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A STUDY ON PUBLIC PERCEPTION OF COMMONWEALTH GAMES-2010

Thesis Submitted to the University of Delhi For the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

AJIT KUMAR

By

Dr. (Mrs.) KIRAN SANDHU

Supervisor

Dr. LALIT SHARMA

Co-Supervisor

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION & SPORTS SCIENCES (FACULTY OF INTER-DISCIPLINARY AND APPLIED SCIENCES) UNIVERSITY OF DELHI 2011

DECLARATION
The present work embodied in this thesis is original and was conducted at the neither been submitted earlier, in part or in full, to the University of Delhi or any other University for any Degree or Diploma, nor it has been submitted for publication by any body else in any form.

Department of Physical Education & Sports Sciences, University of Delhi. It has

Ajit Kumar Research Scholar

Dr. (Mrs.) Kiran Sandhu Supervisor

Dr Lalit Sharma Co-Supervisor

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CERTIFICATE
I. This is to certify that Ajit Kumar, research scholar has satisfactorily conducted

the research study entitled A Study on Public Perception of required period of the University of Delhi. Commonwealth Games-2010 under my guidance and supervision for the

II. The thesis is resultant of bonafide research carried out by the scholar himself presentations.

III. The thesis is satisfactory in all respects of literary as well as subject matter

The thesis submitted to the University of Delhi for evaluation, is the outcome of scholars own research work, which is sufficiently of high standard. The presentation the award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physical Education of research findings is most scientific and in appropriate manner which warrants for

Place: Delhi Dated:

Dr. (Mrs.) Kiran Sandhu Supervisor

Dr. Lalit Sharma Co-Supervisor

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I pay my gratitude towards the people of Delhi, for being cooperative and understanding. It was not possible to conduct my field work without the support of the residents of Delhi who willingly spent time to provide the information required for the study. I am greatly indebted to Dr. (Mrs.) Kiran Sandhu, supervisor of my Ph.D. for being not just a teacher and a mentor, but a sincere friend who helped me identify my strengths and weaknesses, skilled me in critical self-evaluation and helped me adopt humble attitude and flexibility without any hesitation to learn from every available source in the process of research. Her constant and consistent inspiration and persuasive monitoring of work throughout the research work is beyond my words to explain. She has a great ability to take out the best from the students, and I was really fortunate to have her as a supervisor. This study could not have taken this shape without her as my supervisor; her contribution will go a long way in my professional life. My special gratitude to Dr. Lalit Sharma, Co-Supervisor of the research for providing me opportunities to experiment and explore research from various dimensions leading me to enhance my understanding of the subject and research processes. I owe him special thanks for being always available for support and guidance. I acknowledge contributions of Dr. Rajbir Singh in the entire research work which has been really intellectually stimulating and helped in reshaping many of the ideas and concepts in a qualitative way in my research work. I am also thankful to Dr. D.K.Kansal, Head, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, and member of advisory committee of my research work for providing me enough support and facilities enabling me to smoothly conduct my research work. My acknowledgment will be incomplete without accepting the ongoing contribution of Prof. Kalpana Sharma, Dr. Savita, Dr. Sandeep Tiwari, Dr. Sandhya Tiwari, Dr Sanjeev, and Dr. Seema Kaushik with their rewarding suggestions towards the completion of the thesis under reference. Dr. J.P. Sharma, as advisory committee member was a great motivator through out the research work.

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I thank my professional colleague Miss. Meenakshi for her backing in research methodology and statistics in a great way. Also I am grateful to Miss. Kiran Chaudhary for providing all computer related technical support to carry out the research. I really feel proud of research scholars of the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Delhi, a special mention is recorded for Surender Bhanduria, Rakesh, Gurpreet Makar, Harpreet Kaur, Kaushambi, Deepak Mehra for working along with me as a team especially contributing toward data collection. A special thanks to Neeraj Mehra who provided me with sufficient literature supports regarding Olympic Games from International Olympic Academy, Greece. I am proud of my friends Rakesh, Praveen Lawrence, Nitin Nair, Raman, Bhuvnesh Thapliyal who supported me and kept me motivated to complete the task with dedication and persuasiveness. My special thanks are for my professional friends, Dr. Yatendera Singh, Dr.Vineet Mehta, Ms Poonam Singh, Mr Ashwini, Mr Rajesh, Mr Inder singh pal, Dr. K.K.Sahu, Dr Jogishwar Goswami, Ms Megha Sahu for sharing their experiences of research work, which helped me to formalize and present my research work. I acknowledge Ms Usha Saini, Mr. Sushil Prasad, Mr. Kiran Prakash, Mr. Manoj Sharma, Mr Poran Chand, Mr. Rakesh, for their help and support during my initial stages of the study. Above all, I feel highly indebted to my mother Smt. Suseela Pillai, and father Sh. K.V.Pillai for their moral support & blessings for successful completion of the thesis. Last and the most loving thanks are for my adoring wife, Jyothi for her affectionate encouragement and self-less support for this accomplishment of my life. The twinkling star of this acknowledgement is my Daughter Deevu who deserves my cuddles full of love, thanks and worship, as I compromised on her sacrificed time and affection which she deserved and missed during the time of my preoccupation with research work.

(Ajit Kumar)

PROFILE
AJIT KUMAR
Contact: 9891089869; 011-28545303; email: ajit_yoga@yahoo.co.in Qualifications

JRF-NET qualified in 2004.

Master in Physical Education, 2002,1st Division. AFC, Grassroot level Football coaching license. N.I.S, Certificate Course in YOGA

Bachelors in Physical Education, 2000, 1st Division.

Languages: Hindi, English, Malayalam Paper Presentation International Presented a paper on Professional Values among Physical Education Leaders of India at XII Commonwealth International Sports conference, July 2002, Manchester, U.K. Presented a theme paper on Promotion of Olympics for Social Values at a seminar OLYMPIC GAMES AND HEALTH PROMOTION at Delhi University organized by Delhi University, May 2004

National

Seminars/Workshops

Attended national seminar on Olympic Movement organized by Indian Olympic Association on 12th 13th March 2005.

Attended workshop in Skill development for Volley Ball officials in June 2004.

Attended a workshop on Master trainer course for sports volunteer leadership organized by department of physical education, University of Delhi, 18-20 March 2008. Attended a one day workshop on Management of Sports Injuries resource person: Kate Grafton, Sheffield Hallam University, U.K, held at Conference Centre, University of Delhi, May 23, 2007.

Attended workshop on review and curriculum development, organized by department of physical education and sports, University of Delhi, 5-6 March 2008.

Attended a workshop on revisiting application course: fitness, aerobics, gym operations for BA program at Miranda house, University of Delhi, 24-25 March 2008.

Projects and Assignments from class I to XII, 2006

Member of NCERT Syllabus development committee for Health and Physical Education

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Conducted Yoga session for DAV School In-Service Teachers Training program for TGTS and PGTS, March 2005 Worked as guest lectures for B.El.Ed. Students of Delhi University, 2005

Conducted Yoga Training for Primary Teachers of DAV School, Noida as part of Movement Education for Primary School Student, 2004

Conducted training program for Promotion of Values through Physical Education for DAV School teachers as part of a project by Ministry of HRD, at SBDAV, Vasant Kunj, Delhi, 2006 Presented a live television educational program on Movement Education for Gyan Darshan Channel of IGNOU, 2006

International Experience

Worked as an international demonstrator of YOGA at Nurnberg and Frankfurt in Germany in 2005.

Profession Membership

Member: Indraprastha Sports Welfare Society, registered society of Delhi. Sports Achievements Football

Vice-President: Royal Football Club, A division club of Delhi Soccer Association

Referee: Qualified Class-III State Level Football Referee from Delhi, 2003.

Played in Delhi Soccer League Championship, Division A for Royal F.C from 19952001.

Secured 1st position in Delhi school activities board (Zone XXIV) Football Championship (Senior)-1993.

Boxing

Secured 1st position in Delhi school activities board (Zone XXIV) Football Championship (Senior)-1993. Secured 3rd position in Inter College Boxing Championship-1999.

Badminton Yoga

Participated in Delhi State Badminton Championship-1999. Participated in All India Inter University Yoga Championship-1999.

Participated in Senior National Yoga Championship-1999.

Participated in All India Inter University Yoga Championship-2001. Secured 2nd place in Inter College Yoga Championship 2000.

Secured 2nd place in Inter College Yoga Championship 2001. Secured 3rd place in Inter College Yoga Championship 1999.

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Secured 4th place in Delhi State Yoga Championship 2000. Secured 6th place in Delhi State Yoga Championship 1999. Participated in All India Inter University Yoga Championship-1999

Personal Details Date of Birth Nationality Hobbies

Fathers Name : : : : :

Mr. K.V. Pillai 23/09/79 Indian

Marital Status

Postal Address :

Married with one daughter

Traveling

D-7, Ujjwal Appartments, H-Vikas Puri; New Delhi-18

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No. iii iv vi xiv xi ii

Declaration Certificate Profile Acknowledgement List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations

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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.2 1.3 1.1 Backdrop Commonwealth Games and Delhi as a Venue

1-19
2

1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9

1.4

Mega Sports Events and its Influence, Socio Psycho Perspective, and Legacy Impact of Public Opinion Mega Event and Change Forward

11 12 14 16 16 16 16 17 17 17

Statement of the Problem Objectives of the Study Research Questions

1.10 Limitations

1.11 Delimitations

1.12 Significance of the Study

1.13 Operational Terms Defined

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature


2.1 2.2

Involvement of Citizens in Mega Sports Events

20-45

2.3

Public and Sports Infrastructure Creation, Utilization and UpGradation Sports and Economic Growth

21 25

30

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2.4

2.6

2.5

Sports Events, Sport Consciousness and Education Programs Cultural Outlook with the Hosting of Sports Mega Events Other Research Relevant to the Present Study Points of Departure from Review of Literature

33 38

36

2.7

41

Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology


3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.1 Sampling Design Tools Selection of Variables Data Collection

46-56

46 49 49 55 56 56

Classification of Data Statistical Analysis

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study


4.2 4.1 Findings Discussion of Findings

57-140

128

57

Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations


5.2 5.3 5.1 Summary Conclusions

141-158

141 149 157

Recommendations

References Annexures

159-164

Annexure A: Demographic Profile and Selected Areas Annexure B: List of Experts Annexure D: Opinionnaire Annexure E: Raw Scores Annexure C: List of Interviewers

LIST OF TABLES
Table No. Table 1: Titles Correlation of Two Trials to Establishing Reliability of Items Page No. 53 54 58 60 62 65 67 70 72 74 75 76 78

Table 2: Table 3:

Spearmans rho Non Parametric Correlation of Two Trials for Establishing Reliability of Items

Table 4: Table 5: Table 6: Table 7: Table 8: Table 9:

Awareness of CWG-2010 : Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence) Access to Information of CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence

CWG-2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence) CWG-2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence) Proud Feeling for Being Part of CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)

Promotion of Status of Women due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence) Promotion of Peace and Harmony by CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence) of Delhi

Table 10: CWG-2010 as a Bridge for Development (Transmutation of Orders of Merit into Scores)

Table 12: Required Resources in Delhi for CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)

Table 11: Success of CWG-2010 (Transmutation of Orders of Merit into Scores)

Table 13: Enhanced Status of East Delhi due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence)

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Table No.

Titles

Page No.

Table 16: Infrastructure Development without CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence) Table 17: Public Sports Facilities due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)

Table 15: Improved Public Transport in Delhi due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence)

Table 14: Self Sufficient Delhi Generating Electricity for CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)

80 83 86 88 91 94 95 96 98 101 103 106 108

Table 18: Post CWG-2010 Utilization of Sports Infrastructure: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence) Table 19: Benefits for New Delhi by Hosting CWG-2010 (The Transmutation of Orders of Merit into Scores)

Table 21: Enormous Investment for CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence) Table 22: Economic Growth of Delhi due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)

Table 20: Most Benefited Area due to CWG-2010 (The Transmutation of Orders of Merit into Scores)

Table 23: Creation of Employment Opportunities by CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence) Table 24: Promotion of Foreign Investment due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence)

Table 25: Promotion of Sports in India due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence)

Table 26: Profession Appeal of Physical Education and Sports due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)

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Table No.

Titles

Page No.

Table 28: Increased Sports and Physical Activity Participation: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence) Table 29: Willingness to Volunteer for CWG-2010 : Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)

Table 27: Health and Fitness Promotion due to CWG-2010:Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence)

110 113 115 118 119 121 124 127

Table 30: Source of Information about CWG-2010 (The Transmutation of Orders of Merit into Scores) Table 31: Tourism Promotion in Delhi due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence)

Table 33: Delhi Public as Culture Ambassadors in CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per ChiSquare Test of Independence)

Table 32: Threat to Indian Culture due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)

Table 34: Promotion of Indian culture by CWG-2010 (The Transmutation of Orders of Merit into Scores)

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No. Titles Page No. 48 59 59 61 61 62 63 64 64 66 68 68 69 69 71 71 73 73 74 75 77

Figure 1: Semantic Representation of Selected Samples Figure 2: Public Awareness of CWG-2010 Figure 3: Awareness of CWG-2010: Age-group Figure 4: Awareness Period among People of Delhi for CWG 2010 Figure 5: Awareness Period among People of Delhi for CWG 2010: Area of Living Figure 6: Awareness Period among People of Delhi for CWG 2010: Age Group Figure 7: CWG-2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City in India Figure 8: CWG-2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City in India: Area of Living Figure 9: CWG-2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City in India: Age Group Figure 10: CWG-2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City Figure 11: Proud Feeling for Being a Part of CWG-2010 Figure 12: Proud Feeling for Being a Part of CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 13: Proud Feeling for Being a Part of CWG-2010: Gender Figure 14: Proud Feeling for Being a Part of CWG-2010: Age Group Figure 15: Status of Women through CWG-2010 Figure 16: Status of Women CWG2010: Area of Living Figure 17: Promotion of Peace and Harmony by CWG-2010 Figure 18: Promotion of Peace and Harmony by Cwg-2010: Area of Living Figure 19: Rating Frequencies CWG-2010 as a Bridge for Development of Delhi Figure 20: Rating Frequencies on Success of CWG-2010 Figure 21: Required Resources in Delhi for CWG- 2010 xiv

Figure No.

Titles

Page No. 78 79 80 81 82 82 83 84 85 85 87 87 88 89 90 90 92 93 93 94 95 97

Figure 22: Required Resources in Delhi for CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 23: Enhanced Status of East Delhi due to CWG- 2010 Figure 24: Enhanced Status of East Delhi due to CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 25: Self Sufficient Delhi in Generating Electricity for CWG-2010 Figure 26: Self Sufficient Delhi in Generating Electricity due to CWG2010: Area of Living Figure 27: Self Sufficient Delhi in Generating Electricity due to CWG2010 : Gender Figure 28: Self Sufficient Delhi in Generating Electricity due to CWG2010: Age group Figure 29: Improved Public Transport due to CWG-2010 Figure 30: Improved Public Transport due to CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 31: Improved Public Transport due to CWG-2010 : Age Group Figure 32: Infrastructure Development without CWG-2010 Figure 33: Infrastructure Development without CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 34: Infrastructure Development without CWG-2010: Different Age Group Figure 35: Sports Facilities Development in CWG-2010 Figure 36: Sports Facilities Development in CWG-2010 : Area of Living Figure 37: Sports Facilities Development in CWG-2010 : Age Group Figure 38: Post CWG-2010 Utilization of Sports Facilities Figure 39: Post CWG-2010 Utilization of Sports Facilities : Area of Living Figure 40: Post CWG-2010 Utilization of Sports Facilities: Gender Figure 41: Rating Frequencies of Benefits for New Delhi by hosting CWG-2010 Figure 42: Rating Frequencies of Most Benefited Area Out of CWG-2010 Figure 43: Enormous Investment for CWG-2010

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Figure No.

Titles

Page No. 97 98 99 100 100 102 102 104 105 105 107 108 109 110 111 112 112 113 114 115 116

Figure 44: Enormous Investment for CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 45: Enormous Investment for CWG-2010 : Age Group Figure 46: Economic Growth of Delhi due to CWG-2010 Figure 47: Economic Growth of Delhi due to CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 48: Economic Growth of Delhi due to CWG-2010: Age Group Figure 49: Creation of Employment Opportunities due to CWG-2010 Figure 50: Creation of Employment Opportunities due to CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 51: Promotion of Foreign Investment in CWG-2010 Figure 52: Promotion of Foreign Investment in CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 53: Promotion of Foreign Investment in CWG-2010: Age Group Figure 54: Promotion of Sports in India due to CWG-2010 Figure 55: Promotion of Sports in India due to CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 56: Attraction of People towards the Profession of Physical Education and Sports Figure 57: Attraction of People towards the Profession of Physical Education and Sports : Area of Living Figure 58: Promotion of Health and Fitness due to CWG-2010 Figure 59: Promotion of Health and Fitness due to CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 60: Promotion of Health and Fitness due to CWG-2010 : Gender Figure 61: Promotion of Health and Fitness due to CWG-2010: Age Group Figure 62: Increasing Participation in Sports and Physical Activity Figure 63: Increasing Participation in Sports and Physical Activity: Area of Living Figure 64: Willingness to Volunteer for CWG-2010

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Figure No.

Titles

Page No. 117 117 118 120 121 122 123 123 125 126 126 127

Figure 65: Willingness to Volunteer for CWG-2010 : Gender Figure 66: Willingness to Volunteer for CWG-2010 : Age Group Figure 67: Rating Frequencies on Source of Getting Information about CWG-2010 Figure 68: Promotion of Tourism due to CWG-2010 Figure 69: Promotion of Tourism due to CWG-2010 : Area of Living Figure 70: Threat to Indian Culture due to CWG-2010 Figure 71: Threat to Indian Culture due to CWG-2010 : Area of Living Figure 72: Threat to Indian Culture due to CWG-2010 : Age Group Figure 73: Representation of People as Ambassadors of Indian Culture Figure 74: Representation of People as Ambassadors of Indian Culture : Area of Living Figure 75: Representation of People as Ambassadors of Indian Culture : Age Group Figure 76: Rating Frequencies of Promotion of Indian culture by CWG2010

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CGE CGF CWG-2010 DDA Df FIFA GDP GSDP IAF ICT IOA IOA IOC JLN Stadium MCD MSE N NDMC NOC OC OCOG SO SWOT X2 Computable General Equilibrium Commonwealth Games Federation Commonwealth Games-2010 Delhi Development Authority Degree of Freedom Federation International Football Association Gross Domestic Product Gross State Domestic Product International Athletic Federation Information and Communication Technology International Olympic Academy India Olympic Academy International Olympic Committee Jawahar Lal Nehru Stadium Municipal Corporation of Delhi Mega Sports Event Total number of Subjects New Delhi Municipal Corporation National Olympic Committee Organising Committee Organising Committee Olympic Games Special Olympics Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat Chi-Square

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Chapter 1 Introduction

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKDROP Participation in international sporting competitions as a host has its own advantages in terms of various tangible and intangible benefits for the host nation, city and people. These benefits are associated with a set of responsibilities in terms of making investments, development of infrastructure, public support for smooth conduct of including the participants of the games, visitors, organising and monitoring technical state that a center, region or a city which hosts a major sporting event attracting global games, and coming up to the standards and expectations of international audiences committees, media and the people of the host nation / city. It may be appropriate to attention is affected in many positive and negative ways. It could not be different in

the case of Commonwealth Games-2010 (here after refereed as CWG-2010) as the set of expectations and responsibilities go hand in hand with such honors to the host. is a play, fun and relaxation; is an activity of life involvement; is an industry and a Such a rational thinking further takes in account the traditional acceptance that sport business; is an information and inculcation of values which are reinforced in the society; is a culture, which is promoted like any other in the society. Thus, sports have a deep connection with the industrialization, urbanization, and technical advancement

etc. and it is innocent in its appeal, but it is a carefully structured innocent phenomenon to maintain its value orientation. Such connotations of sport lead to believe that Delhi will be influenced in its outlook and cult for life on account of

CWG-2010 reflecting the modern values and avenues. Hence, it becomes natural that well studied and understood especially in present context for realizing primarily the

development of sports/ sporting events of mega scale and its impact on Delhi must be influence of Commonwealth Games-2010. How public perceives the CWG-2010 need to be understood and explained in terms of the gains of public at large by expected development, investments of public funds, effect on economy, change in moral and culture of people at large and use of infrastructure and facilities. Due to
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Chapter 1: Introduction

organisation of CWG-2010 a change was expected in status and standard of life along with increased participation in sporting event and activities. Due to the fact that New Delhi was the second Asian country and third developing country to host CWG-2010, broader and higher level long term effect linked with CWG-2010 becomes a natural field of enquiry.

1.2. COMMONWEALTH GAMES AND DELHI AS A VENUE Commonwealth Games or popularly known as Friendly Games is a quadrennial sporting event participated by Commonwealth countries who were erstwhile British colonies. The objective behind the game is general welfare of the people of the physical recreation. Underlying every decision made by the Common Wealth Games values help to inspire and unite millions of people and symbolize the broad mandate

Commonwealth through encouragement of education via sports development and Federation (CGF) are three core values: Humanity, Equality and Destiny. These of the CGF within the Commonwealth. From 1930 to 1950 the games were known as Commonwealth Games, and from 1970 to 1974 they took on the title of British

the British Empire Games, from 1954 until 1966 the British Empire Games and Commonwealth Games. It was the 1978 Games in Edmonton that saw this unique, world class, and multi-sports event change its name to the Commonwealth Games. Since its inception Commonwealth Games has seen spectacular increase and at present it is the second biggest sporting event in the world after Olympic Games. The Commonwealths two billion people make up 30% of the worlds population and are

of many faiths, races, languages, cultures and traditions (CGF, 1997). The Games till 1994, team competitions were held from 1998 Kuala Lumpur. 2002 Manchester Games saw the introduction of elite athletes with a disability (EAD) in a fully Youth Games for 18 years and below. inclusive program. Year 2000 at Edinburgh was the introduction for Commonwealth

went through various transformation since it inception, from single competition sports

From Hamilton (1930) to Melbourne (2006) Commonwealth Games has traveled across the length and breadth of the globe showcasing extraordinary enthusiasm among the hosts and participating countries for last Eighteen times. For the nineteenth year it was

Chapter 1: Introduction

held at New Delhi (the Capital City of India) in 2010 from 3rd October to 14th October. second time in Asia after Kuala Lumpur in 1998. New Delhi got this opportunity by defeating Canadian city of Hamilton by 46 to 22 votes in 2003 in Jamaica.

Commonwealth Games had set its foot for the first time in the sub-continent and for the

The New Delhi Commonwealth Games witnessed athletes of 71 Commonwealth upward spiraling wheel inspired by Ashok Chakra showcasing India's rise as a global

teams participated in 17 sports. The motto of the game was "Come Out and Play" an power and its transition from tradition to modernity was chosen as the Official Logo of Commonwealth Games-2010 (CGF, 1997). The color combination of the Official Logo symbolizes India's rich and vibrant diversity in culture and people. "Shera" the

Royal Bengal Tiger, the national animal of India was the Official Mascot of New Delhi's Commonwealth Games. Delhi witnessed spectacular opening and closing technological and computerized application and above all presence of many

ceremonies of 2010 Commonwealth Games with lot of fire works, dance, music, celebrities from almost all walks of life. The games were used as an opportunity to government along with rich history of Delhi which is reflected even today through the

reveal New Delhis dazzling charms, cosmopolitan culture, warm people, liberal names of buildings, places, markets and others which are named after kings and during the Commonwealth Games were still very much in and around those historical

emperors (Commission, 2010). To mark its importance the venues for the events places. Whether its Karni Singh Shooting range at Tuglakabad, Jawahar Lal Nehru where the Delhi city flourished and Indraprastha area belonging to Mahabharata era. 1.2.1. Delhi as a City of Progression Along with relevance of history with Delhi and CWG-2010, its importance has been northern India with an area of 1.483 square kilometers along with Yamuna River and associated with the Geographical location of Delhi also. Delhi which is located in terminal part of the Aravali hills ranges as two main geographical features of the city. The Aravali hills range is covered with forest and is called the Ridges; they are the city's lungs and help maintain its environment was the venue for shooting at Kadarpur

Stadium near Lodhi estate or Indira Gandhi Stadium on the banks of Yamuna from

Chapter 1: Introduction

Shooting Range. The Yamuna River considered a sacred river is Delhi's main source of drinking water for most of the inhabitants was the site for games village and many climatically considered as the best time in Delhi (Commission, 2010). stadiums on its bank. The competitions were held during October and November Delhi as a city has witness progressed ever since it was a small town in 1901with a population of .4 million which has tremendous rate of increase in term of population at various stages, in 1911 when Delhi become capital, after 1947 partition and as per 2001

census where Delhi has recorded population of 138.51 lakhs. The major reason for

change in figures and development has been due to capitals vibrant trade and the population but also in the urbanization of the city. Delhi with a number of 314 rural

commerce and excellent employment opportunities. The change is not only observed in villages in 1921 has decreased to 165 in 2001 census. The percent of rural population pace of urbanization has attracted people from all over the country and its population

has also declined from 47.2% in 1901 to 6.99% in 2001 (Government, 2005). The rapid today reflects the characteristics of almost every region. Delhi truly reflects the wealth and diversity of India wherein diverse religions, languages, customs and cultures cosocio-cultural groups have transformed Delhi into a city of festivals. exist in splendid plural harmony. Religious, cultural and social functions of different Todays Delhi has an extensive past of having an administrative structure to look upon the city in form of NDMC (1927), MCD (1958), DDA (1957), which even today, plays an important role in the development and progress of the city (Government N. D., 2005). It

also played a major role in development activities of the city during CWG-2010. All these have lead Delhi to GSDP from Rs 217851 crore in 2009-10 to likely increase of 258808 crore in 2010-11, indicating a growth of 18.8%, with a per capita income of 1.17 lakh in 2009-10 and it is likely to reach 1.36 lakhs in the 2010-11 (D.E.S, 2011). This has made Delhi in a position to improve living standards and be an international city of significance. 1.2.2. Special Initiatives for CWG-2010 To accomplish it and with an add on requirement for CWG-2010, Delhi initiated with project to improve traffic flow and transport system by implementing 24 flyovers, foot over bridges (Govt, 2011), replacing DTC fleets with low floor air-condition and
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Chapter 1: Introduction

non air-condition buses, parking facilities, universities and colleges for education, plants, Gas bases combined cycle plant of 1500 mv and electricity generation through municipal solid waste to target self sufficiency in the field of electricity generation. through LADLI scheme for girl child protection.

hospital and public health institutes for promotion of health services. Thermal power

Along with the infrastructure, social aspect of Delhi has also been into consideration With the development plans of Delhi for making a better city, and to make use of the opportunity to showcase itself to the international world through hosting of CWGmentioning and highlighting Delhi city inclusive of its inbuilt strengths and potential: to motivate the youth of India to become involved in the sports; meeting the standard of CGF requirement for all the venues; and flyovers, and security. Indias youth; and 2010, Commonwealth Games Evaluation Commission (2010) submitted its report

confirming to all items of the host city contract provided by CGF; to improve inadequacies of Delhi infrastructure in terms of transport, hotel, road Delhis commitment to legacy through venue development of sports promotion to Delhis pledge to support and participate in Commonwealth knowledge management program.

strategies laid out for the construction, development, renovation of public and civic

To fulfill the objectives laid by the CWG-2010 evaluation committee, plans and

infrastructure, transport facilities, public convenience, parking, housing, clean environment and pollution control, improved facilities and living standards, social security and public security system. Along with development of sports infrastructure, following facilities for the general public were taken into consideration: 1.2.3. Indira Gandhi International Airport Delhis airport had been modernized, upgraded and expanded to handle the passenger traffic envisaged during the XIX Commonwealth Games-2010 Delhi. Passenger and baggage handling facilities had been upgraded and a new 4.43 metro runway, the
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Chapter 1: Introduction

longest operational runway in Asia, became operational. It is fitted with the highlyhighest Code F standards. Expansion plans included the construction of a new state-

sophisticated Instruments Landing System (ILS) on both sides, and is built to the of-the-art terminal (T3) with a capacity to handle 35 million passengers per year. Its plan included of 75 aero-bridges, of which nine are compatible to handle operations of with all types of transport systems, with an advanced five-level in-line baggagemammoth A-380 aircraft and 20 parking bays for passengers. The terminal, connected handling device with explosive-detection technology for high-class efficiency and security. The roof of the building has stylized incisions to allow daylight, but angled to protect the interior from direct sun-rays. The airports connectivity with the city has been enhanced through a six-lane highway (NH 8). 1.2.4. Transportation and Road Network Delhi had a dedicated Metro line from the airport to the city centre Connaught Place by 2010. The Games Village as well as the main competition venues such as the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium and the Indira Gandhi Stadium was connected through the Metro. The inter-city connectivity as well as passenger capacity was

enhanced. A four-lane, 2.2 km underground stretch from Ring Road to Lodhi road travelling time for athletes. Twelve new flyovers and several bridges and underbridges have been planned to improve road connectivity with the Games Villages,

linked the Games Village to the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, which reduced

the sports venues, and within the city, road widening also was in progress. The new low-floor high-capacity air-conditioned buses were planned to ply on Delhi roads by 2010 to ease commuting.

eight-lane expressway from Gurgaon to Delhi is functional. A total of 1,100 new

1.3. MEGA SPORTS EVENTS AND ITS INFLUENCE, SOCIO PSYCHO PERSPECTIVE, AND LEGACY 1.3.1. Influence All the development of the city due to sports mega events in terms of infrastructure, social , education , culture, economic are not new for any host city. All cities do have

Chapter 1: Introduction

an influence of such dimensions due to this kind of key events, but two cities may not have similar influence. Its evaluation could be different for different cities and how much people agree towards importance of such events may generate different results. Mega sports events do have different perspective and results, the sporting event has been described as a two-headed janus: on the head is the loyal encounter of youths of any race, religion, ideology or social status, united by a common, unselfish passion

for competitive activities; on the other hand, agonism is transformed into violence, economic, social and political interests (Fransca, 1985).

athletes are exploited and traded, and the individual is sacrificed for the sake of Sports have been demonstrated with two faces, sports for unity and passion as one aspect, and sports for economics and politics as another. On one hand, therefore, athletes are supposed to representatives of their nations and are expected to behave like a visiting card

for their own countries. On the other hand, they ought to feel themselves citizens of the world. Also, they are promised an equal, fair competition; only the goal, achieved through for all. Actually, heavy discrimination, for the most part related to economic factors, do their own merits, will distinguish never divide-them, but the starting line will be same already separate them at the start, so that some athletes find themselves in the pole position, and other at the back. They are educated to behave and feel all like brothers on images exciting them to aggressiveness, rivalry, hostility. They think their sports times mainly, an expression of their own peoples. the field, but they arrive there with their hearts, ears and eyes filled with impulses, echoes, performance will be an expression of their own selves; yet, inevitably, it is also and at Sports today engages the most sophisticated scientific and technological research to mobilize information, media, influences, tastes and languages, tourism and finance. varied masses of people as sporting events have done (Fransca, 1985). Never before have events of any kind been capable of involving such enormous, Mega sports events like Olympics have been identified (Rodda, 1985, p.183) to be far

more to do with greed and less to do with idealism. But against all criticism of commercialization, the political manipulation, the faith in the sports mega events survive till date as a great social force.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Singapore government identified Sport as an important pillar of national building as

well as an expression of the nations coming of age as a developed nation. Against their background for sport, physical education and recreation, Singaporeans are socialized into fitness conditioning and elite sports through a functional and serious important dimension.

perspective with sports for life (previously sports for all) remaining the most

1.3.2. Socio Psycho Perspective From the perspective of social psychology, mega sporting events has a sort of connect to the social and psychological mind-set of societies. Olympic dilemma as a tension between instrumental roles (lead to some reward at a later date) and expressive roles (immediate intrinsic rewards) influence the relationship between interaction and the development of positive feeling among participant athletes, spectators and organizers

(Segrave and Chu, 1981, cited by Rees, 1985). For example, one of the principle be used as a medium to develop positive affect among individuals or groups from different social, ethnic, or national backgrounds. When applying the contact theory (Amir, 1969, cited in Rees, 1985, p51) to the mega sports events, if contact takes

aspects of the intrinsic conception of the Olympic Games has been the idea that it can

place in a positive social climate, attraction increases, if it takes place in an groups deteriorate.

atmosphere of frustration, then attraction decreases and positive relations between While the Olympic tradition participation first, winning second would seem to provide a positive social climate, the history of the games has been characterized by the growth of nationalism at the expense of internationalism. Even against the odds, mega sports events have still persuaded to accelerate international understanding and cooperation.

