bao lm tng cng sut nhiu do lm gim nhy thu. Tp m trm c tnh vo trong nhy thu. Do ta khng cn quan tm n thng s ny. Suy hao do cp v mi ni lm suy gim cng sut tn hiu trn ng truyn cp t trm pht ln anten. Gi tr suy hao ph thuc loi cp, di cp v s lng cc v tr ni cp. + Cng thc tnh suy hao do cp LC = l . Trong LC l gi tr suy hao do cp (dB) l l di cp (m) l h s suy hao (dB/m) (2.12)

66

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Vi loi cp tiu chun s dng cho tn s 2,5 GHz th = 0,05 dB/m Vi di cp trung bnh t trm pht ln anten l = 20 m th suy hao do cp c xc nh LC = 20 * 0,05 = 1 (dB) + Suy hao mi ni c th ly gi tr chun 1 dB + Gi tr suy hao cp v suy hao mi ni c ly 2dB b. Suy hao do mi trng truyn sng Suy hao do mi trng l cc yu t suy hao do cc iu kin truyn sng bao gm suy hao do fading, suy hao thm nhp (hp th) qua vt chn v nhiu. Suy hao do fading Fading l hin tng cng tn hiu ti im thu thay i theo thi gian bi nhng bin ng trong mi trng truyn dn hoc trn ng truyn v tuyn. Hai loi fading ph bin l fading chm v fading nhanh, c p dng trong mi trng truyn sng v tuyn c inh & di tr (thng tin c inh & di tr). Fading chm l s che khut tn hiu (Shadowing) hay fading phm vi rng (Large-Scale fading). Fading chm gy ra bi s di chuyn trong phm vi rng ca u cui c inh & di tr hoc do cc vt chn trn ng truyn sng (cc cng trnh cao tng, cy ci ). Fading chm thng c m hnh ha nh l phn b chun loga (log normal) v cn c gi l fading chun loga. Fading nhanh l fading a ng (Multipath fading) hay fading phm vi hp (Small-Scale fading). Fading nhanh xut hin vi s di chuyn trong phm vi hp ca u cui c inh & di tr hoc do cc vt chn trn ng truyn sng (cc cng trnh cao tng, cy ci ) i vi WiMAX c inh & di tr s dng m hnh tnh ton suy hao SUI tnh n h s suy hao do fading chun loga hay fading chm. Ngoi ra WiMAX c inh & di tr khng chu nh hng ca fading nhanh Suy hao thm nhp (hp th) Khi trm thu nm sau cc vt cn th sng v tuyn phi xuyn qua cc vt cn n anten thu. Tn hiu thu s chu suy hao thm nhp hay suy hao do s hp th ca vt cn. i vi mng WiMAX c inh & di tr kh nng tn hiu chu suy hao

67

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni thm nhp khi trm thu v trm gc b chn bi mt ta nh cao tng hoc khi thu bao trong nh hay trong xe t. Cc vt cn c cht liu khc nhau nh tng gch, tng b tng, ca knh, ca g, ca st Mi loi cht liu c h s hp th khc nhau do gy ra mc suy hao khc nhau. Suy hao thm nhp s lm gim ng k phm vi ph sng trong mt cell. Do m bo thng tin lin lc tt trong qu trnh truyn dn cn c d tr suy hao thm nhp. Mc d tr s ly gi tr trong iu kin suy hao thm nhp ln nht

Bng 2.7 cho bit mc suy hao thm nhp khi xuyn qua mt s loi vt cn thng dng xt vi tn s 3.5 GHz (ngun Radionet.com). Cc gi tr suy hao c tnh vi dy cc lp vt liu theo tiu chun kin trc. Vt cn Tng gch c ca s Tng gch Tng b tng Kim loi (ca st, mi tn) Tng gch x, tng bt (ni la) V xe t Mc suy hao (dB) 2 3 10 6 4 2

Bng 2.7 Mc suy hao thm nhp mt s loi vt cn Xt trong iu kin kin trc H Ni, cc ngi nh c tng gch, nhiu ca s, mi b tng hoc mi tn. Cc cng trnh ln, cao tng khng c nhiu, phn b tha. m bo iu kin truyn dn phi ly mc d tr suy hao thm nhp ln nht l suy hao khi xuyn qua cc ta nh cao tng hoc qua tng b tng 10 dB. D tr nhiu Nhiu trn ng truyn lm gim t s tn hiu trn nhiu (SNR) do gim cht lng tn hiu thu. Ngoi ra nhiu lin knh c th gy nh hng xu n vic ti s dng tn s. V vy phi c d tr nhiu m bo cng sut tn hiu thu ln, tng cng cht lng tn hiu thu. Mc d tr nhiu ng xung l 2 dB, mc

