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A SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON

JOB STRESS AT HDFC BANK

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (BBA)

TRAINING SUPERVISOR: MS. SUBHASH VERMA (BRANCH MANAGER)

SUBMITTED BY: ANMOL CHUGH ENROLLMENT NO. 15824401710

SESSION 2010 - 2013

GURU GOBIND SINGH INDRAPRASTHA UNIVERSITY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my heartiest gratitude to the management of HDFC Bank especially to Mr. Subhash Verma (Branch Manager) for giving me the opportunity of under going my summer training at their office. I convey my heartfelt affection to all those people who helped and supported me during the course, for completion of my Project Report.

ANMOL CHUGH

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.

INTRODUCTION 1-4

2.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

6 7

3. 4.

DISCUSSING ALL ABOUT STRESS AT WORK 8-41 GROWTH OF HUMAN RESOURCE 42-44

5.

DEVELOPMENT FUNCTIONS IN BANKS SWOT ANALYSIS


6.

SOME EFFECTIVE PRACTICES & MESURES OF 49-51 52-

REDUCING THE JOB STRESS


7.

DATA ANALYSIS

63
8.

SUGGESTION TO IMPROVE WORKING CONDITIONS, REDUCE STRESS


9. 10.

64 65 66

CONCLUSION APPENDIX

11.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

67

INTRODUCTION
HDFC BANK BANK PROFILE
The Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC) was amongst the first to receive an 'in principle' approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to set up a bank in the private sector, as part of the RBI's liberalisation of the Indian Banking Industry in 1994. The bank was incorporated in August 1994 in the name of 'HDFC Bank Limited', with its registered office in Mumbai, India. HDFC Bank commenced operations as a Scheduled Commercial Bank in January 1995. Awards and Achievements - Banking Services HDFC Bank began operations in 1995 with a simple mission: to be a "World-class Indian Bank". We realised that only a single-minded focus on product quality and service excellence would help us get there. Today, we are proud to say that we are well on our way towards that goal. It is extremely gratifying that our efforts towards providing customer convenience have been appreciated both nationally and internationally. 2006 Business Today Forbes Magazine Best Bank in India. One of Asia Pacific's Best 50 companies.

Businessworld

Best listed Bank of India.

The Asset Magazine's Triple A Country Awards Best Domestic Bank. Asiamoney Awards Best Local Cash Management Bank in Large and Medium segments. Euromoney Awards "Best Bank" in India. 2005 Asiamoney Awards Best Domestic Commercial Bank Asiamoney Awards Best Cash Management Bank - India . The Asian Banker Excellence in India. Hong Kong-based Finance Asia magazineBest Bank India Economic Times Awards Excellence. Asiamoney also named the bank: Best Local Cash Management Bank in India 2004 - US$11-100m Best Local Cash Management Bank in India 2004 - >US$501m Best Local Cash Management Bank in India 1989-2004 (poll of polls) Best Overall Domestic Trade Finance Services in India 2004 Most Improved company for Best Management Practices in India 2004 The Business Today-KPMG Survey published in the leading Indian business magazine Business Today has named HDFC Bank "Best Bank in India" for the third consecutive year in 2005. The Asset magazine named HDFC Bank "Best Cash Management Bank" and "Best Trade Finance Bank" in India, in 2006. "Company of the Year" Award for Corporate Retail Banking Risk Management Award

HDFC Bank named the "Most Customer Responsive Company - Banking and Financial Services in The Economic Times - Avaya Global Connect Customer Responsiveness Awards 2005" HDFC Bank has been named Best Domestic Bank in India in The Asset Triple A Country Awards 2005. HDFC Bank has been named Best Domestic Bank in India Region in The Asset Triple A Country Awards 2004 and 2003. In 2004, HDFC Bank was selected by BusinessWorld as "One of India's Most Respected Companies" as part of The Business World Most Respected Company Awards 2004. In 2004, Forbes Global again named us in its listing of Best Under a Billion, 100 Best Smaller Size Enterprises in Asia/Pacific and Europe, in its November 1, 2004 issue. In 2004, HDFC Bank won the award for "Operational Excellence in Retail Financial Services" - India as part of the Asian Banker Awards 2003. In 2003, Forbes Global named us in its ranking of "Best Under a Billion, 200 Best Small Companies for 2003". Leading business newspaper The Financial Express named HDFC Bank the "Best New Private Sector Bank 2003" in the FE-Ernst & Young Best Banks Survey 2003. Leading Personal Finance Magazine in India Outlook Money named HDFC Bank the "Best Bank in the Private Sector" for the year 2003. Leading Indian business magazine Business Today in a survey rated us "Best Bank in India" 2003, and "Best Private Sector Bank" in India in 1999. NASSCOM and economictimes.com have named us the 'Best IT User in Banking' at the IT Users Awards 2003. There have been some other proud moments as well:

London-based Euromoney magazine gave us the award for "Best Bank India" in 1999, "Best Domestic Bank" in India in 2000, and "Best Bank in India" in 2001 and 2002 Asiamoney magazine has named us "Best Commercial Bank in India 2002". For our use of information technology we have been recognized as a "Computerworld Honors Laureate" and awarded the 21st Century Achievement Award in 2002 for Finance, Insurance & Real Estate category by Computerworld, Inc., USA. Our technology initiative has been included as a case study in their online global archives.The Economic Times has conferred on us The Economic Times Awards for Corporate Excellence as the Emerging Company of the Year 2000-01. Leading Indian business magazine Business India named us "India's Best Bank" in 2000. In the year 2000, leading financial magazine Forbes Global named us in its list of "The 300 Best Small Companies" in the world and as one of the "20 for 2001" best small companies in the world. We are aware that all these awards are mere milestones in the continuing, never-ending journey of providing excellent service to our customers. We are confident, however, that with your feedback and support, we will be able to maintain and improve our services.

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
HDFC Bank recognizes the importance of good corporate governance, which is generally accepted as a key factor in attaining fairness for all stakeholders and

achieving organizational efficiency. This Corporate Governance Policy, therefore, is established to provide a direction and framework for managing and monitoring the bank in accordance with the principles of good corporate governance.

LIBERALIZATION AND THE REFORM PROCESS


Impact of liberalization on the banking sector Until 1991, the financial sector in India was heavily controlled and commercial banks and term lending institutions; the two dominant financial intermediaries had mutually exclusive roles and objectives and operated in a largely stable environment, with little or no competition. Term lending institutions were focused on the achievement of the Indian governments various socio-economic objectives, including balanced industrial growth and employment creation, especially in areas requiring development. The lending institutions provided access to long-term funds at subsidized rates through loans and equity from the government of India and from funds guaranteed by the government of India originating from commercial banks in India and foreign currency resources originating from multilateral and bilateral agencies. The focus of the commercial banks was primarily to mobilize household savings through demand and time deposits and to use these deposits to meet the short-term financial needs of borrowers in industry, trade and agriculture. In addition, the commercial banks provided a range of banking services to individuals and businesses. However, since 1991, there have been comprehensive changes in the Indian financial system. Various financial sector reforms, implemented since 1991, have transformed the operating environment of the banks and long term lending institutions. In particular the deregulation of interest rates, the emergence of a liberalized domestic capital market and entry of new private sector banks, along with the broadening of term lending institutions product portfolios, have progressively intensified the competition among banks and term lending

institutions. The RBI has permitted the transformation of term lending institutions into banks subject to compliance with the applicable law. BANKING SECTOR REFORMS Most large banks in India were nationalized in 1969 and thereafter were subject to a high degree of control until reform begins in 1991. In addition to controlling interest rates and entry into the banking sector, the regulations also channelled lending into priority sectors. Banks were required to fund the public sector through the mandatory acquisition of low interest bearing government securities or statutory liquidity ratio bonds to fulfil statutory liquidity requirements. As a result, bank profitability was low, non-performing assets were comparatively high, capital adequacy was diminished and operational flexibility was hindered.

JOB STRESS

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of my research study 1. To make a study of the factors that lead to Job Stress among the employees of HDFC BANK. 2. To suggest measures and practices to reduce the Job stress among the employees.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
SAMPLING DESIGN Universe: Sampling unit: Sample size: SAMPLING PROCEDURE Simple Random Sampling to select the sample from HDFC BANK IN NEW DELHI. DATA COLLECTION Sources of data: 1) Primary Data which included the input received from directly the employees through questionnaire and interview 2) Secondary data from the HR manual, policy manuals, books and internet etc. Method of collecting data: STATISTICAL TOOL USED The data was shown with the help of matrix table and bar diagrams. Questionnaire (Schedule) & Interview method HDFC BANKS IN NEW DELHI. Employees in HDFC BANK IN NEW DELHI 100 employees

DISCUSSING ALL ABOUT STRESS AT WORK


Stress at work is a relatively new phenomenon of modern lifestyles. The nature of work has gone through drastic changes over the last century and it is still changing at whirlwind speed. They have touched almost all professions, starting from an artist to a surgeon, or a commercial pilot to a sales executive. With change comes stress, inevitably. Professional stress or job stress poses a threat to physical health. Work related stress in the life of organized workers, consequently, affects the health of organizations. WHAT'S IT? Job stress is a chronic disease caused by conditions in the workplace that negatively affect an individual's performance and/or overall well-being of his body and mind. One or more of a host of physical and mental illnesses manifests job stress. In some cases, job stress can be disabling. In chronic cases a psychiatric consultation is usually required to validate the reason and degree of work related stress. Working on a project on stress at work, Andy Ellis, Ruskin College, Oxford, UK, has shown how stress can adversely affect an employee's performance. In the early stages job stress can 'rev up' the body and enhance performance in the workplace, thus the term 'I perform better under pressure'. However, if this condition is allowed to go unchecked and the body is revved up further, the performance ultimately declines and the person's health degenerates.