Mega sports events instrument role of relation development (Zhenliang,2006) is an extraordinary opportunity to mingle the eastern and western culture. The people of the eastern and western civilizations. Dialogue instead of confrontation, blending instead world look forward to sports to realize the dialogue go beyond the space linking of rejection, absorption of each others advantages instead of mutual exclusion of
8 Chapter 1: Introduction

these two major civilizations in the world will not only promote the multicultural nature of Olympism, but more crucially, will contribute to the birth of a new civilization. Country like china which started to appear in Olympics recently in 1980s has been Olympics for the reasons of linking eastern and western civilizations. According to Naul (2007, cited in Carolin Bischop 2008) china took it as an opportunity through an

supported by the international community for being the host of 2008 Beijing

innovative idea of introducing Olympic education as an moral-ethical and social education to deal with the western orientated Olympic values of excellence, friendship after all politically closed country with its rich and also very different culture. and respect, with a challenge to include them in their own system of values in the Even in the past, the volume of symbolic exchange-interpersonal, national and crosscultural as well as the cultural, diplomatic and tourist advantage have been seen from hosting the games. Moreover throughout the 20th century, the games have variously

rejuvenated, stabilized or destabilized political regimes. In 1936, the Berlin Olympics served in part to legitimize the third Reich of Adolf Hitler; in 1980, American president Jimmy Carter convinced much of the nation that, short of dropping a bomb or sending an army, the most serious diplomatic step that could be taken against the Russian would be to not send a team to the Moscow Olympic Games. 1.3.3. Legacy Chairman of IOC commission for culture and Olympic education emphasized the significance of volunteer in enhancement of legacy for the host city Athens 2004 Olympics, especially in terms of the education and cultivation of youth (Zhenliang,

2006). Along with the role of volunteer in promotion of legacy, Rolan Baar (2005, material goods, legacy about existence and continuity. According to him, 2004 Athens

p90) also noted the importance of athlete in promotion of legacy in terms of non games were involved in unfair conditions and scandals. Although a few scandals were dominating the public discussion, people from across the world developed faith in People across the world have trust in sport. This trust is of such a value that it must be
9

clean and fair sports by creating an environment of transparency among competitors.

Chapter 1: Introduction

classified of highest importance than any materialistic gains which is gained due to sports mega events.

Sports as Road between East and West Sports mega events had been considered to be an extra ordinary opportunity to mingle the eastern and western culture. According to Zhenliang (2006), China as a host for Dialogue instead of confrontation, blending instead of rejection, absorption of each others advantages instead of mutual exclusion of these two major civilizations in the will contribute to the birth of a new civilization. Especially when the Beijing Olympic Olympics had been supported by the international community for the same reason.

world, will not only promote the multicultural nature of Olympism, but more crucially, Games Organizing Committee had adopted its theme as One World, One Dream and

had common dream to establish a peaceful, harmonious world full of mutual respect. According to Bishop (2008), for China, Olympic education as a moral-ethical and social education appeared to be an innovative idea, as they had to deal with the western include them in their own system of values in the after all politically closed country and

orientated Olympic value of excellence, friendship and respect. The challenge was to its rich and also very different culture. The sportive phenomenon, at both local and

international level has helped to a certain extent to the development of the international international organizations such as IOA was inaugurated in 1895. Sports, Peace and International Understanding

system nowadays; therefore, the sportive organizations are among the first constitued

Sport, and especially major sports events are important factor of life and customs, so much that all countries, whatever their political regimes, must have an eye on sport, not for an international education of peace and brotherhood (Fransca, 1985). only as a means to spread their national images, but also, and mainly as a valuable vehicle Specificity of Olympics contribution towards this end must be distinguished. According to Bishop (2008), international friendship, cultural diversity, world unity can be seen as an essential aspect of sport mega events. It is evident from Olympic education program of China and London which has initiated several program to create

10

Chapter 1: Introduction

awareness among the mass especially at school and college levels. China included

Olympic education in its school curriculum in 2005, three years before the games and international understanding and to learn about environment and their culture. London

touched 400 million children along its heart to heart program to promote is also promoting the values which began in 2005, much before China did. It reflected

that sports events are not mere sports competitions for few days; instead they are a before the events and still continuing after the event. Sports, Culture, Art and Civilization

long time process or programs for the development of the society starting many years

It is Olympia, which became a neutral religious centre that made the first attempt towards a universal unity, based on religious, political, cultural and artistic ideals (Paleologos, 1985). The Olympic Games in 1896 allowed Greece to come close to the rest of the world and become a more familiar travel destination, even though its transportation network was not developed and the country was insufficiently

connected to the rest of Europe. This way the state received travelers and tourism who contributed to the economic recovery of the country, as the athletes and the visitors sites and the strong aspects of hospitality (Georgiadis, 2004). 1.4. IMPACT OF PUBLIC OPINION Public opnion on mega sport events also impacts the social life of a nation. Sterea (2008) recollects that in 1974, American public could not believe that they could lose when returned to their countries, talked about Greece, especially the archeological

the bid for 1980 Olympics to a socialist state, Russia. American decision for non

participation in Moscow Olympics was later connected with Afghanistan war was withdraw. So also, when USA campaigned for support for non participation at considered the wish of British people for not to become puppets of Americans. The Parliament on a sportive issue.

supported by the 1604 votes with 797 against for American Olympic team to Moscow Olympics from European nations like Britain, the British Government pressures of the public opinion lead to longest debate ever held in the British

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Chapter 1: Introduction

1.5. MEGA EVENT AND CHANGE 1.5.1. Olympics In a mere 100 years, mega events like Olympics have evolved from fin de siede curiosity of the late 19th century into a cultural performance of truly global magnitude. 10,000 athletes from as many as 197 countries competed in the centennial games, in (Segrave J.O, 1996). Few other sports events like Asian Games, CWG are also having equally staggering economic statistics. As noted by Kidd (1992, cited in Segrave, 1996) the Olympic Games altered the faces of entire cities. That impact upon a regions economic development in significant industrial infrastructure of the communities in which they are located. 1.5.2. Far East Championship Games (FECG) The origin and development of Asian Games and Chinese sports understood its placing in the context of the Christina missionaries, in particular the Young Mens Christian Association (YMCA) who played an important role in organizing sports Christianize the Chinese, second, placing it in the context of international political centuries. ways, reshaping pattern of land use as well as the transport, communications and In the 1896 Athens Olympics, 311 athletes from 11 nations competed. More than Atlanta with total broadcast audience of 2 billion, almost half of the population

meetings and initiating the Far Eastern Championship Games in 1913 with an aim to conflict and its interface with the games in the mid-nineteenth and early twentieth Sports was such an important and strong medium of connecting to people that in 1895 US in 1891. In 1898 Rober Gailey a student of James Naismith, the invention of brotherhood mission and game of basketball.

basketball was introduced in china by YMCA which had only began being played in Basketball in US himself arrived in China (Hong,2005, p.393) to promote the In the political confrontation of 1915 between China and Japan, Japan the then most modern, industrialized nation forced china to sign the 21demands and left the Chinese humiliated. China replied back through sports by defeating Japan at FECG at 1921, held
12 Chapter 1: Introduction

in Shangai as it understood perfectly the relationship between sports and politics as evident from the editorial of an influential newspaper North-China daily in 1921 (cited defeated in war, territory is lost, if one is defeated in athletics, reputation is lost, and of in Hong 2005, p.398), the spirit of struggle in athletics is the same as in war, if one is territory and reputation, no one yet knows which is more important..We need to be able to perform in athletics before we can talk of war. A nation needs to be able to fight before it can talk of peace. World peace begins with athletics. 1.5.3. Asian Games friendship and fraternity due to collapse of colonialism and new nations struggled for its required to fight for eradication of poverty. This conceived the Asiad movement and After the 2nd world war Asia experienced a new awakening with an upsurge of freedom,

survival and prosperity in almost all aspects of life. Co-operation and support was visionaries like G.D.Sondhi along with Pandit J.L.Nehru, with support of few other Asian nations turned the vision of all Asian games into a reality, which started at New Delhi in 1951 and become a landmark event in the history of sport. Along with the international understandings, relations and development the first Asian Games in 1951 and the ninth Asian Games in 1982, New Delhi, left a strong impact at national level. The country was not in a good shape during 1951; again, in 1982 the economy of the

country was very low in relation to other developed countries. The country was facing a unemployment and uncontrolled population growth. It was the political will of the national government, not the financial conditions, that ultimate boosted promotion of

lot of problems on account of the internal unrest of youth, political instability,

the Asian Games in the country. Along with the concerns and issues during the period, games also gave a make over to Delhis infrastructures which are being used even

the games introduced color televisions in India and satellite links were set up. The today. The games in 1982 were an opportunity for expansion and maturation, India used through the theme of East meets West which was exemplified in the Wangla (harvest) dance from Meghalaya interwoven with the lively festive carnival of Goa, which widely separated regions of India (Sisodia 2005).
13

its cultural strength to attract the world towards it. Cultural diversity was reflected

reflects the Portuguese influence, accentuating the different cultures found in two

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.5.4. Contents and Genres of Olympics MacAloon (1984, cited in Segrave and Chu 1996) identified four genres of Olympism-spectacle, festival, ritual and game -each being a cultural performance type. The order also reflects at least in some commonsensical way-the sequence with which people might typically become drawn to the Olympic Games, each nature of our personal and cultural existence. The spectacle as a performance genre gives primacy to visual sensory and symbolic codes. The second genre of Olympism festival connotes joy, happiness, and celebration and involves both mood performance type forcing us to address increasingly significant questions about the

and program or the games may become only theoretical displays, pointless spectacles. The third genre ritual connotes repetitive or patterned behavior. It choirs, insignia and oaths. The central importance of ritual is a notion of humanity and includes rites, ceremonies and symbols involving flags, dress, torches, flames, hymns, primarily through ceremonies that Olympiad must distinguish itself from mere series

of world championships (Coubertin, 1967, cited in Segrave and Chu 1996). MacAloons fourth genres on Olympics is game, perhaps the most paradoxical of all cultural processes. The affective spectrum of sports is also polarized. On the one hand it is entertaining, fun, enjoyable and light hearted, and on the other hand, it is typically characterized by utmost seriousness and earnestness. 1.6. FORWARD It is logical to draw from the given backdrop that the mega sports events like impacting societies with infrastructure advancements, individual and team balance sheet inclusive of accounts of sorry conclusion that form part of an economy Commonwealth Games and Olympics are a balance sheet of leaving legacies, achievements, promotion of international peace and understanding. But it is also the system of waste, uncontrolled affluence and the large display of luxury, while the rest of the planet is sunk in famine and ignorance; and the grand development is at the expense of the third world letting them witness, through the medium of television, the cited in Segrave and Chu 1996, p.62). exhibitionist displays of the social class that exploit the working class (Brohm, 1978,

14

Chapter 1: Introduction

In real life, on the functional level, games are absolute authentic and genuine free

voluntary activity, symbolic in nature; yet they have important and profound psychological, economical, political and social consequences. Mega events like Olympics are like stories, fairy tales in which living persons are turned into abstract

members of social groups and ideal representations of that which we wish ourselves as a people to be. It serves people to enhance their own self esteem and sense of moral worth through the process of identification with the developmental impact of the

games and outstanding performance of generalized others in the games. This expressive dimension of human beings involves sports as an expression of our inner selves connecting to the world around ourselves. It is this expressive dimension of people on account of sports that the researcher is

influenced with and wants to explore further. A dimension that compels people to ask And, questions specifically addressing issues of moral character, moral stratification and moral superiority. And, questions with issues of instrumental and influential dimensions which are both possessed by sports in sociological and commercial terms.

the fundamental existential question, who am I and what am I? What I ought to be?

Marketable use of mega sport events like that of Olympics and Commonwealth Games is a constant field of enquiry especially when these become means of using sport for specifically extrinsic purposes like gaining commercial and political mileage, gaining developmental edge in terms of infrastructure, international prestige, and societal welfare programs including education.

In context to CWG-2010, a process of development was expected in general to impact Delhi and its citizens. Understanding obtained from literature, general observations, relevance of organisation of CWG-2010 to general masses of host city Delhi has lead the researcher to undertake the present research study primarily to further investigate with in the operational limitations of any academic work, the present research study professional experiences and general inquisitiveness in researcher to understand the

the general perception of public of Delhi about the impact of CWG-2010. However, specifically focuses on issues like how far: the people of Delhi are involved in CWG2010, development takes place in public and sports infrastructure, the economy is

15

Chapter 1: Introduction

influenced, the general consciousness for sports and education programs, and cultural outlook is influenced?

1.7. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Within the observed set of considerations, the research scholar was inspired to Commonwealth Games-2010. undertake the present study entitled, A Study on Public Perception of

1.8. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


To study the public perception on CWG-2010 regarding:

1. Involvement of citizens 3. Influence on economy

2. Public and sports infrastructure creation, utilization and up-gradation 4. Sport consciousness and sports education program 5. Influence on cultural outlook 1.9. RESEARCH QUESTION The research question for the present study was:

How do people of Delhi perceive Commonwealth Games-2010 in terms of its influence on: involvement of public in CWG-2010; creation, utilization, up-gradation of public and sports infrastructure; economy and allocation of CWG-2010 to Delhi; cultural outlook?

consciousness towards sports and sports education programs; and promotion of

1.10. LIMITATIONS 2. Difference in awareness of the respondents due to their economic background and 3. Awareness of respondents may vary due to longitudinal approach as point of time for administering the opinionire was not same for all the residents of Delhi. educational qualification. 1. Mood of the respondent while giving answers to the items.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

1.11. DELIMITATIONS 2. The age of the subjects selected for the study was 18 and above. further confined to 35 polling stations for the study. Both male and female were selected for the study. 1. The study was confined to 700 subjects residing in Delhi.

3. The study was delimited to 7 parliamentary constituencies of Delhi, and was

5. To explore the residents perception regarding CWG-2010, the study was confined to five dimensions i.e. involvement of citizens; public and sports infrastructure creation, utilization and up-gradation; influence on economy; sport consciousness and sports education program; and influence on cultural outlook. 1.12. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The study may provide an opportunity to understand residents perception of CWG-2010; provide guiding principle to future policy making for such mega sports events; and gender. This piece of research may stand as an effort to help to identify the increasing

4.

understand the selected variables under study as influenced by the area of living, age and marginalization of socio-cultural aspect of mega sporting events like commonwealth

games. It may also support recognizing the mega sports events from the national and international perspectives. It may be research reference in future investigations as an enduring attempt in sports and physical education. The research will fundamentally offer a broad based analysis of the Commonwealth Games-2010 occurrence and experience from the perspectives of variety of public of the host city Delhi, India. 1.13. OPERATIONAL TERMS DEFINED Perception (Dictonary, n.d). Recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli based chiefly on memory

For the purpose of the present study operational definition of perception is an opinion or a mental concept formed on subjective and objective observations and experiences regarding various aspects to be influenced and impacted by the organising of

17

Chapter 1: Introduction

Commonwealth Games-2010 that is developed as a consequence of the process of acquiring, analyzing, synthesizing informations from different sources. Sports Any institutionalized game demanding the demonstration of physical proves and have all the features of play and games (Loy, 1968, p.5). For the purpose of the present study operational definition of sport is all forms of physical activity that contributes to physical fitness, mental well-being and social interaction. These include play; recreation; organized, casual or competitive sport; and indigenous sports or games (Ogi & Bellamy, 2003). Host Host is the presenter for an event (Wikipedia). For the purpose of the present study operational definition of host is Delhi as a city refers to be responsible for organisation of CWG-2010. Legacy The psycho- social impact and development in terms physical infrastructure and facilities that are built for an event but then continue to serve the host community after the duration of the event.

For the purpose of the present study operational definition of Legacy is the tangible serve the host nation/city/community after the duration of the events of CWG-2010. Mega Sports Event

and intangible benefits derived from CWG-2010 which are expected to continue to

A large sports event which takes place for a short, fixed duration in different hallmark events (Uppal, 2006).

locations. World Cups, Olympics and the Commonwealth Games are examples of

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Chapter 1: Introduction

For the purpose of the present study operational definition of mega sport event is CWG-2010 held in Delhi from 3rd October to 14th October 2010. Commonwealth Games The Commonwealth Games is a multi-sport event held every four years involving the elite athletes of the Commonwealth. The first such event, then known as the British Commonwealth Games in 1954, to British Commonwealth Games in 1970 and assumed the current name of the Commonwealth Games in 1978 (CGF, 1997). is Commonwealth Games-2010 hosted by Delhi, India. Olympics An international multi-sport event the Olympic Games, or Olympics, takes place every fourth year. Originally held in ancient Greece, they were revived by a French nobleman, Pierre Fredy, Baron de Coubertin in the late 19th century. The Games of the Olympiad, better known as the Summer Olympics, have been held every fourth year since 1896, with the exception of the years during the World Wars (Wikipedia). definition has been used. For the purpose of the present study operational definition of Olympics, above given For the purpose of the present study operational definition of Commonwealth Games

Empire Games, was held in 1930. The name changed to British Empire and

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature

CHAPTER 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The present study is investigating the public perception about Commonwealth Games-

2010 (CWG-2010) in specific reference to the host city Delhi. The relevant literature These studies deal with various dimensions of sports events, such as socio-emotional, political and cultural aspects, urban development, sports facilities and architecture of threat of hosting the sport events.

explores to understand impact of mega sports events on the life of the host cities.

host cities. These studies attempt to identify strength, weakness, opportunities and

Studies relevant to procedure and methodologies also have been considered. Literature review identifies the influence of mega sports events and correlated its host cities and countries of mega sports events. impact on the social, economic, cultural, and civic ways of life of the people of the

The multi-dimensional approach has been adopted to understand the influence of of sporting events. The sources of the reviewed literature were print media, electronic here in following subheads:

mega sports event especially to understand the cross reference of various dimensions media, websites, books, and journals. The relevant literature reviewed is presented

Involvement of citizens in mega sports events; Public and sports infrastructure creation, utilization and up-gradation; Sports and economic growth; Sports events, sport consciousness and education programs; Cultural outlook with the hosting of sports mega events; Other research relevant to the present study; Points of departure from literature reviewed

20

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

2.1. INVOLVEMENT OF CITIZENS IN MEGA SPORTS EVENTS According to a longitudinal study on region awareness due to mega events by Ritchie is affected in many positive and negative ways. From a tourism perspective, the major benefits sought by organizers are increased awareness and an enhanced image for the host region in the international market. It is assumed that this increased awareness and & Smith(1991), center or region which hosts a major event attracting global attention

enhanced image will, over the long term, provide a stronger competitive position and greater benefits from tourism. Findings of a five year study to monitor and assess the extent to which 1988 Calgary Olympic Winter Games, did impacted awareness and centers in the United States and Europe. The results indicated that, in this particular

the image of the host city. Data were collected annually from 1986 through 1989 in 20 case, the event dramatically increased levels of awareness and substantially modified the image of the city of Calgary. However, the study also presented is also strong significant rate of awareness and image decay, and take steps to counter it, if they wish to remain visible and competitive in the international marketplace. A study on relationship between mega sports events and promotion of world peace by evidence that cities considering the staging of such a mega-event must anticipate a

international mega-sports events but also increases their value in effecting social change and promoting world peace as athletes and spectators come together in ever-

Smith & Cahn (2008), modern sports commerce not only expands the number of

larger numbers, governments must collaborate with non-governmental, private, and

non-profit sectors to develop and implement the business of sports commerce between sports commerce and peace as worthy of greater study and examined the role how these competitions may be able to create greater understanding among athletes

benefiting host nations and local communities. The research identified the relationship of international sporting events in contributing to social change in host countries and and related individuals and increase knowledge exchange on a larger scale. The

research analyzed several mega-sports events, including the Olympics and the role of dedicated to bringing sports experiences to intellectually disabled athletes. It highlighted the transformative power of SO worldwide competitions and finds peace
21

the Special Olympics (SO) the largest amateur sports organization in the world

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

through commerce principles in SO innovative policies and programs. Over four increasing self-confidence, self-esteem, social acceptance, health and general wellways in which other mega-sporting events could adopt what is unique to SO.

decades, the SO, and particularly its World Games, have led to global initiatives for being among intellectually disabled persons. The research offered insight into the Sports potential contribution towards development and peace was also analyzed in a report from United Nations (Ogi & Bellamy, 2003), which provided an overview of the growing role that sports activities are playing in many United Nations programs and

crystallizes the lessons learned. It also included recommendations aimed at maximizing and mainstreaming the use of sports. According to the report, the world of sport presents a natural partnership for the United Nations system. By its very nature, sport is about participation, it is about inclusion and citizenship. Sport brings individuals and

communities together, highlighting commonalties and bridging cultural or ethnic divides. Sport provides a forum to learn skills such as discipline, confidence and leadership and it teaches core principles such as tolerance, cooperation and respect.

Sport teaches the value of effort and how to manage victory, as well as defeat. When these positive aspects of sport are emphasized, sport becomes a powerful vehicle through which the United Nations can work towards achieving its goals. This report

viewed sport in a broad sense. Incorporated into the definition of sport are all forms of physical activity that contribute to physical fitness, mental well-being and social interaction. These include play; recreation; organized, casual or competitive sport; and indigenous sports or games. It encouraged a more coherent approach to the use of sportrelated initiatives in the pursuit of United Nations development goals, particularly at the development policy. Recommendations of the report: community level. It also aimed to promote the use of sport as a recognized tool in 1. Sport should be better integrated into the development agenda. peace.

2. Sport should be incorporated as a useful tool in programmes for development and 3. Sport-based initiatives should be included in the country programmes of United Nations agencies, where appropriate and according to locally assessed needs.

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Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

4. Sport for development and peace programmes need greater attention and resources 5. Communications-based activities using sport should focus on well-targeted advocacy and social mobilization, particularly at national and local levels. Guala and Turco (2009) found that previous Olympic Games research had been off assessments of the Summer Games. Despite the growing importance of a 'triple by governments and the United Nations system.

primarily on economic impacts, tourists, and destination image with most being onebottom line' (social dimension with economic and environmental evaluation) approach understand and explain residents perception regarding the impact of such events.

to mega sport event research, limited longitudinal research has been carried out to Other than Ritchies (1991) landmark study of the Calgary Winter Olympic Games, and fewer still concerning resident attitudes throughout the full lifecycle of the event,

relatively few research studies on the Winter Olympic Games have been published, from bidding, preparation, operation, and legacy stages. Residents are in a unique position to evaluate an events legacy as taxpayers, daily consumers of infrastructure, and as possible leisure consumers of Olympic sport venues. The purpose of this study

was to examine Torino residents perceptions of their city as host of the 2006 Torino Torino residents (n = 900 interviews per year; N = 5,400) were presented to reflect the Residents experienced a rollercoaster of emotions during the event lifecycle ranging

Winter Olympic Games from 2002-2007. Results from telephone interviews with attitudes of the population toward the 2006 Winter Olympic Games over time. from euphoria once the Games were awarded, to concern over escalating production costs, irritation with inconveniences due to construction, and ultimately pride immediately following the Games.

London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games within the two respective communities of Weymouth and Portland in England. It reported the first stage of a repeated crosswere supportive of hosting the event in the local area but were concerned over perceived traffic congestion, parking issues and potential increases in the cost of
23

dimension of Olympic tourism development, by exploring resident perceptions of the

The study by Brent & Richard (2009) develops a deeper understanding of the social

sectional longitudinal study conducted in 2007. It highlighted that generally residents

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

living. A factor analysis identified five factors that explained 60.5% of the variance in resident perceptions, with the largest factor comprising 'positive social impacts', followed by 'negative impacts', 'transport issues', 'positive economic impacts' and characteristics.

'price rises.' Differences were found between these factors and socio-demographic
Urmilla and Kamilla (2009) found that the 2010 Federation International de Football

(FIFA) World Cup to be hosted in South Africa is expected to provide an opportunity

to further the countrys objectives of using sporting events to signal international

recognition and promote socio-economic development. Studies on sport tourism events tend to focus on economic impacts and neglect social issues. In particular, residents perceptions are overlooked although they are often directly impacted by sport events, especially when they reside in close proximity to the event location. The

2010 FIFA World Cup is heralded as a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity with significant

legacy benefits for South Africans. However, generally, the actual voices of local anticipated benefits. One hundred residents in each location were interviewed. The

residents are absent in relation to debates pertaining to this event and concomitant focus of the study was to examine the perceptions of the residents towards the findings reveal that there is considerable support and positive perceptions relating to raised in relation to the distribution of anticipated benefits and the impacts of the stadia on their lives.

proposed stadia development and potential impacts of the 2010 World Cup. The South Africas hosting of the 2010 World Cup. However, there were several concerns

Contribution of Olympic Movement and the Olympic Games towards a significant sporting legacy in diverse areas, especially in reference to the athletes as protagonists and their rights was discussed at International Symposium on Legacy of the Olympic Games, 1984-2000 (2002). The symposium promoted for inclusion of a greater number of sports in the Olympic programme, and for the increased participation of women as it has greatly improved the universal practice of sport. It International Olympic Committee and the OCOGs.

recommended for promotion of sport to be recognised and maximised by the

24

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

of the Delhiites on CWG-2010. The survey covered 321 people in Delhi-NCR using a questionnaire method, out of which 65% were youngsters (17-25 years) and 35% working professionals comprising doctors, professors, State and Central Government

A study by FICCI (2010) was conducted to bring forth the perception and sentiments

Employees, Investors, Businessmen and Managers. The study highlighted on the infrastructure development and construction work due to which Delhiites faced a lot of inconvenience and lately nature played havoc with record breaking and unexpected Delhi being declared disease capital of India with the outbreak of Malaria, Dengue, Conjunctivitis etc. and add to it security concerns. New controversies were cropping

rainfalls, which led to water logging and floods in a number of areas in Delhi with

up with each passing day and everything was being linked to CWG preparations. Question marks were being raised on the Indias capabilities and preparedness for hosting this international event. Despite so many ifs & buts and contrary to popular opinion, the survey results were reasonably positive on peoples mood towards Commonwealth Games. People had high expectations from the games in terms of being provided with better infrastructure facilities, employment opportunities concerns but they were upbeat and already in sporty spirit. The tickets for the opening and overall economy boost by becoming investment hub. Delhiites did had valid and closing ceremony were already out of stock thus enthusiasm amongst crowds to awaited Sports Extravaganza in October would lead to development of much needed Sports Culture in India.

welcome the Games were clearly visible. It predicted that the 15 days long much

2.2. PUBLIC AND SPORTS INFRASTRUCTURE CREATION, UTILIZATION AND UP-GRADATION Research is mostly focused on developed countries such as the United States and how sports-events influence post-Mao China differently than developed countries, Chen (2006) conducted a study to assess the impacts that sporting mega-events have on Guangzhou, host of 16th Asian Games in 2010. Research revealed that China

Europe. To understand the kind of impact sports events have on Chinese cities and

government as the key player in the process of bidding for and hosting mega-sports

events. Cities in China have used this strategy to stimulate new district development
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instead of urban redevelopment. The research indicated that the city governments in China are pursuing sporting mega-events for infrastructure improvement rather than economic issues. The construction of new stadiums and infrastructure, environmental

improvement, city image improvement and district development are positive outcomes; however, there is a lack of economic assessment. There is a need for the city to cooperate with the private sector, adopt public participation and to develop a cost-effective use of sports facilities after the sporting mega-events are over.

