Jigs and fixtures

Jig
    Device which holds and positions the work piece with help of locating pins and clamps. Also locate, guide the cutting tool relative to the work. Lighter in construction and is not fixed to the machine. Used for o Drilling o Reaming o Tapping o Counter boring Types o Template jig  Consist of a hardened template with holes in the required position to guide the drill.  It is not possible to vary the size of the hole. o Plate type jig  It is similar to template jig.  But is provided with jig bushes instead of simple hole and hence same plate can be used for different size of drill by replacing the jig bush provided the configuration of holes is not changed. o Box type jig  Used when holes are to be drilled in more than one plane.

Fixtures
     Device which only holds and positions the work. It does not itself guide or locate or position the tool. Heavy in construction. Usually fixed to the table. Used in o Turning o Shaping o Milling o Grinding Types o Turning fixtures  3 jaw chuck  4 jaw chuck  Face plate  Mandrels o Milling fixtures

The jig and fixture must be as open as possible to enable the operator to remove the chips during operation.o o  Milling machine vice Surface grinding fixtures  Magnetic chucks  Vacuum chucks Cylindrical fixtures  External grinding  Face plate mandrel  Internal grinding  Chuck and face plate Design principles common to jigs and fixtures       The method of location and clamping should be such that less time is consumed. o Any use of lubricant oil creates a film between surfaces which causes the work piece to stick to the surface of jig or fixture. Enough clearance must be provided to allow for variations in component size.gab is fixed. The jig and fixture must be as rigid as possible. o Made of hardened steel (to avoid wear and tear). Ejectors must be provided to force the work out of the jig or fixture due to o In case work piece is heavy. The design should allow easy and quick loading or unloading of the work piece. o Types  Locating pins  Cylindrical or round o Used for  surface contact  heavy job  conical pin o used for  line contact  light job  diamond pin o take care of error in pitch distance in holes of work piece o always used along with a round pin  supporting pins o Fixed pin. Essential components used along with jigs and fixtures  Locating pins o Inserted into the body of jig or fixture to establish the desire relationship between the work and jig or fixture. .

 Also cannot move down.  Clamping pressure must be directed parallel to the cutting operation so that cutting forces support the clamping.  Also leftward motion is restricted.  o Adjustable pin. The 12 degrees of freedom has to be arrested for performing machining. When degrees of freedom are arrested with the help of six pins o Work piece rests on pins A.  Clamping pressure should not deform the work piece. B and C  It cannot rotate about XY axis.  Thereby restricting five degrees of freedom.  Clamping pressure should be directed towards the point of support otherwise work may lift from the surface.gap can be adjusted Jack pins o Used in press tools for sheet metal location Clamps o Used to exert force to press the work piece against the locating elements. o Types  Clamping screws  Hook bolt clamp  Lever type clamp  Bridge clamp  Heel clamp  Quick acting clamp  Quick acting nut  C clamp o Principles of clamping  Clamping pressure applied must counter act with tool forces. Principle of location  For anybody in free space there are o Six translatory motion o Six rotary motion Giving 12 degrees of freedom.  Arresting three degrees of motion o Work piece rests on pin F  Restricts backward motion  Arresting one more degree of freedom    . o Holding it in position opposite to action of cutting forces. o Work piece rests on pins D and E  Not allow rotation about Z axis.

six pins arrests nine degrees of freedom. This is called as 3-2-1 principle of pin location or 6 point location principle. Other principles of pin location   Principle of minimum locating pins o Number of locating pins as minimum in use as possible. To arrest the remaining three degrees of freedom three more pins are required but it will enclose the work piece completely and make loading or unloading of work piece impossible. Principle of mutually perpendicular plane o The planes in which work is located must be mutually perpendicular. Principle of extreme positions o Locating pins must be placed as far as possible from each other to ensure greatest degree of accuracy in location.o o o o Thus. Thus to arrest the three degrees of freedom clamping devices are used.  .

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