68

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni d tr nhiu ng ln 3 dB (tham kho WiMAX Forum). Ngoi ra vi c im s dng cng ngh OFDM trong iu ch sng mang nn WiMAX c kh nng chng c nhiu xuyn k t ISI. Cc mc d tr nhiu + D tr nhiu ng xung 2 dB + D tr nhiu ng ln 3 dB Tng hp cc mc d tr suy hao ph Loi suy hao Suy hao thm nhp Suy hao cp v mi ni Nhiu ng xung Nhiu ng ln Mc d tr 10 dB 2 dB 2 dB 3 dB

Bng 2.8 Tng hp cc mc d tr suy hao ph

2.5 Tnh ton phm vi ph sng


2.5.1 Tnh ton qu ng truyn
Tnh ton qu ng truyn l tnh ton tng tng ch h thng v tng suy hao khi tn hiu truyn qua mi trng ti pha thu sao cho cng sut tn hiu nhn c ti pha thu khng nh hn nhy thu. Tng tng ch h thng bao gm cc thng s cng sut pht, nhy thu, tng ch anten, tng ch do s dng a anten v li chuyn giao mm. li chuyn giao mm to ra tng ch 2 dB. Tnh ton qu ng truyn l tnh ton tng tng ch h thng v tng suy hao. Qu ng truyn ng xung c cho trong bng 2.9, qu ng truyn ng ln c cho trong bng bng 2.10. Cc thng s c s dng bao gm thng s thit b c la chn trong mc 2.2.3 (trm gc BreezMAX BST ca Alvarion, trm thu bao ly theo tiu chun) v mc d tr suy hao c xc nh trong mc 2.3.1 b. Thng s Gi tr n v Cng thc

Thng s trm gc (BreezMAX BST ca Alvarion)

69

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

Cng sut pht trn mt phn t anten S phn t anten pht Tng ch kt hp phn t anten Tng ch anten Suy hao cp EIRP Thng s trm thu bao Tng ch anten S phn t anten thu Tng ch kt hp phn t anten nhy thu 100

40 4 6 15 2 59

dBm

a b

dB dBi dB dBm

c = 10logb d e f=a+c+d-e

5 2 3 90 (64QAM) 157

dBi

g h

dB dBm

i = 10logh j

(BPSK) Tng tng ch h thng D tr suy hao ph D tr nhiu D tr suy hao thm nhp Tng tng d tr suy hao ph 167

dB

k=f+g+ij

2 10 12

dB dB dB

k l m=k+l

Suy hao ng truyn cho php

155

145

dB

n=k-m

Bng 2.9 Qu ng truyn cho ng xung


Qu ng truyn cho ng xung xc nh suy hao ng truyn ti a cho php sao cho trm thu bao c th thu c tn hiu t trm gc. Qu ng truyn cho ng ln xc nh suy hao ng truyn ti a cho php sao cho trm gc c th thu c tn hiu t trm thu bao. Gi tr suy hao ng truyn cho php ly gi tr nh hn ca gi tr suy hao ng truyn ti a cho php ng ln hoc ng xung m bo thng tin hai chiu. Thng s Thng s trm thu bao Cng sut pht trn mt phn t anten 22 dBm a Gi tr n v Cng thc

70

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni S phn t anten pht Tng ch kt hp phn t anten Tng ch anten EIRP Tng ch anten S phn t anten thu Tng ch kt hp phn t anten Suy hao cp nhy thu Tng tng ch h thng D tr suy hao ph D tr nhiu D tr suy hao thm nhp Tng tng d tr suy hao ph 3 10 13 dB dB dB l m n = l+ m 115 (BPSK) 161 1 0 8 30 15 2 3 2 108 (QPSK) 154 dB k =e +f +h i j dB dB dBm dB dBi dBm dBi b c = 10logb d e=a+c+d f g h = 10logg i j

Thng s trm gc (BreezMAX BST ca Alvarion)