Uppal (2010) studied the transformation of Delhis urban landscape due to CWG2010. The study also focused at worldwide experiences from Summer Olympics, Asian Games and Delhis experience of hosting 1982 Asian Games. The findings revealed that these events are not as beneficial to the host community of developing

nation like India. The enormous expenditure is largely on the development of civic infrastructure, beautification, transport, and sports facilities. If spent effectively, the event could be catalyst in a much needed urban regeneration of the city. On the basis the run up to the 2010 games, the results revealed that the development were anti poor and ecologically unsound. The study recommended that it is essential that whatever

of the study of past experience from the 1982 Asian Games and actions undertaken in

actions are undertaken in the name of the sports mega events in future must be well hyperbole.

thought out and not justified solely on the grounds of the nationalist sentiment and Kidd (2010) highlighted on the limitations of hosting major games as a strategy of domestic sports development in Canada. According to the study for more than four decades, Canada pursued and staged multi-sport international festivals as a strategy

for domestic sport development. In addition to the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, Canadian cities have hosted two Olympics, two PanAmerican Games, two Commonwealth Games, two World Masters Games and a

World Student Games, it has bid for many more. It's a record few other countries can match, especially with a population of 33 million. It contended that the strategy has been moderately effective in producing new facilities and other infrastructural investment and stimulating new programs. It further analysed that at present, the strongest regions in Canadian sport are those where major games have been held. But
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it has also been inefficient, inducing overinvestment in spectator capacity and boom-

and-bust cycles in the successful bid cities and leaving those regions without major Toronto's recent landing of the 2015 Pan American Games, the likelihood of Canada yet to stage their share of major games.

games without up-to-date facilities and programs. The study argued that despite winning future bids is bound to diminish, as rising economies in those regions have To understand the positive and negative issues regarding bidding and hosting of mega Olympic Infrastructure: Errors for Olympic Bid and Host Cities, in which it mentioned about the impact of IOC bidding process for the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Summer Games and the FIFA bidding process for the 2018 & 2022 Soccer World Cup more and more world renown developed and less developed cities and nations are pursuing the worlds prime events. The event life cycle approach looks at the past events across the world Kasper (2010) conducted a study on Lessons Learnt from

host cities from a long term perspective. The research indicates that the most important long-term impact is the change of the city infrastructure. Interestingly, it is infrastructure investments, but urban redevelopment, city and transport infrastructure infrastructure into a new stage (Barcelona, Athens) of development, be it that cities have created a strong sports image to the world (Sydney, Lillehammer, Salt Lake City) long term tourism impacts show a great variety. World capitals launched bid for not the upgrading of sports facilities that is attracting the biggest share of and business venues. The study states that be it that a city has transformed its urban

the Olympic Games 2016 that have been awarded to Rio de Janeiro for its commitment to bring Brazil from a second level to a first level nation among other reasons. The Olympic Winter and Summer Games can turn out to be the key to the successful infrastructural, sports and tourism development of a city and a nation, but also may leave a negative financial and infrastructural legacy. The study analyses both bid and host cities, and reviewed that why temporary infrastructures have not

become a more prominent aspect of sports venue planning for the Olympic Winter and Summer Games. Another critical issue considered is the venue management and marketing after the mega sport event are over, and identifying that which stakeholders and shareholders are key to success. The analyses advocate that ultimately a well27 Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

minded venue management master plan is essential to be designed well in advance of any planning and building decision as part of a city/nation sports venue master plan; perspective. also indicate sports-minded tourism destination from the first idea to a long term A pre event study to understand the course that urban development routed with the

2010 Federation International de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup in South unique moment has been lost regarding the ability of the World Cup to serve as a catalyst for urban development. The study revealed that, it was unlikely that poverty alleviation, as a result of fast-tracking South Africas urban development impetus, benefits in cities were likely to be fairly circumscribed. Legacy, the study argued, Africa had been reflected by Pillay & Bass (2008). Their argument suggested that a

could constitute a significant outcome of the World Cup. Rather, development should have therefore advanced beyond an exclusively pro-poor language. In this regard, vigorous public debate was required to arrive at a national consensus of what kind of legacy the 2010 FIFA World Cup would be realistically able to achieve.

A study focusing on the importance of a long-term legacy planning of the Olympic on Legacy of the Olympic Games; 1984-2000 (2002). The idea emerged that the effects of the tangible legacy have many aspects and dimensions, ranging from the more infrastructures, economic and tourist development to others that are just as, if not more important, but that are less recognised. In particular, it is necessary to point out the importance of so called intangible legacies, such as production of ideas and cultural commonly recognized aspects architecture, urban planning, city marketing, sports Games in the context intangible legacies was recognised at International Symposium

values, intercultural and non-exclusionary experiences (based on gender, ethnicity or physical abilities), popular memory, education, archives, collective effort and voluntarism, new sport practitioners, notoriety on a global scale, experience and knowhow, etc. According to the study, intangible legacies also act as a motor for the tangible ones to develop a long-term legacy.

infrastructure development for Commonwealth Games-2010, the study concluded that


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Sharma (2008) revealed concern towards rural-urban divide, when it comes to

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unequal growth in Delhi can be noted, where in infrastructure is being developed on ones as deprived.

some part of Delhi due to the games, and rural areas of Delhi are the most affected According to the report of the cabinet committee of economic affaires (2008), a system for preparation of elite sportspersons for prestigious international competitive of Rs 678 crore was sanctioned for the 'Preparation of Indian Team for events included qualifying championships for major international events, an amount Commonwealth Games, 2010' scheme. Out of the total outlay, the expenditure layout was for three main components, Rs.375 crore on training and exposure to 1,286 elite sportspersons for 305 days in 18 disciplines, Rs.85 crore for up-gradation of ten SAI

centers to international standards and Rs.218 crore for procurement of sports science

and medical equipments for the centers providing sport science back up and medical person in the process of hosting Commonwealth Games-2010.

facilities. This for sure was a step towards institutionalization of sports and sports Kostas and Kiki (2010) identified the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) that a host city can experience to utilize these for future strategy planning and event leveraging. The design/methodology/approach was used in which phone interviews were conducted with administrators of the Athens Olympic Games. Respondents were asked four questions relating to the SWOT of hosting the Olympic Games. Responses collected were transcribed and analyzed using a content analysis. Findings suggested that the strengths lie in having certain infrastructures in place, lack of infrastructure, the size of the country, uncertain political and economic developments, increase in the quality of life, the use of legacies post-event, and the volunteers, a strong economy and good political standing. Weaknesses stem from a stability. Opportunities included the growth of the tourism industry, business improvement and development of infrastructures. Threats included the cost of the event, pollution, relying on the event to rejuvenate the economy and the displacement of residents. The SWOT analysis conducted in this paper laid the foundation for strategic planning for future host cities' organizers while taking into consideration the weaknesses and problems that have been experienced by the organization of former Olympic Games host cities.
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2.3. SPORTS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH Because of the use of a large variety of methodologies in research, event-specific cost-benefit analyses have trouble in finding the 'true' systematic real effects.

these three large sporting events. A consistent descriptive analysis showed that not true for the FIFA World Cup events. This reveals that the selection strategy of results from the economic growth model analysis. One of the main issues in this type demonstrated self-selection (higher-growth potentials might be more likely applicant growth model, they estimated a discrete applicant decision and host selection choice

growth model of 39 countries that are or have been candidate hosts of any one of

Summer and Winter Games and the FIFA World Cup, by estimating an economic

systematic analysis indicated the economic impact of organizing the Olympic

positive impact on domestic economic development (Elmer Sterken, 2010). A

However, organizing large-scale sporting events is often believed to generate a

Olympic Games-organizing countries indeed show higher growth rates, while this is FIFA differs from the selection method of the IOC. The study also discussed the of analysis was the homogeneity of the selection of host countries that had cities or countries in the bidding processes). So prior to estimating the economic model. These auxiliary models took historical changes in the selection process of both

the IOC and the FIFA into account. Preliminary results suggested that the highpotential growth countries were more likely to apply to organize the Olympic Summer and Winter Games and that the IOC had so elected hosting countries with a higher growth potential. The result shows that the descriptive results of higher growth rates

of Olympics hosting countries were determined by the self-selection process. On the other hand, applicant countries for the FIFA World Cup tend to show lower growth rates of GDP per capita. Thus it was indicated that regular growth models did not hosting of the Olympic Games. If they use instruments for applications/candidacies in

take the selection effect into account that show significant growth effects of the the growth models, they show that there is no impact of organizing the Winter Games

and only a modest positive impact of the Olympic Summer Games on per capita

growth rates. This supports the notion that countries with rather good growth expectations.
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potentials both apply to organize the events and are able to fulfil the growth

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A study on the effect of mega events on the developing nations in the light of CWG2010 was conducted by Singh and Kumar (2008) and was identified that the tourism country. According to the study, CWG-2010 was not only going to lift Delhi as a industry is often the one which benefited the most in the economic growth of the

tourist destination but also going to help the growth of related industries like hotel, public services, real estate, logistics, small shops and mega malls. The results of the study emphasized that visitors during CWG-2010 were expected for the games might country India. developed emotional engagement with culture and the mystical destination in the host IAAF World Championships as a commercialized mega-sporting event and an An analysis was performed on the national and international press coverage of the

expression of the contemporary experience industry was examined by Mats (2009). World Championships in Helsinki, Finland, 2005 which included eleven Finnish and a tool for achieving international media attention and economic profit. The coverage

six foreign newspapers. Finnish pre-Championship publicity saw the games mostly as of the international press was strikingly similar. The newspapers focussed mainly on

the sporting events and their perspective was strongly national perfectly in line with

traditional sports journalism. Such findings challenge the belief expressed in Finnish newspapers and by proponents of the attention economy that mega-events are powerful tools for urban marketing.

Madden (2006) employed multiregional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to examine the effects of Sydney 2000 summer Olympics, on economic and for three phases over a 12-year period. Careful attention was paid to the presence of financial variables within a single analytical framework. Simulations were conducted constraints on labour supply and capital and on the sources of savings funding the effects from the Games remain on the debt position of Australian governments or the

Olympic investments. Simulations were conducted under the assumption that no nation's external debt five years after the Sydney Games. The results found that a too large a financial loss on the Games, inclusive of construction costs. The degree to assumed labour-market conditions.
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modest positive impact on the state hosting the Games can occur provided there is not which the positive impact comes at the expense of other states depends crucially on

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must commit to significant investment in sports venues and other infrastructure. It preparation create large and lasting economic benefits to the host city. Unfortunately

According to a study conducted by Owen (2005), cities who host the Olympic Games

supports the common assumption that the scale of such an event and the scale of its mostly the economic impact studies are filled with misapplications of economic studies have consistently found no evidence of positive economic impacts from mega-

theory that virtually guarantee that projections will be large. On the other end, ex-post sporting events even remotely approaching the estimates in economic impact studies. The study predicted that 2008 Summer Olympic Games, Beijing will take these massive investments in venues and infrastructure to a new level. But, if organizers of the Beijing Games based their expectations on economic impact studies from previous Olympics, they were sure to be disappointed. The potential for long term economic investments in venues and infrastructure could be incorporated into the overall economy in the years following the Games.

benefits from the Beijing Games critically depended on how well Olympics related

The study of Chung (2010) analyzes impact of big sport events which play a major role in encouraging economic effects and national reconciliation, raising citys profile in foreign countries and developing related business such as tourism with respect to industries producing and distributing sport-related goods and service. According to countries in the world. Economic effects are strongly expected by hosting the events. the study various events in all sizes happen constantly in corporations, cities, and The study mentioned about, Chuncheon as host city of 2010 World Leisure Congress Olympic and Paralympic Games. People of Gangwon province expect that those big sports events for developing local communities in the age of local autonomy, and also

and Games and Pyeongchang as one of the candidates city for the 2018 winter sport events will bring local development. The study puts forth ways to reinvigorate investigated economic, social and political impact of the plans on the events. At the result, the study developed a theoretical framework of prospects of creating value for the Territory in the regional and national level.

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UEFA 2012 to be hosted jointly by Poland/Ukrain. According to the study, hosting of a sports mega-event brings a variety of important economic social and psycic benefits to a host region. The study focused on the awarding the mega events to regions developing and transtional countries need economic stimulus more than developed

Brad (2005) conducted a study which emphasised on economice aspects regarding

outside the developed economies of Europe, North America and Asia because countries and highlighted the reason for Poland/Ukrain bid to host UEFA 2012. The

study analysed that the event will attract a large number of spectators and television viewers, a simple cost benefit analysis indicates that the costs of hosting the event will exceed the direct economic impact related to increased tourist spending by a wide improvements in infrastructure and the cost would sure be more than of a developed infrastructures like hotels, stadiums, roads etc. margin, and the presence of positive benefits depends on benefits from factors like nation because a large part of the fund has to be utilized towards building of new International Symposium on Legacy of the Olympic Games, 1984-2000 (2002)

highlighted on the economic legacy of the Olymic Games, in which numerous economic benefits can be derived by organising the Olympic Games if these are planned taking into account the long-term benefits for the community. The study also economic context in which the games are held as influencing factors effecting economic feasibilities for host cities. emphasised on large number of variables including local circumstances, global

2.4. SPORTS EVENTS, SPORT CONSCIOUSNESS AND EDUCATION PROGRAMS According to Stefan (2010) the Olympic Games are the symbol for Sports and most

prestigious publicly known sports event on the globe. It can have many different faces, like being an important part of a vital civil society or presenting benefits in the quality of living in a city. But whether being an important part of the civil society framework which tends to change.
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economic, health-orientated or educational contexts. In broad terms, sport is to affect or any other of the possible faces, all sport related aspects are part of a socioeconomic

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

Volunteer aspect is one of the important parts of the legacies for the host country which is ignored in research point of view. To fill this gap a study was conducted by Tracy, Deborah and Simon (2010) to investigate the legacy of volunteering at 2010

Paralympics Winter Games to identify strategies that may facilitate the development

of greater legacies for the host communities beyond the fun and hype of the games. According to the study, mega sporting events such as the Olympics, Paralympics and the FIFA World Cup have significant potential to leave a social, economic and infrastructure legacy for the host community and country. The conclusions were drawn through a combination of online surveys (pre and post-event), interviews and

focus groups during the 2010 Paralympic Winter Games. The research explored the motivations, experiences and volunteering legacies of the 19,100+ people who Winter Games. This research also focused on identifying future strategies that may worked in different volunteer positions at the 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic enhance the legacy for host communities and facilitate the management and transfer communities and countries.

of this knowledge for future mega sporting events to the benefit of the host Interest in all aspects of the politics, financing, planning, management and operation of mega sporting events has been highlighted both by success stories and ongoing problems associated with Olympic Games, Football World Cups and other similar highlighted on the issue of employment creation as an important motivator for host cities which features high on the political justification agenda for bids to host events. The researcher emphasised on the role of volunteers as the most significant working contribution to major mega events in sports who undertake task across the range of 60,000 had been noted for some recent major events but relatively little was known about the role of volunteers at mega sporting events but their contribution and wider opportunities afforded by such events. Numbers of volunteers between 40,000 and events (Tom & Leonie, 2007). Within the context of mega sporting events, the study

impact was considered to be very significant, both to the events themselves and within understanding areas such as what volunteers do at mega sporting events; who they

the host community. The study identified the evident gaps that existed in are; what motivates them; how volunteering impacts upon their lives; what associated
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activities they do surrounding the event in the host city; and the extent to which volunteering is recidivistic. Big-events such as Olympics, expos, exhibitions, and world cup draw attention as large scale activities pulling international absorption and have huge political, economic, social, and cultural impact before and after their occurrences. The most system. Sport is not only physical activity as organized and competitive, but also is a form of scientifically proven facts. Big sport events are an unrepeatable opportunity

noticeable characteristic of modern sport is that the sport has integrated into a social way of education and politics in terms of both contents and forms. And it exists in the for the territory. Such events produce significant benefits especially in terms of economic and social contributions, whose effects extend far beyond the event itself. Cup, national emotion and interest grew deeper after experiencing social and cultural campaign for big-event (Bramwell, 1997). For example, since the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games and 2002 Korea-Japan World changes and issues. It has now become easier to acquire nations support in a A mega sport event (MSE) creates much more than a direct monetary impact. It is a

unique opportunity to position the host city/region/nation by sending information about location factors, and thereby repositioning and changing the place branding (Preuss,Troelsen, 2010). For the community broadly defined hosting a mega sport event can produce additional advantages, which can be not only tangible economic outcomes, but also intangible such as local communication, pride and social capital. The study of Burnett (2008) assessed development of the 2010 soccer world cup.

According to the study, hosting 2010 Soccer World Cup, South Africa takes Africa to the global sporting stage. Diverse paradigms informed the conceptual framework for developing a rationale and indicator fields for an impact assessment of this global event. Focusing on human and social development, indicators should be refined and poverty provides baseline data, whereas event-related change according to a pre-post could as such be related to the Millennium Development Goals. The context of design and cost-benefit analysis provide the scope for impact assessment in the fields of economic, social, health (reflecting quality of life) and sport and recreation. The

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study concluded that, the expected impact of the event may translate into significant political, social and cultural change for which advanced planning and leverage need to be in place to maximize prospective results. Study of Tim & Francisco (2007) on 2006 FIFA world cup and host country image

found that improvement of host country image is a major potential benefit of Germanys image based on research conducted among a consistent group of New Zealand football supporters before, during and after attending the 2006 FIFA World called soft factors such as safety, friendly people, and multi-cultural atmosphere. It knowledge in similar events. Cup. Findings suggest that the strongest influence on image was generated by soalso recommended that future research also uses "pre-then-post" method to advance

organising mega sports events. The study discussed about the improvement of

2.5. CULTURAL OUTLOOK WITH THE HOSTING OF SPORTS MEGA EVENTS


Singh & Kumar (2008) studies the role played by the sporting mega events in the

development of tourism industry in the light of CWG-2010. It was identified that the tourism industry is often the one which benefits the most in which it was revealed that

CWG-2010 is not only going to lift Delhi as destination but also going to help the

growth of related industries like hotel , public services, real estate, logistics, small games and might develop their emotional engagement with vast culture and the mystical destination in the host country whose reflection are captured memories for the visitors so that they come again. traditional city of Delhi. Focus of the study was laid on the fact on creating beautiful

shops and mega malls. The study concluded that the visitors should come for the in this

list following the athletes, officials, sponsors, and media. The importance of live spectators, however, was most evident at the 2004 and 2006 Olympic Games where many venues were half empty and the spirit around the Games less than usual. Were these Olympic Games just an anomaly or a trend that the International Olympic

The research by Lisa (2010) found that in Olympic hierarchy spectators are last on the

Committee should be concerned? Even in Beijing, where tickets were supposedly sold
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out, venues were not always full. To study these factors, the research looked at the motivation, consumer behaviour, and impressions of Olympic spectators from the Olympic Games in Barcelona in 1992 to the Beijing Games in 2008. Data was collected on-site at each of these games. Special attention was made to decision factors influencing Olympic Game attendance, spectator satisfaction, and intent to the Transfer of Knowledge management program as this responsibility is believed to has historically been carried out through corporate sponsor advertisements.

attend future Games. The topic of marketing the Olympic Games is non-existent in fall under the host city government versus the organizing committee or the IOC and Friedman & Steger (2000) both used similar analogies in defining globalization, as the Americanisation or Mcdonaldisation of global culture because looking at the FIFA website for the 2010 World Cup, there is a great presence of sponsors such

Coca-Cola, McDonalds and Budweiser. The study analyzed an increase in the promotion of these brands as the tournament drew nearer, culminating in huge exposure to the tournament itself. This saturation could have assist only in the promote their unique nation and culture.

formation of a bland uniformed market, providing barriers for South Africa to sell and Culture was discussed at International Symposium on Legacy of the Olympic could be considered as the basis for its existence and continuity. Indeed culture was

Games, 1984-2000 (2002) as one of the fundamental aspects of Olympic legacy that identified as not just one aspect of Olympic legacy but as the ultimate source of all others. The Games rituals, torch relay, ceremonies and Olympic symbols could be considered to form part of the cultural treasures of humanity, and can be considered as

world global heritage. The symposium considered it necessary to protect and stress through their Cultural Olympiads, and thus contribute to local and global knowledge of the Games and their legacy.

the values of Olympism in the cultural programmes of the IOC, NOCs, and OCOGs

Changes to the media landscape can be tracked from the traditional notion of the linear media event, to the non-linear convergence of broadcast media and Internet technologies (Andy & Jennifer, 2010). Such devices as TV-on-demand and multiChapter 2: Review of Related Literature

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modal routes, Facebook or Twitter and Google have given rise to a new era of media Olympic Movement over the next 10 years of new media development is the point of departure of the IOC World Congress of 2009, which included the Digital important to assess what opportunities arise to create new content around the Olympic

production. Within such media-events prospects of monetizing the digital assets of the

Revolution as one of its primary themes. In addition to income generation, it is experience, beyond the sports competitions. After all, the Olympic Games experience is much more than just the Olympic sports competitions and involves a wide range of festival experiences, including cultural activity. The study concludes with an overview of how the rise of new media communities has affected recent Games, particularly progress towards the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. 2.6. OTHER RESEARCH RELEVANT TO THE PRESENT STUDY intervention in sport as a way of providing a background for analyzing the relationship between sport and state-politics as one of the most enduring and pervasive examples of societys impact/influence on sport . According to the study, The study conducted by Chien & Ping (2008) articulates rationales for state

state intervention in sport has been evidenced in many countries throughout history, at

present, sport and politics are still inextricably inter-twined and often work to demonstrate social, economic, or political supremacy over another nation. In Africa, Asia and Latin America, sports development is closely associated with hygiene,

health, defence, patriotism, integration, productivity, international recognition, even cultural identity and nation-building. Sport, therefore, often has the quite sport and politics is considered to be completely separate entities, evidence suggests revolutionary role of being an agent of social change, with the state as pilot. Whilst that it is no longer possible for any serious social commentator to posit a separation which are derived in some way from the real world; sport provides politically usable

between the worlds of sport and politics because sports involves rules and regulations resources; sport can promote nation-building and international image-making. The study concluded with a view that the idea of sport existing either below or above politics is no longer sustainable.

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Benoit & Milena (2010) revealed that the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games committee for the Olympic Games (OCOG), the key partner- the governments are also highly involved. For the 2010 Winter Games, there were four governments coordinating work including the federal government, the provincial government, the

are a complex endeavour to organize. While much focus is put on the organizing

City of Vancouver, and the Resort Municipality of Whistler. The study examined the intergovernmental coordination for the 2010 Winter Games, using a network approach. A network was a set of organizations connected to each other to varying degrees based on prior contact and exchange. The network approach allowed moving

beyond dyadic ties and describing both the nodes (e.g., departments) and the relationships. The case study was constructed using three data sources: 1) over 500 archival materials (e.g., government reports, news reports); 2) 19 federal, 4 provincial, 8 Vancouver, and 4 Whistler semi-structured interviews lasting on average 45 minutes (with saturation reached halfway through but interviews continued to ensure using ATLAS 6.0 (open, axial and higher-border content analysis). The study found that it was a challenge to be flexible for big bureaucracies. Information sharing was considered a key both internally and externally. Games knowledge transfer programs representation); and 3) ongoing informal notes/observations. Data were analyzed

should include knowledge transfers between cities/governments to facilitate planning/implementation and to minimize the impact of corporate memory loss. It is cities, and understand obligations from the outset in order to coordinate such a complex endeavour. also important to work with people with past Games experience, learn from past host

impact in the Games coverage using Beijing 2008 Olympic Games as an example. They also proposed solution to the question that to what extent new media can replace the old media and especially television regarding the audience preferences. The study showed the efforts of the media enterprises to create new online sport content and to

Roy & Francoise (2010) discussed the development of the new media and their

guide social media by introducing special interactive services. They found that

Information and communication of sport events as well as corporate communication, are inconceivable without ICTs and on line devices, since almost a decade. More
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recently, social networking tools are considered, by most people, as solutions to access and share information and knowledge. Social media are also an effective way to build awareness and engagement before, during, or after an event. In that context, sporting has become a core strategic content for old and new media because it attracts subscribers for television and 3G mobile phones and boosts participation of internet organizers increasingly follow the imperatives of the media, since they have become

users both in visiting sites and participating in social media. Therefore, sports largely dependent on their revenues, mainly the television rights. According to the increasing interest in sports and especially in the Olympic Games the broadcasting right fees have increased tremendously. The study advocates that relationship between development path. They offered a distinctive field for the development and usage of new technological devices for the communication sector. New technological advances

sports and media was always a tight one and both parts followed a similar

in the field of media facilitate and create new ways to view the events, new needs for

audiovisual production, new sources of information and verification of data for of which create new attitudes towards mediated viewing. Further, the interactivity of

coming events, records achieved and all types of information surrounding sports, all the new media makes them more flexible, more cosmopolitan, more interesting and

perhaps more adaptable to information needs posed by the modern way of life. The most important aspect the new audiovisual technologies facilitate is stated that the enterprises is not only to increase the viewer ship rate but also to boost the new through sport content and to promote the television program of the upcoming season. viewing conditions benefit the viewer. Additionally, the main scope of the media markets of cable, DSL, IP-TV, Pay-TV decoders and mobile telephony connections According to Balcetis and Dunning (2006), motivational states of people such as that people know is the one they take in through their senses. This is the world they

their wishes and preferences influence their processing of visual stimuli. The world react tothe one their conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions are predicated on.

People act on the presumption that the world they are consciously aware of is a comprehensive and accurate presentation of the environment that exactly copies the outside world as it truly is. Decades of research in psychology, however, tend to
40 Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

undermine the assumption that what people see or hear is an exact replica of what is out in the world, in two different ways. First, perception is selective. People are not aware of everything that is going on around them. Second, perception is often biased.

Hills are not as steep as they appear to be, distances are not as short as they look. influences that flow from the perceivers cognitive and psychological states or from environments. To be sure, much of perception is bottom-up, with sense organs and stimulus that the perceiver passively accepts. The perceptual system pieces together

According to the study perception is malleable. It is responsive to top-down

perceptual systems working inflexibly and automatically to form a representation of a the fine grained bits of information the senses acquire to create a coherent percept,

analyzing and synthesizing basic components of objects including focal areas, critical

features, fixation points and spatial proximity or crowding. But a substantial volume of psychological research reveals that top-down influences also inform perception. For example, context matters. Prior exposure to images of animals or people biases what people see when they view classic ambiguous figures.

2.7. POINTS OF DEPARTURE FROM REVIEW OF LITERATURE The review of related literature supports that: Sports mega events are of great importance and beneficial if public awareness is increased, as it helps in improving the image of the city and citys visibility in the international market.

The mega sports events are a medium to promotion of sports business, peace, organizations, social institutions, private agencies and public at large. Major research image with most being one-off assessments of the Games.

economic and social development in the society inclusive of government on mega events are focused primarily on economic impacts, tourism and destination Limited research has been carried out to understand and explain resident perceptions of the impact of such events. In particular, residents perceptions are overlooked although they are often directly impacted by sport events, especially when they reside

in close proximity to the event location. The review of literatures gives an insight that
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residents are in a unique position to evaluate an events legacy as taxpayers, daily

consumers of infrastructure, and as possible leisure consumers of such mega events. The mega sports events are heralded as once-in-a-lifetime opportunity with significant legacy benefits for host nations. However, generally, the actual voices of local anticipated benefits.

residents are absent in relation to debates pertaining to this event and concomitant Hence, the objective is determined for the present investigation to study the public involvement and their outlook towards the games.

perception of Delhi residents about CWG-2010 to understand the level of awareness, The review of related literature reflects that biding and hosting mega sports events just confined to the developed nations of Europe and America.

like Olympics, Asian Games, Commonwealth Games-2010, FIFA World Cup are not Instead, biding for the games have been strongly presented by developing nations like Brazil (Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympics), Bahrain (2022, FIFA world cup), Poland/Ukraine (UEFA 2012) and the studies have common findings regarding their

desire to host such mega events. The mega sports events are not merely to win the entrepreneurs etc, look towards these games as an opportunity to develop civic parks, industries etc., and a long term perspective towards re-structuring of the city as did by Barcelona (1992 Olympics) and Manchester (2002 CWG).

contest or to develop only sports infrastructure, instead economics, politician, infrastructures like roads, transport, hotels, buildings, residential complex, business

On the contrary, a great deal of information indicates many errors in Olympic bid/s by various cities due to which heavy losses have been incurred for the host cities in past. The review mentioned about empty stadiums at Beijing, Athens and many other mega recovery from debts.

events, which means no tourist, less revenue, under utilized resources and slow Another critical issue considered through the review, is the venue management and marketing after the mega sport event are over, and identifying that which stakeholders and shareholders are key to success. Post 1982 Asiad had experienced that because of
42

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

the insufficient and ineffective venue management huge amount is spend on up gradation and renovation which put lot of burden on the national exchange. Several plan is essential to be designed well in advance of any planning and building decision research analyses advocate that ultimately a well-minded venue management master as part of a city/nation sports venue master plan; also indicate sports-minded tourism

destination from the first idea to a long term perspective. Otherwise, the positive impact which target for the development of the city infrastructure for the public of the city start becoming anti-poor investment as post event conditions lead to rise in prices, plans by the host city. higher inflation along with scarcity of space for living due to improper resettlement The reviewed literature also present that various host cities have unique experiences

and no right model for success can really be determined, but a common consensus payers, who become stakeholders for both success and the loss of the event.

reflects that the events are held for the people of the city, the residents who are the tax Therefore, the CWG-2010 was considered to be studied from the residents and sports infrastructure.

perspective in terms of development, creation, utilization and up-gradation of public The reason for growth of host city/ nations identified was not the games, but the selection of host cities, as high potential growth countries were more likely to apply to organize events. Cost benefit analyses reveals that conducting a sport mega event directly wont

have an impact on economy, particularly GDP per capita. Nations organizing cup events.

Olympic Games showed higher growth rates, while it is not true for FIFA world Media coverage and support have been considered as an important tool towards marketing of the game, which helps in utilization of the potential for economic development. A reason identified towards a positive impact depends largely on saving/ protecting/reducing financial loss on games inclusive of construction cost as the developed nation get to save a large amount on infrastructure development.

43

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

It further depends on the effective utilization of the infrastructure development after

the games are over. Mega sports event are beneficial for developing nation for infrastructure development but with a huge investment. However the huge investment could be planned considering different models adopted by some other successful countries such as china, which identified under developed district/region and adopted by India, wherein, Delhi which is one of the developed metropolitan cities of needed development more than Delhi.

converted into progressive cities. This may be considered as contrary to the model India was selected for the CWG-2010 over other cities that may or may have not

It is important that selection of host nation/cities should be lead by a theoretical framework for creating a value for the huge investment made for the city in the regional and national level.

Therefore, the CWG-2010 was considered to be studied from the residents Games-2010 to Delhi than other cities of India.

perspective in terms of economic development and allocation of Commonwealth

The Mega sport events are in a socio-economic framework, where volunteer aspects become important part of legacies for host nation / city for various community opportunities for employment creation. development programs and national missions, which can also be associated with

Mega sports events create much more than direct monitory impact. Apart from increase in GDP through sports management events, sports promotion affects the quality of living in a city through promotion of health oriented components and by adding value to education contents. It makes social system a noticeable characteristic of modern sport. The event is unique opportunity to take advantage of intangible benefits. Pre and post event research indicate that there is improvement in host countrys image and have found strong influence on soft factors such as safety, friendly people and multi cultural atmosphere. The impact of game and events get translated into significant political, social and cultural changes but advanced planning and leverage need to be in place to maximize prospective results.
44

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

Hence, the study focuses on understanding how people of Delhi perceive CWG-2010 to create awareness and educate the public regarding various aspects of life through the medium of sports. Tourism is an important source for economic growth through sports mega events. Economic development on such dimensions is highly dependent for city like Delhi campaigning for enhanced presentation of cultural diversity and traditions of the city. For sure, it needs to capture in the memories of the national and international visitors to think of revisiting the country/city or recommend others to visit. To present a

positive image of the city, it is necessary for mega events to promote and emphasis

the values of Olympism in its events including city-programs, other sporting events uphold nations unique traditions and culture endorsing as its international brand. It

and through cultural Olympiads. Strategic planning is required by host cities to can be through the sponsors, special packages and deals to attract national and international audience. These promotion initiatives must not create a barrier to the global culture as well as to the culture of the host cities. It may deter in creation of cultural legacy through the games.