SIGNS OF JOB STRESS The signs of job stress vary from person to person, depending on the particular situation, how long the individual has been subjected to the stressors, and the intensity of the stress itself. Typical symptoms of job stress can be: Insomnia Loss of mental concentration, Anxiety, stress Absenteeism Depression, Substance abuse, Extreme anger and frustration, Family conflict Physical illnesses such as heart disease, migraine, headaches, stomach problems, and back problems.

Job stress may be caused by a complex set of reasons. Some of the most visible causes of workplace stress are: JOB INSECURITY Organized workplaces are going through metamorphic changes under intense economic transformations and consequent pressures. Reorganizations, takeovers, mergers, downsizing and other changes have become major stressors for employees, as companies try to live up to the competition to survive. These reformations have put demand on everyone, from a CEO to a mere executive.

HIGH DEMAND FOR PERFORMANCE Unrealistic expectations, especially in the time of corporate reorganizations, which, sometimes, puts unhealthy and unreasonable pressures on the employee, can be a tremendous source of stress and suffering. Increased workload, extremely long work hours and intense pressure to perform at peak levels all the time for the same pay, can actually leave an employees physically and emotionally drained. Excessive travel and too much time away from family also contribute to an employee's stressors.

TECHNOLOGY
The expansion of technologycomputers, pagers, cell phones, fax machines and the Internethas resulted in heightened expectations for productivity, speed and efficiency, increasing pressure on the individual worker to constantly operate at peak performance levels. Workers working with heavy machinery are under constant stress to remain alert. In this case both the worker and their family members live under constant mental stress. There is also the constant pressure to keep up with technological breakthroughs and improvisations, forcing employees to learn new software all the times.

WORKPLACE CULTURE
Adjusting to the workplace culture, whether in a new company or not, can be intensely stressful. Making oneself adapt to the various aspects of workplace culture such as communication patterns, hierarchy, dress code if any, workspace and most importantly working and behavioral patterns of the boss as well as the co-workers, can be a lesson of life. Maladjustment to workplace cultures may lead to subtle conflicts with colleagues or even with superiors. In many cases office politics or gossips can be major stress inducers.

PERSONAL OR FAMILY PROBLEMS Employees going through personal or family problems tend to carry their worries and anxieties to the workplace. When one is in a depressed mood, his unfocused attention or lack of motivation affects his ability to carry out job responsibilities. JOB STRESS AND WOMEN Women may suffer from mental and physical harassment at workplaces, apart from the common job stress. Sexual harassment in workplace has been a major source of worry for women, since long. Women may suffer from tremendous stress such as 'hostile work environment harassment', which is defined in legal terms as 'offensive or intimidating behavior in the workplace'. This can consist of unwelcome verbal or physical conduct. These can be a constant source of tension for women in job sectors. Also, subtle discriminations at workplaces, family pressure and societal demands add to these stress factors. Because change is constant in life, stress is an integral part of it. Since we don't want to perish under it, we have to adhere to the bottom line for survivaladapt.

LONG-TERM TIPS TO SURVIVE STRESS


Even if we feel secured in a habituated life, the truth remains that changing with the times makes one's position more secure. In today's business climate, you must continually be prepared for changes to avoid stress and survive in the competitive world. Find and protect whatever time you get to refresh, re-energize and re-motivate yourself. Spend quality time with your family. This can be an excellent source of emotional and moral support.

Avoid giving in to alcohol, smoking and other substance abuses while under constant stress. Develop positive attitudes towards stressful situations in life. Give up negative mental traits such as fear, anger and revengeful attitudes, which actually germinate stress. Try to revert to holistic relaxation and personal growth techniques such as meditation, breathing and exercises, to remodel your lifestyles. In case of chronic stress consult a health professional. Reduce workplace stress by celebrating your's or your colleagues' accomplishments. Adapting to demands of stress also means changing your personality. Improve your line of communication, efficiency and learn from other's experiences. Don't be complacent. Be prepared for any change physically, emotionally and financially.

BUT, WHEN THE PERSON IS UNDER STRESS AT WORK, SOME SIMPLE PRACTICES CAN HELP: Sit straight and comfortably on the seat, and try breathing exercises. It will relax your nerves and muscles. Relax and count backwards (20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15.) Try creative visualization When under severe stress, an individual fails to take clear-cut decisions, reevaluate and reassess the priorities and lifestyles, and ultimately, tend to fall into unproductive distractions. This can be described as a classic case of 'burnout'. The 'burnouts' often engage in reckless or risk-taking behaviors. Starting from glamour and sport celebrities to common men, 'burnouts' are found everywhere. Chronic Responsibility Syndrome is a kind of burnout where people get mentally and physically exhausted from their workload. The symptom is often described as "there's simply too much work to do, and no one else can do it but me". Typically it will occur in hard working, hard driven people, who become emotionally, psychologically or physically exhausted. You are at risk of burnout where: You find it difficult to say 'no' to additional commitments or responsibilities You have been under intense and sustained pressure for some time Your high standards make it difficult to delegate to assistants You have been trying to achieve too much for too long You have been giving too much emotional support for too long Often burnout will manifest itself in a reduction in motivation, volume and quality of performance, or in dissatisfaction with or departure from the activity altogether.

ARE YOU IN DANGER OF BURNING OUT?


If you feel that you are in danger of burning out, the suggestions below can help you correct the situation: Re-evaluate your goals and prioritize them Evaluate the demands placed on you and see how they fit in with your goals dentify your ability to comfortably meet these demands. If people demand too much emotional energy, become more unapproachable and less sympathetic. Involve other people in a supportive role. Acknowledge your own humanity: remember that you have a right to pleasure and a right to relaxation Learn stress management skills Identify stressors in your life, such as work, or family. Get the support of your friends, family and even counseling in reducing stress Ensure that you are following a healthy lifestyle: Get adequate sleep and rest to maintain your energy levels Ensure that you are eating a healthy, balanced dietbad diet can make you ill or feel bad. Limit your caffeine and alcohol intake Try to recognize your spiritual needs that may have been buried under the mires of worldly pursuits Develop alternative activities such as a relaxing hobby to take your mind off problems

HAVE YOU BURNED OUT?


If you are so de-motivated that for a time you do not want to continue with what you do, then take some time off Alternatively, try to switch to another area of activity within your organization. If you come back later, you may find that you have started to enjoy the work again, and can take on only those commitments that you want. You may, however, find that you have absolutely no interest in continuing with what you are doing. In this case it may be best to drop it altogether Take support and counseling of near and dear ones to bring change to the current situation Enroll yourself with some meditation or yoga classes (to ensure group spiritual practice), gyms, aerobics or sports clubs to switch your focus, and to reorganize your priorities If you are in late stages of burnout, feeling deeply de-motivated and disenchanted with your job or life, get help from a good psychologist.

Stress at work, stress management techniques, stress reduction and relief


Employers should provide a stress-free work environment, recognise where stress is becoming a problem for staff, and take action to reduce stress. Stress in the workplace reduces productivity, increases management pressures, and makes people ill in many ways, evidence of which is still increasing. Workplace stress affects the performance of the brain, including functions of work performance; memory, concentration, and learning. In the UK over 13 million working days are lost every year because of stress. Stress is believed to trigger 70% of visits to doctors, and 85% of serious illnesses (UK HSE stress statistics). Stress at work also provides a serious risk of litigation for all employers and organisations, carrying significant liabilities for damages, bad publicity and loss of reputation. Dealing with stress-related claims also consumes vast amounts of management time. So, there are clearly strong economic and financial reasons for organisations to manage and reduce stress at work, aside from the obvious humanitarian and ethical considerations. If you are suffering from stress yourself the stress management guidelines here are just as relevant.

PEOPLE MOST AT RISK FROM STRESS


In one US study as many as 40% of workers described their jobs as very stressful. While not a scientific gauge and not measuring serious stress health problems, this gives some indication as to how prevalent work-related stress is. As regards official health records, in the UK, the nursing and teaching occupations are most affected by work-related stress, with 2% of workers at any one time suffering from work-related stress, depression and anxiety. (The figure for teachers rises to 4% when including physical conditions relating to stress.) Care workers, managers and professionals are the next highest affected occupations, with over 1% suffering from serious work-related stress at any one time. UK HSE work-related stress statistics suggest that work-related stress affects men and women in equal numbers, and that people in the 45-retirement age suffer more than younger people. More socially-based USA research suggests that the following American social groups are more prone to stress (this therefore not limited to work-related stress): young adults, women, working mothers, less educated people, divorced or widowed people, the

unemployed, isolated people, people without health insurance, city dwellers. Combined with the factors affecting stress susceptibility (detailed below), it's not difficult to see that virtually no-one is immune from stress. An American poll found that 89% of respondents had experienced serious stress at some point in their lives. The threat from stress is perceived so strongly in Japan that the Japanese even have a word for sudden death due to overwork, 'karoushi'.