Suy hao ng truyn cho php

148

141

dB

o=k-n

Bng 2.10 Qu ng truyn cho ng ln


Kt qu xc nh suy hao ng truyn cho php phi ly gi tr suy hao ng truyn cho php theo ng ln do ng ln c gi tr suy hao ng truyn cho php nh hn. Ta c cc kt qu tnh ton nh sau + mc iu ch thp nht BPSK suy hao ng truyn cho php 148 dB + mc iu ch cao nht 64 QAM suy hao ng truyn cho php 141 dB

2.5.2 Tnh ton phm vi ph sng


S dng m hnh tnh ton suy hao SUI tnh ton phm vi ph sng ng vi gi tr suy hao ng truyn cho php xc nh trong mc 2.4.1. Cc tham s u vo + Suy hao ng truyn cho php ng vi mc iu ch cao nht l 141 dB
+ Suy hao ng truyn cho php ng vi mc iu ch thp nht l 148 dB

71

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni + M hnh tnh ton suy hao SUI vi cc tham s cho m hnh theo iu kin khu vc ni thnh H Ni (khu vc cn ph sng) Kt qu tnh ton m phng c th hin trong hnh 2.9

Hnh 2.11 Kt qu tnh ton phm vi ph sng Hnh 2.11 th hin kt qu tnh ton phm vi ph sng. Phm vi ph sng c xc nh bi giao im ca th suy hao theo khong cch (s dng m hnh tnh ton suy hao SUI iu kin thnh ph H Ni) vi cc mc suy hao cho php. Kt qu tnh ton phm vi ph sng: + Vi suy hao cho php 148 dB tnh c phm vi ph sng ti a 3,31 km + Vi suy hao cho php 141 dB tnh c phm vi ph sng ti a 2,12 km S dng cu hnh 3 sector/cell, sector 120o ta c kt qu m phng vng ph sng trong mt sector, hnh 2.10, ng thi th hin mc iu ch cho php i vi mi vng ph sng.

72

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

Hnh 2.12 Vng ph sng ti a ca mt sector 120o Phm vi ph sng ln nht cho php vi mc iu ch thp nht BPSK, vi mc iu ch cao nht 64QAM gii hn vng ph nh hn. Phm vi ph sng ti a ca mt cell l 3,31 km tng ng bn knh cell l 3,31 km, vi cell lc gic din tch ca cell S = 2,6.3,312 = 28,48 (km2). Kt qu tnh ton phm vi ph sng + Bn knh cell (phm vi ph sng ti a ca mt cell) 3,31 km + Din tch ph sng ln nht ca mt cell 28,48 km2

2.6 nh c mng v quy hoch vng ph sng


2.6.1 nh c mng
Qu trnh nh c mng truy nhp v tuyn nhm xc nh s lng cell cn thit p ng nhu cu s dng dch v (tha mn cc yu cu thng lng). a. Cc tham s u vo Din tch vng ph 42 km2 Yu cu lu lng Tng lu lng 551,24 Mbps

73

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Din tch ph sng ln nht ca mt cell theo tnh ton suy hao 28,48 km2 b. Tnh ton lu lng p ng S dng thng s trm gc BreezeMAX BST dnh cho macro cell + a truy nhp TDMA, song cng TDD + iu ch OFDM FFT 256 iu ch d liu BPSK ti 64QAM + rng knh cho php 1,75 / 3,5 / 5 / 10 MHz + H tr cc bng tn 3.5 / 5.8 GHz + Sector 60o / 90o / 120o / 180o / v hng + Tc d liu 30 Mbps trn mt sector ( rng knh 10 MHz) + Cng sut pht 40 dBm trn mt phn t anten7 + Tng ch anten 15 dBi + nhy thu 115 dBm (QPSK8) ti 108 dBm (QPSK) Qu trnh tnh ton lu lng p ng + Lu lng d liu 30 Mbps trn mt sector. + Tng lu lng yu cu 551,24 Mbps + S sector cn 551,24/30 = 18,37 (sector), lm trn ly 19 sector + S cell 19/2,6 = 7,3 (cell), lm trn ly 8 cell (cu hnh cell 3 sector/cell) c. nh c mng + Kt qu tnh ton lu lng cho ta s cell cn s dng p ng nhu cu s dng l 8 cell. + Din tch cell 42/8 = 5,25 (km2) nh hn din tch cell ti a cho php + Bn knh cell 1,42 km + Vy s cell cn dng l 8 cell d. Tng hp kt qu nh c mng
Vi k thut MIMO trm gc WiMAX c th s dng nhiu hn 1 phn t anten pht, khi s tng cng sut pht trong mt anten. 8 nhy thu cng ph thuc vo mc iu ch d liu, nhy thu vi mc iu ch cao yu cu ln hn vi khi iu ch mc thp
7