Hence, the objective was to know how public of Delhi perceive towards promotion of cultural outlook of Delhi through CWG-2010.

45

Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

Chapter 3 Procedure and Methodology

CHAPTER 3

PROCEDURE AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the procedure and methodology of the present research study. It refers to the design, strategy and specific methods used for the attainment of the present study are being explained through varied dimensions inclusive of sources of for collection of the data and statistical analysis. 3.1. SAMPLING DESIGN The steps in the sampling design process were as follows: 3.1.1. Target Population Adults above 18 years of age Residents of Delhi Male and female members of the household objectives of the present study in a justified way. The procedures adopted for the data, tools used to collect data, development of opinionnaire, administration of the test

3.1.2. Sampling Frame Registered voters of Delhi Seven parliamentary electoral constituencies of Delhi

3.1.3. Sampling Technique Multistage random sampling technique, ensuring representation of area, gender and age diversity of the population within the sample was used. First stage of sampling involved stratification of the population of Delhi as per the

division of the parliamentary electoral constituencies which divide Delhi into seven 15th Lok Sabha, 2009).
46

constituencies with even population in each constituency (Parliamentary Constituency,

Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology

Second stage of sampling involved the selection of five assembly constituencies from each of the seven parliamentary constituencies through simple cluster sampling generated through computer.

The third stage was to sample polling stations within each sampled constituency. One again selected through systematic random sampling.

Polling station from each of the thirty five selected assembly constituencies were

The final stage included of sampling respondents, who were selected from the electoral rolls provided by the election commission. Respondents were sampled by the systematic random sampling method, which is based on a fixed interval ratio between

two respondents, in which total number of electoral from the electoral list were

divided by the twenty and involved every kth sample after a random selection of 1st subjects/samples required. A list of twenty sampled respondents from each of the 35 polling station was prepared, which is a comprehensive list of 700 selected respondents with their complete name, address, age and gender. 3.1.4. Sample Size 700 selected samples from 35 selected polling stations were part of the respondents. 3.1.5. Unit of Analysis The unit of analysis for the present study is parliamentary constituencies. 3.1.6. Execution

subject from an entire list of polling station. The formula applied was kth = N/total

The random sampling was done through the support of computer. A substitution process was made available to replace the sample with the same age and gender, if the from where the samples were selected. selected respondents were not available or if there was divergence in the electoral list

47

Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology

The demographic profiles of seven Parliament constituencies along with selected selected samples is presented in Figure 1.

polling stations are presented in an annexure A; and semantic representation of

Figure 1: Semantic representation of selected samples

48

Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology

3.2. SELECTION OF VARIABLES The variables under study for the present investigation were: 2. Public and sports infrastructure creation, utilization and up-gradation 4. Sport consciousness and sports education program
5.

1. Involvement of citizens 3. Influence on economy

Influence on cultural outlook

3.3. TOOLS The self developed opinionnaire was established to measure the perception of public of Delhi towards the Commonwealth Games-2010 by measuring variables as identified above. These variables measured perception of public, regarding the involvement of cultural legacy, and sports consciousness, as a result of conducting such a mega event. 3.3.1. Designing the Opinionnaire The opinionnaire was framed and constructed by inviting the initial pool of items from various sources relevant to the study. Such sources included literature reviews, views of available experts, comments and suggestions by commoners and general investigator during the preparatory stages of study. Additional items were continued

citizens in the games and sports, public and sports infrastructure, economic growth,

observations made during the personal and professional interactions by the to be pooled into the draft in the process of framing and reframing of statements. Out the advisors, experts and the professional colleagues.

of the collected items in pool, the opinionnaire was constructed in consultation with The construction and the arrangement of the items in the opinionnaire were made in a logical way that the sequence and coherence in the response statements are readily available in an orderly manner to also serve as a yardstick for determining objectivity of the opinionnaire is maintained and the tabulation and analysis of the

problems precisely. Further, the opinionnaire was made in a closed form so that the data can be done in a more meaningful and focused manner. However, the additional down for cross checking and inputs into the qualitative analyses of the study.
49

general observations and suggestions, if any made by the respondents were also noted

Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology

Twenty statements were prepared on 5 point Likert scale to determine the perception of public regarding CWG-2010. The statements were followed by 5 options labeled from option that best reflects the degree of agreement or disagreement with each statement. strongly agree to strongly disagree. The respondents were requested to tick mark one Four statements were prepared in the form of yes or no and seven statements were framed in a manner where respondents were requested to rearrange the given options in order of priority. Finally, total number of statements were thirty two. 3.3.2. Construction of the Opinionnaire the following steps: Initial Writing The opinionnaire was constructed in relation to specific objectives of the study. A pool of items for opinionnaire was created based on reference from literature review and professional expertise from areas of sports management, psychology, sociology, Establishing Content Validity: The content validity was established by administering

physical education and sports. Also, while developing various statements the intense focus of the research remained on extensive reviews of literature relevant to considered while writing the items inform of statements: Language was kept as simple as possible commonwealth games and the selected five variables. The following points were

Sentences were not complicated and brought in the direct question As an initial pool was formed with 100 relevant items For the formation of items, due consideration was given to the target groups of residents of Delhi from different age group, society, occupation, and gender.

Focus Group Review Each statement framed was thoroughly evaluated by group of experts in the field of list of the consulted available expert in the areas relevant to study is enclosed as sports management, sports psychology, sports sociology and physical education. The appendix B. They were presented all the statements in the form of question along with

the objectives of the study. Ambiguities in the statements were discussed with the
50 Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology

help of consecutive discussion by various set of audiences. The process helped to eliminate unwanted words, sentences, and ambiguity in the meaning of the statements from of the pool of available items. was considered as appropriate.

Data measurement scale for the oppinionnaire was discussed and 5-point likert scale Special care was also taken while drafting the opinionnaire to avoid: Specialized terminology and jargons Guiding questions Irrelevant questions with the objectives Repetition of the questions Lengthy statements

Complicated and complex statements

Too difficult or time consuming statements

relevant to the objectives of the study. Try Out

The focus group discussion concluded with 64 questions which were considered

After having formulated the opinionnaire in an organised manner, the next step run, was to assess whether the meaning of all statements given in the opinionnaire

was implemented for Trial Run of the draft opinionnaire. The purpose of the trial was clear and adequate to obtain the desired information. During the trial run, initial

opinionnaire was sent for first trial run to 30 subjects selected randomly studying in

different courses of Indira Gandhi Institute of Physical education and Sports Sciences critically evaluate and answer them and return the opinionnaire with suggestions, if any, so that questions prepared would be clear and straight forward having no eliminate vagueness. ambiguity. The feedbacks also helped in sharpening the focus of the statements and Few questions were marked as being similar to the ones already asked questions, or ambiguity found in some items. Hence, at this stage, 26 questions were considered to be deleted and 4 questions were re-framed according to the suggestions received.
51

(IGIPESS) University of Delhi. The participants of the trial run were requested to

Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology

Rewriting On the basis of the received suggestions and information laid down by the respondents of the trial run, necessary changes were made in the construction of co-supervisor and members of the research advisory committee. Second Trial Run After making amendments according to the suggestions received, the second draft was prepared after thorough analysis and reviews. Desired changes were opinionnaire and 38 statements were formulated after the approval of the supervisor,

brought in the opinionnaire followed by its second run on the 30 subjects. The bunch of 30 subjects were selected randomly excluding those were selected in the first trial run. The participants were given opinionnaire to be filled and were also requested for suggestions, if any. At this stage, an average time of 10 minutes was recorded for duly fill-in the opinionnaire. Final Writing On the basis of the suggestions received another six questions were deleted. Once final 32 questions were drafted, the opinionnaire was considered to be having content validity and was all set to be tested for consistency of the tool. It was essential that the subjects should received suggestions, minor amendments were made in the final copy of opinionnaire. understand the question for which it was intended. Therefore, on the basis of the At this stage, a section was introduced to seek information on personal data of the

subjects to have an understanding and confidential record of how and from where the opinionnaire. The final lay out was prepared for the print copy of the opinionnaire applied for verifying reliability of the tool. Establishing Reliability: Procedure

data emerged. A set of clear instructions were also added to help fill up the which consisted of 32 questions. To test the consistency, test re-test method was

The reliability of an instrument infers that it can be used again overtime with similar method. For the purpose of establishing the reliability the opinionnaire was
52

results. The scholar has established the reliability by computing the test - retest

Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology

administered to thirty subjects (male &female) pursuing B.P.Ed from IGIPESS, University of Delhi. All the subjects were given two trials after the gap of three days. Before administering the test all the subjects were informed about the purpose. Since, the nature of the data was not continuous and the data measurement level was ordinal

and nominal scale, therefore, the reliability was estimated by associating the pairs of scores of two different administrations with Chi-square, test of independence and spearman rank order correlation was computed. are given from Table 1 and 2.

The findings related to the test-retest method between the two trials on each question
Table 1: Correlation of Two Trials to Establishing Reliability of Items
Items Item 1 Item 2 Item 3 Item 4 Item 7 Item 8 Item 11 Item 12 Item 13 Item 14 Item 15 Item 16 Item 17 Item 19 Item 20 Item 21 Item 22 Item 24 Item 25 Item 26 Item 28 Item 29 Item 31 Item 32 Not significant at .05 level. 53 Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology Item 27 Item 9 X2 4.89 1.69 .098 2.50 4.89 5.47 7.20 1.35 3.09 2.53 2.14 1.72 1.27 2.51 5.11 2.48 .41 .87 .24 .13 .75 .54 .07 .38 1.29 df 3 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 2

3.54

Table 1 clearly denotes the chi-square, test of independence values regarding test-retest of trials and their perceptions. Therefore it may be concluded that scores of items from same population on two different administrations of the same opinionnaire are the same. Table 2: Spearmans rho Non Parametric Correlation of Two Trials for Establishing Reliability of Items
Items Item 5 Item 6 Item 10 Item 18 Item 23 Item 30
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01level. * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level.

items which are found to be not significant. There is no relation between the number of

Spearmans rho 1.00** 1.00** .829* 1.00** .800 1.00**

Table 2 shows the Spearmans rho non parametric correlation between different trials

on Commonwealth Games would be a bridge to develop, Success of Commonwealth Games-2010 would mean as, Benefits for New Delhi by hosting Commonwealth Games-2010, Most benefited area out of Commonwealth Games-2010, Source of getting information about Commonwealth Games-2010, Promotion of Indian culture

due to commonwealth Games-2010 and correlation value was obtained 1.00, 1.00, .829, 1.00, .800, 1.00 respectively. Therefore it can be concluded there is a high correlation between the test-retest. 3.4. DATA COLLECTION 3.4.1. Data Collection and Administration of the Opinionnaire For collecting the data, the opinionnaire was administered on public of each polling personally discussed with the subjects. The objectives of the study were briefed, clear and station of the 35 assembly constituencies from 7 districts of Delhi. The opinionnaire was short instructions were given regarding the procedure of filling the opinionnaire. Prior
54 Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology

appointment was taken from the subjects according to their availability of time. They

were requested to immediately encircle the response that comes into their mind at first agree. They were also asked to carefully rearrange order of priority questions.

thought. They were asked to respond between the scales of Highly agree to Not All the 7 parliamentary constituencies were taken for study and the data was collected from 35 assembly constituencies. Therefore keeping in view the feasibility of the survey, it was decided to take the support of five colleagues (appendix C) who were trained under the guidance of the supervisor regarding various aspects to be considered during interview and about the factor which could influence the validity and reliability of the test. They were trained with the support of mock interviews, filling in of for filling in the opinionnaire. Total duration of the training was five days. 3.4.2. Time Frame The administration of the survey was conducted in four phases: 1st phase 2nd phase
th

Performa, greeting the respondents, explaining the objectives of study and instructions

: Aug-Oct 09 : Jan-Feb 10

3rd phase 4 phase

: Nov-Dec 09 : March-April 10

3.5. CLASSIFICATION OF DATA Broadly, the data was classified on the basis of two criteria: Geographical, i.e. area wise and Qualitative, i.e. Gender and age. In the geographical classification, the data was classified on the basis of residents residing in different geographical areas of Delhi. In qualitative analysis, the data was classified on the basis of some attribute or quality into the following age groups (Gerontological Society of America): Less than 21 years, 22 28 years,
55

such as gender i.e. males and females and each of classes were further subdivided

Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology

29 38 years, 39 55 years, 56+ years

3.6. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Data measurement scale The data available is on nominal and ordinal measurement scale; therefore, non parametric statistics was applied for the analysis of the data. Statistics Computation

To analyze the collected data the following statistics were computed.

Chi-square test of independence for contingency tables between: o Area of living and perception o Gender and perception

o Different age group and perception Transmute order of merit into numerical scores was completed by employing the formulas given by Garrett (2004,p. 328) Spearmans rho correlation for establishing reliability on 5 point Likert scale questions, upon order of priority questions respectively.

56

Chapter 3: Procedure and Methodology

Chapter 4 Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

CHAPTER 4

ANALYSIS OF DATA AND FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

The analysis of the study is representing the classification of sample selected in the using of two-way chi-square or test of independence and combine ranking method.

form of area of living, age and gender. This qualitative or nominal approach involved Combine ranking method have been represented through the Table 10, 11, 19, 25, 32, 34 for revealing the order of priority regarding perception for various aspect related to variables are independent or they interact to produce joint effects. The study assessed the Commonwealth Games. In the two-way chi-square, it is tested whether the two the independence of; 1) Area of Living and perception; 2) Gender and perception; and 3) Age group and perception. The findings have been presented in the following five sections:

4.1. FINDINGS Section A: Section B: Section C: Section D: Section E: Involvement of Citizens in CWG-2010 Public and Sports infrastructure Creation, Utilization, Up-gradation Influence on Economy Influence of Sport Consciousness, Sports Education Program Influence on Cultural Outlook

SECTION A: INVOLVEMENT OF CITIZENS IN CWG-2010 Nine questions from the opinionnaire have been incorporated in the section A. These questions studied the responses of public perception towards the involvement of the citizens in the CWG-2010. The nine questions are listed in the opinionnaire at serial numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. The findings pertaining to these questions are presented from Table 3 to Table 11.

57

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 3: Awareness of CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 28 Age 29 38 39 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % YES 66 94.3% 76 100.0% 71 93.4% 59 96.7% 70 92.1% 64 94.1% 80 95.2% 486 95.1% 322 95.3% 158 94.6% 480 95.0% 93 95.9% 61 92.4% 82 95.3% 201 98.0% 39 83.0% 476 95.0% NO 4 5.7% 0 .0% 5 6.6% 2 3.3% 6 7.9% 4 5.9% 4 4.8% 25 4.9% 16 4.7% 9 5.4% 25 5.0% 4 4.1% 5 7.6% 4 4.7% 4 2.0% 8 17.0% 25 5.0% N df X2

511

6.44

505

.102

501

19.45*

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (6) = 16.81, * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (6) = 12.59,

x2 .01 (1) = 6.63, x2 .01 (4) = 9.49 x2 .05 (1) = 3.84, x2 .05 (4) = 13.28

Table 3 reveals that the chi-square value for public awareness for the conduct of

CWG-2010 among different age group is 19.45, which is significant at .05 with df=4.

Chi-square value of awareness of CWG-2010 between gender and different areas of living is .102 and 6.44, which is statistically not significant. Chi-square test of independence indicates that awareness is not related to gender and area of living. The Table also reveals that 95% of public have awareness of CWG-2010 Delhi.
58

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Therefore, the result reveals that the residents of Delhi were aware of CWG CWG-2010. The awareness was not influenced by the gender or place of living. However, the awareness was related to the age group, where in, youth, middle age and senior citizens (above 56 and

years) differ regarding the time span for which they have been aware of CWG CWG-2010. The graphical representation of the data regarding the total subjects awareness and among different age group is presented in Figure 2 and 3 respectively. e
no 5%

yes 95%

Figure 2: Public Awareness ofCWG-2010

100.00%

95.90%

92.40%

80.00%

95.30%

98.00%

60.00%

83.00% 17.00%

40.00%

20.00%

4.10%

7.60%

4.70%

0.00% <= 21 22 28 29 38

2.00%

39 55

56+

YES

NO

Figure 3: Awareness of CWG-2010: Age-group

59

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 4: Access to Information of CWG-2010:Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 28 Age 29 38 39 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Today 3 4.5% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 2 2.9% 1 1.6% 1 1.2% 7 1.4% 4 1.2% 3 1.9% 7 1.5% 0 .0% 3 5.0% 2 2.4% 2 1.0% 0 .0% 7 1.4% Recently 2 3.0% 15 19.7% 14 20.0% 3 5.2% 8 11.6% 9 14.1% 5 6.2% 56 11.6% 31 9.7% 24 15.4% 55 11.5% 10 9.7% 10 16.7% 8 9.8% 19 9.5% 9 23.1% 56 11.6% 6 months before 12 18.2% 7 9.2% 16 22.9% 7 12.1% 10 14.5% 11 17.2% 8 10.0% 71 14.7% 40 12.5% 28 17.9% 68 14.3% 22 21.4% 11 18.3% 18 22.0% 12 6.0% 8 20.5% 71 14.7% More than 1 year 49 74.2% 54 71.1% 40 57.1% 48 82.8% 49 71.0% 43 67.2% 66 82.5% 349 72.3% 246 76.6% 101 64.7% 347 72.7% 71 68.9% 36 60.0% 54 65.9% 166 83.4% 22 56.4% 349 72.3% N df X2

483

18

37.08**

477

7.57

483

12

39.45**

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (18) = 34.81, x2 .01 (3) = 11.34, x2 .01 (12) = 26.22 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (18) = 28.87, x2.05 (3) = 7.81, x2 .05 (12) = 21.03

Table 4 presents chi-square value of period/time of awareness about CWG-2010 among respectively, and significant at .05 level with df= 12 and 18 respectively. Chi-square

people of Delhi, for different age categories and area, which is 39.45 and 37.08 value of 7.57 for gender category is not significant. Chi square chi-square test of independence indicates that awareness is not related to gender. 72 % of public had the awareness about the CWG-2010 for more than a year at the time of data collection.
60

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Therefore, the result reveals that most of the Delhi residents were aware abou CWGabout 2010 for more than one year. However, awareness of CWG 2010 is found to be CWG-2010 influenced by the area of living and age categories. People between 39 and 55 years of

age were aware of the CWG 2010 for almost one year by the time of data collection. CWG-2010

The youth between 18 to 38 years had information of the games for past six months, outh whereas Senior citizens had known it only recently. People of New Delhi and South Delhi had the information for one year, whereas people of North East and East Delhi received CWG-2010 information in the recent past before the survey was conducted. 2010 The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 4, 5 and 6 respectively.
Today 3%

Recently 12%

6 months before 14%

More than 1 year 73%

Figure 4: Awareness period among people of Delhi for CWG CWG-2010

100.00% 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00%

Today

Recently

6 months before

More than 1 year

Figure 5: Awareness Perio among People of Delhi for CWG-2010: Area of Living Period 2010:
61 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100.00% 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00%

Today

Recently <= 22 29 39 56+ 21 28 38 55

6 months before

More than 1 year

Figure 6: Awareness Period among People of Delhi for CWG CWG-2010: Age Group Table 5: CWG-2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City: Area of Living, Gender and 2010 , Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 28 Age 29 38 39 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % YES 18 25.7% 9 12.3% 9 12.2% 11 18.3% 34 45.9% 22 32.8% 25 30.9% 128 25.7% 84 25.5% 44 26.8% 128 26.0% 32 30.5% 29 46.0% 22 26.2% 29 14.3% 16 36.4% 128 25.7% NO 52 74.3% 64 87.7% 65 87.8% 49 81.7% 40 54.1% 45 67.2% 56 69.1% 371 74.3% 245 74.5% 120 73.2% 365 74.0% 73 69.5% 34 54.0% 62 73.8% 174 85.7% 28 63.6% 371 74.3% N df f X2

499

34.48**

493

.096

499

31.41**

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (6) = 16.81, * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (6) = 12.59, 62

x2 .01 (1) = 6.63, x2 .01 (4) = 9.49 x2 .05 (1) = 3.84, x2 .05 (4) = 13.28 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 5 shows the chi square value on perception of public for allotment of CWG chi-square CWG2010 to Delhi than any other city in India is 34.48 and 31.41, which is significant at .05 level with df =6 and 4 for area of residing and age categories of sample population. The chi- square value of .096 is not significant for its influence on gender category. 74 % of public have responded against the CWG 2010 being allotted to any CWG-2010 other city other than Delhi.

Therefore, the result reveals that the residents of Delhi perceive Delhi to be a that perceived suitable venue for the CWG CWG-2010. However, there perception is influenced by area of living, where in, people of North East and East Delhi were the maximum supporters

for Delhi as host city in comparison to people living in other areas. The result also reveals that people between the age group of 39 and 55 years of age were found to have least agreement regarding change of venue. Male and females have commonly data is presented in Figure 7, 8 and 9 respectively.

supported Delhi to be the host city for CWG CWG-2010.The graphical representation of the ical

YES 26%

NO 74%

Figure 7: CWG 2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City in India CWG-2010

63

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100.00%

80.00%

60.00%

40.00% 20.00% 0.00%

YES NO

Figure 8: CWG-2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City in India: Area of Living 2010

100.00% 80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+ NO YES YES NO

Figure 9: CWG-2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City in India: Age Group 2010

64

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 6: CWG-2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Delhi has all the required infrastructure Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi Area North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 28 29 38 Age 39 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count %
2

Delhi has no scope for improvement 4 22.2% 1 20.0% 2 20.0% 2 18.2% 6 17.1% 4 18.2% 6 25.0% 25 20% 14 17.7% 11 23.9% 25 20% 7 23.3% 6 20.7% 7 29.2% 2 7.4% 3 20.0% 25 20%

3 16.7% 1 20.0% 4 40.0% 4 36.4% 14 40.0% 12 54.5% 6 25.0% 44 35.2% 24 30.4% 20 43.5% 44 35.2% 14 46.7% 12 41.4% 7 29.2% 8 29.6% 3 20.0% 44 35.2%
2

Others cities has greater requirement than Delhi 11 3 60.0% 4 40.0% 5 45.5% 15 42.9% 6 27.3% 12 50.0% 56 44.8% 41 51.9% 15 32.6% 56 44.8% 9 30.0% 11 37.9% 10 41.7% 17 63.0% 9 60.0% 56 44.8% 61.1%

df

X2

125

12

9.036

125

4.389

125

10.815

**significant at .01 level x .01 (12) = 26.22, x .01 (2) = 9.21, x .01 (8) = 20.09 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (12) = 21.03, x2 .05 (2) = 5.99, x2 .05 (8) = 15.51
2

65

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 6 represents the chi-square value for the reason for not choosing Delhi as host square of CWG-2010 in relation to age, gender and area of living, which is 10.815, 4.389 and 2010 9.036 respectively and also not significant. The chi square test of independence chi-square area of living, age or gender. 44.8% of the public responded that there is greater infrastructure. 20% people opted to state that there will be no scope of improvement in infrastructure in Delhi due to games games.

indicates that the reason for not choosing Delhi as the venue is not influenced by the Delhi requirement of allotment of games to other cities than Delhi as it will develop

Therefore it may be concluded that, public prefer ed allotment of games outside preferred Delhi on the basis of requirement of development opportunities for other cities in Figure 10. through hosting of CWG-2010. 2010.The graphical representation of the data i presented is

Others Cities has Greater Requirement than Delhi 45%

Delhi has all the Required Infrastructure 35%

Delhi has no Scope for Improvement 20%

Figure 10: CWG CWG-2010 Allotment to Delhi than Any Other City

66

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 7: Proud Feeling for Being Part of CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi Area North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 28 29 38 Age 39 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 36 51.4% 65 86.7% 41 54.7% 36 62.1% 45 60.8% 48 70.6% 66 79.5% 337 67.0% 235 71.0% 96 57.8% 331 66.6% 68 70.8% 48 73.8% 61 71.8% 134 65.7% 21 48.8% 332 67.3% Slightly Agree 21 30.0% 8 10.7% 21 28.0% 9 15.5% 23 31.1% 16 23.5% 12 14.5% 110 21.9% 65 19.6% 45 27.1% 110 22.1% 20 20.8% 14 21.5% 14 16.5% 46 22.5% 12 27.9% 106 21.5% Unsure 6 8.6% 2 2.7% 6 8.0% 6 10.3% 0 .0% 3 4.4% 3 3.6% 26 5.2% 15 4.5% 11 6.6% 26 5.2% 6 6.2% 3 4.6% 4 4.7% 10 4.9% 2 4.7% 25 5.1% Slightly Disagree 2 2.9% 0 .0% 4 5.3% 1 1.7% 4 5.4% 1 1.5% 0 .0% 12 2.4% 4 1.2% 8 4.8% 12 2.4% 2 2.1% 0 .0% 3 3.5% 5 2.5% 2 4.7% 12 2.4% Strongly Disagree 5 7.1% 0 .0% 3 4.0% 6 10.3% 2 2.7% 0 .0% 2 2.4% 18 3.6% 12 3.6% 6 3.6% 18 3.6% 0 .0% 0 .0% 3 3.5% 9 4.4% 6 14.0% 18 3.7% N df X2

503

24

61.30**

497

12.56**

493

16

27.00*

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30

Table 7 represents the chi-square value regarding proud feeling for being part of CWG-2010, which is 61.30, 12.56 and 27.00 for, area of living, gender and age which is significant at .05 level with df 24, 4, and 16 respectively. The chi-square test of

independence indicates that proud feeling for being a part of CWG-2010 is related to area of living, gender and age. 88 % of public have responded positively regarding this positive feeling for being part of CWG-2010.
67

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Therefore, the result reveals that the residents of Delhi have agreement that they have proud feeling for being a part of CWG 2010. However, the positive feeling is being influenced by CWG-2010. the area of living, gender and age. People of North East Delhi and South Delhi and youth of Delhi below the age of 38 years have stronger agreement for having proud feeling for being stronger

a part of CWG-2010 than senior citizens with age group of 56 and above. Male citizens of 2010 Delhi have stronger agreement regarding proud feeling than females. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 11, 12, 13 and 14 respectively.
Slightly Strongly Unsure DisagreeDisagree 5% 2% 4% Slightly Agree 22% Strongly Agree 67%

Figure 11: Proud Feeling for Being a Part of CWG CWG-2010

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 12: Proud Feeling for Being a Part of CWG CWG-2010: Area of Living
68 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

80.00% 60.00% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% Strongly Agree Slightly Agree Unsure Slightly Disagree Strongly Disagree Male

Female

Figure 13 Proud Feeling for Being a Part of CWG-2010: Gender 13:

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+ Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 14: Proud Feeling for Being a Part of CWG CWG-2010: Age Group

69

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 8: Promotion of Status of Women due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 29 - 38 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 21 30.0% 29 38.7% 33 44.0% 27 46.6% 28 37.8% 18 26.5% 36 43.4% 281 55.8% 192 58.0% 89 53.3% 281 56.4% 68 70.1% 36 55.4% 47 55.3% 106 52.0% 22 51.2% 279 56.5% Slightly Agree 23 32.9% 38 50.7% 28 37.3% 20 34.5% 28 37.8% 34 50.0% 28 33.7% 130 25.8% 83 25.1% 43 25.7% 126 25.3% 18 18.6% 21 32.3% 17 20.0% 58 28.4% 11 25.6% 125 25.3% Unsure 13 18.6% 7 9.3% 11 14.7% 6 10.3% 11 14.9% 14 20.6% 16 19.3% 59 11.7% 35 10.6% 23 13.8% 58 11.6% 8 8.2% 4 6.2% 14 16.5% 27 13.2% 4 9.3% 57 11.5% Slightly Disagree 7 10.0% 1 1.3% 2 2.7% 1 1.7% 5 6.8% 1 1.5% 2 2.4% 21 4.2% 13 3.9% 7 4.2% 20 4.0% 1 1.0% 4 6.2% 3 3.5% 9 4.4% 3 7.0% 20 4.0% Strongly Disagree 6 8.6% 0 .0% 1 1.3% 4 6.9% 2 2.7% 1 1.5% 1 1.2% 13 2.6% 8 2.4% 5 3.0% 13 2.6% 2 2.1% 0 .0% 4 4.7% 4 2.0% 3 7.0% 13 2.6% N df X2

Area

504

24

58.34**

498

1.59

Age

494

16

24.53

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2.05 (24) = 36.42, x2.05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30

Table 8 reveals the chi-square value for public perception about promotion of women

on account of CWG-2010 in relation of area of living, which is 58.34 and significant at .05 level with df 24. The chi-square value for public perception about promotion of women on account of CWG-2010 in relation of gender and age is 1.59 and 24.53 respectively, which is not significant. The chi-square test of independence indicates that perception that status of women will be promoted through CWG-2010 is related that promotion of status of women will take place in CWG-2010.
70

to area of living, whereas it is not related to gender or age. 81% of public perceive

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Therefore, the result reveals that the residents of Delhi perceive CWG-2010 will perceived promote the status of women. However, such a perception is influenced by the area of of other area of living; and male and female of all age group have similar perception living, such as residents of Chandni Chowk have stronger disagreement than residents onger and agreement that promotion of status of women will be through increased presented in Figure 15 and 16 respectively.

participation of women in CWG CWG-2010. The graphical representati of the data is representation

Slightly Strongly Disagree Disagree 4% 2% Unsure 12%

Slightly Agree 26%

Strongly Agree 56%

Figure 15: Status of Women through CWG-2010


100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 16: Status of Women CWG-2010: Area of Living :


71 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 9: Promotion of Peace and Harmony by CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 29 - 38 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 21 30.0% 29 38.7% 33 44.0% 27 46.6% 28 37.8% 18 26.5% 36 43.4% 192 38.2% 125 37.9% 66 39.5% 191 38.4% 38 39.6% 29 44.6% 35 41.7% 82 40.0% 7 16.3% 191 38.7% Slightly Agree 23 32.9% 38 50.7% 28 37.3% 20 34.5% 28 37.8% 34 50.0% 28 33.7% 199 39.6% 134 40.6% 62 37.1% 196 39.4% 38 39.6% 23 35.4% 34 40.5% 77 37.6% 22 51.2% 194 39.4% Unsure 13 18.6% 7 9.3% 11 14.7% 6 10.3% 11 14.9% 14 20.6% 16 19.3% 78 15.5% 43 13.0% 33 19.8% 76 15.3% 17 17.7% 10 15.4% 11 13.1% 27 13.2% 10 23.3% 75 15.2% Slightly Disagree 7 10.0% 1 1.3% 2 2.7% 1 1.7% 5 6.8% 1 1.5% 2 2.4% 19 3.8% 14 4.2% 5 3.0% 19 3.8% 2 2.1% 1 1.5% 2 2.4% 13 6.3% 1 2.3% 19 3.9% Strongly Disagree 6 8.6% 0 .0% 1 1.3% 4 6.9% 2 2.7% 1 1.5% 1 1.2% 15 3.0% 14 4.2% 1 .6% 15 3.0% 1 1.0% 2 3.1% 2 2.4% 6 2.9% 3 7.0% 14 2.8% N df X2

Area

503

24

44.5**

497

9.03

Age

493

16

20.95

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30

Table 9 represents the chi-square value of perception about promotion of peace and

harmony through CWG-2010 for area. It is found to be 44.47, which is significant at .05 level with df= 24, whereas for gender and age it is 9.03 and 20.95 respectively, found to be not significant. The Chi-square test of independence indicates that

perception regarding promotion of peace and harmony is related to area of living and not related to gender and age. 77 % of public perceive CWG-2010 to be promoting peace and harmony.
72

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Therefore, the result reveals that the residents of Delhi perceive CWG perceived CWG-2010 to be an opportunity for promotion of peace and harmony. However, perception is influenced agreement than other area of living; and male and female of all age group have similar representation of the data is presented in Figure 17 and 18 respectively.
Slightly Disagree 4% Unsure 15% Strongly Disagree 3%

by the area of living such as residents of East, South and New Delhi have stronger perception about promotion of peace and harmony through CWG 2010. The graphical CWG-2010.