Work-Related Stress Trends


Data is sparse and confused (stress statistics are also complicated by metal health reporting in the UK), but the statistics do indicate certain growth. In the UK HSE statistics indicate a doubling of reported clinical cases between 1990 and 1999. Working days lost per annum appear to have been about 6.5 million in the mid-1990's, but rose to over 13 million by 2001. Greater awareness of the stress ailment in reporting no doubt accounts for some of this variance, but one thing's for sure: the number of people suffering from work-related stress isn't reducing.

COSTS OF STRESS
UK HSE statistics suggest stress-related costs to UK employers in the region of 700m every year. The cost of stress to society is estimated at 7bn pa. (These figures were respectively 350m and 3.7bn in 1995/6 when total days lost were half present levels.)

STRESS CAUSES
Stress is caused by various factors - not all of which are work-related of course, (which incidentally doesn't reduce the employer's obligation to protect against the causes of stress at work). Causes of stress - known as stressors - are in two categories: external stressors and internal stressors.external stressors - physical conditions such as heat or cold, stressful psychological environments such as working conditions and abusive relationships, eg., bullying. internal stressors - physical ailments such as infection or inflammation, or psychological problems such as worrying about something.

From the above, it is easy to see that work can be a source of both external and internal stressors. Stressors are also described as either short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic): Short-term 'acute' stress is the reaction to immediate threat, also known as the fight or flight response. This is when the primitive part of the brain and certain chemicals within the brain cause a reaction to potentially harmful stressors or warnings (just as if preparing the body to run away or defend itself), such as noise, over-crowding, danger, bullying or harassment, or even an imagined or recalled threatening experience. When the threat subsides the body returns to normal, which is called the 'relaxation response'. (NB The relaxation response among people varies; ie., people recover from acute stress at different rates.) Long-term 'chronic' stressors are those pressures which are ongoing and continuous, when the urge to fight or flight has been suppressed. Examples of chronic stressors include: ongoing pressurised work, ongoing relationship problems, isolation, and persistent financial worries. The working environment can generate both acute and chronic stressors, but is more likely to be a source of chronic stressors. stress effects on health and performance Stress is proven beyond doubt to make people ill, and evidence is increasing as to number of ailments and diseases caused by stress. Stress is now known to contribute to heart disease; it causes hypertension and high blood pressure, and impairs the immune system. Stress is also linked to strokes, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), ulcers, diabetes, muscle and joint pain, miscarriage during pregnancy, allergies, alopecia and even premature tooth loss. Various US studies have demonstrated that removing stress improves specific aspects of health: stress management was shown to be capable of reducing the risk of heart attack by up to 75% in people with heart disease; stress management techniques, along with methods for coping with anger, contributed to a reduction of high blood pressure, and; for chronic

tension headache sufferers it was found that stress management techniques increased the effectiveness of prescribed drugs, and after six months actually equalled the effectiveness of anti-depressants. The clear implication for these ailments is that stress makes them worse. Stress significantly reduces brain functions such as memory, concentration, and learning, all of which are central to effective performance at work. Certain tests have shown up to 50% loss of performance in cognitive tests performed by stress sufferers. Some health effects caused by stress are reversible and the body and mind reverts to normal when the stress is relieved. Other health effects caused by stress are so serious that they are irreversible, and at worse are terminal. Stress is said by some to be a good thing, for themselves or others, that it promotes excitement and positive feelings. If these are the effects then it's not stress as defined here. It's the excitement and stimulus derived (by one who wants these feelings and can handle them) from working hard in a controlled and manageable way towards an achievable and realistic aim, which for sure can be very exciting, but it ain't stress. Stress is bad for people and organisations, it's a threat and a health risk, and it needs to be recognised and dealt with, not dismissed as something good, or welcomed as a badge of machismo - you might as well stick pins in your eyes.

CAUSES OF STRESS AT WORK


These are typical causes of stress at work:

bullying or harassment, by anyone, not necessarily a person's manager feeling powerless and uninvolved in determining one's own responsibilities continuous unreasonable performance demands lack of effective communication and conflict resolution lack of job security long working hours excessive time away from home and family office politics and conflict among staff a feeling that one's reward reward is not commensurate with one's responsibility

factors influencing the effects of stress and stress susceptibility


A person's susceptibility to stress can be affected by any or all of these factors, which means that everyone has a different tolerance to stressors. And in respect of certain of these factors, stress susceptibility is not fixed, so each person's stress tolerance level changes over time:

childhood experience (abuse can increase stress susceptibility) personality (certain personalities are more stress-prone than others) genetics (particularly inherited 'relaxation response', connected with serotonin levels, the brain's 'well-being chemical') immunity abnormality (as might cause certain diseases such as arthritis and eczema, which weaken stress resilience) lifestyle (principally poor diet and lack of exercise) duration and intensity of stressors (obviously...)

SIGNS OF STRESS - STRESS TEST


At a clinical level, stress in individuals can be be assessed scientifically by measuring the levels of two hormones produced by the adrenal glands: cortisol and DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone), but managers do not have ready access to these methods. Managers must therefore rely on other signs. Some of these are not exclusively due to stress, nor are they certain proof of stress, but they are indicators to prompt investigation as to whether stress is present. You can use this list of ten key stress indicators as a simple initial stress test: tick the factors applicable. How did I do?

sleep difficulties loss of appetite poor concentration or poor memory retention performance dip uncharacteristic errors or missed deadlines anger or tantrums violent or anti-social behaviour emotional outbursts alcohol or drug abuse nervous habits

Methods of personal stress management and stress relief


If you are suffering from work-related stress and it's beginning to affect, or already affecting your health, stop to think: why are you taking this risk with your body and mind? Life's short enough as it is; illness is all around us; why make matters worse? Commit to change before one day change is forced upon you. If you recognise signs of stress in a staff member, especially if you are that person's manager, don't ignore it - do something about it. It is your duty to do so. If you do not feel capable of dealing with the situation, do not ignore it; you must refer it to someone who can deal with it. You must also look for signs of non-work-related stressors or factors that increase susceptibility to stress, because these will make a person more vulnerable to workrelated stressors. These rules apply to yourself as well....

Stress relief methods are many and various. There is no single remedy that applies to every person suffering from stress, and most solutions involve a combination of remedies. Successful stress management frequently relies on reducing stress susceptibility and removing the stressors, and often factors will be both contributing to susceptibility and a direct cause. Here are some simple pointers for reducing stress susceptibility and stress itself, for yourself or to help others: stress relief pointersthink really seriously about and talk with others, to identify the causes of the stress and take steps to remove, reduce them or remove yourself (the stressed person) from the situation that causes the stress. Understand the type(s) of stressors affecting you (or the stressed person), and the contributors to the stress susceptibility - knowing what you're dealing with is essential to developing the stress management approach. improve diet - group B vitamins and magnesium are important, but potentially so are all the other vitamins and minerals: a balanced healthy diet is essential. Assess the current diet and identify where improvements should be made and commit to those improvements. reduce toxin intake - obviously tobacco, alcohol especially - they might seem to provide temporary relief but they are working against the balance of the body and contributing to stress susceptibility, and therefore increasing stress itself. take more exercise - generally, and at times when feeling very stressed - exercise burns up adrenaline and produces helpful chemicals and positive feelings. stressed people must try to be detached, step back, look from the outside at the issues that cause the stress. don't try to control things that are uncontrollable - instead adjust response, adapt. share worries - talk to someone else - off-load, loneliness is a big ally of stress, so sharing the burden is essential. increase self-awareness of personal moods and feelings - anticipate and take steps to avoid stress build-up before it becomes more serious. explore and use relaxation methods - they do work if given a chance - yoga, meditation, self-hypnosis, massage, a breath of fresh air, anything that works and can be done in the particular situation.