74

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni Thng s Tng s cell cn dng Bn knh cell Din tch cell Cu hnh Tng lu lng cn p ng Gi tr 8 cell 1,42 km 5,25 km2 3 sector/cell, sector 120o 551,24 Mbps Bng 2.11 Kt qu nh c mng

2.6.2 Quy hoch vng ph sng


a. Cc thng s u vo + Tng s cell cn dng 8 cell + Cu hnh 3 sector/cell, s dng sector 120o + Bn knh cell 1,42 km + Din tch cell 5,25 km2 + M hnh cell lc gic u + Din tch vng ph sng 42 km2 Cc thng s trn l kt qu tnh ton nh c mng thc hin trong mc 2.5.1 v p ng c cc yu cu thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni. Trong phn quy hoch vng ph sng s a ra m hnh mng di dng lc gic u trn h trc ta . Qu trnh m hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn bn s c trnh by trong chng 3. b. Quy hoch vng ph sng Vng ph sng ca mt sector Cc thng s u vo + Bn knh cell (theo nh c mng) 1,42 km + Bn knh ph sng nh nht 36 m (ly theo khong cch ti thiu cho php t trm thu ti trm gc) + Sector 120o + iu kin suy hao ng truyn nh nhau theo mi hng

75

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

Hnh 2.13 Vng ph sng ca mt sector 120o Kt qu m phng vng ph sng ca mt sector 120o c th hin trn Hnh 2.13. Kt qu m phng th hin mt cung trn do s dng iu kin suy hao nh nhau theo mi hng. Xt vi iu kin kin trc h tng ni thnh Ha Ni a phn cc ngi nh c cao tng i bng nhau (12~15 m) v kh st nhau, cc ta nh cao tng c s lng nh v mt khng ln, mt khc cc anten pht s c u tin t trn cc cng trnh cao tng trong qu trnh thit k mng, do suy hao ng truyn theo mi hng hu nh l bng nhau. Vng ph sng ton b mng Kt qu m phng mng c th hin trn Hnh 2.14 di dng m hnh li lc gic vi cc thng s: + M hnh cell di dng lc gic u + Bn knh cell 1,42 km, din tch cell 5,25 km2 + S cell cn thit 8 cell + Din tch cn ph sng 42 km2 Gi thit coi khu vc ph sng c dng hnh vung vi din tch 42 km2 chiu di cnh 6,48 km. Gi thit ny nhm n gin ha qu trnh m phng. S lng

76

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni cell cn thit 10 cell s c gii hn trong hnh trn. Cc cell nm ngoi khu vc ph sng s b loi b. Trong chng 3 khi m hnh ha mng WiMAX trn bn , m hnh cell s c iu chnh li sao cho ph hp vi hnh dng ca vng ph sng, ng thi xc nh li v tr cc trm gc theo yu cu thit k.

Hnh 2.14 M hnh mng li cell lc gic

Tng kt chng 2
Chng 2 th hin ton b qu trnh phn tch, tnh ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni. Cc kt qu thu c t chng 2 l c s thc hin cc bc m hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn bn thnh ph H Ni

Tng hp cc kt qu tnh ton thit k mng Thng s u vo Din tch cn ph sng Gi tr 42 km2

77

Chng 2. Bi ton thit k mng WiMAX c inh & di tr cho thnh ph H Ni

iu kin a hnh, kin trc Lu lng yu cu Tiu chun cht lng mng Kt qu Thit b trm gc Thit b c inh & di tr M hnh tnh ton suy hao S cell cn thit Bn knh cell Din tch cell Lu lng cho php Cu hnh M hnh mng li cell

Mc 2.2.2 c 551,24 Mbps Mc tiu chun (bng 2.3) Gi tr BreezeMAX BST ca Alvarion Gi tr tiu chun SUI 8 cell 1,42 km 5,25 km2 720 Mbps 3 sector/cell, cell 120o Mng li cell lc gic u

Bng 2.12 Tng hp kt qu tnh ton thit k mng

78

Chng 3. M hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr

CHNG 3. M HNH HA MNG WiMAX C NH


________________________________________________________________________

Qu trnh m hnh mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn bn phc v vic vic quy hoch mng, xc nh v tr cc cell v vng ph ca tng cell trn bn , xc nh cc v tr c th t trm gc.

