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The velocity, V , of the object changes as a function of time, t, as shown in the gure. V is in m/s, x is in meter, and t is in seconds. (a) What is x at t = 1 sec? (b) What is the acceleration (m/s2 ) at t = 2 sec? (c) What is x at t = 4 sec? (d) What is the average speed (m/s) between t = 0 and t = 3 sec?

V (m/s)

6 4 2 1 2 4 6 2 3 4

t (sec)

Solution: (a) From the area blow the velocity curve, we nd x = 6m at t = 1. (b) From the slope of the velocity curve at t = 2, we nd a = (6 6)/2 = 6m/s2 . (c) The area below the v = 0-line has a negative contribution to the displacement. We nd x = 0 at t = 4. (d) The area below the v = 0-line has a negative contribution to the total distance traveled. Average speed =(6+3+3)/3 = 4m/s. (Dierent from average velocity which is (6+33)/3 = 2m/s)

Problem 2: Surveillance Balloon (15 pts) A gun crew observes a remotely controlled balloon launching an instrumented spy package in enemy territory. When rst noticed the balloon is at an altitude of 800m and moving vertically upward at a constant velocity of 5m/s. It is 1600m down range. Shells red from the gun have an initial velocity of 400m/s at a xed angle (sin = 3/5 and cos = 4/5). The gun crew (using its 8.01 ballistic knowledge) waits and res so as to destroy the balloon. Assume g = 10m/s2 . Neglect air resistance. (a) What is the ight time of the shell before it strikes the balloon? (b) What is the altitude of the collision? (c) How long did the gun crew wait before they red?

5m/s

400m/s 1600m

Solution: (a) The motion in the x-direction is a constant velocity motion. We nd the ight time = 1600m/vx = 1600/(400 cos ) = 1600/(1600/5) = 5sec. Flight time = 5sec. (b) From the ight time, the initial velocity in the y-direction and the acceleration in the y-direction, we can calculate the altitude of the shell: h = vy t 1 gt2 = 1200 5 1 1025 = 2 5 2 1200 125 = 1075m. Altitude = 1075m. (c) After the waiting time plus the ight time, the balloon should reach the same altitude as the shell. Let tw be the waiting time. We have h = (tw + 5) 5 + 800 = 1075. tw + 5 = 275/5 = 55sec. So tw = 50sec. The waiting time = 50sec.

Problem 3: Crossing a river (25 pts) Two ports, A and B, on a North-South line are separated by a river of with D. The river ows east with speed VW . A boat cross the river from port A to port B. The speed of the boat relative to the water is VB . Assume VB = 2VW . State all your answers in terms of VB and D. (a) What is the direction of the boat, , relative to the North so that it crosses directly on a line from A to B? How long does the trip take? (b) Suppose the boat wants to cross the river from A to the other side in the shortest possible time. What direction should it head? (Hint: Think carefully about what this means.) How long does the trip take? How far is the boat from the port B after crossing?

B N W S A

Solution:

shore D

Vw shore

(a) To reach the port B, the x-component of the total velocity must be zero: VB sin Vw = 0. So sin = 1/2. The y-component of the total velocity is VB cos . So t = VB D = V 2D 3 . cos B The direction is 30 relative to the North, or 30 West of the North. The trip takes t = V 2D 3 .

B

(b) To cross the river the fastest, we need to maximize the the y-component of the total velocity is VB cos . So = 0. The boat should head straight to the North. D The trip takes t = VB . The y-component of the total velocity is VW . So the boat is a distance tVW = DVW /VB down stream from the port B after crossing.

Problem 4: Force and Acceleration (25 pts) A particle of mass m = 5kg, is momentarily at rest at x = 0 at t = 0. It is acted upon by jN. two forces F1 and F2 . F1 = 70 The direction and magnitude of F2 are unknown. The particle experiences a constant acceleration, a, in the direction as shown. Note: sin = 4/5, cos = 3/5, and tan = 4/3. Neglect gravity. (a) Find the missing force F2 . Either give magnitude and direction of F2 or its components. Plot F2 on the gure. What angle does F2 make to the x-axis? (b) What is the velocity vector of the particle at t = 10sec? (c) What third force, F3 , is required to make the acceleration of the particle zero? Either give magnitude and direction of F3 or its components. (d) What is the vector sum of the three forces: F1 + F2 + F3 =?

y F 1=70 j N a=10m/s 2 x F2

Solution: (a) F2x = max F1x = 5 10 cos 0 = 30N . F2y = may F1y = 5 10 sin 70 = 30N . F2 = (30, 30)N . (b) v = 10 a = (60, 80)m/s, or |v| = 100m/s with direction relative to x-axis. (c) The force F3 cancel the total acceleration. So F3 = ma. F2 = (30, 40)N . (d) F1 + F2 + F3 = (0, 70) + (30, 30) + (30, 40) = (0, 0) = 0.

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