Note also that managing stress does not cure medical problems. Relieving stress can alleviate and speed recovery from certain illnesses, particularly those caused by stress, (which depending on circumstances can disappear when the stress is relieved); ie., relieving stress is not a substitute for conventional treatments of illness, disease and injury. Importantly, if the stress is causing serious health effects the sufferer must consult a doctor. Do not imagine that things will improve by soldiering on, or hoping that the sufferer will somehow become more resilient; things can and probably will get worse. For less serious forms of stress, simply identify the cause(s) of stress, then to commit/agree to removing the cause(s). If appropriate this may involve removing the person from the situation that is causing the stress. Counselling may be necessary to identify the cause(s), particularly if the sufferer has any tendency to deny or ignore the stress problem. Acceptance, cognisance and commitment on the part of the stressed person are essential. No-one can begin to manage their stress if they are still feeling acutely stressed - they'll still be in 'fight or flight' mode. This is why a manager accused of causing stress though bullying or harassment must never be expected to resolve the problem. The situation must be handled by someone who will not perpetuate the stressful influence. Removing the stressor(s) or the person from the stressful situation is only part of the solution; look also at the factors which affect stress susceptibility: where possible try to improve the factors that could be contributing to stress vulnerability. This particularly and frequently involves diet and exercise. The two simplest ways to reduce stress susceptibility, and in many situations alleviate stress itself (although not removing the direct causes of stress itself) are available to everyone, cost nothing, and are guaranteed to produce virtually immediate improvements. They are diet and exercise. diet It's widely accepted that nutritional deficiency impairs the health of the body, and it's unrealistic not to expect the brain to be affected as well by poor diet. If the brain is affected, so are our thoughts, feelings and behaviour. We know that certain vitamins and minerals are required to ensure healthy brain and neurological functionality. We know also that certain deficiencies relate directly to specific brain and nervous system weaknesses: The Vitamin B Group is particularly relevant to the

brain, depression and stress susceptibility. Vitamin B1 deficiency is associated with depression, nervous system weakness and dementia. B2 deficiency is associated with nervous system disorders and depression. B3 is essential for protein synthesis, including the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is necessary for maintaining a healthy nervous system. Vitamin B6 is essential for neurotransmitter synthesis and maintaining healthy nervous system; B6 deficiency is associated with depression and dementia. B12 deficiency is associated with peripheral nerve degeneration, dementia, and depression. Vitamin C is essential to protect against stress too: it maintains a healthy immune system, which is important for reducing stress susceptibility (we are more likely to suffer from stress when we are ill, and we are more prone to illness when our immune system is weak). Vitamin C speeds healing, which contributes to reducing stress susceptibility. Vitamin C is associate with improving post-traumatic stress disorders and chronic infections. A 2003 UK 18 month study into violent and anti-social behaviour at a youth offenders institution provided remarkable evidence as to the link between diet and stress: Around 230 inmate volunteers were divided into two groups. Half were given a daily vitamin/fatty acid/mineral supplement; half were given a placebo. The group given the supplement showed a 25% reduction in recorded offences, and a 40% reduction in serious cases including violence towards others, behaviours that are directly attributable to stress. Vitamin D helps maintain healthy body condition, particularly bones and speed of fracture healing, which are directly linked to stress susceptibility. Adequate intake of minerals are also essential for a healthy body and brain, and so for reducing stress susceptibility. A proper balanced diet is clearly essential, both to avoid direct physical stress causes via brain and nervous system, and to reduce stress susceptibility resulting from poor health and condition. Toxins such as alcohol, tobacco smoke, drugs and other pollutants work against the balance between minerals, vitamins mind and body. Obviously then, excessive toxins from these sources will increase stress susceptibility and stress itself. The rule is simple and inescapable: eat and drink healthily, and avoid excessive intake of toxins, to reduce stress susceptibility and stress itself. If you are suffering from stress and not obeying this simple rule you will continue to be stressed.

Irrespective of your tastes, it's easy these days to have a balanced healthy diet if you want to - the challenge isn't in knowing what's good and bad, it's simple a matter of commitment and personal resolve. You have one body for the whole of your life - look after it. exercise Physical exercise is immensely beneficial in managing stress. This is for several reasons:

Exercise releases helpful chemicals in our brain and body that are good for us. Exercise distracts us from the causes of stress. Exercise warms and relaxes cold, tight muscles and tissues which contribute to stress feelings. Exercise develops and maintains a healthy body which directly reduces stress susceptibility.

Exercise increases blood flow to the brain which is good for us. Exercises also releases hormones, and stimulates the nervous system in ways that are good for us. Exercise produces chemicals in the body such as beta-endorphin, which is proven to have a positive effect on how we feel. For many people, serious exercise produces a kind of 'high'. (It's arguable that it has this effect on everyone, but not since so many people never get to do any serious exercise they'll never know.......). Scientists still don't fully understand how exactly these effects happen, but we do know that exercise produces powerful feelings of well-being and a physical glow, both of which directly reduce stress feelings. Exercise of all types (muscle-building and stamina-building) relaxes tense muscles and tight connective tissues in the body, which directly contribute to stress feelings and symptoms (particularly headaches). Try this next time you get a stress headache - one that comes up the back of your neck into the back of your head: stand up, leave whatever you are doing, walk outside, take a few deep breaths, roll your shoulders backwards gently, slowly at first, then gradually speed up to about one rotation per second and keep it going for one minute. You can actually feel your shoulders warming and loosening, then feel your neck muscles warming up and relaxing, and then feel the relaxing feel beginning to take the edge of the pain in the back of your head. And that's after just sixty seconds of exercise! Imagine what 15 minutes brisk walking or jogging can do. Ask anyone who's just

finished a game of tennis or squash or soccer if they feel at all stressed. Of course they don't. It's actually impossible to stay stressed if you do a serious bit of exercise. Exercise is wonderfully distracting - especially something very competitive which makes you push yourself further than you might do by yourself. When your body is involved with exercise it's very absorbing - it's actually very difficult to think about your problems when you are puffing and panting. Something terrific happens to the brain when the body works out, especially aerobic exercise - cardiovascular exercise that gets the heart pumping. We all evolved over millions of years with bodies that were built to exercise, it's no wonder that avoiding it creates all kinds of tensions. Exercise, like a better diet, isn't difficult to adopt - the answer is simple, the opportunity is there - it's the personal commitment that make the difference. And a final point about 'anger management'.... Anger management and stress The term 'anger management' is widely use now as if the subject stands alone. However, 'anger management' is simply an aspect of managing stress, since anger in the workplace is a symptom of stress. Anger is often stress in denial, and as such is best approached via oneto-one counselling. Training courses can convey anger management and stress reduction theory and ideas, but one-to-one counselling is necessary to turn theory into practice. Management of anger (and any other unreasonable emotional behaviour for that matter) and the stress that causes it, can only be improved if the person wants to change acceptance, cognisance, commitment - so awareness is the first requirement. Some angry people take pride in their anger and don't want to change; others fail to appreciate the effect on self and others. Without a commitment to change there's not a lot that a manager or employer can do to help; anger management is only possible when the angry person accepts and commits to the need to change. A big factor in persuading someone of the need to commit to change is to look objectively and sensitively with the other person at the consequences (for themselves and others) of their anger. Often angry people are in denial ("my temper is okay, people understand it's just me and my moods...."), so removing this denial is essential. Helping angry people to realise that their behaviour is destructive and negative is an important first step. Discuss the

effects on their health and their family. Get the person to see things from outside themselves. As with stress, the next anger management step is for the angry person to understand the cause of their angry tendency, which will be a combination of stressors and stress susceptibility factors. Angry people need help in gaining this understanding - the counsellor often won't know the reason either until rapport is established. If the problem is a temporary tendency then short-term acute stress may be the direct cause. Use one-to-one counselling to discover the causes and then agree necessary action to deal with them. Where the anger is persistent, frequent and ongoing, long-term chronic stress is more likely to be the cause. Again, counselling is required to get to the root causes. Exposing these issues can be very difficult, so great sensitivity is required. The counsellor may need several sessions in order to build sufficient trust and rapport. The situation must be referred to a suitably qualified person whenever necessary, ie when the counsellor is unable to establish a rapport, analyse the causes, or agree a way forward. In any event if you spot the need for anger management in a person be aware that serious anger, and especially violence, is a clinical problem and so must be referred to a suitably qualified advisor or support group - under no circumstances attempt to deal with seriously or violently angry people via workplace counselling; these cases require expert professional help. Establishing commitment to change and identifying the causes is sufficient for many people to make changes and improve - the will to change, combined with awareness of causes, then leads to a solution.