3.1 Cc tham s u vo
Kt qu nh c mng Thng s Tng s cell cn dng Bn knh cell Din tch cell Phm vi ph sng ln nht ca mt cell (Theo tnh ton qu ng truyn) Cu hnh Mu ti s dng tn s Bn khu vc cn ph sng trn bn a l Hnh 2.4 Bn kin trc ha tng, nh chp t v tinh Hnh 2.3 M hnh mng di dng mng li lc gic, hnh 2.15 Qu trnh m hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr a m hnh mng vo khu vc cn ph sng trn bn a l hiu chnh li cc cell sao cho tng din tch ph sng ca cc cell che ph ht khu vc cn ph sng. Sau m hnh cell hiu chnh s c a sang bn kin trc h tng (nh chp t v tinh) xc nh cc v tr t trm gc. 3 sector/cell, sector 120o (1, 1, 3) Gi tr 8 cell 1,42 km 5,25 km2 3,31 km

79

Chng 3. M hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr

3.2 M hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn bn


3.2.1 M hnh mng trn bn a l

Hnh 3.1 M hnh mng trn bn a l (cha hiu chnh) Hnh 3.1 m t m hnh mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn bn a l (cha hiu chnh). M hnh mng c t ln bn l kt qu m phng vng ph sng vi quy c vng ph sng c dng hnh vung v m hnh mng lc gic u. S cell c xc nh trn l thuyt l 8 cell. Trn bn a l vng cn ph sng thc t c hnh dng phc tp nn m hnh mng l thuyt khng th ph kn ht ton b, c nhng phn khng c ph sng do vng ph ca mt s cell ri ra ngoi gii hn vng cn ph sng. Chnh v vy cn c bc hiu chnh li m hnh mng m bo ph sng ht ton b khu

80

Chng 3. M hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr vc cn ph sng. c th thc hin yu cu trn, trong qu trnh hiu chnh cc cell c th thay i dng lc gic v thm mt vi cell 60o, 90o, 120o, 180o ph sng nhng ch c hnh dng phc tp m vic s dng cell 360o khng thch hp. Qu trnh chnh li cc cell c thc hin nh sau Xc nh gii hn vng ph ti a ca mt cell di dng hnh trn ngoi tip lc gic c bn knh bng bn knh ph sng cc i ca cell l 1,42 km. t cc hnh trn vo v tr cc lc gic trong m hnh li lc gic c sau hiu chnh v tr cc hnh trn sao cho bin ca cc hnh trn giao nhau v din tch cc hnh trn bao ph ton b din tch cn ph sng. Kt qu trn hnh 3.2 a

(3.2 a)

81

Chng 3. M hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr iu kin bin ca cc hnh trn giao nhau trn nhm m bo iu kin chuyn giao mm. Nu bin ca cc hnh trn khng giao nhau th ti l cell s khng tn ti cng lc sng ca c hai cell k nhau, nh vy khng th chuyn giao mm c. iu kin din tch cc hnh trn bao ph ton b din tch cn ph sng tha mn yu cu ph sng.

Hnh 3.2 M hnh mng trn bn a l ( hiu chnh) T v tr cc hnh trn v cc im giao nhau ta xc nh li ranh gii v phm vi ph sng tng ng ca tng cell nh trn hnh 3.2 b. Cc cell tha mn iu kin v phm vi ph sng ti a do cc cell u nm trong ng trn bn knh 1,42 km bng phm vi ph sng ti a ca mt cell (theo kt qu nh c mng). Ngoi ra phm vi ph sng ti a cho php ca mt cell theo tnh
82

Chng 3. M hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr ton qu ng truyn l 3,31 km v trong iu kin khng b chn bi cc ton nh l 7 km. Tng din tch ph sng ca tt c cc cell ph kn ton b khu vc cn ph sng. S lng cell c xc nh 11 cell. V tr t trm gc s nm ti cc v tr nh du.