Strongly Agree 39%

Slightly Agree 39%

Figure 17: Promotion of Peace and Harmony by CWG-2010 2010

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 18: Promotion of Peace and Harmony by Cwg Cwg-2010: Area of Living :

73

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 10: CWG-2010 as a Bridge for Development of Delhi (Transmutation of Orders of 2010 Transmutation Merit into Scores)
Options Public infrastructure Delhi as business destination Relationship, harmony and peace Living standard improvement Mean Score 55.57 48.66 47.72 46.51 Order of Priority 1 2 3 4

In response to the question on whether or not CWG 2010 will act as bridge for CWG-2010

development of Delhi, the analysis of the responses in the Table 10 reveals that highest preference by the public regarding organizing of CWG 2010 is towards CWG-2010 developing public infrastructure. Delhi as business destination was given second preference; third highest preference was given to relationship, harmony and peace, 2010. The graphical representation of th data is presented in Figure 19. the
55.57

and the least preferences were given to improvement of living standard due to CWG nd CWG-

56.00 54.00 52.00 50.00 48.00 46.00 44.00 42.00 40.00

48.66

47.72

46.51

1 Public Infrastructure

Relationship, harmony and peace

Delhi as business destination

Living standard improvement

Figure 19: Rating Frequencies CWG-2010 as a Bridge for Development of Delhi 2010

74

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 11: Success of CWG CWG-2010 (Transmutation of Orders of Merit into Scores) Transmutation
Options Promotion of sport awareness, among citizens Promotion of culture and heritage Development of sports infrastructure Increase in performance of Indian sportsmen at International level Mean score 52.68 45.32 53.54 46.51 Order of Priority 2 4 1 3

The Table 11 reveals that the public perceives success of CWG CWG-2010 with promotion of sport awareness among citizens. It was ranked highest among the other options of development of sports infrastructure (ranked as second highest preference) followed by preference for increase in performance of Indian sportsmen for at international level. Promotion of culture and heritage was the least preferred data is presented in Figure 20.

option to be related with success of CWG CWG-2010. The graphical representation of the

54.00 52.00 50.00 48.00 46.00 44.00 42.00 40.00

52.68

53.54

45.32

46.51

Promotion of sport awareness, among citizens Promotion of culture and heritage Development of Sports Infrastructure

Increase in performance of Indian sportsmen at International level

Figure 20: Rating Frequencies on Success of CWG-2010 2010

75

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

SECTION B: PUBLIC

UTILIZATION, UPGRADATION

AND

SPORTS

INFRASTRUCTURE-CREATION,

Eight questions from the opinionnaire have been incorporated in the section B. These

study the responses of public perception towards the development of public and sports infrastructure due to the CWG-2010. These eight questions are listed in the opinionnaire at s. no 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17. The data and analysis pertaining to these questions are presented in Table 12 to 19.

Table 12: Required Resources in Delhi for CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 10 14.3% 24 31.6% 3 4.0% 9 15.3% 14 18.9% 15 22.1% 12 23.1% 87 18.4% 61 19.7% 26 16.5% 87 18.6% 21 21.6% 14 21.5% 16 19.8% 28 15.7% 8 18.6% 87 18.8% Slightly Agree 33 47.1% 30 39.5% 39 52.0% 15 25.4% 35 47.3% 35 51.5% 12 23.1% 199 42.0% 121 39.0% 74 46.8% 195 41.7% 36 37.1% 26 40.0% 35 43.2% 77 43.3% 19 44.2% 193 41.6% Unsure 10 14.3% 11 14.5% 12 16.0% 20 33.9% 11 14.9% 11 16.2% 3 5.8% 78 16.5% 48 15.5% 28 17.7% 76 16.2% 25 25.8% 10 15.4% 5 6.2% 27 15.2% 8 18.6% 75 16.2% Slightly Disagree 12 17.1% 5 6.6% 18 24.0% 7 11.9% 10 13.5% 6 8.8% 15 28.8% 73 15.4% 51 16.5% 22 13.9% 73 15.6% 10 10.3% 10 15.4% 16 19.8% 31 17.4% 5 11.6% 72 15.5% Strongly Disagree 5 7.1% 6 7.9% 3 4.0% 8 13.6% 4 5.4% 1 1.5% 10 19.2% 37 7.8% 29 9.4% 8 5.1% 37 7.9% 5 5.2% 5 7.7% 9 11.1% 15 8.4% 3 7.0% 37 8.0% N df X2

Area

474

24

78.28**

468

5.30

Age

464

16

18.73

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30

76

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 12 represents the chi square value for public perception on required resources chi-square by Delhi for organising CWG 2010, which is 78.28 and significant at .05 level with df CWG-2010, = 24, whereas the chi-square value on this dimension for gender and age is 5.30 and -square 18.73 respectively, which is not significant. Chi square test of independence indicates espectively, that perception of public regarding required resources by Delhi for organising CWG CWG2010 is influenced by the area of living but not influenced by gender and age. 60 % CWG-2010.

of public have agreed that Delhi has sufficient required resources for organising ic

Therefore, the result reveals that the residents of Delhi perceived that Delhi has all perceived required resources for organising CWG 2010. However, such a perception is CWG-2010. influenced by the area of living. The people of South Delhi and New Delhi strongly d

disagree than people of other constituencies that Delhi is having required resourced

for organising CWG-2010. There is no difference in perception on this dimension due 2010. to difference in gender and age. The graphical representation of th data is presented the in Figure 21 and 22 respectively.

Slightly Disagree 15%

Strongly Disagree 8%

Strongly Agree 18%

Unsure 17%

Slightly Agree 42%

Figure 21: Required Resources in Delhi for CWG- 2010

77

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 22: Required Resources in Delhi for CWG-2010: Area of Living 2010: Table 13: Enhanced Status of East Delhi due to CWG CWG-2010:Area of Living, Gender and Age , (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 Age 29 - 38 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 19 27.1% 30 39.5% 31 41.3% 21 35.6% 30 41.1% 12 17.9% 4 7.7% 147 31.1% 99 32.0% 48 30.6% 147 31.5% 35 36.1% 25 38.5% 32 39.5% 44 25.0% 10 23.3% 146 31.6% Slightly Agree 23 32.9% 25 32.9% 18 24.0% 12 20.3% 31 42.5% 33 49.3% 13 25.0% 155 32.8% 99 32.0% 54 34.4% 153 32.8% 28 28.9% 19 29.2% 22 27.2% 62 35.2% 20 46.5% 151 32.7% Unsure 18 25.7% 18 23.7% 13 17.3% 3 5.1% 7 9.6% 11 16.4% 11 21.2% 81 17.2% 43 13.9% 34 21.7% 77 16.5% 16 16.5% 11 16.9% 12 14.8% 33 18.8% 6 14.0% 78 16.9% Slightly Disagree 4 5.7% 1 1.3% 5 6.7% 9 15.3% 3 4.1% 8 11.9% 10 19.2% 40 8.5% 29 9.4% 11 7.0% 40 8.6% 9 9.3% 6 9.2% 5 6.2% 13 7.4% 5 11.6% 38 8.2% Strongly Disagree 6 8.6% 2 2.6% 8 10.7% 14 23.7% 2 2.7% 3 4.5% 14 26.9% 49 10.4% 39 12.6% 10 6.4% 49 10.5% 9 9.3% 4 6.2% 10 12.3% 24 13.6% 2 4.7% 49 10.6% N df X2

472

24

99.36**

466

8.58

462

16

17.60

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30 78 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 13 shows the obtained value for public perception about enhanced status of East

Delhi due to CWG-2010; x2 value is 99.36 significant at .05 with df 24, whereas the x2 independence indicates that perception regarding enhanced status of East Delhi is influenced by the area of living. 64% residents of Delhi agree that status of East Delhi will be enhanced due to CWG-2010.

value for gender and age is 8.57 and 17.59 respectively. The chi-square (x2) test of

Therefore, the result uncovers that the residents of Delhi perceived positively

toward enhanced status of East Delhi much in the similar way as it happened to

South Delhi after 1982 Asian Games. However, people living in East Delhi are Delhi have least agreement with the development of East Delhi due to CWG-2010. Male and female of all age group perceived an enhanced status of East Delhi due to CWG-2010.The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure7, 8 and 9 respectively.

more optimistic about the development of East Delhi, whereas, residents of South

Strongly Disagree 10% Slightly Disagree 9% Unsure 16%

Strongly Agree 32%

Slightly Agree 33%

Figure 23: Enhanced Status of East Delhi due to CWG- 2010

79

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 24: Enhanced Status of East Delhi due to CWG CWG-2010: Area of Living Table 14: Self Sufficient Delhi Generating Electricity for CWG CWG-2010: Area of Living Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi Square Test of Independence) Chi-Square
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 Age 29 - 38 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 11 15.7% 20 26.7% 5 6.7% 8 13.6% 24 32.9% 9 13.2% 8 15.4% 85 18.0% 59 19.2% 26 16.5% 85 18.2% 24 25.0% 15 23.1% 16 19.8% 23 13.0% 7 16.3% 85 18.4% Slightly Agree 18 25.7% 23 30.7% 11 14.7% 22 37.3% 18 24.7% 27 39.7% 7 13.5% 126 26.7% 72 23.4% 52 32.9% 124 26.6% 34 35.4% 17 26.2% 17 21.0% 48 27.1% 7 16.3% 123 26.6% Unsure 24 34.3% 19 25.3% 18 24.0% 19 32.2% 10 13.7% 19 27.9% 23 44.2% 132 28.0% 98 31.8% 33 20.9% 131 28.1% 24 25.0% 14 21.5% 21 25.9% 55 31.1% 18 41.9% 132 28.6% Slightly Disagree 7 10.0% 5 6.7% 36 48.0% 7 11.9% 18 24.7% 11 16.2% 11 21.2% 95 20.1% 52 16.9% 40 25.3% 92 19.7% 10 10.4% 18 27.7% 22 27.2% 31 17.5% 8 18.6% 89 19.3% Strongly Disagree 10 14.3% 8 10.7% 5 6.7% 3 5.1% 3 4.1% 2 2.9% 3 5.8% 34 7.2% 27 8.8% 7 4.4% 34 7.3% 4 4.2% 1 1.5% 5 6.2% 20 11.3% 3 7.0% 33 7.1% N df X2

472

24

98.34**

466

14.88**

462

16

33.99**

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30 80 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

The results of Table 14 presents a significant relationship between perception of

self sufficient Delhi in generating electricity for CWG-2010 and the variables of which is significant at 0.5 with df 24,4 and 16 respectively. The chi-square test of generating electricity varies as per the area of living, gender as well as age of the people. 45 % of public have responded for Delhi being self sufficient in generating electricity for CWG-2010 whereas 29 % of public are unsure about it. area of living, gender and age. The chi-square (x2) value = 98.34, 14.87 and 33.99

independence indicates that perception regarding Delhi being self sufficient in

Therefore, the result is indicating that the residents of Delhi perceived positively

toward Delhi being self sufficient in generating electricity for CWG-2010. However, people living in East Delhi disagree about Delhi being self sufficient for electricity for

the perception is influenced by area of living, gender and age of the people. Whereas CWG-2010, male and female are found to be more optimistic for Delhis situation regarding self sufficiency in electricity. Youth perceived positively towards Delhi being self sufficient in electricity due to CWG-2010 in comparison to the people of other age group. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 25, 26, 27 and 28 respectively.

Strongly Disagree 7% Strongly Agree Slightly 18% Disagree 20% Slightly Agree 27% Unsure 28%

Figure 25: Self Sufficient Delhi in Generating Electricity for CWG-2010

81

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 26: Self Sufficient Delhi in Generating Electricity due to CWG-2010: Area of Living

35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% Strongly Agree Slightly Agree Unsure Slightly Disagree Strongly Disagree

Male

Female

Figure 27: Self Sufficient Delhi in Generating Electricity due to CWG CWG-2010: Gender :

82

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+ Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 28: Self Sufficient Delhi in Generating Electricity due to CWG CWG-2010: Age group Table 15: Improved Public Transport in Delhi due to CWG CWG-2010: Area of Living Gender Living, and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi Square Test of Independence) Chi-Square
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 Age 29 - 38 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 23 33.3% 51 68.0% 29 38.7% 19 32.2% 41 56.2% 33 49.3% 17 32.7% 213 45.3% 143 46.4% 68 43.6% 211 45.5% 56 58.3% 29 45.3% 39 48.1% 77 43.8% 9 20.9% 210 45.7% Slightly Agree 27 39.1% 21 28.0% 20 26.7% 11 18.6% 21 28.8% 23 34.3% 8 15.4% 131 27.9% 84 27.3% 43 27.6% 127 27.4% 21 21.9% 13 20.3% 20 24.7% 52 29.5% 20 46.5% 126 27.4% Unsure 14 20.3% 2 2.7% 8 10.7% 4 6.8% 6 8.2% 6 9.0% 5 9.6% 45 9.6% 27 8.8% 18 11.5% 45 9.7% 12 12.5% 7 10.9% 5 6.2% 14 8.0% 7 16.3% 45 9.8% Slightly Disagree 2 2.9% 0 .0% 11 14.7% 10 16.9% 5 6.8% 4 6.0% 8 15.4% 40 8.5% 25 8.1% 15 9.6% 40 8.6% 5 5.2% 10 15.6% 6 7.4% 13 7.4% 5 11.6% 39 8.5% Strongly Disagree 3 4.3% 1 1.3% 7 9.3% 15 25.4% 0 .0% 1 1.5% 14 26.9% 41 8.7% 29 9.4% 12 7.7% 41 8.8% 2 2.1% 5 7.8% 11 13.6% 20 11.4% 2 4.7% 40 8.7% N Df X2

470

24

115.37**

464

1.625

460

16

37.51**

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30 83 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 15 shows the chi-square value of perception about improved public transport,

for age and area of living, which, is 37.51 and 115. 37 and significant at .05 level with df 16 and 24 respectively. For gender and area the chi-square value is 1.625 and 11.54 perception regarding the improvement of public transport is related to age and not related to gender and area. 73% of public perceived that there will be improvement of public transport due to CWG-2010. which is not significant. The chi-square test of independence indicates that the

Therefore, the result unveils that the residents of Delhi perceived improvement of public transport in Delhi due to CWG-2010 and the perception is not influenced by the area of living, however, the youth of Delhi have strong agreement than the senior

citizens. Male and female have similar perception towards the improvement of public transportation. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 29, 30 and 31 respectively.

Unsure 10%

Strongly Disagree Slightly 9% Disagree 8% Strongly Agree 45%

Slightly Agree 28%

Figure 29: Improved Public Transport due to CWG-2010

84

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 30: Improved Public Transport in Delhi due to CWG-2010: Area of Living

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+ Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 31: Improved Public Transport in Delhi due to CWG-2010 Age Group 2010:

85

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 16: Infrastructure Development without CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age(Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 29 - 38 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 17 24.3% 29 39.2% 5 6.7% 9 15.3% 15 20.5% 20 29.4% 9 17.3% 104 22.1% 67 21.8% 37 23.4% 104 22.4% 18 18.8% 16 24.6% 20 24.7% 37 21.0% 10 23.3% 101 21.9% Slightly Agree 17 24.3% 6 8.1% 8 10.7% 13 22.0% 22 30.1% 20 29.4% 11 21.2% 97 20.6% 56 18.2% 39 24.7% 95 20.4% 26 27.1% 14 21.5% 18 22.2% 28 15.9% 9 20.9% 95 20.6% Unsure 19 27.1% 16 21.6% 7 9.3% 14 23.7% 14 19.2% 18 26.5% 10 19.2% 98 20.8% 60 19.5% 34 21.5% 94 20.2% 33 34.4% 10 15.4% 6 7.4% 39 22.2% 7 16.3% 95 20.6% Slightly Disagree 9 12.9% 11 14.9% 41 54.7% 10 16.9% 14 19.2% 8 11.8% 14 26.9% 107 22.7% 74 24.1% 33 20.9% 107 23.0% 12 12.5% 17 26.2% 21 25.9% 44 25.0% 12 27.9% 106 23.0% Strongly Disagree 8 11.4% 12 16.2% 14 18.7% 13 22.0% 8 11.0% 2 2.9% 8 15.4% 65 13.8% 50 16.3% 15 9.5% 65 14.0% 7 7.3% 8 12.3% 16 19.8% 28 15.9% 5 11.6% 64 13.9% N df X2

Area

471

24

99.71**

465

6.352

Age

461

16

33.90**

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30

Table 16 represents the chi-square value regarding public perception of development

of infrastructure without CWG-2010 for area and age as 99.71and 33.90, which is significant at .05 level with df 24 and 16 respectively; and for gender the chi-square value is 6.352 which is not significant. The chi-square test of independence identifies associated to age and area and not to gender. 43 % of public have responded that public have responded against it whereas 21 % of public are unsure of it.
86

that the perception regarding the development of infrastructure without CWG-2010 is there will not be development of infrastructure without CWG-2010 and 36 % of

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Therefore, the result shows that perception of improvement of infrastructure without residents of East Delhi disagree and residents of North East Delhi strongly agree that

CWG-2010 is interrelated with the area of living and age group of the public. The 2010 development of infrastructure will not take place without CWG-2010. Youth are unsure f 2010. than the other age on this dimension. Male and female have same perception towards it. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 32, 33 and 34 respectively.

Strongly Disagree 14% Slightly Disagree 23% Unsure 21%

Strongly Agree 22% Slightly Agree 20%

Figure 32: Infrastructure development without CWG-2010 2010

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Infrastructure CWG-2010: Area of Living Figure 33:Infrastructure Development without CWG

87

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+ Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 34: Infrastructure Development without CWG CWG-2010: Age Group Table 17: Public Sports Facilities due to CWG CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age , (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 28 Age 29 38 39 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 14 20.0% 20 31.2% 15 20.0% 13 22.0% 24 32.9% 23 33.8% 13 25.0% 122 26.5% 74 24.7% 48 30.8% 122 26.8% 44 46.3% 17 26.6% 15 19.7% 37 21.1% 9 22.0% 122 27.1% Slightly Agree 32 45.7% 32 50.0% 28 37.3% 19 32.2% 29 39.7% 22 32.4% 11 21.2% 173 37.5% 109 36.5% 60 38.5% 169 37.1% 22 23.2% 27 42.2% 32 42.1% 66 37.7% 20 48.8% 167 37.0% Unsure 13 18.6% 4 6.2% 15 20.0% 7 11.9% 11 15.1% 8 11.8% 8 15.4% 66 14.3% 40 13.4% 24 15.4% 64 14.1% 13 13.7% 10 15.6% 10 13.2% 25 14.3% 7 17.1% 65 14.4% Slightly Disagree 7 10.0% 3 4.7% 13 17.3% 9 15.3% 9 12.3% 12 17.6% 11 21.2% 64 13.9% 47 15.7% 17 10.9% 64 14.1% 13 13.7% 8 12.5% 11 14.5% 25 14.3% 4 9.8% 61 13.5% Strongly Disagree 4 5.7% 5 7.8% 4 5.3% 11 18.6% 0 .0% 3 4.4% 9 17.3% 36 7.8% 29 9.7% 7 4.5% 36 7.9% 3 3.2% 2 3.1% 8 10.5% 22 12.6% 1 2.4% 36 8.0% N df X2

461

24

51.35**

455

7.00

451

16

37.14**

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30 88 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 17 presents the chi square value of public perception about development of chi-square 51.35 and 37.14 which is significant at .05 level with df 24 and 16 respectively, and

sports facilities for public of Delhi due to CWG 2010 in relation to area and age, it is CWG-2010 for gender the chi-square value is 7.00 which is not significant. The chi square chi-square test of independence brings to light that the perception of development of public sports facilities in Delhi is related to age and area and not gender. 64 % of public have agreed that development of sports facilities for public of Delhi will happen due to CWG-2010.

Therefore, the result explains that the residents of Delhi perceived that development perceived

of public sports facilities in Delhi will happen due to CWG 2010. However, such a CWG-2010

perception may have been influenced by the area of living and age group, such as Youth group have stronger agreement than other age groups, and male and female

people of South Delhi and New Delhi have strong disagreement on this dimension. have similar positive perception regarding the development of public sports facilities itive respectively.

in Delhi. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 35, 36 and 37

Slightly Disagree 14%

Strongly Disagree 8%

Strongly Agree 27%

Unsure 14% Slightly Agree 38%

Figure 3 Sports Facilities Development in CWG-2010 35: 2010

89

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 36: Sports Facilities Development in CWG-2010: Area of Living

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+ Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 37: Sports Facilities Development in CWG-2010: Age Group

90

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 18: Post CWG-2010 Utilization of Sports Infrastructure: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi Area North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 29 - 38 Age 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 13 18.8% 41 54.7% 8 10.7% 9 15.3% 26 36.6% 20 29.9% 1 1.9% 118 25.2% 84 27.4% 33 21.3% 117 25.3% 28 29.2% 16 24.6% 19 23.8% 45 25.7% 7 16.7% 115 25.1% Slightly Agree 20 29.0% 17 22.7% 36 48.0% 19 32.2% 25 35.2% 27 40.3% 19 36.5% 163 34.8% 100 32.6% 59 38.1% 159 34.4% 33 34.4% 26 40.0% 32 40.0% 55 31.4% 14 33.3% 160 34.9% Unsure 24 34.8% 17 22.7% 16 21.3% 10 16.9% 10 14.1% 11 16.4% 13 25.0% 101 21.6% 62 20.2% 38 24.5% 100 21.6% 20 20.8% 9 13.8% 14 17.5% 47 26.9% 10 23.8% 100 21.8% Slightly Disagree 6 8.7% 0 .0% 13 17.3% 12 20.3% 5 7.0% 4 6.0% 10 19.2% 50 10.7% 29 9.4% 21 13.5% 50 10.8% 7 7.3% 9 13.8% 8 10.0% 14 8.0% 9 21.4% 47 10.3% Strongly Disagree 6 8.7% 0 .0% 2 2.7% 9 15.3% 5 7.0% 5 7.5% 9 17.3% 36 7.7% 32 10.4% 4 2.6% 36 7.8% 8 8.3% 5 7.7% 7 8.8% 14 8.0% 2 4.8% 36 7.9% 458 16 16.61 462 4 13.02** 468 24 109.8** N df X2

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30

91

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 18 presents the chi-square value on perception of the post CWG square CWG-2010 13.02, which is significant at .05 level with df 24 and 4 respectively, and for age it is perception regarding the usage of sports facilities after CWG 2010 is affected by area CWG-2010 of living and gender and not by the categories of age. 65% of public have agreed that age. sports facilities will be utilized after CWG CWG-2010.

utilisation of sports facilities in relation to area of living and gender as 109.8 and 16.61 which is not significant. The test of independence test indicates that the

Therefore, the result reveals that the residents of Delhi perceive positively regarding perceived the usage of sports facilities after CWG 2010. However, the perception is influenced CWG-2010. by the area of living, such as residents of South Delhi and New Delhi have strong

disagreement and residents of North East Delhi have strong agreement with effective post games utilization of sports facilities d developed due to CWG-2010. Male group . have more agreement on usage of facilities than the females, whereas the people of all age group have the similar perception towards it. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 38, 39 and 40 respectively. ,
Strongly Disagree 8% Strongly Agree 25%

Slightly Disagree 11%

Unsure 21% Slightly Agree 35%

Figure 38: Post CWG-2010 Utilization of Sports Facilities

92

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 39: Post CWG CWG-2010 Utilization of Sports Facilities: Area of Living

40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Female Male Male

Female

Figure 40: Post CWG-2010 Utilization of Sports Facilities: Gender :

93

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 19: Benefits for New Delhi by Hosting CWG-2010 (The Transmutation of Orders of Merit into Scores)
Options Housing Medical and health facilities Public transport (road, rail, air transport) ransport Sports facilities Civic amenities ( water, electricity) menities Shopping, Entertainment mall and complex Mean Score 44.66 47.73 61.59 58.44 45.34 39.83 Order of Priority 5 3 1 2 4 6

The Table 19 reveals that Delhi public perceived that tourism and hospitality will be eals

the most benefited due to the organisation of CWG 2010. Sports manufacturing CWG-2010. industry has been ranked as second highest preference followed by preference for real technology. The graphical representation of th data is presented in Figure 41. the estate. The least preferred area to benefit was information and communication information

Housing Public Transport (road, rail, air transport) Civic Amenities ( water, electricity)

Medical and Health facilities Sports Facilities Shopping, Entertainment mall and complex

61.59 44.66 47.73

58.44 45.34 39.83

Figure 41: Rating Frequencies of Benefits for New Delhi by hosting CWG CWG-2010

94

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

SECTION C: INFLUENCE ON ECONOMY Five questions of the opinionnaire have been in the section C, these studied the the opinionnaire are listed at Serial number 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22. The data pertaining to these questions and its analyses are presented in the Table 20 to 24. responses of public perception towards influence on economy. The five questions in

Table 20: Most Benefited Area due to CWG CWG-2010 (The Transmutation of Orders of Merit into The Scores)
Options Tourism and hospitality Real estate Information and Communication technology Sports manufacturing industry Mean Score 57.83 47.14 49.19 Order of Priority 1 3 4 2

43.20

The Table 20 reveals that Delhi public perceived that tourism and hospitality will be eals

the most benefited due to the organisation of CWG 2010. Sports manufacturing CWG-2010. industry has been ranked as second highest preference followed by preference for real technology. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 42. the
57.83

estate. The least preferred area to benefit was information and communication information

60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

47.14

43.20

49.19

3 Tourism and Hospitality Real Estate

Information and Communication technology Sports manufacturing industry

Figure 42: Rating Frequencies of Most Benefited Area Out of CWG CWG-2010

95

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 21: Enormous Investment for CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 Age 29 38 39 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % YES 56 81.2% 54 71.1% 17 23.0% 29 50.0% 44 61.1% 51 75.0% 32 61.5% 193 62.7% 84 54.2% 63 67.0% 22 33.8% 41 51.2% 124 70.1% 24 55.8%
274 59.7% 277 59.8% 283 60.3%

NO 13 18.8% 22 28.9% 57 77.0% 29 50.0% 28 38.9% 17 25.0% 20 38.5% 115 37.3% 71 45.8% 31 33.0% 43 66.2% 39 48.8% 53 29.9% 19 44.2%
185 40.3% 186 40.2% 186 39.7%

df

X2

469

68.07**

463

3.07

459

30.69**

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (6) = 16.81, * significant at .05 level x2.05 (6) = 12.59,

x2.01 (1) = 6.63, x2 .01 (4) = 9.49 x2 05 (1) = 3.84, x2 .05 (4) = 13.28

Table 21 represents the chi-square value regarding awareness about the huge investment being made in Commonwealth Games-2010 in relation to area and age, it is 68.07 and 30.69 which is significant at .05 level with df 6 and 4 respectively. Chi square value of 3.07 for gender is not significant. The test of independence indicates that the perception about enormous investment for CWG-2010 is influenced by area of living and age categories, while not by gender. 60 % of public perceived to be aware of huge investment for CWG-2010.
96

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Therefore, the result brings to light that the residents of Delhi are aware of huge

investment made in CWG 2010. However, the people of different areas and age CWG-2010. Male and female have similar positive perception regarding the awareness of Figure 43, 44 and 45 re respectively.

groups have difference in agreement about awareness of investment for CWG ps CWG-2010. investment in CWG-2010. The graphical representation of the data is presented in 2010.