Stress management......Resilience Stress is an adaptive response to a change, a constraint, an event, or a stimulation in the environment. A general and permanent part of the life process, stress can be either good or bad. The goal in effective stress management is not to eliminate it but instead to have resilience, or adaptability to stress. Stress management programs within IBM include conducting internal surveys comprised of questions addressing employees perception of their ability, will, and means to adapt to stress; and developing programs to address areas needing improvement. IBM takes the issue of preventing and managing stress seriously. IBMs Global Stress Management program includes a stress intervention Web site, on-line manager stress ntervention training, and location-specific stress management resources. Should those efforts need augmenting, additional tools are generally available through health benefits programs, which range from major benefits plans to services that specifically address mental health. The U.S. Wellness for Life Center has some new and improved programs to assist IBM employees with maintaining resilience.Several IBM locations in Europe offer Team Well-being interventions, which help organizations or teams assess their specific causes of stress and take action to reduce them. For example, IBM Germany offers a stress management program that is adaptable to all types of work situations, with a particular focus on the needs of mobile workers. The program includes training for managers on how to help their employees cope with stress, as well as education for employees on managing stress. Learning offerings are available in person and on demand through the IBM intranet. Employee Surveys In periodic employee surveys to assess employee perception of their protection against health and safety hazards in the workplace, IBM global results exceed worldwide cross industry average by 3%. IBM reviews this information in more detail to investigate differences among its many business groups and geographies, and strives for continual improvement in employees evaluation of their well-being. Examples from Spanish South America Programs are tailored to the countries and needs where our facilities are located. For example, in Spanish South America, Health, Stress, and Fitness are included in their Salad en Movement or Health in Movement program, which focuses on encouraging employees (and vendors) to improve their way of life with a focus on fitness. Examples of

prizes; given to people or teams who scored the highest number of steps and greatest weight loss; included donations of food, Christmas gifts, and even a public school classroom in the name of the prize-winner or team. Activities include Health Care Week in conjunction with Self and Family Care Week. Offerings included preventative diagnosis in ophthalmology, information about cardiovascular risks and stress management, quick massages and flu shots. Also, a series of workshops and panels were held to help guide employees and vendors on key aspects of healthy living. These panels and workshops covered How to Exercise in the Office, Cardiovascular Risks, Acute Pain (Ergonomic Focus), To Eat Well and Live Healthy, Looking Better and Feeling Better, The Importance of Healthy Eating, Sports and Preventive Medicine, First Aids, Culture and Environment Impact on our Health, Stress Management, and Self exam Importance in Breast Cancer Prevention. IBM has been present in India since 1992. Since inception, IBM in India has expanded its operations considerably with regional headquarters in Bangalore and offices in 14 cities including regional offices in New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. Today, the company has established itself as one of the leaders in the Indian Information Technology (IT) Industry. IBM has set the agenda for the industry with 'on demand business' - a kind of transformation where an organisation changes the way it operates and reduces costs; serving customers better, reducing risks and improving speed and agility in the marketplace. IBM is already working with customers to transform them into 'on demand' businesses. IBM is the only company in the world that offers end-to-end solutions to the customers from hardware to software, services and consulting. Linux support further enhances IBM's e-business infrastructure enabler capability. Our offerings: IBM is the only IT company in the world and also in India that offers endto-end solutions to customers from hardware to software, services and consulting. Items measuring work life conflict

STRESS DIFFERENT SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS


Various Researches Done Earlier On Stress Management
1. French Psychosocial Stress Research Projects A number of specific stressful working conditions, such as repetitive work, assembly-line work, electronic monitoring or surveillance, involuntary overtime, piece-rate work, inflexible hours, arbitrary supervision, and deskilled work, have been studied. Over the last 15 years, a new model of job stress developed by Robert Karasek has highlighted two key elements of these stressors, and has been supported by a growing body of evidence. Karasek's "job strain" model states that the greatest risk to physical and mental health from stress occurs to workers facing high psychological workload demands or pressures combined with low control or decision latitude in meeting those demands. Job demands are defined by questions such as "working very fast," "working very hard," and not "enough time to get the job done." In some recent studies, this model was expanded to include a third factor - the beneficial effects of workplace social support. While there are a variety of models of "job stress, the "job strain" model emphasizes the inter-action between demands and control in causing stress, and objective constraints on action in the work environment, rather than individual perceptions or "person-environment fit." Karasek's model emphasizes another major negative consequence of work organization; how the assembly &SHY ;line and the principles of Taylorism, with its focus on reducing workers' skills and influence, can produce passivity, learned helplessness, and lack of participation (at work, in the community, and in politics). The "job strain" model has two components - increasing risk of heart disease following arrow A, but increasing activity, participation , self esteem, motivation to learn, and sense of accomplishment following arrow B. Thus, this model provides a justification and a public health foundation for efforts to achieve greater worker autonomy as well as increased workplace democracy. [20][21]

2. Considerable evidence exists linking job strain to hypertension and coronary heart disease. Over the last decade more than 40 studies on "job strain" and heart disease and 20 studies on "job strain" and heart disease risk factors have been published throughout the world providing strong evidence that "job strain" is a risk factor for heart disease1. Of the eight studies where an ambulatory (portable) blood pressure monitor was worn during a work day, five showed strong positive associations between "job strain" and blood pressure, while three others provided mixed results. Since ambulatory blood pressure is both more reliable (since there is no observer bias and the number of readings is greatly increased) and more valid (since blood pressure is measured during a person's normal daily activities including work) than casual measures of blood pressure, we feel confident in placing more emphasis on the ambulatory blood pressure results.

3. FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT
Some of the early research on stress (conducted by Walter Cannon in 1932) established the existence of the well-known fight-or-flight response. His work showed that when an organism experiences a shock or perceives a threat, it quickly releases hormones that help it to survive. In humans, as in other animals, these hormones help us to run faster and fight harder. They increase heart rate and blood pressure, delivering more oxygen and blood sugar to power important muscles. They increase sweating in an effort to cool these muscles, and help them stay efficient. They divert blood away from the skin to the core of our bodies, reducing blood loss if we are damaged. As well as this, these hormones focus our attention on the threat, to the exclusion of everything else. All of this significantly improves our ability to survive life-threatening events. Not only life-threatening events trigger this reaction: We experience it almost any time we come across something unexpected or something that frustrates our goals. When the threat is small, our response is small and we often do not notice it among the many other distractions of a stressful situation. Unfortunately, this mobilization of the body for survival also has negative consequences. In this state, we are excitable, anxious, jumpy and irritable. This actually reduces our ability to work effectively with other people. With trembling and a pounding heart, we can find it difficult to execute precise, controlled skills. The intensity of our focus on survival interferes with our ability to make fine judgments by drawing information from many sources. We find ourselves more accident-prone and less able to make good decisions.[22] 4.Not only the adults but children are also getting trapped in stress as a study carried out by Lee Hui Chieh of the National University Hospital (NUH) has revealed that change of school or learning stress can trigger recurrent stomach pain in children. The study also showed that girls are almost twice as likely as boys to have the problem.

5.Identifying Stressors at work- A Case of employees in electronic industry Poor Organizational Structure, poor interpersonal relations, work overload, work inhibitors, lack of resources, unmet financial needs, job security, inconsiderate superior, rigid rules, role ambiguity and monotonous job have been identified as the major factors underlying various dimensions of an organizational stress. This study poor organizational structure, poor interpersonal relations, inconsiderate superior, role ambiguity, and work inhibitors have been found as the major stress inducing factors in this electronic industry. [Decision, Indian Institute of Management Calcutta Volume 31, No-1 Pg No-51 January-June 2004] 6. Stressful Work, Psychological Job Strain, and Turnover: A 2 year Prospective Cohort Study of Truck Drivers The highlights of this research are as follows: a. The effect of stressful work and strain on turnover may be attributed to the multifactor nature of turnover. b. The repeated occupationally induced fatigue starts a vicious circle in which effort is required every new working period to cope with the demands of the job. c. The job changing truck drivers who found employment in a different branch displayed a substantial reduction in psychological strain. d. The amount of strain experienced prior to the job change would be different for the intra-occupational and inter-occupational job changes. e. Low-tenure (inexperienced) drivers are psychologically unfit for the strenuous or stressful work of truck driving. [The journal of Applied Psychology 2004, Vol-89, No-3

Job Or Organizational Stress

The stress faced by professional workers is substantial. For many professionals, it is intrinsic to the job itself, where competing demands and pressures cannot be escaped. The sheer volume of work can also be overwhelming at times, whether one is a social worker, teacher, doctor or manager. Anyone in this kind of job knows, either from their own direct experience or from observing colleagues, that stress can have very serious consequences. It can develop into a living nightmare of running faster and faster to stay in the same place, feeling undervalued, feeling unable to say 'no' to any demand but not working productively on anything. The signs of stress can include sleeplessness, aches and pains and sometimes physical symptoms of anxiety about going to work. What is more, people who are chronically stressed are no fun to work with. They may be irritable, miserable, lacking in energy and commitment, self-absorbed. They may find it hard to concentrate on any one task and cannot be relied on to do their share. And yet, some people seem to have the ability to stay in control of their workload and to handle job frustrations without becoming worn out, irritable or depressed. These people are able to handle stress, having ways of taking the rough with the smooth, keeping a sense of humor and renewing their energy and resources so that working life continues to bring pleasure and reward. [15]

General Causes Of Stress At Work Organizational problems Insufficient back-up Long or unsociable hours Poor status, pay and promotion prospects Unnecessary rituals and procedures Uncertainty and insecurity

Specific Causes Of Stress At Work Unclear role specifications Role conflict Unrealistically high self-expectations (perfectionism) Inability to influence decision making (powerlessness) Frequent clashes with superiors Isolation from colleagues' support Lack of variety Poor communication Inadequate leadership Conflicts with colleagues Inability to finish a job Fighting unnecessary battles Task-Related Causes Of Stress At Work Difficult clients or subordinates Insufficient training Emotional involvement with clients or subordinates The responsibilities of the job Inability to help or act effectively Effects Of Too Much Stress Concentration and attention span decrease

Distractability increases Short- and long-term memory deteriorate Response speed becomes unpredictable Error rate increases Powers of organization and long-term planning deteriorate Delusions and thought disorders increase Physical and psychological tensions increase Hypochondria increases Changes take place in personality traits Existing personality problems increase Moral and emotional constraints weaken Job stress has been a concern for decades now, but little has been done because it has always been vague and hard to quantify. Stress costs industry over $300 Billion a year in the United States, over $16 Billion a year in Canada, and as much as 7.3 Billion in the United Kingdom. Unfortunately, numbers such as these can be difficult to relate to individual organizations until now. Now the impact of stress to the organization and to the individual can be measured, as can the one factor that is at the root of it. This report shows you how to measure the impact of stress to your organization and/or department and identifies the strategies available to you to recover the productivity that has been lost to stress. [16][17]

WHAT STRESS COSTS AN ORGANIZATION?