3.2.2 M hnh mng trn bn kin trc

Hnh 3.3 M hnh mng WiMAX trn bn kin trc Hnh 3.3 th hin m hnh mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn bn kin trc thnh ph H Ni chp t v tinh. M hnh mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn bn kin trc c chuyn sang t m hnh mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn

83

Chng 3. M hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr bn a l. M hnh mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn bn kin trc l c s xc nh v tr chnh xc ca trm gc. V tr chnh xc ca trm gc c xc nh trong tng cell thng qua bn chi tit cho tng cell. Trong khun kh n thit k ny s xc nh v tr chnh xc trm gc ca mt cell, mc ch minh ha. V tr cc trm gc khc c xc nh hon ton tng t. Cc trm gc c kt ni vi mng Internet thng qua ng cp quang hoc s dng mng ng trc WiMAX (WiMAX backhaul). Kh nng la chn kt ni thng qua mng ng trc WiMAX cho hiu qu cao hn. Mng ng trc WiMAX l mt trong cc m hnh ng dng WiMAX c inh & di tr , s dng mt (hoc nhiu) trm chuyn tip lu lng c kt ni vi ng cp quang 1 Gbps, cung cp ti lu lng n cc trm gc WiMAX thng qua cc kt ni im im, ng truyn LOS.

Hnh 3.4 M hnh mng ng trc (backhaul) Hnh 3.4 m t m hnh mng ng trc. Trm chuyn tip s dng ct anten t cao khong 80 ~ 100 m, cc anten c nh hng cao pht v pha cc trm gc WiMAX (cng ngh pht sng dng chm), tn s s dng t 10 GHz ti 60 GHz. Trm chuyn tip kt ni vi mng Internet qua tuyn cp quang 1 Gbps v kt

84

Chng 3. M hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr ni vi ng PSTN thng qua cc ng T1/E1. Vi cao antan trm chuyn tip > 80 m, cao anten trm gc WiMAX c inh & di tr 60 m c th m bo iu kin truyn sng LOS trong iu kin kin trc thnh ph H Ni. Vic s dng mng ng trc lm gim bt thi gian trin khai mng v chi ph ko dy, lp cp n tng trm gc WiMAX c inh & di tr, y chnh l mt im mnh khi trin khai mng WiMAX c inh & di tr.

3.3 M hnh chi tit cho mt cell


Cc tham s u vo + Vng ph sng ca cell 10, + Cu hnh cell 120o, s dng 1 sector 120o + Khu vc ph sng ti qun Hon Kim

Hnh 3.5 Chi tit vng ph sng cell 10 Kt qu + Bn chi tit vng ph sng ca cell 10 th hin trong hnh 3.5, thc t l 800m

85

Chng 3. M hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr

3.4 Xc nh v tr t trm gc
S dng bn chi tit khu vc v tr trm gc cell 10 vi thc t l 300 m (t c chi tit ti a vi bn GoogleEarth, c chi tit cao hn cn s dng nh chp t my bay). Vi chi tit ca bn mc ny c th xc nh chnh xc cc v tr cho php t trm gc.

Hnh 3.6 V tr t trm gc cell 10 Kt qu xc nh v tr trm gc + Cc v tr t trm gc c xc nh trong phm vi 100 m + V tr nh cao nht c xc nh trn bn + V tr nh cao nht l v tr l tng nht t ct anten trm gc. + Trong trng hp khng t c trm gc ti v tr nh cao nht c th t cc ta nh thp hn nhng yu cu anten t cao hn.

86

Chng 3. M hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr

Tng kt chng 3
Chng 3 thc hin qu trnh m hnh ha mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn bn a l v bn kin trc. Kt qu m hnh ha cho ta m hnh mng chnh xc vi vng ph sng thc. Cc kt qu t c S cell cn dng 11 cell Tng din tch ph sng 42 km2, ph kn ton b khu vc cn ph sng Cu hnh cell + Cc cell 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10 s dng cu hnh cell 360o, 3 sector/cell, cell 120o. + Cell 11 c cu hnh cell 120o, s dng 1 sector 120o. + Cell 1, 6 c cu hnh cell 180o, s dng 1 sector 180o + Cell 8 c cu hnh cell 90o, s dng 1 sector 90o M hnh chi tit vng ph sng mt cell, s dng cell 10 Xc nh v tr c th t trm gc cell 10 v v tr t trm tt nht