NO 40% YES 60%

Figure 43:Enormous Investment for CWG-2010

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

NO

YES

44: Figure 44 Enormous Investment for CWG-2010: Area of Living

97

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+ NO

YES

Figure 45: Enormous Investment for CWG normous CWG-2010: Age Group Table 22: Economic Growth of Delhi due to CWG CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age , (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 Age 29 - 38 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 21 30.9% 25 32.9% 26 34.7% 14 24.1% 22 30.6% 23 33.8% 7 13.7% 138 29.5% 92 29.9% 44 28.6% 136 29.4% 41 43.2% 19 29.2% 18 22.2% 49 28.2% 9 20.9% 136 29.7% Slightly Agree 27 39.7% 28 36.8% 28 37.3% 12 20.7% 39 54.2% 27 39.7% 14 27.5% 175 37.4% 110 35.7% 62 40.3% 172 37.2% 28 29.5% 22 33.8% 35 43.2% 67 38.5% 19 44.2% 171 37.3% Unsure 10 14.7% 4 5.3% 11 14.7% 14 24.1% 5 6.9% 7 10.3% 7 13.7% 58 12.4% 35 11.4% 22 14.3% 57 12.3% 9 9.5% 11 16.9% 5 6.2% 23 13.2% 9 20.9% 57 12.4% Slightly Disagree 5 7.4% 2 2.6% 2 2.7% 9 15.5% 6 8.3% 6 8.8% 7 13.7% 37 7.9% 25 8.1% 12 7.8% 37 8.0% 10 10.5% 4 6.2% 5 6.2% 13 7.5% 3 7.0% 35 7.6% Strongly Disagree 5 7.4% 17 22.4% 8 10.7% 9 15.5% 0 .0% 5 7.4% 16 31.4% 60 12.8% 46 14.9% 14 9.1% 60 13.0% 7 7.4% 9 13.8% 18 22.2% 22 12.6% 3 7.0% 59 12.9% N df X2

468

24

73.79**

462

4.053

458

16

28.99*

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30 98 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 22 shows the obtained chi square value of 73.79, and 28.99 which is significant chi-square at .05, with df is 24, 16 for area and age respectively. The chi chi-square test of city due to Commonwealth G Games-2010 is influenced by the area of living and age city due to CWG-2010. 2010. independence indicates that perception regarding improved economic growth of the omic group, but not by gender 67 % of public perceives improved economic growth of the

Therefore, the result indicates that the residents of Delhi perceive improved lt perceived economic growth of the city due t Commonwealth Games to ames-2010. However, perception is influenced by the area of living and age group, wherein, people of South Delhi have strong disagreement than people living in other areas, but Youth below the people age of 21 strongly agree that CWG 2010 will be helpful in economic growth of Delhi. CWG-2010 respectively.

The graphical representation of th data is presented in Figure 46, 47 and 48 the

Slightly Disagree 8% Unsure 12%

Strongly Disagree 13%

Strongly Agree 31%

Slightly Agree 37%

Figure 46: Economic Growth of Delhi due to CWG-2010 2010

99

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 47:Economic Growth of Delhi due to CWG Economic CWG-2010: Area of Living

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+ Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 48: Economic Growth of Delhi due to CWG CWG-2010: Age Group

100

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 23: Creation of Employment Opportunities by CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 29 - 38 Age 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 17 25.4% 36 48.0% 41 54.7% 13 22.8% 38 51.4% 14 20.6% 7 13.7% 166 35.5% 110 36.2% 56 35.7% 166 36.0% 41 43.2% 24 38.1% 34 42.0% 60 34.1% 7 16.7% 166 36.3% Slightly Agree 30 44.8% 21 28.0% 14 18.7% 20 35.1% 26 35.1% 32 47.1% 14 27.5% 157 33.6% 102 33.6% 51 32.5% 153 33.2% 31 32.6% 25 39.7% 22 27.2% 51 29.0% 22 52.4% 151 33.0% Unsure 13 19.4% 12 16.0% 10 13.3% 4 7.0% 10 13.5% 10 14.7% 7 13.7% 66 14.1% 39 12.8% 25 15.9% 64 13.9% 9 9.5% 7 11.1% 10 12.3% 30 17.0% 8 19.0% 64 14.0% Slightly Disagree 1 1.5% 5 6.7% 4 5.3% 8 14.0% 0 .0% 5 7.4% 11 21.6% 34 7.3% 20 6.6% 14 8.9% 34 7.4% 7 7.4% 3 4.8% 8 9.9% 12 6.8% 3 7.1% 33 7.2% Strongly Disagree 6 9.0% 1 1.3% 6 8.0% 12 21.1% 0 .0% 7 10.3% 12 23.5% 44 9.4% 33 10.9% 11 7.0% 44 9.5% 7 7.4% 4 6.3% 7 8.6% 23 13.1% 2 4.8% 43 9.4% N df X2

Area

467

24

106.1**

461

3.132

457

16

23.81

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30

Table 23 shows the chi-square value of 106.1 which is significant at 0.05 with df = 24 2010. The chi-square test of independence indicates that public perceives increased

for public perception regarding creation of employment opportunities due to CWGjob opportunities due to CWG-2010. However it is dependent upon the area of living,

but, categories of Age and Gender has influence on such perception of public. 70 % of public of the Delhi due to CWG-2010.
101

public have responded in favour of creation of employment opportunities for the

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Therefore, the result leads to establish that the residents of Delhi perceived that CWGresidents 2010 will create employment opportunities However, such a perception is influenced opportunities. by the area of living, such as residents of North East Delhi, North West Delhi and East Delhi have strong agreement; and residents of New Delhi have strong from all age group and gender believe that CWG 2010 will be creating more job der CWG-2010 is presented in Figure 49 and 50 respectively.
Strongly Disagree, 9.40% Slightly Disagree, 7.20% Unsure, 14.00% Strongly Agree, 36.30%

disagreement on possibility of increase in job opportunities due to CWG 2010. People CWG-2010. opportunity through increased employment. The graphical representation of th data the

Slightly Agree, 33.00%

Figure 49: Creation of Employment Opportunities due to CWG CWG-2010

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 50: Creation of Employment Opportunities due to CWG CWG-2010: Area of Living
102 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 24: Promotion of Foreign Investment due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi Area North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 29 - 38 Age 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 16 23.5% 26 34.7% 38 50.7% 17 29.8% 30 40.5% 10 14.7% 2 3.8% 139 29.6% 85 27.6% 52 33.5% 137 29.6% 31 32.3% 27 42.2% 21 25.9% 50 28.4% 8 19.0% 137 29.8% Slightly Agree 24 35.3% 18 24.0% 12 16.0% 11 19.3% 29 39.2% 32 47.1% 16 30.8% 142 30.3% 94 30.5% 46 29.7% 140 30.2% 39 40.6% 14 21.9% 19 23.5% 51 29.0% 13 31.0% 136 29.6% Unsure 16 23.5% 14 18.7% 11 14.7% 8 14.0% 12 16.2% 16 23.5% 14 26.9% 91 19.4% 55 17.9% 34 21.9% 89 19.2% 12 12.5% 9 14.% 18 22.2% 38 21.6% 12 28.6% 89 19.4% Slightly Disagree 6 8.8% 2 2.7% 6 8.0% 12 21.1% 3 4.1% 9 13.2% 12 23.1% 50 10.7% 38 12.3% 12 7.7% 50 10.8% 11 11.5% 8 12.5% 10 12.3% 16 9.1% 5 11.9% 50 10.9% Strongly Disagree 6 8.8% 15 20.0% 8 10.7% 9 15.8% 0 .0% 1 1.5% 8 15.4% 47 10.0% 36 11.7% 11 7.1% 47 10.2% 3 3.1% 6 9.4% 13 16.0% 21 11.9% 4 9.5% 47 10.2% 459 16 26.71* 463 4 6.31 469 24 99.70** N df X2

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30

103

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 24 presents the value of chi square as 99.70, and 26.71, significant at .05 with chi-square will enhance investment by international companies and communities, however, it is responded in favour of promotion of investment by international companies and communities due to commonwealth games.

df is 24 and 16 for area and age respectively on the public perception that CWG CWG-2010 influenced by the area of living and age group but not by Gender. 62 % of public have ced

Therefore, the result reveals that the residents of Delhi perceive that investment by perceive

international companies and commu communities will be enhanced due to Commonwealth ommonwealth Games-2010. However, perception is being influenced by the area of living and age 2010. respectively. group. The graphical representation of th data is presented in Figure 51, 52 and 53 the

Slightly Disagree 11%

Strongly Disagree 10% Strongly Agree 30%

Unsure 19% Slightly Agree 30%

Figure 51: Promotion of Foreign Investment in CWG-2010

104

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 52: Promotion of Foreign Investment in CWG-2010: Area of Living

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+ Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 53: Promotion of Foreign Investment in CWG-2010: Age Group

105

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

SECTION D: INFLUENCE

EDUCATION PROGRAM

OF

SPORTS

CONSCIOUSNESS,

SPORTS

Six questions incorporated in the questionnaire are presented in the section D, these reflect the responses of public perception towards the sports consciousness due to the CWG-2010.

The six questions are listed in the questionnaire at s. no 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28. The data pertaining to these questions and analyses are presented in the Table 25 to 30.

Table 25: Promotion of Sports in India due to CWG-2010:Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 29 - 38 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 27 39.1% 44 57.9% 23 31.1% 22 37.9% 40 54.8% 32 47.8% 28 53.8% 216 46.1% 143 46.9% 72 45.6% 215 46.4% 54 55.7% 30 46.9% 40 49.4% 77 43.5% 14 35.0% 215 46.8% Slightly Agree 21 30.4% 23 30.3% 31 41.9% 8 13.8% 29 39.7% 24 35.8% 3 5.8% 139 29.6% 79 25.9% 56 35.4% 135 29.2% 26 26.8% 17 26.6% 20 24.7% 51 28.8% 17 42.5% 131 28.5% Unsure 15 21.7% 7 9.2% 10 13.5% 2 3.4% 3 4.1% 3 4.5% 1 1.9% 41 8.7% 26 8.5% 14 8.9% 40 8.6% 5 5.2% 4 6.2% 10 12.3% 16 9.0% 6 15.0% 41 8.9% Slightly Disagree 4 5.8% 1 1.3% 3 4.1% 7 12.1% 1 1.4% 2 3.0% 2 3.8% 20 4.3% 16 5.2% 4 2.5% 20 4.3% 4 4.1% 2 3.1% 1 1.2% 10 5.6% 2 5.0% 19 4.1% Strongly Disagree 2 2.9% 1 1.3% 7 9.5% 19 32.8% 0 .0% 6 9.0% 18 34.6% 53 11.3% 41 13.4% 12 7.6% 53 11.4% 8 8.2% 11 17.2% 10 12.3% 23 13.0% 1 2.5% 53 11.5% N df X2

Area

469

24

134.9**

463

8.19

Age

459

16

20.20

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30 106 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 25 shows significant chi-square value of 134.9 at .05 level with df =24 for

perceptions about promotion of sports through CWG-2010. The chi-square value on this in relation to gender and age is 8.19 and 20.20 which is not significant. The chisports will be through CWG-2010, it is also related to area of living and is not related through CWG-2010. square test of independence indicates that public perception is that promotion of to gender and age. 76 % of public have responded positive for promotion of sports

Therefore, the result illustrates that the residents of Delhi have agreement that

promotion of sports will be through CWG-2010. However, such a perception is and South Delhi indicate strong agreement than residents of other constituencies of

influenced by the area of living, as residents of North East Delhi, North West Delhi Delhi, whereas male and female of all age groups have similar perception for promotion of sports through CWG-2010. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 54 and 55 respectively.

Slightly Disagree 4% Unsure 9%

Strongly Disagree 11% Strongly Agree 47%

Slightly Agree 29%

Figure 54: Promotion of Sports in India due to CWG-2010

107

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 55: Promotion of Sports in India due to CWG CWG-2010: Area of Living Table 26: Profession Appeal of Physical Education and Sports by CWG-2010: Area of 2010: Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi Square Test of , Chi-Square Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 Age 29 - 38 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 14 20.3% 18 23.7% 9 12.2% 18 31.0% 28 38.4% 20 30.3% 15 28.8% 122 26.1% 73 23.9% 48 30.6% 121 26.2% 35 36.1% 21 32.8% 20 24.7% 39 22.2% 6 15.0% 121 26.4% Slightly Agree 31 44.9% 30 39.5% 44 59.5% 10 17.2% 37 50.7% 25 37.9% 13 25.0% 190 40.6% 121 39.7% 65 41.4% 186 40.3% 38 39.2% 20 31.2% 33 40.7% 73 41.5% 20 50.0% 184 40.2% Unsure 17 24.6% 12 15.8% 13 17.6% 6 10.3% 8 11.0% 12 18.2% 4 7.7% 72 15.4% 47 15.4% 24 15.3% 71 15.4% 9 9.3% 6 9.4% 10 12.3% 35 19.9% 9 22.5% 69 15.1% Slightly Disagree 5 7.2% 1 1.3% 3 4.1% 11 19.0% 0 .0% 3 4.5% 12 23.1% 35 7.5% 27 8.9% 8 5.1% 35 7.6% 6 6.2% 8 12.5% 5 6.2% 14 8.0% 2 5.0% 35 7.6% Strongly Disagree 2 2.9% 15 19.7% 5 6.8% 13 22.4% 0 .0% 6 9.1% 8 15.4% 49 10.5% 37 12.1% 12 7.6% 49 10.6% 9 9.3% 9 14.1% 13 16.0% 15 8.5% 3 7.5% 49 10.7% N df X2

468

24

106.1**

462

5.72

458

16

25.19

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30 108 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 26 shows the chi square value of public perception that CWG chi-square CWG-2010 will lead to

attraction of people towards the profession of physical education and sports. The chi chisquare value is 106.1 significant at .05 level with df=24, whereas the chi chi-square value have responded that there will be enhanced attraction of people towards the profession attraction of physical education and sports through CWG CWG-2010. for gender and age is 5.72 and 25.19 respectively and not significant. 65 % of public

Therefore, the result lead to understand that the residents of Delhi perceive perceived positively that people will be attracted towards the profession of physical education and sports by the effect of organising CWG 2010. However, such perception varies ports CWG-2010.

and is influenced by area of living, wherein residents of East Delhi and North West Delhi have agreement and male and female of all age group categories have similar perception that attraction of people towards the profession of physical education and t presented in Figure 56 and 57 respectively. sports will be greater due to CWG CWG-2010. The graphical representation of th data is the

Slightly Disagree 8%

Strongly Disagree 11%

Unsure 15%

Strongly Agree 26%

Slightly Agree 40%

Figure 56: Attraction of People towards the Profession of Physical Education and Sports

109

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 57: Attraction of People towards the Profession of Physical Education and Sports Sports: Area of Living Table 27: Health and Fitness Promotion due to CWG ealth CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age , (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 Age 29 - 38 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 12 17.6% 11 14.7% 11 15.3% 7 12.1% 21 29.6% 10 14.9% 19 36.5% 91 19.7% 59 19.4% 32 20.9% 91 19.9% 19 20.0% 17 27.9% 22 27.5% 28 15.8% 5 12.5% 91 20.1% Slightly Agree 27 39.7% 30 40.0% 37 51.4% 24 41.4% 32 45.1% 33 49.3% 8 15.4% 191 41.3% 126 41.4% 61 39.9% 187 40.9% 53 55.8% 29 47.5% 27 33.8% 60 33.9% 17 42.5% 186 41.1% Unsure 20 29.4% 13 17.3% 14 19.4% 7 12.1% 15 21.1% 12 17.9% 4 7.7% 85 18.4% 46 15.1% 37 24.2% 83 18.2% 11 11.6% 1 1.6% 8 10.0% 50 28.2% 11 27.5% 81 17.9% Slightly Disagree 7 10.3% 4 5.3% 6 8.3% 10 17.2% 3 4.2% 11 16.4% 6 11.5% 47 10.2% 32 10.5% 15 9.8% 47 10.3% 8 8.4% 4 6.6% 13 16.2% 17 9.6% 4 10.0% 46 10.2% Strongly Disagree 2 2.9% 17 22.7% 4 5.6% 10 17.2% 0 .0% 1 1.5% 15 28.8% 49 10.6% 41 13.5% 8 5.2% 49 10.7% 4 4.2% 10 16.4% 10 12.5% 22 12.4% 3 7.5% 49 10.8% N df X2

463

24

93.68**

457

11.29*

453

16

52.96**

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30 110 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 27 represents the chi square value of peoples perception on promotion of chi-square health and fitness among the public due to CWG CWG-2010. The chi-square value is found square to be 11.29, 93.68 and 52.96 respectively, which is significant at .05 level with df =4, health and fitness is related to gender, area of living, and age. 60 % of public have due to CWG-2010.

24, and 16 respectively. Chi square test of independence indicates that promotion of espectively. responded positively for promotion of health and fitness among the public of Delhi

Therefore, the result brings forth that the residents of Delhi perceive that CWG-2010 perceived will positively promote health and fitness among the public of Delhi. However, it is influenced by the area of living, gender and age group of the public, wherein, in comparison to other sample groups, people of South Delhi and youth between age group of 18 to 28 strongly agree that the promotion of health and fitness among the public of Delhi will occur due to CWG 2010. Male and female differ in perception CWG-2010.

regarding promotion of health and fitness among public of Delhi due to CWG CWG-2010 than females. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 58, 59, 60 and 61 respectively.

Slightly Disagree 10%

Strongly Disagree 11%

Strongly Agree 20%

Unsure 18%

Slightly Agree 41%

Figure 58 Promotion of Health and Fitness due to CWG 58: CWG-2010

111

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 59: Promotion of Health and Fitness due to CWG CWG-2010: Area of Living

50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00%

Female Male

Male

Female

CWG-2010: Gender Figure 60: Promotion of Health and Fitness due to CWG

112

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+ Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 61: Promotion of Health and Fitness due to CWG CWG-2010: Age Group : Table 28: Increased Participation in Sports and Physical Activity: Area of Living Gender Living, and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi Square Test of Independence) Chi-Square
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 Age 29 - 38 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 5 7.9% 28 37.3% 12 16.7% 6 13.0% 19 28.8% 21 31.8% 14 26.9% 105 23.9% 67 22.6% 38 27.5% 105 24.2% 24 26.1% 21 36.8% 22 27.5% 28 17.0% 9 23.7% 104 24.1% Slightly Agree 25 39.7% 30 40.0% 36 50.0% 11 23.9% 36 54.5% 23 34.8% 10 19.2% 171 38.9% 115 38.9% 52 37.7% 167 38.5% 42 45.7% 16 28.1% 30 37.5% 61 37.0% 17 44.7% 166 38.4% Unsure 22 34.9% 10 13.3% 17 23.6% 9 19.6% 9 13.6% 14 21.2% 8 15.4% 89 20.2% 56 18.9% 31 22.5% 87 20.0% 14 15.2% 9 15.8% 17 21.2% 40 24.2% 7 18.4% 87 20.1% Slightly Disagree 8 12.7% 5 6.7% 3 4.2% 10 21.7% 2 3.0% 3 4.5% 9 17.3% 40 9.1% 33 11.1% 7 5.1% 40 9.2% 7 7.6% 5 8.8% 7 8.8% 16 9.7% 5 13.2% 40 9.3% Strongly Disagree 3 4.8% 2 2.7% 4 5.6% 10 21.7% 0 .0% 5 7.6% 11 21.2% 35 8.0% 25 8.4% 10 7.2% 35 8.1% 5 5.4% 6 10.5% 4 5.0% 20 12.1% 0 .0% 35 8.1% N df X2

440

24

95.42**

434

5.50

432

16

23.84

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30

113

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 28 represents that the chi square value for areas of living is 95.42, which is chi-square significant at .05 level with df=24, whe whereas chi-square value for gender and age square regarding the increased participation in sports and physical activity is 5.50 and 23.84 respectively which is not significant. The chi square test of independence indicates chi-square that increasing participation in sports and physical activity is related to area of living increasing participation in sports and physical activity due to CWG CWG-2010.

but not related to age and gender. 62 % of public have responded in favour of the

Therefore, the result reflects that the residents o Delhi perceived positively that of

CWG-2010 will lead toward the increasing consciousness and participation in sports 2010 and physical activity. However, perception is influenced by the area of living, wherein people of North East Delhi, North West Delhi and South Delhi than people of other South

living areas of Delhi feel that sports and physical activity consciousness will be increased due to CWG-2010. Male and female of all age groups have similar 2010. perception of increased participation in sports and physical activity among people of activity Delhi due to CWG-2010. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 62 and 63 respectively.

Strongly Disagree 8%

Slightly Disagree 9%

Strongly Agree 24%

Unsure 20% Slightly Agree 39%

Figure 62: Increasing Participation in Sports and Physical Activity

114

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 63: Increasing Participation in Sports and Physical Activity: Area of Living : Table 29: Willingness to Volunteer for CWG CWG-2010:Area of Living Gender and Age Area Living, (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi Square Test of Independence) Chi-Square
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 28 Age 29 38 39 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % YES 31 45.6% 35 46.7% 41 56.9% 24 41.4% 39 54.9% 40 59.7% 31 59.6% 241 52.1% 169 55.4% 67 44.1% 236 51.6% 69 65.7% 38 62.3% 44 55.0% 77 43.5% 13 32.5% 241 52.1% NO 37 54.4% 40 53.3% 31 43.1% 34 58.6% 32 45.1% 27 40.3% 21 40.4% 222 47.9% 136 44.6% 85 55.9% 221 48.4% 36 34.3% 23 37.7% 36 45.0% 100 56.5% 27 67.5% 222 47.9% N df X2

463

8.35

457

5.22*

463

22.01**

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (6) = 16.81, * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (6) = 12.59,

x2 .01 (1) = 6.63, x2 .01 (4) = 9.49 x2 .05 (1) = 3.84, x2 .05 (4) = 13.28

115

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 29 reveals the chi-square value for perception among people for their willingness to volunteer. This in relation for age and gender it is 22.01, 5.22 significant at .05 level with df 4 and 1 respectively, and for area of living is 8.346, which is not significant. The test of independence test indicates that the perception regarding willingness to volunteer is related to age and gender where as area of living have responded in favour of willingness to volunteer for CWG-2010.

has no influence on willingness of people to volunteer for the games. 52 % of public

Therefore, the result reveals mixed opinion from the public of Delhi for their desire to living.

volunteer for CWG-2010; and such a perception is not influenced by their area of

volunteering than the senior citizens. Male and female have difference in opinion regarding willingness to volunteer. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 64, 65 and 66 respectively.

However, the youth between 18 to 28 years are more positive towards

NO 48%

YES 52%

Figure 64: Willingness to Volunteer for CWG-2010

116

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% YES NO Male Female

Figure 65 Willingness to Volunteer for CWG-2010: Gender 65:

70.00%

60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+

YES NO NO YES

Figure 66 Willingness to Volunteer for CWG-2010: Age Group 66:

117

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 30: Source of Information about CWG CWG-2010 (The Transmutation of Orders of Merit The into Scores)
Options Newspapers Televisions Internet Friends/Family/colleagues Mean Score 58.39 59.93 41.19 36.50 Order of Priority 2 1 3 4

The Table 30 reveals that the public perceive the medium of television as the best perceived

source of information about CWG 2010. Newspapers had been ranked as second CWG-2010. Friends/Family/colleagues were the least preferred option to be related with source of Figure 67.

highest followed by internet as a preferred source of information about CWG CWG-2010. information of CWG-2010.The graphical representation of the data is presented in The

60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

58.39

59.93

41.19

36.50

1 Televisions Internet

4 Friends/Family/colleagues

Newspapers

Figure 67: Rating Frequencies on Source of Getting Information about CWG CWG-2010

118

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

SECTION E: INFLUENCE ON CULTURAL OUTLOOK responses of public perception towards the culture in the CWG-2010. The four pertaining to these questions and its analyses are presented in the Table 31 to 34. Four questions of the opnionnaire are incorporated in the section E; these studied the

questions are listed in the questionnaire at serial number 29, 31, 32, and 30. The data

Table 31: Tourism Promotion in Delhi due to CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi Area North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 29 38 Age 39 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 30 44.8% 48 64.9% 22 31.0% 21 36.2% 24 33.3% 31 47.0% 23 45.1% 199 43.4% 134 44.4% 62 41.1% 196 43.3% 34 36.6% 27 45.0% 39 49.4% 79 44.6% 14 35.0% 193 43.0% Slightly Agree 26 38.8% 21 28.4% 25 35.2% 8 13.8% 35 48.6% 21 31.8% 3 5.9% 139 30.3% 85 28.1% 52 34.4% 137 30.2% 39 41.9% 14 23.3% 19 24.1% 48 27.1% 18 45.0% 138 30.7% Unsure 8 11.9% 3 4.1% 13 18.3% 3 5.2% 11 15.3% 4 6.1% 6 11.8% 48 10.5% 28 9.3% 19 12.6% 47 10.4% 7 7.5% 7 11.7% 8 10.1% 19 10.7% 5 12.5% 46 10.2% Slightly Disagree 3 4.5% 2 2.7% 1 1.4% 5 8.6% 2 2.8% 6 9.1% 2 3.9% 21 4.6% 15 5.0% 6 4.0% 21 4.6% 7 7.5% 5 8.3% 1 1.3% 6 3.4% 2 5.0% 21 4.7% Strongly Disagree 0 .0% 0 .0% 10 14.1% 21 36.2% 0 .0% 4 6.1% 17 33.3% 52 11.3% 40 13.2% 12 7.9% 52 11.5% 6 6.5% 7 11.7% 12 15.2% 25 14.1% 1 2.5% 51 11.4% N df X2

459

24

137.6**

453

5.31

449

16

25.73

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30

119

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 31 presents the chi-square value for public perception on promotion of tourism square on account of CWG-2010; the chi square value in relation to living area is 137.6 2010; chi-square significant at .05 level with df = 24, where as for gender and age is 5.31 and 25.73 perception of people on this dimension is related to the constituencies areas of their will be promoted through CWG CWG-2010.

respectively and not significant. Chi square test of independence ind indicates that living in Delhi and not related to gender and age. 74 % of public perceive that tourism

Therefore, the result establishe that the residents of Delhi perceived positively establishes d toward promotion of tourism through CWG 2010. However, perception is influenced CWG-2010. by the area of living, wherein, residents of North East Delhi have strong agreement on

promotion of tourism through CWG 2010 than people residing in other areas. Th is CWG-2010 There

consensus among the people of all age groups and gender regarding promotion of Figure 68 and 69 respectively.

tourism due to CWG-2010.The graphical representation of the data is presented in The the

Strongly Disagree, Slightly 11.50% Disagree, 4.60% Strongly Agree, 43.30%

Unsure, 10.40% Slightly Agree, 30.20%

Figure 68: Promotion of Tourism due to CWG CWG-2010

120

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 69: Promotion of Tourism due to CWG CWG-2010: Area of Living Table 32: Threat to Indian Culture due to CWG hreat CWG-2010: Area of Living Gender and Age Living, (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi Square Test of Independence) Chi-Square
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi Area New Delhi North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 28 Age 29 38 39 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 3 4.4% 19 25.7% 13 18.1% 12 20.7% 6 8.5% 7 10.4% 18 34.6% 78 16.9% 55 18.1% 23 15.1% 78 17.1% 14 14.6% 13 21.7% 21 26.6% 25 14.1% 5 12.5% 78 17.3% Slightly Agree 14 20.6% 8 10.8% 14 19.4% 13 22.4% 21 29.6% 28 41.8% 9 17.3% 107 23.2% 63 20.7% 42 27.6% 105 23.0% 24 25.0% 23 38.3% 11 13.9% 30 16.9% 15 37.5% 103 22.8% Unsure 15 22.1% 7 9.5% 20 27.8% 13 22.4% 16 22.5% 10 14.9% 11 21.2% 92 19.9% 56 18.4% 34 22.4% 90 19.7% 21 21.9% 7 11.7% 15 19.0% 40 22.6% 8 20.0% 91 20.1% Slightly Disagree 17 25.0% 17 23.0% 21 29.2% 13 22.4% 17 23.9% 17 25.4% 11 21.2% 113 24.5% 77 25.3% 34 22.4% 111 24.3% 24 25.0% 14 23.3% 21 26.6% 41 23.2% 9 22.5% 109 24.1% Strongly Disagree 19 27.9% 23 31.1% 4 5.6% 7 12.1% 11 15.5% 5 7.5% 3 5.8% 72 15.6% 53 17.4% 19 12.5% 72 15.8% 13 13.5% 3 5.0% 11 13.9% 41 23.2% 3 7.5% 71 15.7% N df X2

462

24

80.18**

456

5.35

452

16

38.35**

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30 121 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 32 presents the chi-square value on perception of people for CWG-2010 having square 2010 a threat to Indian culture. The chi square value on the dimension for age and area is chi-square 38.35 and 80.18 which is si significant at .05 level with df 16 or 24 respectively, whereas 5.35 for gender, which is not significant. 40 % population has responded that significant.

they feel threat to Indian culture due to CWG 2010; whereas 40 % of public do not CWG-2010; not sure about it.

feel any threat to value and cultural base of India and 20 % of public were found to be

Therefore, the result indicates that the residents of Delhi are some what not agreeing about their perception on CWG 2010 posing any threat to culture base of India. CWG-2010 However, such a perception is influenced by area of living and age group, wherein, the residents of Chandni Chowk and North East Delhi have disagreement for CWG Chowk CWG2010 posing threat to Indian culture and the people of North East Delhi and South graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 70, 71 and 72 , respectively.