The Stress Costs formula is made up of the following costs:-

1. 19% of absenteeism 2. 40% of turnover (the cost of turnover is 150-250% of the salary benefit envelope for each position) 3. 55% of EAP programs (consult your provider for a more accurate number it may be higher) 4. 30% of short-term disability and long-term disability costs 5.10% of drug plan costs to cover psychotherapeutic drug costs The total cost of workplace accidents, workers compensation claims, and lawsuits due to stress Individuals affected by stress smoke more, eat more, have more alcohol and drug-related problems, are less motivated, have more trouble with co-workers, and have more illness. Stress impairs the immune system, and can result in more infectious diseases, chronic respiratory illnesses, high blood pressure, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, depression, and cancer. [18][5][6][7] Examining Ways to Reduce Workplace Stress and Create Healthy Environments Beyond a simple pain in the neck, stress in the workplace is related to a loss in employee productivity, worker injuries, and increased healthcare costs. Fatigue, irritability, difficulty in concentrating, difficulty in sleeping, upset stomach, low morale, and lack of job satisfaction are all signals of stress in the workplace. Senior-level facilities managers and building owners are beginning to recognize the damaging effects that stress wreaks on employees health. Along with health risks, facilities managers are seeing how stress erodes an organizations profitability and functionality. The first and most important step in reducing the incidence and detrimental impacts of workplace stress is to instill in organizations, a basic, yet meaningful understanding of: 1. The conditions under which workplace stress occurs. 2. Organizational factors that contribute to workplace stress. 3. Who is most likely to be affected by workplace stress, and when.

4. How to best deal with workplace stress when it arises. [9][10] How Can Stress Be Managed? Introducing Stress Management There are very many proven skills that we can use to manage stress. These help us to remain calm and effective in high pressure situations, and help us avoid the problems of long term stress. These skills fall into three main groups: Action-oriented skills: In which we seek to confront the problem causing the stress, often changing the environment or the situation; Emotionally oriented skills: In which we do not have the power to change the situation, but we can manage stress by changing our interpretation of the situation and the way we feel about it; Acceptance-oriented skills: Where something has happened over which we have no power and no emotional control, and where our focus must be on surviving the stress Identifying unrelieved stress and being aware of its effect on our lives is not sufficient for reducing its harmful effects. Just as there are many sources of stress, there are many possibilities for its management. However, all require work toward change: changing the source of stress and/or changing your reaction to it. How do you proceed? [8, Books] 1. Become aware of your stressors and your emotional and physical reactions. Notice your distress. Don't ignore it. Don't gloss over your problems. Determine what events distress you. What are you telling yourself about meaning of these events? Determine how your body responds to the stress. Do you become nervous or physically upset? If so, in what specific ways? 2. Recognize what you can change. Can you change your stressors by avoiding or eliminating them completely?

Can you reduce their intensity (manage them over a period of time instead of on a daily or weekly basis)? Can you shorten your exposure to stress (take a break, leave the physical premises)? Can you devote the time and energy necessary to making a change (goal setting, time management techniques, and delayed gratification strategies may be helpful here)? 3. Reduce the intensity of your emotional reactions to stress. The stress reaction is triggered by your perception of danger...physical danger and/or emotional danger. Are you viewing your stressors in exaggerated terms and/or taking a difficult situation and making it a disaster? Are you expecting to please everyone? Are you overreacting and viewing things as absolutely critical and urgent? Do you feel you must always prevail in every situation? Work at adopting more moderate views; try to see the stress as something you can cope with rather than something that overpowers you. Try to temper your excess emotions. Put the situation in perspective. Do not labor on the negative aspects and the "what if's 4. LEARN TO MODERATE YOUR PHYSICAL REACTIONS TO STRESS. Slow, deep breathing will bring your heart rate and respiration back to normal. Relaxation techniques can reduce muscle tension. Electronic biofeedback can help you gain voluntary control over such things as muscle tension, heart rate, and blood pressure. Medications, when prescribed by a physician, can help in the short term in moderating your physical reactions. However, they alone are not the answer. Learning to moderate these reactions on your own is a preferable long-term solution.

5. BUILD YOUR PHYSICAL RESERVES.


Exercise for cardiovascular fitness three to four times a week (moderate, prolonged rhythmic exercise is best, such as walking, swimming, cycling, or jogging).

Eat well-balanced, nutritious meals. Maintain your ideal weight. Avoid nicotine, excessive caffeine, and other stimulants. Mix leisure with work. Take breaks and get away when you can. Get enough sleep. Be as consistent with your sleep schedule as possible.

6. MAINTAIN YOUR EMOTIONAL RESERVES.


Develop some mutually supportive friendships/relationships. Pursue realistic goals which are meaningful to you, rather than goals others have for you that you do not share. Expect some frustrations, failures, and sorrows. Always be kind and gentle with yourself -- be a friend to yourself. [27][28]

VARIOUS OTHER METHODS OF REDUCING STRESS


* Self-management (e.g. becoming better-organized) * Conflict resolution * Positive attitude * Self-talk * Breathing * Meditation * Exercise * Diet * Rest * Get sufficient sleep * Get fresh air * Get physical exercise through yoga or aerobics * Enjoy a pure and natural diet. Have a balanced meal * Learn to say "no" more often

* Deal with emotions constructively * Develop a sense of humor * Develop meaningful relationships * Develop a support group * Give your life a purpose and meaning * Pamper yourself sometimes * Buy a pet, especially if you are living alone * Enjoy nature * Express your aesthetic self * Enjoy a favorite recreation * Learn time management and delegation techniques * Practice deep breathing and relaxation skills

IMPACT OF BELIEF SYSTEM ON STRESS


We may not be able to change the entire situation, but we can change our belief systems [Paul D Ware, M.D. (Outstanding Teacher of Behavioral Medicine USA)]. Most stress is not caused by the external circumstances. It is caused by our belief systems. Our choices and the way we perceive and react to life experiences cause the bulk of stress. When people are feeling stressed they need to hear healing beliefs over and over. Some people believe that any situation that is difficult deserves the label of stress. Yet think of how many people do difficult things and smile as they tell about it. Running a marathon, building a summer cabin, hiking mountain, completing a class, passing an exam. All these are difficult. But they are rarely described as stressful because the purpose and direction are clear. Confusion, no clear purpose, inconsistent rules, changing directions, no milestone, no finish line are the reasons of stress.

GROWTH OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FUNCTIONS IN BANKS

Of all the Ms in management (i.e., the management of material, machines, methods, money, motive power), the most important is M for men or human resources. It is the most valuable asset of an organisation & not the money or physical equipment It is infact an important economic resource, covering all human resources organised or unorganised, employed or capable of employment, working at all levels supervisors executives, government employee blue & white collar workers, technical, skilled or un-skilled person, who are employed in creating, designing, developing, managing & operating productive & service enterprise & other economic activities . Human resources are utilised to the maximum possible extent in order to achieve individual & organisational goals. An organisations performance & resulting productivity or services are directly proportional to the quality & quantity of its human resource. Hence the importance of human resource is important. Only a quarter century ago, people working in banks had not heard the name of HRD. Even the personnel management concepts were hardly known to banks in the early sixties. Industry relations, staff welfare, staff motivation, classroom training, performance appraisal, man power planning was all unheard. In those days the banks handled staff functions through staff departments. The main functions of staff departments were recruitments, transfers, and promotion. Those working in staff departments had no special skill, training or aptitude in this area. The postings in staff departments, however, carried lot of prestige on account of power and authority enjoyed by the officials working there and the favours they could bestow on others.

Soon after independence, the government had shown much concern for labour welfare. A number of new labour legislation aimed at securing benefits for the labour enacted and the old labour laws were amended to make them more labour oriented. The hopes of an average employee grew with the changed environment. The management now was Indian and the employees expected from them a better understanding of their problems. With the spread of education, the young employees found themselves more qualified than their elderly supervisors. Some of the supervisors also found it difficult to change their old style of functioning to which they were used. There was improvement in working & service conditions but there was no matching improvement in personnel skills. As a result, discipline became the casualty. The newfound freedom could not be channelised properly. Those managing the staff were not trained to motivate the staff & to win them over with proper style of functioning. In this transitional stage, the functioning of the banks was adversely affected. The govt. tried to bring order by setting up tribunals to settle the disputes. The award of the tribunals had the salutary effect of bringing about standardisation in service conditions of bank employees. This alone, however, was not enough. There was need for improving discipline, productivity, efficiency & feelings of belonging to the institution. It was not possible to bring about these improvements through in service conditions. The managers were not formally trained in techniques of personnel management. In the early sixties, the new concept of personnel management were being experimented in India by some of the enlightened management, based on the successful experiments carried out by the companies in Europe & the U.S.A. after

the second world war to overcome the problem of stagnation arising out of a fall in demand & therefore profits. Multinationals companies having their network in India also introduced personnel management techniques they had adopted successfully in their home countries. Naturally, the banks could not have reminded unaffected for long by such environmental changes taking place all round.