87

Chng4. Cc chng trnh m phng

CHNG 4. CC CHNG TRNH M PHNG


___________________________________________________________________

4.1 Chng trnh tnh ton suy hao


4.1.1 Tnh ton suy hao theo m hnh COST 231 Hata
Giao din chng trnh

Hnh 4.1 Chng trnh tnh ton suy hao theo m hnh COST 231 Hata Hnh 4.1 l giao din chng trnh tnh ton suy hao s dng m hnh tnh ton suy hao COST 231 Hata. Thng s u vo + Tn s: 1500 ~ 2500 MHz + cao anten trm gc BS: 30 m < hb < 100 m + cao anten trm di ng MS: 1 m < hm < 10 m
88

Chng4. Cc chng trnh m phng + H s hiu chnh vng: 0 dB vi thnh ph c trung bnh hoc trung tm ngoi 3 dB vi trung tm th Kt qu + th suy hao theo khong cch + S dng trong mc 2.4.1 tnh ton suy hao ng truyn, kt qu m phng th hin trong Hnh 2.7

4.1.2 Tnh ton suy hao theo m hnh COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami
Giao din chng trnh

Hnh 4.2 Chng trnh tnh ton suy hao theo m hnh COST 231 W-I Hnh 4.2 l giao din chng trnh tnh ton suy hao s dng m hnh tnh ton suy hao COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami . Thng s u vo + Tn s 1500 ~ 2500 MHz + cao anten trm gc 32 m < hb < 50 m

89

Chng4. Cc chng trnh m phng + cao anten trm di ng 1 m < hm < 3 m + cao ta nh (khng gii hn) + Khong cch to nh 10 m < b < 50 m + rng ng ph 10 m < w < 40 m Kt qu + th suy hao theo khong cch + S dng trong mc 2.4.1 tnh ton suy hao ng truyn, kt qu m phng th hin trong hnh 2.9 v 2.11 Giao din chng trnh

Hnh 4.3 Chng trnh tnh ton suy hao theo m hnh SUI Hnh 4.2 l giao din chng trnh tnh ton suy hao s dng m hnh tnh ton suy hao SUI . Thng s u vo + Tn s 3500 MHz + cao anten trm gc 60 m

90

Chng4. Cc chng trnh m phng + cao anten trm thu bao 2 m + Loi vng C Kt qu + th suy hao theo khong cch + S dng trong mc 2.4.1 tnh ton suy hao ng truyn, kt qu m phng th hin trong Hnh 2.10

4.2 Chng trnh tnh ton phm vi ph sng


Giao din chng trnh

Hnh 4.4 Chng trnh tnh ton phm vi ph sng Hnh 4.2 l giao din chng trnh tnh ton phm vi ph sng. Chng trnh ly thng s u vo l cc thng s thit b v d tr suy hao tnh ton qu ng truyn, sau s m hnh tnh ton suy hao SUI xc nh phm vi ph sng ti a theo kt qu tnh ton qu ng truyn. Thng s u vo + La chn trm gc
91

Chng4. Cc chng trnh m phng + La chn thit b c inh & di tr + Xc nh cc mc d tr suy hao theo yu cu thit k v iu kin truyn sng Kt qu + T ng tnh ton qu ng truyn theo quy trnh m t trong bng 2.9 v 2.10 + S dng m hnh tnh ton suy hao SUI vi cc thng s ca m hnh theo iu kin thnh ph H Ni + T kt qu tnh ton qu ng truyn xc nh suy hao ti a cho php, s dng m hnh tnh ton suy hao xc nh phm vi ph sng ti a tng ng + Chng trnh c s dng trong mc 2.5.2, hnh 2.11 v 2.13

4.3 Chng trnh tnh ton nh c v m phng mng


Giao din chng trnh

Hnh 4.5 Chng trnh tnh ton nh c v m phng Hnh 4.4 l giao din chng trnh tnh ton nh c v m phng mng. Chng trnh ly thng s u vo l cc gi tr lu lng dch v yu cu, din tch vng ph sng, lu lng ti a ca mt sector v bn knh ph sng ti a. Bn knh ph sng ti a cho php xc nh din tch ph sng ti a ca mt cell theo tnh