Delhi have strong agreement to CWG 2010 being a threat to the culture. The CWG-2010

Slightly Disagree 24%

Strongly Disagree 16%

Strongly Agree 17% Slightly Agree 23%

Unsure 20%

Figure 70: Threat to Indian Culture due to CWG CWG-2010

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Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 71: Threat to Indian Culture due to CWG-2010: Area of Living

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

<= 21

22 28 29 38 39 55

56+

Figure 72: Threat to Indian Culture due to CWG-2010: Age Group :

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Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 33: Delhi Public as Cultural Ambassadors in CWG-2010: Area of Living, Gender and Age (Frequencies Analysis as per Chi-Square Test of Independence)
Item Chandni Chowk North East East Delhi New Delhi Area North West West Delhi South Delhi Total Male Gender Female Total < 21 22 - 28 29 - 38 Age 39 - 55 56+ Total Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Count % Strongly Agree 17 25.4% 40 53.3% 27 37.5% 11 19.0% 31 44.3% 29 43.3% 10 19.2% 165 35.8% 107 35.3% 56 36.8% 163 35.8% 36 37.5% 29 48.3% 34 43.0% 58 33.0% 5 12.5% 162 35.9% Slightly Agree 26 38.8% 20 26.7% 24 33.3% 12 20.7% 29 41.4% 16 23.9% 10 19.2% 137 29.7% 83 27.4% 51 33.6% 134 29.5% 30 31.2% 13 21.7% 21 26.6% 52 29.5% 15 37.5% 131 29.0% Unsure 16 23.9% 11 14.7% 14 19.4% 11 19.0% 9 12.9% 12 17.9% 7 13.5% 80 17.4% 53 17.5% 26 17.1% 79 17.4% 18 18.8% 7 11.7% 10 12.7% 29 16.5% 15 37.5% 79 17.5% Slightly Disagree 5 7.5% 3 4.0% 1 1.4% 16 27.6% 1 1.4% 7 10.4% 13 25.0% 46 10.0% 33 10.9% 13 8.6% 46 10.1% 8 8.3% 5 8.3% 8 10.1% 22 12.5% 3 7.5% 46 10.2% Strongly Disagree 3 4.5% 1 1.3% 6 8.3% 8 13.8% 0 .0% 3 4.5% 12 23.1% 33 7.2% 27 8.9% 6 3.9% 33 7.3% 4 4.2% 6 10.0% 6 7.6% 15 8.5% 2 5.0% 33 7.3% 451 16 28.57* 455 4 5.37 461 24 108.4** N df X2

**significant at .01 level x2 .01 (24) = 42.98, x2 .01 (4) = 13.28, x2 .01 (16) = 40.00 * significant at .05 level x2 .05 (24) = 36.42, x2 .05 (4) = 9.49, x2 .05 (16) =26.30

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Table 33 presents the chi square value for peoples perception regarding representing chi-square

themselves as ambassadors of Indian culture. The chi-square value area and age group is 108.4 and 28.56 which is significant at .05 level with df= 24 and 16 respectively, whereas the chi-square value for gender is 5.36 which is not significant. The chi square chi-square test of ambassadors of Indian culture is associated to areas of living and different age groups, whereas it is not linked to gender. 65 % of public have positive perception for their being representation of people of Delhi as ambassadors of Indian culture in CWG CWG-2010.

independence indicates that perception of people regarding presenting themselves as that

Therefore, the result reveals that the residents of Delhi perceive themselves as perceived

ambassador for CWG-2010. However, perception is influenced by the area of living and 2010. age group, wherein, residents of North Delhi strongly perceive that people of Delhi will perceived of New Delhi and South Delhi perceive that population of Delhi will not be perceived be representative of Indian cultures than other residents living in other areas. But, people in representative of Indian cultures. The youth of Delhi have strong agreement for 56 years. However, there was no difference found in the perception due to gender difference. The graphical representation of the data is presented in Figure 73, 74 and 75 respectively.

representing culture by people of Delhi than the senior citizens of the a group of above age

Slightly Disagree 10%

Strongly Disagree 7% Strongly Agree 36%

Unsure 17%

Slightly Agree 30%

Figure 73: Representation of People as Ambassadors of Indian Culture Ambassadors

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Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 74: Representation of People as Ambassadors of Indian Culture Area of Living Culture:

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% <= 21 22 28 29 38 39 55 56+

Strongly Disagree Slightly Disagree Unsure Slightly Agree

Strongly Agree

Figure 75: Representation of People as Ambassadors of Indian Culture Age Group Culture:

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Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

Table 34: Promotion of Indian culture by CWG CWG-2010 (The Transmutation of Orders of Merit into Scores)
Options Indian food/cuisine Spirituality Cultural diversity Indian hospitality Total Score 20248 16266 20328 19808 Order of Priority 1 4 2 3

The Table 34 reveals that, due to CWG 2010 Indian culture will be more promoted in CWG-2010 terms of promotion of culture diversity followed by Indian food/cuisine. Indian culture in term of Indian hospitality was least preferred perception followed by presented in Figure 76 76.

spirituality as the last preferred option. The graphical representation of the data is st

60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

52.59 41.92

52.39

51.18

4 Spirituality

2 Cultural diversity

3 Indian hospitality

Indian food/cuisine

Figure 76: Rating Frequencies of Promotion of Indian culture by CWG CWG-2010

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4.2. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS The analysis of the data was interpreted by employing the test of independence and combined ranking method. The findings of the study were presented in five sections

related to the public perception of CWG-2010 influencing Involvement of Citizens infrastructure; Economy, Sport Consciousness and Sports Education Program and observations during the course of the present study the discussion of the findings attempt to recognize the possible explanation and logic which could be attributed for the perception of the people on specific objectives of the study. Involvement of Citizens in CWG-2010

in CWG-2010, Creation, Utilization, Up-gradation of Public and Sports Cultural Outlook. Based on the context to the literature review, and general

1. People of Delhi were aware about the CWG-2010 held in Delhi. It was not influenced by the area of living or gender. However, the study found that there is no difference in awareness level among males and females or the place of living, study of Retchie and Smith (1991), which found that a relationship exists between

whereas age had an influence on the awareness. The findings are in line with the increase in image of the city with increase in awareness and has sited awareness international market.

among people as an important aspect to remain visible and competitive in The present study observed the influence of area of living and age on the quality

of information received about CWG-2010. People living in North Delhi and South Delhi were the most informed and had the information for more than a year from the start of CWG-2010, where as East Delhi people had received the information most recently at the time of data collection. Such finding could be attributed to the cause that the type of population which lives in the south and the north Delhi is diverse on account of various dimensions such as education, economic spite of the venue of CWG-2010 being in east Delhi. People were more recently

independence, and general awareness. East Delhi was the Centre of attraction in informed of CWG-2010; most likely the organizer did not reached to the people

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well in advance and could not inform the masses well in time. The dissemination of information by the organizers is a dimension that needs to be studied further. 2. Residents of Delhi support Delhi as a venue for CWG-2010. But, the variation in Residents of North East Delhi and East Delhi (in comparison to the residents of

opinion is influenced with the area of living and age group they belong to. other areas) perceived Delhi to be the host city for CWG- 2010. Residents between the age group of 39 and 55 years of age were had least agreement not perceive Delhi as venue for CWG-2010 preferred to provide this opportunity regarding change of venue of CWG-2010. However, most of the people who did for development to other cities of India. This reveals that people are aware of the supported by Kasper (2010) that developing nations are more towards biding for

benefits associated with mega sport event such as CWG-2010. This is also such mega sports events because it brings long term impact on the development of but opportunities to develop infrastructure, increase in investment and improve transport system in addition to other benefits.

the cities, as sports are not just about development of stadium and sports facilities,

3. People of Delhi had an honored feeling to be part of CWG-2010. However, this honored feeling was influenced by their area of living, gender and age. Honored females. Youth of Delhi had stronger feeling than the senior age group for having feeling for hosting CWG-2010 was more among male residents of Delhi than pride for being associated with CWG-2010. The results are similar to that of other

mega events wherein, the findings reveal that there is considerable support and World Cup. However, several concerns were raised to distribution of anticipated benefits and impacts of stadia, in spite of which residents supported the events (Urmilla & Kamilla 2009). 4. Public of Delhi perceived CWG-2010 will promote the status of women. Area of Living was found to be a factor influencing such perception, wherein, residents of Chandni Chowk have strong disagreement. Probable reason for such disagreement among residents could be attributed to history and culture which walled city is

positive perceptions of residents relating to South Africas hosting of the 2010

known for; Delhi was centered on Chandni Chowk, and residents have roots in
129 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

inner old city and their resistance to change for whatever reasons might have

influenced their perception. Male and female of all age groups agreed that status of women will be promoted due to CWG-2010. The findings are supported by the recommendations of International Symposium on Legacy of the Olympic Games, 1984-2000 (2002) which promoted inclusion of a greater number of sports in the greatly improves the universal practice of sport. Olympic programme and the increased participation of women with a view that it 5. Public of Delhi perceived CWG-2010 to promote peace and harmony. Male and

female of all age groups had a similar positive perception regarding the CWGperception was also found among male and female of all age groups that there will

2010. However, such perception was impacted by area of living. Similar be promotion of peace. The study also acknowledged the harmony around the world through CWG-2010. Residents of North East Delhi and West Delhi agreed more strongly on this dimension than residents of North, South and New Delhi. These finding draw its support from the study of Smith and Cahn (2008) which identifies a positive relationship between sports, commerce and peace, and and promoting world peace in host nations; as to how the competitions may create knowledge exchange on a large scale. examines the role of international sports events in contribution to social change greater understanding among athletes and related individuals and as well increase

Public and Sports infrastructure Creation, Utilization, Up-gradation 6. Public perceived CWG-2010 to be helpful in development of public infrastructure, but are least optimistic about improvement of living standard. The findings are in line with the study of Brent and Richard (2009) which highlights residents perception regarding 2012 London Olympics to be supportive of hosting the event at their place but were concerned over perceived traffic congestion, parking issues

and potential increases in the cost of living. Public of Delhi consider CWG-2010 performance of Indian athletes. This reveals that people of Delhi consider larger gains for whole city living as of greater value than for just few privileged athletes.

to be successful if it is able to promote sports awareness among citizens and

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7. Residents of Delhi perceived that Delhi has all required resources for conducting similar fashion as it happened to South Delhi after 1982 Asian Games. However,

CWG-2010. They are also optimistic about the development of East Delhi in the such a perception is influenced by the area of living; where in, people of South Delhi and New Delhi strongly disagree than people of other constituencies that difference in perception on this dimension due to difference in gender and age. Delhi is having required resourced for conducting CWG-2010. There is no Residents of East Delhi who were witnessing maximum changes due to CWG2010 and residents of South Delhi who had previously witnessed the impact of Asian Games 1982 are in a unique position to evaluate an events legacy as daily and facilities which get support from the study on residents perception of 2006 Turin winter games by Guala and Turco (2009). consumers of infrastructure and as possible leisure consumers of infrastructures

8. Residents of Delhi perceived Delhi being self-sufficient in generating electricity and

improvement of public transport system in Delhi due to CWG-2010. However, the perception regarding self-sufficiency in generating electricity varies as influenced by area of living, gender and age of the people. Youth have a stronger agreement

regarding the improvement in the situation of electricity generation and public transport than the people of other age group. People perceived Delhi to be benefited due to CWG-2010 by improvement in roadways, railways and airways than improvement in sports facilities, medical facilities and housing facilities. If correlated with the findings of Balcetis and Dunning (2006) regarding the concept of perception, the positive approach and perception of the residents could be considered in a broader view as their wishes, expectations and preferences which influences their stimulus towards improvement and self-sufficient.

9. It was strongly agreed by youth than public of other age groups that CWG-2010 will lead to development and post-game utilization of sports facilities in Delhi. helpful for development of sports facilities in Delhi and strongly disagreed for its People of South Delhi and New Delhi strongly perceived that games may not be effective post games utilization. Where as both male and female have similar perceptions towards the development of sports facilities and recreation for public of

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Delhi on account of CWG-2010. These findings are supported by Chen (2006) who reveals that for 2010 Asian Games, the host city cooperated with private sector, adopted public participation and developed a cost-effective use of post-game sports

facilities to overcome the issue of economic assistance for maintaining the infrastructure. Disagreement among youth and other age group on these findings aged and older population. The facilities which were developed were not utilized to its optimum level Uppal (2007). could also be influenced by the past experiences of 1982 Asian Games by middle

10. Public perceived CWG-2010 as an important factor towards development of infrastructure in Delhi. But the perception is also influenced by the area of living. The residents of East Delhi least agreed for infrastructure development to happen

without CWG-2010, Youth were unsure than the other age groups. The positive expectation of development due to CWG-2010 get reflections from the study of Chen (2006) that finds that China used the strategy to stimulate new district city governments in China were pursuing sporting mega-events for infrastructure improvement rather than economic issues. The construction of new stadiums and infrastructure, environmental improvement, city image improvement and district this strategy to stimulate new district development instead of urban redevelopment.

development instead of urban redevelopment. The research also indicates that the

development were positive outcomes due to Asian Games 2010. China had used 11. Residents of Delhi perceived that development of public sports facilities will happen due to CWG-2010. However, such a perception is impacted by the area of living and age group, such as people of South Delhi and New Delhi have strong disagreement, Youth have stronger agreement than other age groups and male and female categories have similar positive perception. The positive perception of the

public is contrary to the study which highlights that, it is not the upgrading of

sports facilities that is attracting the biggest share of infrastructure investments, but urban redevelopment, city and transport infrastructure and business venues (Kasper, 2010). The study states that, be it cities like Barcelona and Athens, they its urban infrastructure into a new stage of development. have created a strong sports image to the world but they have majorly transformed

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Influence on Economy 12. Public perceived enhanced tourism and hospitality from CWG-2010. Sports manufacturing industry was ranked as second highest preference in term of communication technology was the least preferred option as a benefited area on by Kostas and Kiki (2010) regarding threats and opportunities for host cities due to the organization of mega sports events, which considered opportunities for the gaining economic growth followed by real estate sector. Information and account of CWG-2010. Such findings are somewhat related to the SWOT analyses

growth of tourism industry, but such realization of such benefits depends on the Symposium on Legacy of Olympic Games (2002).

long term legacy planning by the host cities as discussed at International 13. Residents of Delhi were aware about the investment involved in the conduct of perception was influenced by the area of living and age group to which they

CWG-2010 along with the opportunities for economic growth for the city. But the belong to. People from different residence areas and age groups had different perception, agreement and awareness of investment and economic growth due to CWG-2010. Youth under the age of twenty one years had a positive perception Delhi and New Delhi had a difference in opinion in comparison to residents of highlights that cost benefit due to hosting of mega sports events, is not true for all

regarding economic growth due to CWG-2010 where as residents living in South other living areas. The results supports the notion by Elmer (2010), which cities as well as all sports events. The type of sports event and the existing GDP of

the host nation have a wide influence on the economic growth rate due to the was always a debatable issue among the residents as the affect of the event could not be a replica of any other event in past.

organization of mega sports events. How CWG-2010 could benefit New Delhi

14. Residents living of Delhi perceived that CWG-2010 would help in increasing job opportunities and foreign investment. People of all age group and gender perceived it positive, these perceptions are similar to that of the residents of

Pyungchang (Chung, 2010), which as a host of 2018 Winter Olympics expected

that the big sports event would bring local development by playing a major role in
133 Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

encouraging economic effects through raising citys profile in foreign Countries and developing related business such as tourism with respect to industries producing and distributing sport-related goods and services hence improving employment opportunities for the local residents of the host city. However, a regarding foreign investment. This difference could be due to the understanding of

difference in opinion was observed among the residents living at different areas the matter because of its complex nature as the foreign investment is more effect the development on account of a mega sport event in Delhi. However, majority agreed that the hospitality and tourism would get benefited. Influence on Sport Consciousness, Sports Education Program 15. Promotion of sports consciousness due to CWG-2010 is strongly agreed by residents of Delhi. In a similar study Rodd (1985) identified sports as a great social force in the world and defended the statement by emphasizing on the gold medal created a boom in road racing and jogging in USA. Subsequently, Americans began winning event of 1972 Munich Olympics marathon by Bill Rogers of USA, which to take up marathon running and following the inspiration of his victory the New states. He emphasized on change in life due to by what happened in Olympics.

complex than it appears, and may be not understood in its intent and content to

York marathon was created followed by many other marathon races across the 16. Public perception regarding promotion of health and fitness is influenced by their

place of living, age and gender. Male agreed more than females that CWG-2010 East Delhi had stronger agreement than South Delhi population, and residents of

will lead to promotion of health and fitness among public of Delhi. Residents of the age group of 18 to 21 agreed more than any other age groups on the dimension from the study of Stefan (2010) which states that sports is an important part of a

of promotion of health and fitness due to CWG-2010. The results do get support vital civil society for presenting benefits in economics, health-oriented or

educational context. All sports related aspects are part of socioeconomic challenges towards attaining the benefits from sports could be considered as
134

framework which tends to change but with change comes challenges. The

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

reason for difference in perception of the residents regarding promotion of health among people through CWG-2010. 17. Residents of Delhi revealed their willingness towards volunteering during CWG2010. Youth up to the age of 38 reflected more willingness towards volunteering than other age groups. the results are also supported by the study of Tracy, one of the important part of the legacies for the host Country which could not be

Deborah,and Simon (2010), in which it was determined that volunteer aspect is ignored because volunteering support achieving to leave a legacy -social, economic and infrastructure- for the host community and Country due to sports mega events. According to the study, volunteers can enhance the legacy for host future mega sporting events to the benefit of the host communities and Countries. communities and facilitate the management and transfer of this knowledge for

Influence on Cultural Outlook 18. Residents of Delhi perceived CWG-2010 to be influential for promotion of tourism. The opinion was influenced by the place of living. However, there was consensus among the people of all age groups and gender to perceive that CWG2010 would promote tourism. The results are supported by the study of Singh and Kumar (2008) which emphasized that visitors during CWG-2010 expected that the destination in the host Country India.

games might develop emotional engagement with culture and the mystical 19. The residents of Delhi were not on strong agreement or disagreement for CWG2010 to be a threat to Indian culture. The residents of Chandni Chowk and North West Delhi did not agree that Indian culture is threatened by CWG-2010. Youth between the age group of 22 and 38 strongly agreed that the Indian culture will could be identified by the study of Friedman and Steger (2010) which defined because of the presence of sponsors such as Coke, McDonalds and Budweiser for promote their unique nation and culture.
135

have a threat by CWG-2010. The non consensus regarding promotion of culture globalization as Americanisation and McDonaldisation of global culture 2010 FIFA world cup which provided barriers for South Africa to sell and

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

20. The residents of North Delhi strongly perceived than others that Delhi will be representative of Indian cultures. But, residents of New Delhi and South Delhi perceived that population of Delhi will not be representative of Indian cultures. The youth of Delhi had strong agreement regarding representation of culture by

residents of Delhi than the senior residents of the age group above 56 years. There was no difference found in the perception on this dimension among the gender categories. 21. Public perceived that CWG-2010 will lead to promotion of Indian culture among other backgrounds and societies in terms of promotion of cultural diversity preferred option in order of priority. followed by Indian food/cuisine; however, hospitality and spirituality were least

4.3. AN OVERVIEW AND CONCLUSION OF FINDINGS: IN RELATION TO RESEARCH QUESTION OF THE STUDY Research Question How do people of Delhi perceive Commonwealth Games-2010 in terms of its influence on: involvement of public in CWG-2010; creation, utilization, up-gradation of public and sports infrastructure; economy and allocation of CWG-2010 to Delhi; consciousness towards sports and sports education programs; and promotion of cultural outlook? The research question is cross-referred in the overview of the findings given below:

An Overview of Findings People of Delhi were involved in CWG-2010 although with a different degree and intensity in relation to various variables under study. The people were aware of CWG-2010 to be held in Delhi and the information was evenly spread among all

the demographic area of Delhi and gender. But the time period for getting information of CWG-2010 varied dependent on the area of residence and age group. Television, newspapers and internet were found to be the most important source of information in order of priority, but could not help in even distribution of
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Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

information, especially for the people living in Chandni Chowk and West Delhi variation in public perception most likely may be because, first,

who were not aware about CWG-2010 until the time of data collection. Such a particular area or age group were not connected with the games due to lack of

people of

information campaign by government and organizing committee, second, due to initiatives. Public consider CWG to be beneficial for development of public awareness among the citizens. A gap is indicated between the expected general

absence of timely media promotion of CWG-2010 and other related ongoing infrastructure but they relate success of CWG-2010 with promotion of sports benefits of CWG-2010 and expectation of the people of the host city of games understandings regarding expectations from such events.

which needs to be studied further to understand the reason to reduce such gaps in Awareness regarding proud feeling for being part CWG-2010, women empowerment, and peace and harmony has variation in opinion in relation to the place of living. Perhaps the lack of awareness program regarding the intangible benefits has

contributed towards this factor. A difference in opinion for Delhi as a host city was that other cities have greater requirement of infrastructure development than Delhi. It conveys that people perceived mega events like CWG-2010 as an opportunity for development of a nation at large than being focused to a particular city. An optimist and positive perception from public of Delhi of all age group and gender infrastructure like electricity, transport, sports and recreation facilities have been

observed among people of different districts of Delhi and age groups. It is indicated

is indicated for Delhis capabilities to host CWG-2010. But specific issues regarding highly influenced by their area of residence as well as age group. A common living in different parts of Delhi and from different age groups, which reveals that

consensus does not appear on the issue of infrastructure development among people development across Delhi was not uniform and people living in some areas only could

realize about the opportunities of CWG-2010. People across Delhi do have a common expectation from the games in the form of getting improved transport system across the city due to CWG-2010. People from all parts of Delhi and age groups have shown a deep interest in the utilization of post games facilities.
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Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

There is a strong difference reflected in public perception on economic benefits to

Delhi from CWG-2010 among people of New Delhi and South Delhi with people living in other areas. Perception of people on huge investment for CWG-2010 is highly influenced by the place of living and the age group. People varied in their perception due to their personal life style, standing in experiences, and belief in value system, such as their being in different stage of life including studying in colleges,

starting jobs, at career building stage, at later stage of profession, as retired people,

but they had a common feeling regarding games to be opportunity to create more employment opportunities. Such perceptions also coincides with the results where in people have ranked tourism and hospitality to be the most benefited sector by hosting that it would not lead to economic growth of the city or industries.

CWG-2010, due to which employment opportunities would be increased, but, agreed Residents perceived CWG-2010 to be helpful in promotion of health and fitness and perceived an increase in sports consciousness. The residents of Delhi also support for working as volunteers for the games. The results correlates with the findings where in it revealed peoples desire to work voluntarily towards the success of the games because public are aware about the games, and they want the games to be successfully

held in Delhi; because they expect the games to bring benefits to them in terms of infrastructure, economy, health, living standards; and to fulfill the expectations of the concerned with welfare of the society. public. The spirit of volunteerism could be used further for various needs and causes A mixed perception existed among residents of Delhi about influence of CWG-2010 on tourism, promotion of Indian traditional cultural aspects in other backgrounds, and for Delhi- residents to be representative ambassadors of India. Population of North East Delhi agreed strongly than others and the age group from 29 years to 38 years perceived that tourism will be promoted through CWG-2010, and, both the males and females have similar perception. The residents of Chandni Chowk and North East

Delhi did not see any threat to Indian culture due to CWG-2010, where as the residents of North West Delhi, West Delhi and South Delhi agreed that there is threat New Delhi were found to be not aware about it. There were contradictory perceptions
138

to Indian culture on account of hosting of CWG-2010, and residents of East Delhi and

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

of Delhi people to be representative of Indian cultures. North Delhi residents had residents perception was contradictory. The youth of Delhi have strong agreement regarding than the senior residents of the age group (above 56 years). However, there was no difference found in the perception on this dimension due to gender difference. Public perceived that CWG-2010

strong positive perception about it than others, where as New Delhi and South Delhi

other backgrounds and societies in terms of promotion of culture diversity followed by Indian food/cuisine; however, hospitality and spirituality were least preferred option in order of priority. Tangible and intangible benefits perceived out of such mega sport events are

will lead to promotion of Indian culture among

reflected in the overview of findings of the present study, although these were found to be varying in its strength and intensity in relation to area of living, age and gender categories of sample under study.

Findings of the study corroborated the perceived tangibles benefits in terms of public infrastructure, sports facilities, economic growth, and sports participation through Transport, Sports and recreation facilities have been highly influenced by the area of residence (Table 12, 14, 15 and 17). People living in certain areas only could perceive Commonwealth Games-2010. Specific issues regarding infrastructure, electricity,

the opportunities of facilities and infrastructure development (Table 16) as CWG2010 did not lead to uniform development across Delhi. Common perception was found among majority for getting improved transport system across the city and post

CWG-2010 utilization of facilities (Table 18). Difference in perception of public was living at different parts of Delhi (Table 22). Findings also indicated that life style, perception regarding economic benefits of games on account of investment made in

found about the economic benefits to Delhi due to CWG-2010 in relation to people belief in value system, experience and background of people have impact on their CWG-2010 by international companies (Table 24). People perceived creation of employment opportunities (Table 23) corresponding that tourism and hospitality will city through other industries. People living in East Delhi and North East Delhi (where most of the games related venues and facilities are being developed) also positively
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be the most benefited sector (Table 20) but wont lead to economic growth of the

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data and Findings of the Study

perceived increase in employment opportunities; whereas people of New Delhi (dominated by government employees) and of South Delhi (who have the past employment and tourism due to CWG-2010. experience of 1982 Asian Games) disagreed on enhanced opportunities of Findings of the study confirm the perceived intangible benefits in terms of women

status, peace and harmony, sport consciousness, and culture through Commonwealth feeling for being part of CWG-2010, women empowerment, peace and harmony in relation to the place of living (Table 7, 8, 9) and area of residence (FICCI, 2010). A

Games-2010. Varied perception was found on awareness of CWG-2010, proud

mix of perception existed among residents of Delhi about influence of CWG-2010 on tourism, promotion of Indian traditional cultural aspects and for residents of Delhi to influenced from the area of living and perhaps was impacted by the plans and policies of the organizing committee, required publicity and media support to pronounce the be representatives as ambassadors of India (Table 31, 32, 33). The perception was

intangible benefits of such events among the people (Rehman, 2010). The study found of culture, promotion of Olympic values and its impact on school education curriculum (Chen, 2006). Conclusion of Findings

variation in perception that CWG-2010 could be an effective medium for promotion

Based on the overview of findings and review of conclusions the closing note logically states that the overview of the findings and conclusions given above justifies and validate the research question of the study. The research question raised for the

present study has found justifications and answers on selected variables to an extent of the areas which have been referred in recommendations in chapter 5.

through the present investigation. However, the study suggests further probe in some

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Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1. SUMMARY 5.1.1. Backdrop Participation in international sporting competitions as a host has its own advantages in terms of various tangible and intangible benefits for the host nation, city and people. These benefits are associated with a set of responsibilities in terms of making and coming up to the standards and expectations of international audiences including

investments, development of infrastructure, public support for smooth conduct of games, the participants of the games, visitors, organising and monitoring technical committees, region or a city which hosts a major sporting event attracting global attention is affected

media and the people of the host nation / city. It may be appropriate to state that a center, in many positive and negative ways. It could not be different in the case of

Commonwealth Games-2010 (here after refereed as CWG-2010) as the set of rational thinking further takes in account the traditional acceptance that sport is a play,

expectations and responsibilities go hand in hand with such honors to the host. Such a fun and relaxation; is an activity of life involvement; is an industry and a business; is an information and inculcation of values which are reinforced in the society; is a culture, which is promoted like any other in the society. Thus, sports have a deep connection with the industrialization, urbanization, and technical advancement etc. and it is innocent in its appeal, but it is a carefully structured innocent phenomenon to maintain its value orientation. Such connotations of sport lead to believe that Delhi will be

influenced in its outlook and cult for life on account of CWG-2010 reflecting the modern values and avenues. Hence, it becomes natural that development of sports/ understood especially in present context for realizing primarily the influence of sporting events of mega scale and its impact on Delhi must be well studied and Commonwealth Games-2010. How public perceives the CWG-2010 need to be understood and explained in terms of the gains of public at large by expected development, investments of public funds, effect on economy, change in morale and culture of people at large and use of infrastructure and facilities. Due to organisation of
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CWG-2010 a change was expected in status and standard of life along with increased participation in sporting event and activities. Due to the fact that New Delhi was the higher level long term effect linked with CWG-2010becomes a natural field of enquiry. 5.1.2. Statement of the Problem Within the observed set of considerations, the research scholar was inspired to Commonwealth Games-2010. 5.1.3. Objectives of the Study
To study the public perception on CWG-2010 regarding:

second Asian country and third developing country to host CWG-2010, broader and

undertake the present study entitled, A Study on Public Perception of

1. Involvement of citizens 3. Influence on economy

2. Public and sports infrastructure creation, utilization and up-gradation 4. Sport consciousness and sports education program 5. Influence on cultural outlook 5.1.4. Research Question The research question for the present study was:

How do people of Delhi perceive Commonwealth Games-2010 in terms of its influence

on: involvement of public in CWG-2010; creation, utilization, up-gradation of public and towards sports and sports education programs; and promotion of cultural outlook? 5.1.5. Limitations 2. Difference in awareness of the respondents due to their economic background and 3. Awareness of respondents may vary due to longitudinal approach as point of time for administering the opinionnaire was not same for all the residents of Delhi.
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sports infrastructure; economy and allocation of CWG-2010 to Delhi; consciousness

1. Mood of the respondent while giving answers to the items; educational qualification;

Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1.6. Delimitations 2. The age of the subjects selected for the study was 18 and above. further confined to 35 polling stations for the study. 1. The study was confined to 700 subjects residing in Delhi.

3. The study was delimited to 7 parliamentary constituencies of Delhi, and was

5. To explore the residents perception of CWG-2010, the study was confined to five dimensions i.e. involvement of citizens; public and sports infrastructure creation, sports education program; and influence on cultural outlook. 5.1.7. Significance of the Study The study may provide an opportunity to understand residents perception of CWG2010; provide guiding principle to future policy making for such mega sports events; and understand the selected variables under study as influenced by the area of living, age and gender. This piece of research may stand as an effort to help to identify the utilization and up-gradation; influence on economy; sport consciousness and

4. Both male and female were selected for the study.

increasing marginalization of socio-cultural aspect of mega sporting events like the national and international perspectives. It may be research reference in future will fundamentally offer a broad based analysis of the Commonwealth Games-2010 occurrence and experience from the perspectives of variety of public of the host city Delhi, India.

commonwealth games. It may also support recognizing the mega sports events from investigations as an enduring attempt in sports and physical education. The research

5.1.8. Review of Literature Literature corroborates the importance of sports and mega events. Mega sport events have been studied from various perspectives to see its impact on the social, economic, cultural, political and civic ways of life of the people of the cities and countries that electronic media, websites, books, and journals.

organize those mega events. The sources of the reviewed literature were print media,

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The literature relevant to the present study that investigates public perception about CWG-2010 explores to understand impact of mega sports events from various political and cultural aspects as intangible benefits and urban development through dimensions of life of the host cities. These studies cover aspects of socio-emotional, sports facilities, architecture, city marketing, economic and tourist development aspects as tangible benefits. The strength, weakness, opportunities and threat (SWOT) of hosting mega events such as Olympic Games lead to confirm the importance of

sports, transport issues, tourism, media, positive economic impacts, and economic environmental effects of events.

growth, local values, host country images due to big sports event and the Studies relevant to procedure or methodology also have been taken into consideration. The multi-dimensional approach has been noted to be adopted to understand the dimensions of sporting events. influence of mega sports event especially to understand the cross reference of various

Points of Departure from Review of Literature The literature supports big-events such as Olympics, expos, exhibitions, and world have huge political, economic, social, and cultural impact before and after their observed by various authors and researchers is that the sport has integrated into a social system. Is it further strengthened that sport is not only physical activity as contents and forms, and it exists in the form of scientifically proven facts. cup which draw attention as large scale activities pulling international absorption and occurrences. The most noticeable and common characteristic of modern sport

organized and competitive, but also is a way of education and politics in terms of both Big sport events are an unrepeatable opportunity for the territory. Such events whose effects extend far beyond the event itself. For example, since the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games and 2002 Korea-Japan World Cup, national emotion and interest grew deeper after experiencing social and cultural changes and issues. It has now become easier to acquire nations support in a campaign for big-event.

produce significant benefits especially in terms of economic and social contributions,

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The review of related literature also verifies that sports mega events are of great importance and beneficial if public awareness is increased, as it helps in improving the image of the city and citys visibility in the international market. Literature further

reflects that biding and hosting mega sports events like Olympics, Asian Games, Commonwealth Games, FIFA World Cup are not just confined to the developed nations of Europe and America. Instead, biding for the games have been strongly presented by developing nations like Brazil (Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympics), Bahrain findings regarding their desire to host such mega events.