HDFC BANK BANK PROFILE


The Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited (HDFC) was amongst the first to receive an 'in principle' approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to set up a bank in the private sector, as part of the RBI's liberalisation of the Indian Banking Industry in 1994. The bank was incorporated in August 1994 in the name of 'HDFC Bank Limited', with its registered office in Mumbai, India. HDFC Bank commenced operations as a Scheduled Commercial Bank in January 1995. Awards and Achievements - Banking Services HDFC Bank began operations in 1995 with a simple mission: to be a "World-class Indian Bank". We realised that only a single-minded focus on product quality and service excellence would help us get there. Today, we are proud to say that we are well on our way towards that goal. It is extremely gratifying that our efforts towards providing customer convenience have been appreciated both nationally and internationally. 2006 Business Today Forbes Magazine Businessworld Best Bank in India. One of Asia Pacific's Best 50 companies. Best listed Bank of India.

The Asset Magazine's Triple A Country Awards Best Domestic Bank. Asiamoney Awards Best Local Cash Management Bank in Large and Medium segments. Euromoney Awards "Best Bank" in India. 2005 Asiamoney Awards Best Domestic Commercial Bank

Asiamoney Awards Best Cash Management Bank - India . The Asian Banker Excellence in India. Hong Kong-based Finance Asia magazineBest Bank India Economic Times Awards Excellence. Asiamoney also named the bank: Best Local Cash Management Bank in India 2004 - US$11-100m Best Local Cash Management Bank in India 2004 - >US$501m Best Local Cash Management Bank in India 1989-2004 (poll of polls) Best Overall Domestic Trade Finance Services in India 2004 Most Improved company for Best Management Practices in India 2004 The Business Today-KPMG Survey published in the leading Indian business magazine Business Today has named HDFC Bank "Best Bank in India" for the third consecutive year in 2005. The Asset magazine named HDFC Bank "Best Cash Management Bank" and "Best Trade Finance Bank" in India, in 2006. HDFC Bank named the "Most Customer Responsive Company - Banking and Financial Services in The Economic Times - Avaya Global Connect Customer Responsiveness Awards 2005" HDFC Bank has been named Best Domestic Bank in India in The Asset Triple A Country Awards 2005. HDFC Bank has been named Best Domestic Bank in India Region in The Asset Triple A Country Awards 2004 and 2003. "Company of the Year" Award for Corporate Retail Banking Risk Management Award

In 2004, HDFC Bank was selected by BusinessWorld as "One of India's Most Respected Companies" as part of The Business World Most Respected Company Awards 2004. In 2004, Forbes Global again named us in its listing of Best Under a Billion, 100 Best Smaller Size Enterprises in Asia/Pacific and Europe, in its November 1, 2004 issue. In 2004, HDFC Bank won the award for "Operational Excellence in Retail Financial Services" - India as part of the Asian Banker Awards 2003. In 2003, Forbes Global named us in its ranking of "Best Under a Billion, 200 Best Small Companies for 2003". Leading business newspaper The Financial Express named HDFC Bank the "Best New Private Sector Bank 2003" in the FE-Ernst & Young Best Banks Survey 2003. Leading Personal Finance Magazine in India Outlook Money named HDFC Bank the "Best Bank in the Private Sector" for the year 2003. Leading Indian business magazine Business Today in a survey rated us "Best Bank in India" 2003, and "Best Private Sector Bank" in India in 1999. NASSCOM and economictimes.com have named us the 'Best IT User in Banking' at the IT Users Awards 2003. There have been some other proud moments as well: London-based Euromoney magazine gave us the award for "Best Bank India" in 1999, "Best Domestic Bank" in India in 2000, and "Best Bank in India" in 2001 and 2002 Asiamoney magazine has named us "Best Commercial Bank in India 2002". For our use of information technology we have been recognized as a "Computerworld Honors Laureate" and awarded the 21st Century Achievement Award in 2002 for Finance, Insurance & Real Estate category by Computerworld, Inc., USA.

Our technology initiative has been included as a case study in their online global archives.The Economic Times has conferred on us The Economic Times Awards for Corporate Excellence as the Emerging Company of the Year 2000-01. Leading Indian business magazine Business India named us "India's Best Bank" in 2000. In the year 2000, leading financial magazine Forbes Global named us in its list of "The 300 Best Small Companies" in the world and as one of the "20 for 2001" best small companies in the world. We are aware that all these awards are mere milestones in the continuing, never-ending journey of providing excellent service to our customers. We are confident, however, that with your feedback and support, we will be able to maintain and improve our services.

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE
HDFC Bank recognizes the importance of good corporate governance, which is generally accepted as a key factor in attaining fairness for all stakeholders and achieving organizational efficiency. This Corporate Governance Policy, therefore, is established to provide a direction and framework for managing and monitoring the bank in accordance with the principles of good corporate governance.

SWOT ANALYSIS
Strengths right products, quality and reliability. superior product performance vs. competitors. brand image products have required accreditations. high degree of customer satisfaction. good place to work lower response time with efficient and effective service. dedicated workforce aiming at making a long-term career in the field. Weaknesses not popular in the international market customer service staff need training. management cover insufficient. sectoral growth is constrained by low unemployment levels and competition for staff Opportunities could extend to overseas. fast-track career development opportunities on an industry-wide basis. an applied research centre to create opportunities for developing techniques to provide added-value services Threats vulnerable to reactive attack by major competitors. lack of infrastructure in rural areas could constrain investment. high volume/low cost market is intensely competitive.

SOME EFFECTIVE PRACTICES & MESURES OF REDUCING THE JOB STRESS


1) While cash may get workers in the door, culture will distress & keep them: Create a kind of feel good about work culture for your employees. The staff members who stay with you the longest do so because they want to, not because they have to. Bank is a tough place to work where the performance both in terms of quantitative and qualitative can be measured on a daily basis and it is very transparent. So many people are unlikely to stay. They will only stay if you create a positive work culture. Let staff know that you are pursuing a common purpose, which is mutually beneficial. Your goal is to frequently let staff know that this is why I need you and this is why you are important. 2) Stop hiring the wrong people - One place to plug the leak is to stop hiring the wrong people. A manager needs to understand what kind of person will be happy in a bank? It is someone who is dependable, deliberate, hates change, likes to follow repetitive processes and finishes the job at hand. Or it could be someone who has a flair for accuracy, thrives in an environment which has procedures laid down and yet does not seek variety or change. However, the system breaks down when the qualified person is put into a position that does not quite fit who they are. Instead of job match, this results in job mismatch, which causes the job and individual to get job stress, limiting the companys productivity.

3) Provide good incentives and recognition

The biggest motivation and de-stressing factor to the staff is recognition and every day pat instantly when ever they do good work goes along way. Whenever sales happen, all the members stand and clap for achievement and at the end of the day each one will be appreciated for the good sales. A letter of appreciation for quality work, good dinner with the team members is always appreciated by the employees.

4) Good relationship with supervisors


Many times, employees seek greener pastures because they are unhappy with their supervisors and hence get stressed on the job, which in turn reduces their efficiency. The supervisors and trainers have an important role of giving feed back on both strengths and weaknesses, which will help them to do better. Some staff do have initial problem of getting adjusted to bank jobs or they lack confidence. Reinforcing the confidence that you can do is the responsibility of supervisors. It is true that staff requires money, but they always look for actions, which touches their mind and heart. Let's be honest, bosses management styles have a huge impact on distressing & employee satisfaction.

5) COACHING AND CAREER PATHING


Coaching is employee development. Your only cost is time. Time means you care. And remember your people don't care how much you know... until they know how much you care. Whenever the emphasis is on positive feedback, I make sure to do this coaching in "public." Whenever you recognize and encourage people in "public," it acts as a natural stimulant for others who are close enough to see or hear what's taking place. Employees need to know what is potentially ahead for them, what opportunities there are for growth. This issue is a sometimes forgotten ingredient as to the importance it plays in the overall motivation of people.

ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE
Q1 A) WHAT IS THE MOST STRESSFUL ASPECT OF YOUR JOB?

shift timings

Handling customer behaviour

Any Other

Nil

22% 0% 20%

40%

45% 60%

No. of Employees

11%

80%

14%

8% 100% 120%

INTERPRETATION
Being an employee of HDFC BANK, the employees are bound to feel stressed because of the work pressure.
45% of the employees felt that customers flow is the most stressful aspect of their job. 22% feel shift timings are causing stress as they lead to health problems, sleeping disorders etc. Also late night shifts, extended shifts are few others, which employees cited out. 14% employees feel stressed because of bad cab routing, no help lines for cabs, lack of resources etc. 11% employees said that handling irate & furious customers is really stressful. 8% employees felt that there is nothing in their job that is very stressful for them.