92

Chng4. Cc chng trnh m phng ton phm vi ph sng. Chng trnh s da vo yu cu lu lng v lu lng ti a ca mt sector xc nh s sector ti thiu cn thit, sau tnh s cell theo cu hnh 3 sector/cell v xc nh din tch ca cell tnh c. Nu din tch ca cell tnh c nh hn din tch ph sng ti a ca mt cell th cell tha mn yu cu. Nu din tch ca cell tnh c ln hn din tch ph sng ti a ca mt cell th cell khng tha mn yu cu v phi ly cell theo tnh ton phm vi ph sng. Kt qu tnh ton c a ra l s cell cn thit v din tch cell. Trn hnh v th hin m hnh cell v gii hn vng ph l thuyt (dng hnh vung). Thng s u vo + Lu lng dch v d liu + Din tch vng ph + Lu lng sector (ti a) + Bn knh ph sng ti a, theo tnh ton phm vi ph sng mc + S dng cu hnh trm gc WiMAX c inh & di tr Kt qu + Tnh ra s lng cell cn thit + Din tch cell + V m hnh mng dng li lc gic u + Chng trnh c s dng trong mc 2.6.2, Hnh 2.14 Cc qu trnh thc hin m hnh ha mng trn bn thc hin th cng do cha c phn mm m phng. c th thc hin phn mm m phng cn c bn s khu vc H Ni gm cc lp a hnh v lp kin trc nh (m hnh 3-D) t xc nh thm lp m hnh cell v lp v tr trm gc. Tuy nhin phn lp trnh ny rt phc tp, nu c iu kin em s thc hin sau.

93

Kt lun

KT LUN
n thit k hon thnh cc bc tnh ton thit k mng WiMAX theo cc yu cu thit k mng cho thnh ph H Ni. Kt qu t c bao gm m hnh mng l thuyt (m hnh li lc gic), xc nh c tng s cell cn thit p ng nhu cu s dng v cc kt qu m hnh ha mng trn vng ph sng thc th hin trn bn . Kt qu m hnh ha xc nh c s lng, v tr v gii hn cc cell trn vng ph sng thc ng thi ch ra cc v tr c th t trm gc, c m t chi tit cho mt cell. Cc kt qu t c ca n l c s ban u thc hin vic xy dng mt mng WiMAX c inh & di tr trn thc t. Hng pht trin ca n tp trung nghin cu su hn vo cc cng ngh s dng cho WiMAX c inh & di tr, cc qu trnh phn tch tnh ton suy hao tn hiu, xy dng phn mng li, pht trin dch v mi v thit k c mt chng trnh m phng thc hin c ton b qu trnh phn tch tnh ton trn.

94

Ti liu tham kho

TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] L thuyt v ng dng ca k thut OFDM, TS.Nguyn Vn c Tp ch bu chnh vin thng v cng ngh thng tin, B bu chnh vin thng Can WiMAX Address Your Applications?, WiMAX Forum, 2006 Mobile WiMAX Part I:A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation, WiMAX Forum, August 2006 Mobile WiMAX Usage Scenarios, WiMAX Forum, 2006 - Stage 2: Architecture Tenets, Reference Model and Reference Points, WiMAX Forum, 2005. Andriy Luntovskyy, Dietbert Gtter, Alexander Schill, Ulrich Winkler, DESIGN PARTICULARITIES FOR WIRELESS NETWORKS, Dresden University of Technology. G. Nair, J. Chou, T. Madejski, K. Perycz, P. Putzolu and J. Sydir IEEE 802.16 Medium Access Control and Service Provisioning, Intel Technology Journal, vol 08, August 2004. Hassan Yagoobi, Scalable OFDMA Physical Layer in IEEE 802.16 WirelessMAN, Intel Technology Journal, Vol 08, August 2004. John Wiley and Sons The Business of WiMAX, Jun 2006
WiMAX End-to-End Network Systems Architecture

[8]

[9] [10]

[11] Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems IEEE STD 802.16 2004, October, 2004. [12] Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems IEEE P802.16e/D12,February, 2005. [13] [14] [15] Cc hng sn xut thit b WiMAX: Airspan, Alvarion, SR-Telecom, Telsima http://wikipedia.com http://www.wimaxforum.org

95