(2022, FIFA world cup), Poland/Ukraine (UEFA 2012) and the studies have common

On the contrary, a great deal of information indicates many errors in Olympic bid/s by

various cities due to which heavy losses have been incurred for the host cities in past. The review mentioned about empty stadiums at Beijing, Athens and many other mega events, which means no tourist, less revenue, under utilized resources and slow recovery from debts. Another critical issue considered through the review, is the venue management and marketing after the mega sport event are over, and identifying host city/ nations identified was not the games, but the selection of host cities, as high potential growth countries were more likely to apply to organize events. that which stakeholders and shareholders are key to success. The reason for growth of

Studies on cost benefit analyses reveals that conducting a sport mega event directly

wont have an impact on economy, particularly GDP per capita. Nations organizing cup events.

Olympic Games showed higher growth rates, while it was not true for FIFA world

Media coverage and support have been considered as an important tool towards marketing of the game, which helps in utilization of the potential for economic development. A reason identified towards a positive impact depends largely on saving/ protecting/reducing financial loss on games inclusive of construction cost as further depends on the effective utilization of the infrastructure development after the the developed nation get to save a large amount on infrastructure development. It games are over. The Mega sport events are in a socio-economic framework, where
Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

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volunteer aspects become important part of legacies for host nation / city for various

community development programs and national missions, which can also be

associated with opportunities for employment creation. Review upholds that tourism development on such dimensions is highly dependent for city like Delhi campaigning for enhanced presentation of cultural diversity and traditions of the city.

is an important source for economic growth through sports mega events. Economic

Hence, on the strength drawn from the literature and other general observations and professional experiences the objectives were determined for the present investigation to study the public perception of Delhi residents about CWG-2010 in terms of: creation, utilization and up-gradation of public and sports infrastructure; influence

understanding the level of awareness, involvement and outlook towards the games; on economy and allocation of Commonwealth Games-2010 to Delhi than other cities of India; awareness on various aspects of life including sport consciousness and sports education program; and impact on promotion of cultural outlook. 5.1.9. Methodology and Design Sampling Design The steps in the sampling design process were as follows: Target population: Sampling Frame: Adults above 18 years of age; Residents of Delhi; Male and Registered female members of the household constituencies of Delhi voters from seven parliamentary electoral

Sampling Technique Multistage random sampling technique, which ensures representation of political, gender, age diversity of the population within the sample was used. First stage of parliamentary electoral constituencies which divide Delhi into seven constituencies sampling involved stratification of the population of Delhi as per the division with even population in each constituency. Second stage of sampling involved the

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Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

selection of five assembly constituencies from each of the seven parliamentary

constituencies through simple cluster sampling generated through computer. The third

stage was to sample polling stations within each sampled constituency. One Polling selected through systematic random sampling. The final stage included of sampling commission. Respondents were sampled by the systematic random sampling method, which is based on a fixed interval ratio between two respondents. A list of twenty

station from each of the thirty five selected assembly constituencies were again respondents, who were selected from the electoral rolls provided by the election

sampled respondents from each of the 35 polling station was prepared, which is a comprehensive list of 700selected respondents with their complete name, address, age and gender.

Sample Size: 700 selected samples both male and female above 18 years of age from 35 selected polling stations were part of the respondents. However, the final data collection was from 512 subjects.

Unit of analysis: The unit of analysis for the present study is parliamentary constituencies. Execution: The random sampling was done through the support of computer. A substitution process was made available to replace the sample with a same age and gender, if the selected respondents were not present and/or if there was divergence in the electoral list from where the samples were selected. Selection of Variable Variable selected for the study were as given below to be studied in relation to area of living, age and gender categories: Involvement of citizens in the games and sports; Public and sports infrastructure; Economic growth; Cultural legacy; and

Sports consciousness.

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Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Development of Tool An opinionnaire was developed, consisting of 32 question of nominal and ordinal data measurement level. The construction of the tool went through various stages, initially

beginning with framing and construction of pool of items from various sources relevant to the study. Such sources included literature reviews, views of available experts, comments and suggestions by commoners and general observations made during the personal and professional interactions by the investigator during the try out and a final try out which was part of content validity. Before using the questionnaire on larger population, reliability of the tool was tested by using Testpreparatory stages of study. It was further followed by a peer group discussion, initial

Retest method. The final opinionnaire included provision for information regarding personal profile and an instruction list was also added at the front of the opinionnaire to facilitate the subjects answering to the questions. Administration of the Test and Data Collection For collecting the data, the questionnaire was administered on the public of each polling station of the 7 districts of Delhi. The opinionnaire was personally properly instructed regarding the procedure of filling the opinionnaire. Classification of Data Broadly, the data was classified on the basis of following two criteria: Geographical, i.e. area wise; and Qualitative, i.e. sex and age In the geographical classification, the data was classified on the basis of geographical difference between various items such as districts of Delhi. In qualitative analysis the data was classified on the basis of some attribute or quality discussed with the subjects , and made cleared about the objectives of the study,

such as sex i.e. males and females and each of classes were further subdivided into Less than 21 years , 22 28 years, 29 38 years, 39 55 years, 56+ years on the basis of the attribute age.

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Statistical Analysis Data measurement scale: The data available is on nominal and ordinal measurement scale; therefore, non parametric statistics would be applied for the analysis of the data. Statistics Computation To analyse the collected data the following statistics were computed. Chi-square test of independence for contingency tables between: o Area of living and perception o Gender and perception

Transmute order of merit into scores was completed by employing the formulas given by Garrett (2004,p. 328) Spearmans rho correlation for establishing reliability on 5 point Likert scale questions, upon order of priority questions respectively.

o Different Age group and perception

5.2. CONCLUSIONS Based on the interpretation of collected data, findings, discussion and support drawn from the relevant literature, following conclusions are drawn: Involvement of Residents 1. The level of awareness of CWG-2010 is independent of gender categories. 2010. Youth, middle age and senior residents (above 56 years) received the information of CWG-2010 at different times. Lower the age better was the level of However, area of residence and age difference influence the awareness of CWG-

awareness of CWG-2010. The general difference of awareness and information of span of one year in advance (for 39 and 55 years) to six months (for youth group 18 to 38 years) and of recent time (for senior residents). Residents residing in New

CWG-2010 reflected (at the time of data collection) to be in the range of time

Delhi and South Delhi had the information for one year, whereas residents of Residents of North West and West Delhi never had any information regarding the 2010 games till the survey was conducted.
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North East and East Delhi became aware of CWG-2010 in the recent past.

Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

2. Variation in perception existed among people of different age group for Delhi to be the venue of CWG-2010, although both categories of gender equally supported city in comparison to residents of other areas. Residents in 39 and 55 years of age it. North East and East Delhi residents supported maximum for Delhi as the host had least agreement regarding change of venue. Only one fourth of respondents preferred allotment of games outside Delhi. Positively supporting the scope for based on the requirement of opportunities for other cities to be benefited through hosting of CWG-20110. improvement in Delhi, their decision and preference for games out side Delhi was

3. The sense of honour for hosting CWG-2010 in Delhi was more among male than females. It was also influenced by the area of their resident and age group. Residents of North East and South Delhi had sense of pride for being a part of feeling of pride than senior residents (age group of 56 and above).

CWG-2010 than other. Youth of Delhi (below the age of 38 years) had stronger 4. Across the sections of gender supported that increased participation of women in CWG-2010 will lead to promotion of status of women, but had a variation in agreement depending upon the residents area of living. North East and South Delhi residents had stronger agreement than others from West Delhi, North Delhi and New Delhi for promotion of the status of women. 5. Perception that CWG-2010 will lead to promotion of peace and harmony existed in all irrespective of gender categories, but was varied due to the influence of dimension than residents of North, South and New Delhi. resident areas as North East and West Delhi agreed more strongly on this 6. Across the sections of sample under study perceived that CWG-2010 will develop in order of preference public infrastructure, followed by Delhi as business destination, and relationship, harmony and peace. It was least considered that CWG-2010 will influence positively living standard.

7. It was perceived that success of CWG-2010 will promote in order of preference

the sport awareness, development of sports infrastructure, and increased performance of Indian sportsmen at international level. However, promotion of culture and heritage was least preferred to be related with success of CWG-2010.

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Sports and Public Infrastructure 8. There was no difference in perception on account of gender and age on the possibility was considered equally by residents of East Delhi and West Delhi than development of public and sports infrastructure due to CWG-2010. A highest rank

agreement on this factor. Residents of East Delhi were surer about the development

other districts; however, South Delhi residents were found to be having the least of East Delhi. Residents of other districts of Delhi had expectation of overall

not have significant relation in perception on these dimensions. 9.

development across Delhi due to CWG-2010. However, gender and age group do

Self- sufficiency of Delhi about electricity situation during and after CWG-2010

was one of the main concerns among population of Delhi, although it varied residents were more positive about Delhi being self sufficient than residents of East Delhi as being least positive about it. Male and female residents were found to be more concerned for Delhis situation regarding electricity; where as young 2010.

from areas of resident, age group, and gender category. North East Delhi

and old were confidant for Delhi being self sufficient in electricity due to CWG-

10.

Improvement in public transport due to CWG-2010 was perceived by youth of

Delhi more strongly than the senior residents. The resident of North East and

North West of Delhi had strong agreement for the improved public transport than the residents of other districts, where as male and female were equal in perception on improvement of public transportation. 11. for infrastructural development. East Delhi There is a difference in perception regarding considering CWG-2010 as a reason infrastructural development could happen without CWG-2010 than other districts, whereas the youth under 21 years were unsure about considering CWG-2010 as a reason for the development. 12. residents disagreed

that

The perception varied among all groups of sample under study on developments of sports facilities in Delhi on account of CWG-2010. Youth below 21 years most strongly agreed than other age groups, and the residents of North East and

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Chandni Chowk had stronger agreement than other districts, where as gender category had perceived it equally. 13. There was difference in perception among all groups of sample under study

regarding the utilisation of sports facilities made on account of CWG-2010. groups agreed more strongly than the females; whereas the residents of all age group have the same perception towards it.

Residents of North East and East Delhi equally agreed; categories of males

14. Delhi benefitting from hosting of CWG-2010 was perceived in order of medical and health facilities. Improvement in civic amenities was ranked as Public perceived tourism and hospitality to be the most benefitting area highest preference followed by real estate; and information

priority in terms of improvement in public transport, sports facilities and forth preferred option followed by housing, shopping and entertainment malls. because of CWG-2010; sports manufacturing industry was ranked as second communication technology was the least preferred option to be considered as benefited areas on account of CWG-2010. and

Economic Growth 15. CWG-2010 will boost economic growth was perceived positively irrespective of gender and resident area. Only residents of East Delhi agreed strongly that there was awareness about investment on CWG-2010. Sports Consciousness 16. Sports consciousness will be promoted on account of CWG-2010 is positively perceived across the gender categories, but it was influenced by resident area. Residents of North East, North West and South Delhi strongly agree than residents of other districts of Delhi. Residents of East Delhi and North West Delhi and both male and females of all age groups equally agreed that CWG2010 will enhance attraction of residents towards the profession of physical education and sports.

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17.

Males agreed more than females, residents of East Delhi had stronger agreement than South Delhi population, and residents of the age group of 18 to 21 years of health and fitness among public of Delhi. agreed more than any other age groups that CWG-2010 will lead to promotion

18.

Volunteering during CWG-2010 has not been perceived as a dimension for getting involved in CWG-2010 across the sample population. Residents of 18 to 38 years (only males) wanted to be volunteers than the senior residents. The residents of East Delhi, North West Delhi and South Delhi wanted to volunteer in the CWG-2010 more than residents from other districts of Delhi.

Culture 19. A mix of perception existed among residents of Delhi about influence of CWGbackgrounds, and for Delhi- residents to be representatives of India. 2010 on tourism, promotion of Indian traditional cultural aspects on other

Population of North East Delhi agreed strongly than others and the age group

not see any threat to Indian culture due to CWG-2010, where as the residents of North West Delhi, West Delhi and South Delhi agreed that there is threat to and New Delhi were found to be not aware about it.

through CWG-2010. The residents of Chandni Chowk and North East Delhi did

between the age group of 29 to 38 years perceived that tourism will be promoted

Indian culture on account of hosting of CWG-2010, and residents of East Delhi There were contradictory perceptions about residents of Delhi to be perception about it than others, where as New Delhi and South Delhi residents regarding than the senior residents of the age group (above 56 years). However, there was no difference found in the perception on this dimension due to gender difference.

representative of Indian cultures. North Delhi residents had strong positive perception was contradictory. The youth of Delhi have strong agreement

Public perceived that CWG-2010 will lead to promotion of Indian culture diversity followed by Indian food/cuisine; however, hospitality and spirituality

among other backgrounds and societies in terms of promotion of culture

were least preferred option in order of priority.


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Research Question Qualified in Findings and Conclusions The research question for the presented study was, How do people of Delhi perceive Commonwealth Games-2010 in terms of its influence on: involvement of public in CWG-2010; creation, utilization, up-gradation of public and sports infrastructure;

economy and allocation of CWG-2010 to Delhi; consciousness towards sports and sports education programs; and promotion of cultural outlook? the research question is cross- referred and qualified as relative to the overview of the findings of the present study and conclusion drawn from the findings:

out of such mega sport events are reflected in the overview of findings of the present study, although these were found to be varying in its strength and intensity in relation to area of living, age and gender categories of sample under study. Findings of the study corroborated the perceived tangibles benefits in terms of public infrastructure,

An overview of findings indicates that tangible and intangible benefits perceived

sports facilities, economic growth, and sports participation through Commonwealth and recreation facilities have been highly influenced by the area of residence (Table

Games-2010. Specific issues regarding infrastructure, electricity, Transport, Sports 10, 12, 13, and 15). People living in certain areas only could perceive the did not lead to uniform development across Delhi. Common perception was found 2010 utilization of facilities (Table 16). Difference in perception of public was found

opportunities of facilities and infrastructure development (Table 14) as CWG-2010 among majority for getting improved transport system across the city and post CWGabout the economic benefits to Delhi due to CWG-2010 in relation to people living at

different parts of Delhi (Table 20). Findings also indicated that life style, belief in value system, experience and background of people have impact on their perception regarding economic benefits of games on account of investment made in CWG-2010 by international companies (Table 22). People perceived creation of employment opportunities (Table 21) corresponding that tourism and hospitality will be the most benefited sector (Table 18) but wont lead to economic growth of the city through games related venues and facilities are being developed) also positively perceived increase in employment opportunities; whereas people of New Delhi (dominated by
154

other industries. People living in East Delhi and North East Delhi (where most of the

Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

government employees) and of South Delhi (who have the past experience of 1982 CWG-2010.

Asiad ) disagreed on enhanced opportunities of employment and tourism due to Findings of the study confirm the perceived intangible benefits in terms of women

status, peace and harmony, Sport Consciousness, and Culture through Commonwealth feeling for being part of CWG-2010, women empowerment, peace and harmony in relation to the place of living (Table 5, 6, 7) and area of residence (FICCI, 2010). A

Games-2010. Varied perception was found on awareness of CWG-2010, proud

mix of perception existed among residents of Delhi about influence of CWG 2010 on tourism, promotion of Indian traditional cultural aspects and for residents of Delhi to influenced from the area of living and perhaps was impacted by the plans and policies of the organizing committee, required publicity and media support to pronounce the be representatives as ambassadors of India (Table 29, 30, 31). The perception was

intangible benefits of such events among the people (Rehman, 2010). The study found of culture, promotion of Olympic values and its impact on school education curriculum.

variation in perception that CWG-2010 could be an effective medium for promotion

although with a different degree and intensity in relation to various variables under

A review of conclusions indicates that people of Delhi were involved in CWG-2010

study. The people were aware of CWG-2010 to be held in Delhi and the information was evenly spread among all the demographic area of Delhi and gender. But the time residence and age group. Television, newspapers and internet were found to be the most important source of information in order of priority, but it was perceived that period for getting information of CWG-2010 varied dependent on the area of

even distribution of information was missing, especially for the people living in of data collection. Such a variation in public perception most likely may be because one, people of particular area or age group were not connected with the games due to

Chandni Chowk and West Delhi who were not aware about CWG-2010 until the time

lack of information campaign by government and /or organizing committee, and,

second, due to absence of timely media promotion of CWG-2010 and other related

ongoing initiatives. Public considers CWG-2010 to be beneficial for development of


155 Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

public infrastructure, but, success of CWG-2010 is related with promotion of sports

awareness among the citizens. A gap is indicated between the expected general

benefits of CWG-2010 and expectation of the people of the host city. Perception of harmony has variation in relation to the place of living. Perhaps the lack of awareness

proud feeling for being part of CWG-2010, women empowerment, and peace and program regarding the intangible benefits has contributed towards this factor. A difference in perception for Delhi as a host city was observed among people of requirement of infrastructure development than Delhi. It conveys that people perceive being focused to a particular city. different districts of Delhi and age groups. It is indicated that other cities have greater mega events like CWG-2010 as opportunity for development of a nation at large than An optimist and positive perception from public of Delhi of all age group and gender

is indicative for Delhis capabilities to host CWG-2010. But, perception on specific facilities have been highly influenced by their area of residence as well as age group.

issues including infrastructure like electricity, transport, sports and recreation A common consensus does not appear on the issue of infrastructure development

among people living in different parts of Delhi and from different age groups, which reveals that development across Delhi was not uniform and people living in some areas only could visualise the opportunities on account of CWG-2010. People across transport system across the city due to CWG-2010. People from all parts of Delhi and age groups have shown a deep interest in the utilization of post games facilities.

Delhi do have a common expectation from the games in the form of getting improved

There is a strong difference reflected in public perception on economic benefits to Delhi from CWG-2010 in relation to the areas of living. Perception of people on huge investment for CWG-2010 is highly influenced by the place of living and the age

group. People varied in their perception due to their personal life style, standing in

experiences, and belief in value system, but they had a common perception about coincides with peoples ranking tourism and hospitality as the most benefited sector would not lead to economic growth of the city or industries.
156

CWG-2010 to create more employment opportunities. Such perceptions also by hosting CWG-2010 and creating employment opportunities, but, agreed that it

Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Residents perceive CWG-2010 to be helpful in promotion of health and fitness and perceive an increase in sports consciousness. The residents of Delhi also support for working as volunteers towards the success of the games because public are aware about the games, and they want the games to be successfully held in Delhi, because they expect the games to bring benefits to them in terms of infrastructure, economy,

health, living standards; and to fulfil these expectations of the public. A mixed perception existed among residents of Delhi about influence of CWG-2010 on tourism, promotion of Indian traditional cultural aspects in other backgrounds, and for CWG-2010 will lead to promotion of Indian culture among people from other

Delhi- residents to be representative ambassadors of India. Public perceived that backgrounds in terms of promotion of culture diversity followed by Indian food/cuisine; however, hospitality and spirituality were least preferred option in order of priority.

Based on the over view of findings and review of conclusions the closing note logically states that the overview of the findings and conclusions given above justifies and validate the research question of the study. The research question raised for the

present study has found justifications and answers on selected variables to an extent of the areas which have been referred in recommendations. 5.3. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the conclusion drawn from data interpretation, findings, discussion and consideration: support of relevant literature, following recommendations are in position for 1. The level of awareness of CWG-2010 was found to be independent of gender categories. However, Area of residence and age difference influenced the mega sport events, it is considered that:

through the present investigation. However, the study suggests further probe in some

awareness of CWG-2010. Therefore, to promote involvement of citizens in such i. Marketing of such events must involve all segments of population and from all areas of residents so to bring their participation and contribution and to bring a sense of pride and membership in such prestige events.
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Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

ii. Benefits expected to be accrued from such mega sport event must be pronounced strongly to reach across the population. iii. Such events that are positioned as ambassador of peace and harmony must be preceded by the activities to invite greater involvement of citizens of hosting cities. Such activities may include grass root level sports, debates, fairs, health leadership programs.

discussion, road shows, fitness groups, and peace and ambassadorship iv. The organising committees and other stakeholders in such mega events (such as government and nongovernment organisations) must have pre-evaluation of impact of such events; and roll out programs to promote better perception and involvement of local public contributing towards successful organisation. perception and measure the real gains in terms of :

2. A post impact study of CWG-2010 may be conducted to match up the public i. Development of public infrastructure, Delhi as business destination, CWGliving standard;

2010 as promoting relationship, harmony and peace and improvement in

ii. Promotion of sport and fitness consciousness, awareness of volunteering, sportsmen at international level as well as promotion of culture and heritage;

development of sports infrastructure, and increased performance of Indian

iii. The extent of self-sufficiency of city Delhi showed during and as showing

post-CWG-2010 with special reference to improved services of electricity, and civic amenities; and

public transport, utilisation of sports facilities, medical and health facilities iv. Influence of CWG-2010 on economy growth in special reference to increased job opportunities, promotion in investment by international companies and communities, and foreign investment.

3. A study may be undertaken on the procedure involved for comprising organising and its awareness among public at large to evaluate the efforts and influence of publicity campaigns to promote such sport events matching up to perception and expectations of public.
158

committee, and mechanism adopted by the committee to promote the CWG-2010

Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

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Annexures

Annexure A

DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF DELHI AND SELECTED AREAS FOR DATA COLLECTION


S.No. Parliament constituency CHANDNI CHOWK 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 4 NEW DELHI 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Assembly constituency SHALIMAR BAGH MODEL TOWN MATIA MAHAL BALLIMARAN Total SEEMAPURI ROHTAS NAGAR GHONDA KARAWAL NAGAR Total JANGPURA PATPAR GANJ LAXMI NAGAR MATIA MAHAL Polling station PITAMPURA SHAKTI NAGAR CHAWDI BAZAR, JAMA MASJID TURKMAN GATE IIDGAH ROAD NAND NAGRI NAND NAGRI JAI PRAKASH NAGAR SONIA VIHAR DUSRA PUSHTASONIA VIHAR JANGPURA EXT. VINOD NAGR LALITA PARK SANJAY AMAR COLONY A-KRISHNA NAGRA DEV NAGAR PATEL NAGR WEST OLD RAJENDER NAGAR KOTLA MUBARAK PUR Albert square BHALSWA DAIRY VIJAY VIHAR NANGLOI F-MANGOLPURI C-MANGOLPURI SANT GARH VIRENDER NAGAR CHANAKYA PLACE TILANGPUR KOTLA VIHAR RANAJI ENCLAVE BAMNOLI NEB SARAI AMBEKAR NAGAR PEHLADPUR PEHLADPUR Male Female Total

781967

628513

1410180

NORT EAST

KARAWAL NAGAR

928555

744053

1672608

EAST DELHI

VISHWAS NAGAR KRISHNA NAGAR Total KAROL NAGAR PATEL NAGAR RAJENDER NAGAR KASTURBA NAGAR New Delhi Total BADLI RITHALA MUNDKA MANGOLPURI MANGOL PURI Total TILAK NAGAR JANAK PURI JANAK PURI VIKAS PURI

891996

712184

1604180

83278

62445

145723

NORTH WEST

1000204

794074

1794278

WEST DELHI

SOUTH DELHI

MATIALA Total BIJWASAN MEHRAULI AMBEKAR NAGAR TUGLAKABAD TUGLAKABAD Total Total

917966

766309

1684275

889426 6171115

650342 4897600

1539768 11068715

Annexure-B

LIST OF EXPERTS
List of Experts used for consultation regarding the study at different stages: Prof. D.N. Sansanwal Prof. M.L.Kamlesh Prof S.N.Sharma Prof. R.N. Dey Dr. Rajbir Singh Prof. B.C.Kapri Prof. YogendraYadav Former Head, Dept Education, Devi AhilyaVishwaVidyalaya Former Principal LNIPE, Trivandrum Punjab University, Chandigarh LNUPE, Gwalior Associate Professor, IGIPESS, DU Head, Dept of Physical Education, BHU, Varanasi Senior Fellow, CSDS, Delhi

Annexure-C

LIST OF COLLEGUES WORKED AS INTERVIEWERS

Mr. Rakesh Kumar Mr. Praveen Lawrence Mr. Deepak Mehra Ms. Deepika Sharma Mr. Kamal Mr. VikasRawat Mr. Nikhil

Research Scholar, Delhi University Teacher, St. Fransis De Sales, Delhi Research Scholar, Delhi University Teacher, Delhi Teacher, Delhi Teacher, Army Public School, Delhi P.G., Student, Delhi University

Annexure-D OPINIONNAIRE FOR THE SURVEY


DATE: PERSONAL DETAILS: NAME AGE GENDER EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OCCUPATION/PROFESSION RESIDENCE ADDRESS Ph E-Mail : : : Male / Female : : : : :

Commonwealth Games are a multinational, multi sports event for the Commonwealth nations. Commonwealth Games Federation organizes it at every four year. With the increased commercialization in sports and its social influence, Commonwealth Games-2010 Delhi is being studied in perspective of the perception of public about Commonwealth Games. Objective of the opinionnaire is to study perception of the public of Delhi regarding COMMONWEALTH GAMES-2010. The statement of problem under study is, Study on Public Perception of Commonwealth Games2010. The items of the opinionnaire seek information on perception regarding: Projection of India as an economic power due to CommonwealthGames-2010. Public and sports infrastructure Involvement of citizens in the games Cultural legacy Sports consciousness For the purpose of achieving the objective, different parameters have been set. Each segment of parameter represents specific variable. You are requested to kindly give the information as you feel appropriate to the best of your belief. How to fill the opinionnaire

The opinionnaire has two types of questions, Type I is of multiple choice questions, out of which one option has to be tick marked Example: Are you happy to play host for CommonwealthGames-2010? i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree Type II is the questions in which available options need to be arranged in order of priority, write 1 in front of the option for which you prefer the most followed by 2, 3, 4. Example: Which country will get the max medals during COMMONWEALTH GAMES-2010, New Delhi? Rearrange in order of priority I. CANADA 3 II. BRITAIN 4 III. INDIA 1 IV. AUSTRALIA 2 In the above example India has max chances to win the medals followed by Australia, Canada and Britain. Thanks for your valuable time. Kindly give your Suggestions, Opinions and Input regarding the opinionnaire , so that your valuable suggestions could be incorporated into the opinionnaire to make it more effective.

The opinionnaire is divided into five sections. Respondents are requested to fill all the sections.

1. 2.

Are you aware that Commonwealth Games are to be held in New Delhi in 2010? YES NO If yes, when did u come to know? i) Today ii) Recently iii) 6 month before iv) More than 1 year Do you think CommonwealthGames-2010 should have been allotted to any other city in India other than Delhi? YES NO If YES, why? (tick mark any one) i) Delhi has all the required infrastructure ii) There is no scope for improvement in Delhi iii) Other cities has greater requirement than Delhi _____ _____ _____

3. 4.

5.

Do you think organizing Commonwealth Games would be a bridge to develop? (Rearrange in order of priority). i) Public Infrastructure ____ ii) Delhi as business destination ____ iii) Relationship, harmony and peace ____ iv) Living standard improvement ____ Success of CommonwealthGames-2010 would mean to you as? (Rearrange in order of priority). i) Promotion of sport awareness, among citizens. ____ ii) Promotion of culture and heritage ____ iii) Development of Sports Infrastructure ____ iv) Increase in performance of Indian sportsmen at International level. ____ It is a proud feeling of being a part of CommonwealthGames-2010. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree Increased participation of women in CommonwealthGames-2010 would promote the status of women in our society. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree CommonwealthGames-2010 would help in promoting peace & harmony around the world. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree

6.

7. 8.

9.

10. How do you think that New Delhi will be benefited by hosting CommonwealthGames-2010? (Rearrange in order of priority). i) Housing _____ ii) Medical and Health facilities _____ iii) Public Transport (road, rail, air transport) _____ iv) Sports Facilities _____ v) Civic Amenities ( water, electricity) _____ vi) Shopping, Entertainment mall and complex _____ Any other, Specify _____________________________________ 11. Delhi has all required resources for conducting CommonwealthGames-2010. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 12. CommonwealthGames-2010 will uplift the status of East Delhi like it happened to south Delhi after 1982 Asiad. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree

13. Delhi will become self sufficient in generating electricity due to CommonwealthGames-2010. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 14. CommonwealthGames-2010 will help Delhi to improve public transport in the city. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 15. Infrastructure development in Delhi could have happened without Commonwealth Games also. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 16. Public of Delhi will have better facilities for sports and recreation around their locality due to CommonwealthGames-2010. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 17. Would like to use the Post Games Sports facilities due to commonwealth games. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 18. According to you, which of the following would be most benefited out of CommonwealthGames-2010? (Rearrange in order of priority) i) Tourism and Hospitality _____ ii) Real Estate _____ iii) Information and Communication technology _____ iv) Sports manufacturing industry _____ Any other, specify _____ 19. Are you aware of huge investment for Commonwealth Games? YES NO 20. CommonwealthGames-2010 would help in improving the economic growth of the city. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 21. CommonwealthGames-2010 would create more job/ employment opportunities for the public. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 22. CommonwealthGames-2010 would promote investment by international companies/ communities. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 23. Thinking about Commonwealth Games-2010 where would you say you get your information from? (Rearrange in order of priority) i) Newspapers ______ ii) Televisions ______ iii) Internet ______ iv) Friends/Family/colleagues ______ I dont get any information ______ 24. Commonwealth Games-2010 would promote sports in India. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 25. CommonwealthGames-2010 would attract more people towards the profession of Physical education and Sports. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree

26. Conduct of CommonwealthGames-2010 would promote health and fitness among the people of Delhi. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 27. There would be an increased participation in sports and physical activity by the people of Delhi due to commonwealth games to be held in 2010. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 28. Are you willing to volunteer yourself for CommonwealthGames-2010? Yes No 29. CommonwealthGames-2010 will promote tourism in Delhi i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 30. Which of the following elements of Indian Culture would be promoted through CommonwealthGames2010? (Rearrange in order of priority) i) Indian food/cuisine _______________ ii) Spirituality _______________ iii) Cultural diversity _______________ iv) Indian hospitality _______________ 31. There is a threat to Indian cultural values due to CommonwealthGames-2010 i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree 32. People of Delhi will present themselves as ambassadors of Indian culture. i) Strongly agree ii) Slightly agree iii) Unsure iv) Slightly disagree v) Strongly disagree