Q1 B) HOW CAN THE STRESS LEVEL BE REDUCED?

43%

33%

17%

7%

0%

20%

40%

60% No.of Employees

80%

100%

120%

On-the-floor activities Stress management classes

Team outings role change

INTERPRETATION:
In order to cope up with the stress level at work, the HDFC BANK employees need to have some activities so as to avoid "stress-building" thoughts and replace them with alternative "stress-busting" thoughts! 43% employees feel that the best way to fight stress is to introduce various onthe-floor activities which helps in reducing monotony & boredom. 33% employees said that team outings can help in reducing stress as they can enjoy & have fun. 17% employees felt that stress management classes should be conducted frequently. 7% employees felt that stress level can be reduced by offering them change in job profile, providing refreshments during extended shifts etc.

Q2 WHAT ON-THE-FLOOR ACTIVITIES WOULD YOU LIKE TO BE INTRODUCED TO DE-STRESS & MOTIVATE YOU?

14% 0% 20%

Competitons

INTERPRETATION:
Various events need to be organized in order to encourage employees to bond with one another. Thus, there is a requirement of introducing the fun culture to motivate the employees. It can be a contest, a game, or any other event that has an element of fun.
Majority of employees said that, their nature of work being team oriented, team building games must be introduced. 24% employees felt the need of conducting various quiz, brain teasers, puzzles, brain storming exercises etc. 14% employees said that poster making, slogan writing competitions, theme days, creative contests etc should be introduced.

24% 40% 60%

No.of Employees Quiz, brainteaser etc Team building games

62% 80% 100% 120%

Q3 A) DO YOU GET PERFORMANCE BASED NON- MONETARY INCENTIVES?

68%

14%

18%

0%

20%

40%

60% No. of Employees

80%

100%

120%

Yes

No

Sometimes

Interpretation: The best way to appreciate, encourage and de-stress employees is to provide them with rewards and recognition. "These are one of the few important things that work, given in the form of non-monetary incentives. Such incentives act as a golden handcuff and give the employees a reason to remain with the company for a longer time-span,"
68% employees said that they do get performance based non-monetary incentives (It includes stars, photo album, pen, mobile accessories, appreciation letters, show piece etc to name a few) 18% said they get incentives but not very frequently. 14% said they have never got any incentives as such.

b) What new incentives would you like to be introduced? Most employees felt that the non-monetary incentives given to them are always same. These should be frequently changed.

Movie tickets Gift vouchers Discount coupons Lunch/meal coupons

Q4 A) HOW IS YOUR RELATIONSHIP WITH YOUR BOSS?

50%

29%

21%

0%

20%

40%

60% No.of Employees

80%

100%

120%

Very good

Good

Satisfactory

Interpretation: It's not workload or salary that most determines whether employees stay happy, It's how well they get along with their boss. For an employee who is working in a bank, his relationship with his immediate boss is of utmost importance to him since it effects his performance, motivation, morale, job etc.

50% employees said that they share a very good relationship with their boss. They get timely feedback & recognition. 29% employees said that the relationship is good 21% said that its just satisfactory because there is a communication gap between them.

B)

WHAT

ALL

CAN

BE

DONE

TO

IMPROVE

THE

RELATIONSHIP?

31%

19%

17%

11%

22%

0%

20%

40%

60% No. of Employees

80%

100%

120%

Skip level meetings Training Team outings


[

Frequent team shuffling Team meetings & team reviews

INTERPRETATION: If an employee feels he is part of an important team which is lead by a supportive Team Leader (TL), he is more likely to have an interest in the success of the bank and would stay longer. Employers must make their employees feel important in the overall scheme of things.

31% employees feel that skip level meetings, can help in building the relationship between them. 22% employees feel that team outings & informal meetings help create a personal relation between the employees & TL. 19% feel that frequent team shuffling should be done. 17% employees feel that training should be imparted regarding team Management, role plays etc which help them in knowing their shortcomings and help them rectify the same. 11% employees said that team meetings & team reviews should be done.

Q5 WHAT CAN YOU SAY ABOUT THE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM IN YOUR ORGANIZATION?

71%

11%

18%

0%

20%

40%

60% No. of Employees

80%

100%

120%

Open & Transparent

Rigid

Unstructured

Conclusion:

71% employees said the communication system is open & transparent. 18% say the system is unstructured. 11% say the system is rigid.

Q6 Do you think a constant monitoring of your performance is good for you? The productivity, both quantity and quality, of employees is assessed in a more objective manner by Electronic Performance Monitoring (EPM). Monitoring is used as a basis for training, improving customer service and determining performance-related pay. With the help of the survey it was found that all employees in HDFC Bank feel that a constant monitoring of their performance is good for them because it helps them in knowing their strengths & weaknesses and they can work upon improving their weak areas and perform better.

Q7 HOW WELL DO YOU THINK THE APPRAISAL SYSTEM WORKS FOR YOU?

13% 0% 20%

Excellent

INTERPRETATION:
Evaluating employee performance is a key responsibility for most managers. They provide documented feedback on an employee's level of performance; offer a means for determining continued employment, promotion, transfer, bonuses, and pay raises; and allow for improved communications between managers and employees. The actual performance appraisal documents become part of an employee's permanent record and can greatly influence lives and careers and ultimately will help in de-stressing their lives. 44% employees feel that appraisal system works good for them. 33% employees felt that it is just satisfactory. 13% employees said that the appraisal system is excellent as it gives them opportunities for growth & advancement. 10% employees said that they are not satisfied with the appraisal system because even though their performance good they are not many opportunities for promotion.

44% 40% 60% Good

No.of Employees Satisfactory Unsatisfactory

33% 80%

10% 100% 120%

Q8 HOW OFTEN DO YOU GET A BREAK ON THE FLOOR?

21%

36%

14%

11%

0%

Every 2 hours

8%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

No. of Employe es More than 2 hours As & when required No fixed timings

INTERPRETATION:
[

You'd think that going to the washroom & for lunch break when you needed to would be part of the deal. 36% people said they get break as and when required

21% employees said that they get break with the interval of more than 2 hours. 18% employees said that they get break every 2 hours. 11% employees said that there is no fixed timings for break.

SUGGESTION TO IMPROVE WORKING CONDITIONS, REDUCE STRESS


There should be weekly team meetings at HDFC Bank All employees at HDFC Bank should have their own specific work stations. Better cab facilities to all employees at HDFC Bank Hours of work should be reduced. Supervisors should be more patient as they create more stress at work Monetary Incentives based on performance Profile change or role change on periodic basis based on experience & educational qualifications.

Growth opportunities, inter-departmental movements, horizontal & vertical movements within & outside department Fixed timings Better Cab facility More transparent feedback & appraisal & clear communication Appraisal to be done every 6 months Suggestions or feedback should be taken Offer rewards and recognition to employees who earn degrees or job related certifications along with the job. Also Promotion to be based on performance and education both.

Increase

support

of

education

benefits,

including

more

tuition

reimbursement.
[

Cab routing is one of the major problems faced by the employees especially female employees. Hence there should a proper working help line for cabs and the routing should not be such that it takes more than the required time.

CONCLUSION
In order to reduce the stress level, various on-the-floor activities should be introduced at HDFC Bank. The nature of work being a team effort special consideration should be given to team building games & role plays which will not only act as a stress buster but will also help in building relationship with Seniors and supervisors. There need to be some changes in the non-monetary incentives, which are provided to employees at HDFC Bank. Since the workforce comprises mostly of age group between 20-40, thus the incentives like movie tickets, gift vouchers, discount coupons, pizza party etc should be introduced. Loyalty bonus or incentives can be introduced for those employees at HDFC Bank who stay with the company for 2 years or more. Moreover, if introduced, these should be given quarterly. Hold managers accountable for de-stressing efforts by making it part of their performance plans.

APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE
Q1 a) What is the most stressful aspect of your job? Q1 b) How can the stress level be reduced? Q2 What on-the-floor activities would you like to be introduced to de-stress & motivate you? Q3 a) Do you get performance based non- monetary incentives? b) What new incentives would you like to be introduced? Q4 a) How is your relationship with your boss? b) What all can be done to improve the relationship? Q5 What can you say about the communication system in your organization? Q6 Do you think a constant monitoring of your performance is good for you? Q7 How well do you think the appraisal system works for you? Q8 How often do you get a break on the floor

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books

Bhattacharya, Research Methodology, Publisher HR Manual, Policies & Procedures, HDFC

Internet

www.hdfcbank.com www.hronline.com Search engines like google, ask, altavista etc.

Magazines & Journals


HR Executive Editorial Survey (2006), JOB STRESS, MATHEWS(2005) Workplace Turnover Study, Human Resource Executive Magazine Indian Management Magazine, Vol 44 Issue 1, Jan2005